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# CHAPTER 4 : HEAT

## 4.1 Understanding Thermal Equilibrium

Aras : Aplikasi
The hand feels cold after it is rubbed with ethanol because
Tangan akan berasa sejuk selepas disapu dengan ethanol kerana
A the temperature of the ethanol is lower than the body temperature
Suhu etanol lebih rendah dari suhu badan
B ethanol on the skin prevents the loss of heat from the body
etanol yang disapu di atas kulit menghalang tenaga haba bebas dari badan
C Heat is transferred from ethanol to the body
Haba dipindahkan dari etanol ke badan
D when ethanol evaporates, heat is absorbed from the body
apabila etanol tersejat, haba di pindahkan ke badan
Ans : D

## 4.1 Understanding Thermal Equilibrium

Aras : Analisis
Diagram 2 shows two beakers, P and Q.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan dua buah bikar, P dan Q.

Beaker P Beaker Q
Bikar P Bikar Q

## 200 g of water at 90C

200 g of water at 90C 100 g of water at 30C
100 g of water at 30C

Diagram 2 /Rajah 2

The water in beakers P and Q are mixed. Which graphs shows the correct temperature
change, , with time, t, until thermal equilibrium is achieved?
Air dalam bikar P dan Q dicampurkan. Graf manakah yang menunjukkan perubahan suhu, ,
dengan masa, t, sehingga keseimbangan terma tercapai?
A /C C
/C

90 90

30 30

t /min t /min
B D
/C /C

90 90

30 30

t /min t /min

## 4.1 Understanding Thermal Equilibrium

Aras : Analisis
Name the physical quantity that determines the direction of heat flow?
A Heat
B Temperature
C Specific heat capacity
D Mass
Ans : B

## 4.2 Understanding Specific Heat Capacity

Aras : Menilai
More heat energy is required to change 1 kg of water at 100C to steam than melting 1 kg of
ice because
meleburkan 1 kg ais kerana
A specific heat capacity of water higher than specific heat capacity of ice
muatan haba tentu air lebih tinggi dari muatan haba tentu ais
B specific heat capacity of water lower than specific heat capacity of ice
muatan haba tentu air lebih rendah dari muatan haba tentu ais
C specific latent heat of vaporization of water higher than specific latent heat of
fusion of ice
haba pendam tentu pengewapan air lebih tinggi dari haba pendam tentu
pelakuran ais
D specific latent heat of vaporization of water lower than specific latent heat
of fusion of ice
haba pendam tentu pengewapan air lebih rendah dari haba pendam tentu
pelakuran ais

## 4.1 Understanding Thermal Equilibrium

Aras : Menilai
We can not use Laboratory thermometer to measure our body temperature. Why?
Termometer makmal tidak boleh digunakan untuk mengukur suhu badan. Kenapa?

.......................................................................................................................................................
Answer : There is no kink in laboratory thermometer. Therefore the temperature will fall as
soon as we remove the thermometer from the mouth & we will not be able to measure the
correct temperature of the body.

## 4.1 Understanding Thermal Equilibrium

Aras : Analisis
Why is mercury used in thermometer?
Mengapakah merkuri digunakan di dalam thermometer?

.......................................................................................................................................
Answer : Mercury is used in thermometer because of following reasons:
i) It does not stick to the walls of capillary tube.
ii) Its silvery shine helps us to see temperature accurately.
iii) Its expansion is uniform.
iv) It does not vaporize easily.

## 4.1 Understanding Thermal Equilibrium

Aras : Aplikasi / Menilai
Suppose you are given the choice in winter of using either one thick blanket or two
thin blankets joined together. What would you choose & why?
Anda diberi pilihan ketika musim sejuk untuk menggunakan satu selimut tebal atau
dua selimut nipis yang digabungkan bersama. Yang manakah akan anda pilih dan
kenapa?

.......................................................................................................................................
Answer: We prefer two thin blankets joined together because the air trapped
between two blankets acts as an insulator and does not allow the body heat to
escape.

## 4.1 Understanding Specific Latent Heat

Aras : Menilai
Why does 100C steam is more injurious to the skin than boiling water?
Mengapakah 100C wap akan menyebabkan kecederaan yang lebih teruk kepada

.......................................................................................................................................
Answer : The boiling point of water is 100 degrees Celsius. At this temperature the
water will begin to change from the liquid state to the gas state. In order for this
change to take place, additional energy is required. In fact, every kg of liquid water
requires 2.26x106 Joules of heat energy just to convert it to steam. This is called the
Lantent Heat of Vaporization. During the conversion process, temperature does not
increase. It is, therefore, possible to have both liquid water and steam that exist at
100 degrees Celsius. While they both would exist at the same temperature, the
steam would have a lot more heat energy due to the additional 2.26x10 6 Joules per
kilogram of heat energy that has been absorbed.

## 4.4 Understanding Gas Law

Aras : Aplikasi, Analisis, Menilai
Diagram 7 shows the apparatus which can be used to investigate the relationship between the
temperature and pressure for a fixed volume of gas. The reading of the pressure gauge is shown
in the Table 1.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan peralatan yang digunakan untuk menyiasat hubungan antara suhu dan

Bourdon gauge
Thermometer Tolok bourdon
termometer
Rubber
tube
Water beaker
Tiub getah
Air bikar
Kelalang bulat udara
Diagram 7 / Rajah 7
Temperature / suhu ( o C) Pressure / Tekanan( kPa)
0 103.0
100 250.6

(a) State why the pressure of gas is not zero when the temperature is 0 C.
Nyatakan mengapa tekanan gas tidak sama dengan sifar apabila suhu 0 C.
............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(b) (i) The initial pressure in a car tyre is 200 kPa and the temperature of the air in the tyre is 27
C. After a long journey, the temperature of the air in the tyre increases to 85 C. Calculate
the air pressure in tyre after the journey.
Tekanan awal dalam tayar kereta ialah 200 kPa dan suhu udara dalam tayar ialah 27 C.
Selepas perjalanan yang jauh, suhu udara di dalam tayar bertambah kepada 85 C. Hitung
tekanan udara dalam tayar selepas perjalanan.

(ii) The optimum operating pressure of the tyres of a particular car is 240 kPa. Suggest the
recommended pressure to be pumped to the tyres before the journey. Give one reason.

Tekanan tayar yang paling optimum untuk sesebuah kereta ialah 240 kPa. Cadangkan
tekanan yang bersesuaian untuk di pam ke dalam tayar sebelum memulakan perjalanan.
Berikan satu sebab.
............................................................................................................................
Reason / sebab:
............................................................................................................................
a) The air molecules are still in motion // still collide with each other // still collide with
the wall
b) (i) T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K // T2 = 85 + 273 = 358 K
200 P2

300 358
P2 = 238.67 kPa
(ii)Less than 240 kPa
According to Pressure law, Pressure increases when temperature increases // Pressure
is directly proportional to absolute temperature. Therefore, as the car moving,
temperature inside the tyre will increase, thus the pressure of the tyre will increase.

## Paper 2 Essay question (Section B)

4.2 Understanding Specific Heat Capacity
Aras : Mencipta / Aplikasi
A chef has to cook for a banquet and he has to be able to prepare his food quickly, with the
minimum cost yet without compromising on the quality of the food served.
Seorang chef diminta memasak untuk satu jamuan dan dia perlu menyediakan makanan dalam
masa yang singkat, namun tidak mengurang kualiti makanan yang dihidangkan.
Using the appropriate physics concepts, suggest and explain suitable designs or ways to have a
pot with the following features:
Menggunakan konsep-konsep fizik yang sesuai, cadang dan terangkan rekabentuk atau kaedah
yang sesuai dilakukan untuk menghasilkan periuk yang mempunyai ciri-ciri berikut:

## (i) long lasting and safe

tahan lama dan selamat
(ii) portable
mudah alih
(iii) consume little fuel/cooking gas
menggunakan hanya sedikit bahan api / gas memasak
(iv) versatile (adaptable for various purpose: cooking, steaming and etc)
pelbagai (boleh diubah sesuai untuk pelbagai tujuan : memasak, mengukus
dan lain-lain)

Designs or ways Explanation
Made from material with low Temperature in the pot can be increased
specific heat capacity quickly when heated.
This saves fuel / cooking gas.
Made from a low density Pot is light and more portable.
material
Made from material that is not Pot is more durable and will not contaminate
easily corroded or oxidized the food with dangerous material.
The handle of the pot is made The handle becomes hot slower and can be
from the material with high held without scorching the hand.
specific heat capacity
The pot is designed to have This makes the pot versatile because
vertical compartments which different food can be cooked at the same
can be added or removed time.

## Paper 3 Experiment (Section B)

4.4 Understanding Gas Law
Aras : Aplikasi, Analisis, Mencipta
Diagram 4.1 shows three balloons which were blown and tied to a string in the early morning for
a sports day. Diagram 4.2 shows the appearance of the same balloons during the hot afternoon.
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan tiga belon yang diisi dengan angin dan diikat pada awal pagi untuk hari
sukan. Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan bentuk belon-belon tersebut semasa tengahari yang panas.

## Observe the shape of the balloons in both situations.

Perhatikan bentuk belon-belon tersebut dalam kedua-dua situasi itu.
Based on the observations :
Berdasarkan pemerhatian di atas:
(a) state one suitable inference
nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai.
(b) state one suitable hypothesis that could be investigated.
nyatakan satu hipotesis sesuai yang boleh disiasat.
(c) With the use of apparatus such as a capillary tube closed at one end with some air
trapped in it with a small column of oil, a tall beaker, a tripod stand and gauze, a retort
stand and other apparatus, describe an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated
in 4(b).
Menggunakan peralatan seperti tiub kapilari yang tertutup di satu hujungnya dengan
udara yang terperangkap oleh satu turus kecil minyak, satu bikar tinggi, tungku kaki tiga
dan dawai kasa, kaki retot dan peralatan,lain, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk
menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di 4(b).
In your description, state clearly the following;
Didalam penjelasan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas yang berikut
(i) The aim of the experiment
Tujuan eksperimen
(ii) The variables in the experiment
Pembolehubah yang terlibat dalam eksperimen
(iii) The list of apparatus and materials
(iv) The arrangement of the apparatus
(v) The procedure used in experiment.
Describe how to control the manipulated variable and how to measure the
responding variable.
Prosedur yang digunakan dalam eksperimen.
Terangkan bagaimana mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasikan dan bagaimana
mengukur pembolehubah bergerakbalas.
(vi) The way to tabulate the data.
(vii) The way to analyze the data.
Cara untuk menganalisa data.
Question
number
(a) State a suitable inference
The volume of gas depends on temperature.
/ the temperature affects volume
(b) State the hypothesis
The higher the temperature , the bigger the volume. (correct
direction)
(c) State the aim of the experiment
To investigate the relationship between the
temperature and volume for a fixed mass of gas.
Manipulated variable : Temperature, T
Responding variable : Volume, V
Constant variable : Gas pressure , P
// mass of gas, m
List of appropriate apparatus and material
Beaker, stirrer , Bunsen burner*, capillary tube, tripod stand,
thermometer*, ruler.

## *must state both

Arrangement of the apparatus :
Set up of apparatus is functional
Method to control the manipulated variables
- Heat up the water with Bunsen
burner slowly and stir the water
until temperature reach 30 0C.
Method to measure responding variables
- Measure the length of the air trapped inside the
capillary tube.
Repeated experiment at least 4 times for manipulated variables
- Repeat the experiment by continuously heat up the water until
the temperature reach 400C, 500C, 600C and 700C
Tabulation of data :
Temperature Temperature, Volume,
, T/K V/cm3
T/ 0C //Length,
l/cm
30
40
50
60
70

Analysis of data

## A graph of Volume, V/cm3 against , Temperature, T/K is plotted

V/cm3

T/K

CHAPTER 5 : LIGHT
5.1 Understanding Reflection of Light
Aras : Aplikasi
Ahmad is moving with speed 2 m s-1 towards a plane mirror. Ahmad and his image will approach
each other at speed...
Ahmad bergerak kea rah cermin dengan laju 2 m s-1 . Ahmad dan imejnya akan mendekati satu
sama lain dengan laju...

A. 1 m s-1
B. 2 m s-1
C. 3 m s-1
D. 4 m s-1

## 5.1 Understanding Reflection of Light

Aras : Aplikasi
Diagram below shows two cars, P and Q, travelling in the opposite directions, passing through
a sharp bend.
Rajah dibawah menunjukkan dua kereta, P dan Q bergerak dari arah yang berbeza, melalui
selekoh tajam
Which mirror is the most suitable to be placed at X so that the driver in car P can see car Q?
Cermin manakah yang paling sesuai untuk diletak di X supaya pemandu kereta P dapat
melihat kereta Q?
A B

C D

5.3 Understanding Total Internal Reflection
Aras : Analisis
The critical angle of a type of coloured liquid is 48. Which diagram shows the total internal reflection?
Sudut kritikal untuk cecair berwarna ialah 48 0. Rajah yang manakah menunjukkan fenomena
pantulan dalam penuh.

A B C D

## 5.1 Understanding Lenses

Aras : Aplikasi / Mencipta
A student is given three convex lenses of focal lengths 2 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm. He wishes to
construct a powerful astronomical telescope. Which of the following arrangements should he
choose?
Seorang pelajar mempunyai tiga kanta cembung yang mempunyai panjang fokus 2 cm, 10 cm,
dan 50cm. Dia ingin membina teleskop astronomi. Antara yang berikut, gabungan yang manakah
perlu dipilih?

## Focal length of objective lens / Focal length of eye lens / cm

cm Panjang fokus kanta mata / cm
Panjang fokus kanta objektif /
cm
A 50 2
B 10 10
C 2 50
D 50 10

## 5.1 Understanding Reflection of Light

Aras : Analisis

Four point objects A, B, C and D are placed in front of a plane mirror MN as shown.
Between their images, which can be seen by the eye?

M N

Eye
A B C D

## image A image B image C image D

M N

Eye
A B C D

Only image D can be seen because the line joining image D to the eye cuts the actual
mirror

## Paper 2 Structure (Section A)

5.2 Understanding Refraction of Light
Aras : Menilai, Analisis, Aplikasi
Diagram 7.2 shows a man shooting a fish as seen by him in water. His shooting does not hit the
fish.
Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan seorang lelaki menembak seekor ikan yang diperhatikannya di dalam
air. Tembakannya tidak mengena ikan tersebut.

## Diagram 7.2 Rajah 7.2

(a) Give one reason why his shooting fails to hit the fish.
Beri satu sebab mengapa tembakannya tidak mengena ikan tersebut.

................................................................................................................................
On Diagram 7.2,
(b) draw two light rays to determine the actual position of the fish.
lukis dua sinar cahaya untuk menentukan kedudukan sebenar ikan itu.
(c) mark with X the actual position of the fish.
tanda dengan X kedudukan sebenar ikan itu.
(d) Give one suggestion how to shoot the fish accurately.
Beri satu cadangan bagaimana untuk menembak ikan dengan tepat
................................................................................................................................
(a) Because he shoots at the image of the fish
(b)
(c) He should shoot a few cm below the image of the fish

## 5.3 Understanding Total Internal Reflection

Aras : Menilai, Analisis
1. Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show a light ray passing through prism P and prism Q
respectively. Prism P and prism Q are made of glass with different densities.
Rajah 5.1 dan rajah 5.2 menunjukkan satu sinar cahaya melalui prisma P dan Q. Prisma P
dan Q diperbuat daripada kaca yang berbeza ketumpatan

(a) Explain why the light ray does not bend when it enters both prisms at point A.
Jelaskan mengapa sinar cahaya tidak bengkok semasa memasuki kedua-dua prisma di
titik A

(b) (i) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2, how can the angle of incidence at point
B be made equal critical angle?
Berdasarkan rajah 5.1 dan 5.2, bagaimanakah sudut tuju di titik B dijadikan sama
dengan sudut genting?
Prism P / Prisma P :

Prism Q / Prisma Q :

(ii) Diagram 5.1 shows the light ray passing from glass to air at point B. Compare the
density of glass with the density of air.
Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan sinar cahaya itu merambat dari kaca ke udara di titik B.
bandingkan ketumpatan kaca dengan ketumpatan udara.

(a) The angle of incidence is zero which parallel to normal causing the angle of reflection to be
zero
(b) i) Prism P : Increase the angle of incidence (more than 450)
Prism Q : Reduce the angle of incidence (less than 450)
ii) Glass is denser than air

## 5.3 Understanding Lenses

Aras : Aplikasi
An astronomical telescope consist of two thin lens set 36cm apart and has a magnifying power
8. Calculate the focal length for both lens.
Sebuah teleskop astronomi mempunyai dua kanta nipis yang jaraknya ialah 36 cm dan kuasa
pembesaran ialah 8. Kira panjang focus untuk kedua-dua kanta itu

## Answer : Magnification = Focal length of objective lens, f0

Focal length of eyepiece, fe
8 = f0 / fe
fo = 8 fe --------------------1

f0 + fe = 36 ---------------------2

8 fe + fe = 36
fe = 4 cm

f0 = 32 cm

## Paper 2 Essay Question (Section B)

5.3 Understanding Lenses
Aras : Mencpita / Aplikasi
Diagram 9.4 shows a ray diagram of a slide projector.
Rajah 9.4 menunjukkan gambarajah sinar sebuah projektor slaid.
Screen
Condenser Projector lens Skrin
Kondenser Kanta projektor
Concave mirror Slide
Cermin cekung Slaid

Light source
Sumber cahaya

The slide projector is needed in your school hall. You are required to modify the
slide projector so that it can produce clearer image and can be seen by 800
students. Suggest and explain based on the following aspect:

Projektor slaid ini diperlukan untuk penggunaan dalam dewan sekolah. Anda
diperlukan untuk mengubahsuaikan projektor itu untuk menghasilkan imej yang
lebih jelas dan boleh dilihat oleh 800 orang pelajar. Cadang dan terangkan
berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut:

## (i) The power of the bulb used.

Kuasa lampu mentol yang digunakan.
(ii) The position of the bulb from the concave mirror.
Kedudukan bagi mentol dari cermin cekung.
(iii) The curvature of the concave mirror.
Kelengkungan cermin cekung.
(iv) The position of the slide from the projector lens.
Kedudukan slaid dari kanta projektor.

Use higher power bulb Higher intensity of light / more light
produced.
The filament of the bulb is at the The light ray focuses to one point.
focus point of the concave mirror
More curvature Increase the intensity.
lens between f and 2f To produce real and enlarge / bigger
images.
Increase the distance / further away Larger image produced
the screen

## Paper 2 Essay Question (Section C)

5.3 Understanding Total Internal Reflection
Aras : Analisis , Aplikasi

Diagram 11.2 shows an endoscope which depends largely on optical fibres for its function in
showing the inside of an organ. It is able to provide light for illumination and the image can be
seen through a flexible lens-telescope.
Rajah 11.2 menunjukkan sebuah endoskop yang bergantung pada gentian optik untuk berfungsi
dalam menunjukkan bahagian dalaman suatu organ. Ia mampu membekalkan cahaya
penerangan dan imejnya boleh dilihat melalui sebuah teleskop kanta boleh lentur.

Diagram 11.2
Rajah 11.2

## Optical Strength against

Features of optical Flexibility of ni
fibres breaking Ratio
fibres fibres n0
Gentian Kekuatan
Ciri-ciri gentian Kelenturan ni
optik gentian n0
pemutusan
A few thick fibres High Greater than 1
High
P Beberapa gentian Tinggi Lebih besar
Tinggi

## Single fine fibre Greater than 1

Very high Very high
Gentian halus Lebih besar
Q Sangat tinggi Sangat tinggi

## A few fine fibres Greater than 1

Very high
Beberapa gentian Very high Lebih besar
Sangat tinggi
R halus Sangat tinggi daripada 1
Greater than 1
Single thick fibre High High
Lebih besar
S Gentian tebal tunggal Tinggi Tinggi

## A few fine fibres Smaller than 1

High Very high
Beberapa gentian Lebih kecil
T Tinggi Sangat tinggi

ni = refractive index of the inner core no = refractive index of the outer cladding
indeks biasan bagi teras dalam indeks biasan bagi pembalut luar

Table 11.1

You are required to choose the most suitable optical fibre for use in the endoscope. Explain the
suitability each characteristics of the optical fibres listed in Table 11.1 and determine the most
suitable optical fibre to be used in in the endoscope. Give reasons for your choice.
Anda dihehendaki untuk memilih gentian optik yang paling sesuai digunakan dalam endoskop itu.
Jelaskan kesesuaian ciri-ciri gentian optik yang disenaraikan dalam Jadual 11.1 dan tentukan
gentian optik yang paling sesuai digunakan dalam endoskop itu. Berikan sebab-sebab bagi pilihan
anda.

1. The cable should consist of a few fine fibres in a bundle
- More signals can be transmitted separately at the same time
2. The fibres should have very high flexibility
- So that it can be bent to move into difficult position easily
3. The fibres should have good strength against breaking
- Could withstand vigorous and repeated bending without breaking to maintain
the transmission of signals
ni
4. The refractive index ratio of >1
no
- Repeated total internal reflections can occur in the fibres
5. The most suitable fibre is R because
- It is consisted of a few fine fibres , very flexible, difficult to break and
ni
refractive ratio is >1
no

Paper 3 (Section B)

## 5.3 Understanding Lenses

Aras : Analisis , Aplikasi, Mencipta
A student used a slide projector to produce an image on the screen. Diagram 1.1 and Diagram
1.2 show the relative positions of the slide, projector lens and the screen.
It is observed that when the projector lens is moved nearer to the slide as shown in Diagram 1.2,
the screen has to be moved further away from the slide to obtain a sharp image.
Seorang pelajar menggunakan projektor slaid untuk menghasilkan imej pada skrin. Rajah 1.1
dan Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan kedudukan slaid, kanta projektor dan skrin. Adalah diperhatikan
apabila kanta projektor digerakkan mendekati slaid seperti pada Rajah 1.2, skrin perlu digerakkan
lebih jauh daripada slaid untuk mendapatkan imej yang tajam.

Projector lens
Kanta projektor
Screen
Inverted Slide Skrin
Slaid songsang
Image
Imej

Projector lens
Screen
Kanta projektor
Skrin

Inverted Slide
Image
Slaid songsang
Imej

## Based on the information and observation:

Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian tersebut:
(a) State one suitable inference / Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai
(b) State one hypothesis / Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai
(c) With the use of apparatus such as convex lens, filament bulb and other apparatus , describe
one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 3(b).
terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan dalam 3(b).
In your description, state clearly the following:
Dalam penerangan anda, jelaskan perkara berikut:
(i) The aim of the experiment. / Tujuan eksperimen.
(ii) The variables in the experiment./ Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen.
(iii) The list of apparatus and materials. / Senarai radas dan bahan.
(iv) The arrangement of the apparatus. / Susunan radas.
(v) The procedure used in the experiment which should include one method of controlling
the manipulated variable and one method of measuring the responding variable.
Prosedur eksperimen yang mesti termasuk satu kaedah mengawal pembolehubah
dimanipulasikan dan satu kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bergerak balas.
(vi) The way to tabulate the data. / Cara untuk menjadualkan data.
(vii) The way to analyse the data. / Cara untuk menganalisis data.

3a The image distance /size of image / height of image / magnification depends
on the object distance

b The greater the object distance, the smaller the image distance / size of image
/ height of image / magnification

## c( i) Aim of the experiment

To investigate the relationship between object distance and image distance /
size of image / height of image / magnification for a convex lens.
(ii) Variables in the experiment

## Manipulated variable : object distance

Responding variable : image distance / size of image / height of image /
magnification
Fixed variable : Focal length of lens / thickness of lens / power of lens
(iii) List of apparatus and material
light bulb, convex lens of focal length 10 cm , white screen, metre rule, low
voltage power supply and lens holder
(iv) Arrangement of apparatus

Object Image
distance distance
bulb
lens screen

Meter rule
Lens
holder
Low voltage power supply V

## (v) The apparatus set up as in figure shown.

Adjust the bulb so that the object distance (filament), u is 35 cm from the lens.

Light up the electric bulb, adjust the screen position until a sharp image of the
filament is formed on the screen. Record the image distance, v. / height of
image // calculate magnification, m = v/u

Repeat steps 2 and 3 for objects distances of, u = 30cm, 25 cm, 20 cm, and
15 cm.
(vi) How you tabulate the data.

## object distance, u / Image distance, v / cm /

cm height of image , cm /
Magnification
35
30
25
20
15
(vii) How you analyse the data.

## Image distance / height of image , cm / Magnification

Object distance
CHAPTER 6 : WAVE
6.3 Analyzing Refraction of Waves
Aras : Aplikasi
Diagram 21 shows a house at the bottom of a hill received a radio waves from a transmission
station.
pemancar.

Hill
Transmission station Bukit
Stesen pemancar
House
Rumah

Diagram 21
Rajah 21
This happens because the radio waves is being
Ini berlaku disebabkan oleh gelombang radio
A diffracted
dibelau
B refracted
dibias
C reflected
dipantul
D dispersed
diserak

## 6.3 Analyzing Electromagnetic Waves

Aras : Analisis
Which of the following waves cannot travel through vacuum?
Manakah antara gelombang berikut yang tidak boleh bergerak di dalam vakum?
A. Sound waves
Gelombang bunyi
B. X-rays
x-ray
D. Light wave
Gelombang cahaya

## 6.3 Analyzing Diffraction of Waves

Aras : Menilai
Why is diffraction effect more predominant through the slit formed by two blades than by slit
formed by two fingers?
Mengapakah pembelauan lebih jelas jika ia melalui dua celah yang dihasilkan daripada pisau

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
Answer : Diffraction effect is predominant only for a narrow & fine slit where size is comparable
with the wavelength of light. Slit formed by two blades is fine & is of uniform width which can't be
possible with fingers.

## 6.3 Analyzing Interference of Waves

Aras : Menilai , Mencipta
a) Why is light from two individual sources of equal wavelength is incoherent?
Mengapakah cahaya dari dua sumber yang berbeza tetapi mempunyai panjang gelombang
yang sama tidak koheren?

..................................................................................................................
b) How to produce a two coherent source of light?
Bagaimanakah untuk menghasilkan dua sumber cahaya yang koheren?

................................................................................................................
Answer: a) Because of unstable phase difference.
b) By having a light source to pass through a double slit

## 6.1 Understanding Waves

Aras : Menilai , Mencipta

Figure 2
A ping pong ball is held with a string and placed near a loudspeaker as shown in Figure 2
The loudspeaker emits a low frequency sound and the ping-pong ball seems to vibrate to it.
Sebuah bola ping pong di ikat dan diletakkan berdekatan dengan pembesar suara seperti dalam
rajah 2 di atas.
Pembesar suara itu menghasilkan frekuensi yang rendah dan bola ping pong mula bergetar.
(a) Explain how the sound from the loudspeaker produces vibration on the ping pong ball.
Terangkan bagaimana bunyi dari pembesar suara boleh menyebabkan bola ping pong itu
bergetar

.............................................................................................................................................
(b) Predict what will happen to the vibration of the ping pong ball if the loudspeaker emits
Apakah yang akan terjadi kepada getaran bola ping pong itu jika pembesar suara
menghasilkan
(i) a louder sound?
bunyi yang kuat?

.............................................................................................................................................
(ii) a sound with a higher pitch?
bunyi dengan kenyaringan yang tinggi?

.............................................................................................................................................
(c) If the frequency of the sound is 50 Hz, calculate the wavelength of the sound produced.
[Assume the speed of the sound in air in 350 ms-1]
Jika frekuensi bunyi itu 50 Hz, kira panjang gelombang bunyi yang dihasilkan
[Andaikan laju bunyi di udara ialah 350 ms-1]
(a) The vibration of the loudspeaker moves the air molecules around it. The sound wave produced
by the loudspeaker transfers energy to the ping pong ball and causes it to move
(b) (i) The ping pong ball vibrates with greater amplitude
(ii) The ping pong ball vibrates with higher frequency.
v 350
(c) = = = 7m
f 50

## Paper 2 Essay question (Section B)

6.3 Analyzing Diffraction of Waves
Aras : Mencipta, Aplikasi

Diagram 10.3, shows the location of housing area. The residents of housing area at P receive
clearer television signal compare to the residents of housing area at Q where it is located
behind the hill.
Rajah 10.3, menunjukkan kedudukan kawasan perumahan. Perumahan di kawasan P
menerima isyarat television lebih jelas berbanding dengan penduduk di kawasan perumahan Q
di mana kedudukannya adalah di belakang bukit.

Stesyen penyiaran
Housing area P Housing area Q
Transmitter Kawasan
Kawasan
Pemancar Hill perumahan Q
perumahan P
Bukit

## Diagram 10.3 /Rajah 10.3

As a researcher, you are required to give suggestions about the modifications of television
signal from broadcasting station so that the residents of housing area at Q are enable to
Sebagai seorang pengkaji, anda diperlukan untuk memberikan beberapa cadangan
mengenai pengubahsuaian isyarat television daripada stesyen penyiaran bagi penduduk di
kawasan perumahan Q menerima isyarat yang lebih baik.

## State and explain the modification based on the following aspects:

Nyata dan terangkan pengubahsuaian berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut:
(i) the frequency of the signals / frekuensi isyarat
(ii) the location of the transmitter / kedudukan pemancar
(iii) the number of the transmitter / bilangan pemancar
(iv) the strength of the signals / kekuatan isyarat
(v) the distance between two transmitters / jarak antara dua pemancar

Modification Reason
Frequency of signal is Longer wavelength/ diffraction easier
low
The location of no blocking / capture more signal
transmitter higher
the number of increase the strength of signal/ increase energy of signal
transmitter is more / /
many reduce energy lost during transmission
The strength of signal is have more energy / can move further
higher
The distance between increase the strength of signal/ increase energy of signal
two transmitter is closer

Paper 3 (Section B)

## 6.3 Analyzing Interference of Waves

Aras : Mencipta, Aplikasi, Analisis

P Q
R
Diagram 4 / Rajah 4

Diagram 4 shows an audio technician checking and testing the audio system in a mini theatre
by changing his seating positions. Clear and loud sound can only be obtained at seating
positions P and Q which is equals to 4 seatings away from each other with a certain distance
from the loudspeakers. When he moves further away from the loudspeakers, the clear and
loud sound can only be heard between Q and R which is equals to 6 seatings away from each
other.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan pegawai teknik audio sedang memeriksa dan menguji sistem audio di
dalam teater mini dengan mengubah posisi tempat duduknya. Bunyi jelas dan kuat
kedengaran pada posisi P dan Q yang bersamaan dengan jarak 4 buah kerusi antara satu
sama lain pada suatu jarak tetap dari pembesar suara. Apabila pegawai itu bergerak lebih
jauh dari pembesar suara itu, bunyi jelas dan kuat hanya kedengaran pada posisi Q dan R
yang bersamaan dengan jarak 6 buah kerusi antara satu sama lain.

## Based on the information and observation:

Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian tersebut:

(a) State one suitable inference / Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai.
(b) State one hypothesis / Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai
(c) With the use of apparatus such as audio generator, loudspeakers and other
apparatus, describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in
terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di4(b).
In your description, state clearly the following:
Dalam penerangan anda, jelaskan perkara berikut:

## (i) The aim of the experiment. / Tujuan eksperimen.

(ii) The variables in the experiment./ Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen.
(iii) The list of apparatus and materials. / Senarai radas dan bahan.
(iv) The arrangement of the apparatus. / Susunan radas.
(v) The procedure used in the experiment which should include one method of controlling
the manipulated variable and one method of measuring the responding variable.
Prosedur eksperimen yang mesti termasuk satu kaedah mengawal pembolehubah
dimanipulasikan dan satu kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bergerak balas.
(vi) The way to tabulate the data. / Cara untuk menjadualkan data.
(vii) The way to analyse the data. / Cara untuk menganalisis data.
(a) The distance between two successive positions of clear and loud sound
depends on the distance of the loudspeakers and the position of
technician.

(b) The distance between two successive loud sounds, x, increases when the
distance between the loudspeakers and position of the technician, D,
increases.

Jumlah
(c)(i) Aim: To investigate the relationship between distance, x, and D.

## Manipulated variable: Distance between loudspeakers and position of

(ii) technician, D
Responding variable: Distance between two successive positions of loud
sound, x
Constant/fixed variable: Distance between the two loudspeakers /
frequency of sound wave.

List of apparatus:
(iii) Audio signal generator, two (identical) loudspeakers, connecting wires,
metre rule or measuring tape.

Arrangement of apparatus:
(iv)
Audio Signal Generator

Loudspeaker

a
L= Loud sound
D
x
Position of technician
L L L
1. The apparatus is set up with the two loudspeakers placed apart at a
(v) distance , a = 1.0 m as shown in the diagram.
2. The observer will stand at a distance, D = 5 m, from the speakers.
3. The audio generator is switched on and set at a frequency, f = 600 Hz.
4. The observer will move along a parallel straight line at a distance D =
5.0 m from the loudspeakers.
5. The positions of loud sound that can be heard are marked as L.
6. Distance between 2 successive loud sound, x is measured using a
metre rule and recorded.
7. The experiment is repeated with different values of D which is 10 m, 15
m, 20 m and 25m.
8. All the readings are tabulated.

## Tabulate the data

(vi) D (m) x (m)
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
Analysis of data
(vii) x (m)

D (m)
A graph of x against D is drawn to analyse the data.