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MM321 Lab n# 4:


Tuesday 12-3pm session

Group members:

Trevor Busai (s11110358)

Fineula Tuionetoa (s11092225)

Avineel Lal (s11074231)


To determine the Temperatures at the inlet, outlet and heating coil as well as the mass flow
rate of air that is passing through the heating duct.

To use the three Temperatures recorded to determine the bypass factor and also determine the
amount of bypass air.


1. HVAC cooling and heating system [available at the USP engineering Fluids Lab]

In the HVAC and Refrigeration field, cooling and heating coils are used to exchange heat
to/from air to a heat exchange fluid. A heat exchange fluid is flown through the coil and as
air is passed over the coil, the air is either heated or cooled. Coils consist of a metal box
framing, which holds a series of copper tubes in staggered rows and columns.

The amount of heat that is transferred is related to the amount of surface area that the air is in
contact with. In order to increase surface area, the size of the tubes may be decreased and
more tubes can be provided, the number of rows increased or the amount of fins per inch are
increased. Aluminum or copper fins are provided on each tube to increase the amount of
surface area. Coils are rated by the height of the fins and the number of fins per inch.

Cooling and Heating Coil Fluids There are several different types of heat exchange fluids
used in cooling/heating coils.

Refrigerant: Hot refrigerant gas or cool refrigerant liquid can be used in a coil to provide
either heating or cooling. In a heating-coil, cool air is passed over a coil containing hot gas.
Heat is exchanged to the cool air, which warms the air. The heat lost by the refrigerant gas
causes it to condense to a liquid. In a cooling-coil, warm air is passed over a coil containing
cool refrigerant liquid. Heat is exchanged to the cool refrigerant liquid, causing it to
evaporate. The warm air loses heat, thereby decreasing the air temperature.
Water: Chilled water or hot water can be used in a coil to provide either heating or cooling.
The air temperature is either raised or lowered as heat is transferred to raise or lower the
temperature of the chilled or hot water.

Steam: Steam can be provided to a coil to provide heating. Steam enters the coil and as the air
passes over the coil its air temperature increases. As the steam loses heat, it condenses to its
liquid form.

The bypass factor describes the percentage of air that is not cooled to the ADP. The air that is
bypassed remains unchanged from the entering coil conditions or in other words it is the
percentage of air that passes through the coil unchanged.[i.e : no heat exchanging takes place]
The bypass factor is a function of the airflow, number of rows, surface temperature, number
of fins per inch, height of fins and many other construction attributes of coils. The origin of
the bypass factor is not important, but the use of the bypass factor in calculations is
important. The bypass factor can be found through the use of (a) enthalpy, (b) dry bulb
temperature or (c) humidity ratio

hentering coil h Leaving coil

Bypass factor=
h entering coil happaratus dewpoint

Where h is the Enthalpy

T entering coil T Leaving coil

Bypass factor=
T entering coil T apparatus dewpoint

Where T is the Dry bulb temperature

W entering coil W Leaving coil

Bypass factor=
W entering coil W apparatus dewpoint

Where W is the Humidity ratio


Case 1(2KW)

Tambient = 26 C = 299 K

T1 = 26 C = 299 K
T2 = 44 C = 317 K

T3 = 81.8 C = 354.8 K

H= 21 mmH O

1.) Finding the Volume flow rate

V =0.0247 H

V =0.0247 21

V =0.113

2.) Finding the mass flowrate

Patm V air ( 101.3 x 103 ) ( 0.113 ) 12753.67

= =
R T amb ( 287 ) (299) 85526

a=0.13339 kg /s

3.) Finding the bypass factor

T d 3T d 2 354.8317 28.1
x= = = =0.677
T d 3T d 1 354.8299 37.1

4.) Finding the amount of bypass air

Ammount of Bypass air=m


( 0.13339 ) .(0.677)

0.09 kg /s

Case 2 (2kW)

Tambient = 26 C = 299 K

T1 = 26 C = 299 K

T2 = 38.5 C = 311.5 K
T3 =65.8= 338.8 K

H= 49 mmH O

1.) Finding the Volume flow rate

V =0.0247 H

V =0.0247 49=0.1729

2.) Finding the mass flowrate

Patm V air ( 101.3 x 103 ) ( 0.1729 )

R T amb (287 ) (299)

a=0.2041 kg /s

3.) Finding the bypass factor

T d 3T d 2 338 .8311.5
x= = =0.6859
T d 3T d 1 338 .8299

4.) Finding the amount of bypass air

Ammount of Bypass air=m


( 0.2041 ) .( 0.6859)

0.14 kg /s


As for this experiment, the HVAC heating and cooling system was used hence the objective
was basically to run the system at two different air flow rates (in terms of mmH2O), and
hence calculate and compare the values of the bypass factors. According to research made, it
is evident that the bypass factor x is dependent on the air flow in the system, the number of
cooling coil, air velocity and some other variables which were not considered important in
this particular experiment since the only variable that is controlled is the air flow rate. Based
research and findings, it is expected that the bypass factor of the cooling coil will simply
decrease with the decrease in coils sizes [i.e: increasing the number of thin copper pipes/
heating coil], and increase in the number of rows of heating pipes.

The system was turned on and left to run for some times for the temperature at the inlet to
stabilize. Both the cases were for 1 kW power and their results are recorded as shown in the
results section. As noticed, T3 was varying with respect to the different flow rates. As for case
a=0.14912 kg /s
1, H = 26 mmH2O and T3 = 62.1 C = 335.1 K, , and on the other

hand for case 2, H = 52 mmH2O and T3 = 54.2 C = 327.2 K, and

a=0.211539 kg/ s

In case 1, the mass flow rate of air is low thus the rate of heat exchange taking place in the
coil is less therefore the heated coil obtains a higher temperature. In case 2, the mass flow
rate of air is high, thus this tends to increase the rate of heat transfer on the heating coil which
results to a lower temperature of the heating coil. The output temperature in this case
basically depends on the heating coil temperature. The output temperature of case 1 will be
slightly higher compared to that of case 2 and is evident with the T2 figures under the result

Since the duct size as well as the number of heating coils is kept constant for both cases, the
mass flow rate of air will however cause a significant change in the results to be obtained.
With the smaller mass flow rate of flowing air [Case 1], the air flows over the heating coils
and the rate at which the air flows will allow for most of the flowing air to be heated up and
less will just bypass and exit the system. Therefore, the percentage of air that bypasses the
heating coils is less. As the mass flow rate is increased [Case 2], the size of the duct and coil
number still remains constant, as a result, the larger mass flow rate of air into the duct wont
allow for heat exchanging to occur between the heating coils and all the in flowing air, and in
addition to that, more air wont have contact with the heating coils and thus the percentage of
air bypassing the heating coils will become greater. In other words, figures from the results
have proved that the greater the mass flow rate of air through the HVAC heating system, the
greater will be the Bypass factor as well as the amount of Bypass air and vice versa for lower
mass flow rate of in flowing air.



[1] Nabeel, "Psychrometrics of Air condition processes", eng.uokufa, 2016. [Online].

Available: [Accessed: 01- Sep- 2016].
[2]"HVAC Equipment and Systems - Coils for the Mechanical PE Exam",,
2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01- Sep- 2016].

[3]K. Elder, "Air Conditioning design- Psychrometrics and coil load

calculations",, 2016. [Online]. Available:
[Accessed: 01- Sep- 2016].