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FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA

INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES)

PROCEEDINGS
OF THE

2ndINTERNATIONAL
TRAINNING
WORKSHOP
ON

INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: A TOOL FOR


SUSTAINABLE CLIMATE CHANGE, FLOOD AND EROSION
CONTROL

DATE: 13TH-15TH FEBRUARY, 2017

EDITORS:
PROF. C. A. AHIARAKWEM
ENGR. E. U. UJA
ENGR. P. C. NWACHUKWU
Mr E. C. Nwaihu
Mr Henry Echetama
Mr J. O. Popoola
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Printed in 2017 for

INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES (IES)

FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, NIGERIA

IES 2017

The collections here are the original work of various authors, who are
responsible for the contents of their presentations.

The articles were presented and discussed at the 2ndinternational training


workshop hosted by the Institute of Erosion Studies

Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

The articles written here are protected by relevant

Copyright laws.

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MEMBERSHIP OF THE LOCAL ORGANISING COMMITTEE (LOC)

1. Prof. C. A. Ahiarakwem Chairman


2. Engr. E. U. Uja Secretary
3. Dr. IbeawuchiNze (SMAT) Member
4. Engr. (Dr.) B. C. Okoro (SEET)
5. Dr. (Mrs). E. Nwoke (SOHT)
6. Dr. J. E. Umunakwe ,,
7. Dr. J. N. Okereke (SOBS)
8. Dr. K. B. Okeoma (SOPS)
9. Engr. P. C. Nwackukwu ,,
10. Mr. Maunde Mohammed
11. Mr Henry Echetama ,,
12. Mr. E. C. Nwaihu (SAAT)
13. Mrs. Mba Felicia
14. Mrs. Charity Iwuchukwu
15. Mr E. C. Nwaihu ,,
16. Engr. O. Omeire
17. Miss Mercy Onyenegecha
18. Mrs. Charity Nnorom
19. Miss EmeroleNgozi ,,
20. Mr. John C.
21. Mr J. O. Popoola
22. Mrs UkachiNkwocha ,,
23. Mr. Alex Duru
24. Miss Olivia Ofegbu ,,
25. Miss. Cynthia Anyanwu
26. Mr. OdinakaEkeneme
27. Mr. Samuel George

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Second International Training Workshop by the Institute of Erosion Studies


(IES), Federal University of Technology, Owerri from 13th to 15th of February,
2017 was a huge success by all standards. This success was made possible by
the numerous contributions and support of several significant persons including
those who worked on the scene and behind the scene. On behalf of IES, we
wish to express our profound gratitude to such people, most especially, our
dynamic and amiable Vice-Chancellor, Prof. F. C. Eze and all other principal
officers of the University for their Encouragement and support.

We also wish to thank the Nigerian Erosion and Watershed Management Project
(NEWMAP)-Imo State for collaborating with us in the workshop as well as
participants who came from all works of life, particularly the Lead Paper
Presenters; Sir Prof. S. C. Teme, AyubaAndaYalaks and Dr. Thomas Wright for
the high quality and thought provoking papers they presented.

We are most sincerely thankful to the members of the Local Organising


Committee for their initiatives and sacrifices that made the workshop a success.

To all staff of IES, who worked tirelessly and ensured that no stone was left
unturned, we remain most grateful.

Above all, we are exceedingly grateful to Almighty God for his mercies and
grace throughout the workshop.

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PREFACE

This is the proceedings of the 2 ndinternational training workshop of the institute


of erosion studies (IES), Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria on
the theme: Integrated Watershed Management, A Tool for Sustainable
Climate Change, Flood and Erosion Control which took place from 13th to
15th of February 2017 at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.
The workshop was well attended by eminent Scholars, Experts, Researchers,
Educationists and Professionals from all walks of life, locally and
internationally.

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WELCOME ADDRESS BY THE
DIRECTOR, INSTITUTE OF
EROSION STUTIES (IES), FUTO,
PROF. COSMAS AHAMEFULA
AHIARAKWEM ON THE OCCASION
OF THE 2016 IES 2nd
INTERNATIONAL TRAINING
WORKSHOP ON INTEGRATED
WATERSHED MANAGEMENT, A
TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE CLIMATE
CHANGE, FLOOD AND EROSION
CONTROL HELD FROM MONDAY 13TH TO WEDNESDAY
15TH FEBRUARY, 2016.

PROTOCOL
I most heartily welcome you all to the 2nd IES International
Training Workshop of the Institute of Erosion Studies, Federal
University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.
The Institute of Erosion Studies was established with the
mandate of planning, conducting and coordinating research,
training, consultancy and general services in environmental
degradation, due to human and naturally induced forces.
The activities of the Institute include the following:
Development of data bank on meteorological
variables, river hydrograph watershed mapping
Design of prototype control measures, requiring
structural, bio-chemical approaches
Aerial photographic interpretation and GIS
Ground probing and soil analysis
Modelling of erosion and flood systems phenomena
Trial construction of prototype designs of erosion
and flood management system
Organization of workshop, seminars and
consultancy services.
The Institute of Erosion Studies has a laboratory that is
divided into three sections as follows:

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Hydraulics
Geomatics
Geotechnical
The following tests can be performed in the laboratory
Hydrometer/Sieve Analysis
Proctor Compaction
Direct Shear
Atterberg Limits
California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
Specific Gravity
Natural Moisture Content
Permeability
Shrinkage Limit
Bearing Capacity etc.

The purpose of this workshop is to ensure synergy in the


deliberation of erosion, flood and climate change problems in
Nigeria.
Relevant stakeholders of the environment such as Nigerian
Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Nigerian Geological Survey
Agency (NGSA), Nigerian Erosion Watershed Management
Programme (NEWMAP), Nigerian Airspace Research
Development Agency (NARSDA), National Emergency Agency
(NEMA), River Basin Development Authorities (RVDA), National
Water Resource Institute (NWRI), National Hydrological Services
Agency (NIHSA), National Environmental Standard and
Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), Niger Delta
Development Commission (NDDC), Federal Ministry of
Environment (FME), Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development (FMRD), Federal Ministry of Health (FMH), Federal
Ministry of Water Resources (FMWR), Environmental
Consultants, Institutions of Higher Learning, States Ministries
of Environment, Health, Agriculture, and Water Resources and
General Public have been invited for a fruitful deliberations on
sustainable watershed management in Nigeria.

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Countries like Burundi and India have success stories in the
effective watershed management because they employ
integrated watershed management approach.
There is, therefore, need for the Federal Government of Nigeria
to come up with measures that ensure sustainable watershed
management approach in the country.
Our watershed have been grossly abused through natural and
human activities such as the deforestation, urbanization, poor
landuse management, gas flaring, oil spillage, long fertilizer
application, etc.
It is observed that the rate of degradation of our watershed is
increasing at an alarming rate and as such, needs urgent
attention.
Three lead papers will be presented in this Workshop by:
1. Prof. Sir Clifford Teme, (Title of paper:the Behaviour
Patterns of Groundwater MovementsAround Unidirectional-
flow River Systems in the Freshwater Zone of the Niger
Delta Region of Nigeria)
2. Engr. AyubaAndaYalaks (Title of Paper: Sustainable
Catchment Management & Gully Erosion Control in
Nigeria; the Newmap Approach)
3. Dr Thomas Michael Wright (Title of Paper:How
Meteorological Data can Contribute to an Integrated
Approach to Watershed Management).
I wish you all a fruitful deliberation.
Once more, welcome to this auspicious occasion.

Prof. Cosmas A. Ahiarakwem


Director, IES/LOC Chairman

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A WELCOME ADDRESS BY THE VICE CHANCELLOR, FEDERAL
UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI, PROFESSOR F. C.EZE AT
THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL TRAINING WORKSHOP
OF THE INSTITUTE OF EROSION STUDIES,FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF
TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI,IMO STATE, NIGERIA

Hon. Ministers,
His Excellency, The Executive Governor of Imo State
Principal Officers of the University,
Deans, Directors, Heads of Departments/Units,
Your Royal Highnesses and Majesties,
My Lords, Spiritual and Temporal,
Guests of Honour,
Distinguished Participants,
Ladies and Gentlemen

It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all on behalf of the


Governing Council, Senate, Management, Congregation, Staff and
Students of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri to the Second
International Training Workshop of the Institute of Erosion Studies (IES).

I most respectfully welcome His Excellency, the Executive Governor of Imo


State. OwelleRochasOkorocha, His Excellencies and distinguished
participants to this auspicious occasion.

The Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), Federal University of Technology,


Owerri is organizing this Training Workshop as part of her activities and in
line with this administrations Quest for excellence. The Theme of this
years Workshop is Integrated Watershed Management, A
Tool for Sustainable Climate Change, Flood and Erosion
Control. The workshop will focus on the menace of Gully Erosion and
Flood, Climate Change and their impacts on the Environment and Food
Security. It is my ardent hope that this workshop will afford distinguished
participants the opportunity to brainstorm and come up with lasting solution
to the disastrous consequences of Gully Erosion, Flood and Climate
Change in our watershed. It is important to note that our watershed has
been severely affected by the destructive influences of both climatically
and Human induced Environmental Hazards. It is unfortunate that the
degradation of our watersheds is occurring at an increasing and alarming
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rates and is accelerated by such factors as increased agricultural activities,
civil construction works, reckless deforestation, bush burning, over-grazing,
drainage blockages, poor water management, urbanization, gas flaring,
incessant oil spillages, increased population pressure and other associated
activities.

There are a lot of documented cases of gully erosion and flood disasters in
Nigeria. Gully Erosion have remained a threat to most part of Nigeria
especially the Southeast zone for many years now resulting in the loss of
several lives and property worth of billions of naira. Most Communities in
Nigeria have been cut off from their neighborhood by gully erosion. In
2015, the Nekede Community in Imo State was cut off from the Owerri
metropolis for several weeks. In 2012, most parts of Nigeria were ravaged
by flood disasters resulting in the loss of several lives and colossal sum of
money. Earlier in 1982 and 1984, Ogunpa flood disaster occurred in
Ibadan, Oyo State. The flood disaster was caused by indiscriminate
dumping of refuse and clogging of waterways. In 1984 also the Port-
Harcourt City flood that was caused by a 24-hour torrential rain resulted in
the loss of property worth millions of naira. It should also be noted that the
issues of climate change and its disastrous impacts on environment and
food security has seriously been discussed by participants from different
parts of the world including Nigeria in France in 2015. This is of global
concern now. The focus of the current workshop will further elucidate on
the global issues on climate change and the environment.

In the light of the above facts, relevant stakeholders on watershed


management such as Nigerian Geological Survey Agency (NGSA),
Nigerian Erosion and Watershed Management Project (NEWMAP),
National Environmental Standard and Regulations Enforcement Agency
(NESREA), Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Nigerian
Hydrological Services Agency (NAHSA), National Emergency Agency
(NEMA), National Airspace Research Development Agency (NARSDA),
National Water Resources Institute, River Basin Development Authorities,
Institutions of Higher Learning, Ministries etc.) have been gathered to
discuss effective management of our watershed for environmental hazard
control/mitigation. Your discussions during the technical sessions will no
doubt provide an effective antidote as regards proper management of our
watersheds. We look forward to joining Nations like Burundi and India who

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have successfully managed their watersheds through effective integrated
planning, execution, control and strategy.

The importance of workshops, seminars and conferences in our economic


transformation and sustainability cannot be over emphasized. It is against
this backdrop that the Vice- Chancellor has not only been consistent in
sponsoring staff to workshops, seminars and conferences both within and
outside our citadel of learning but have also assisted research
centres/institutes to organize seminars, international workshops and
conferences. The Vice- Chancellor is also poised to ensure that Heads of
Departments, Deans, Directors and Coordinators work assiduously with
him to move the Federal University of technology, Owerri from her current
ranking of 12th of the first 100 Universities in Nigeria to the first. I thank the
Director of the Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), Prof. C. A. Ahiarakwem
and members of the local organizing committee for packaging this training
workshop. I charge the Institute of Erosion studies to make this workshop
an Annual event.

Our Institution has a serene environment for participants to enjoy. You can
also visit the Oguta wonder lake, Okwudor gully erosion site and
Abadabalake all at close distance to the University.

I welcome you all once more to the first international training workshop of
the Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), Federal University of Technology,
Owerri.
I wish our distinguished participants a fruitful deliberation.

Thank you and God bless.

PROFESSOR F. C. EZE
VICE- CHANCELLOR
FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI

CONTENT
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Cover Page Page No

Local organizing committee (LOC) iii

Acknowlegdements iv

Preface v

Welcome Address by Director, IES vi

Welcome Address by the Vice Chancellor ix

Lead Paper 1 1

The Behaviour Patterns of Groundwater Movements Around


Unidirectional-flow River Systems in the Freshwater Zone of the Niger
Delta Region of Nigeria. By:Sir (Professor) So-ngor Clifford Teme

Lead Paper2 13

Nigeria Erosion and Watershed Management Project


(NEWMAP)Sustainable Catchment Management & Gully
Erosion Control in Nigeria: The NEWMAP Approach. By
AyubaAndaYalaks

Lead Paper 3: 46

How Meteorological Data Can Contribute to an Integrated Approach to


Watershed Management. By Dr Thomas Michael Wright

Other Papers 86

Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Measurements in Part of Owerri West


L.G.A, Southeastern Nigeria: Implication on Food Production and Security. By Prof. C.
A. Ahiarakwem,Omire, O. * and Ibeh, J. C.*

Geotextile Tube and Flood Control. By Engr. DR. (Mrs) G.C. Onuegbu 96

Global Warming:A Message for Concern. By 101

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Uja E.U, Nwachukwu P. C., Omeire O

GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) Approach For Assessment of


Urualla Gully Erosion Watershed. By 107
1 2 1
Dike, B.U., Agunwamba, J.C. and Alakwem, O.P.

Mathematical Models for Erosion Control Check-Dams. 116


1 2 3 4
By Osuagwu, J.C , Okoro B.C. ., Nwakwasi N.L. ,Nwachukwu A.N.

Sustainable Watershed Management: Concept, Planning and


Implementation. By 123
H.O.Israel, T.C. Dikeogu, and O.C. Okeke

Watershed Degradation: Causes, Effects and Mitigation. By 129


Obioha, Y. E. and Okeke, O. C.

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON COASTAL EROSION AND


FLOODING. BY 137
Engr. V. A. John B. Eng, M. Eng, (Civil) MNSE, C. Eng.

INTEGRATED WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PLANNING: A


REMOTE SENSING APPROACH USING UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
VEHICLE (UAV) BY 144
1
UZOIGWE, L.O, 2SAMUEL, C, 3NDUKWE, C. C,4OKAFOR, P. OAND
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ISAAC, G.
luzoigwe@yahoo.com, samuelchinwendu01@gmail.com,
cjsmartsurvey@gmail.com
1
Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Imo State
University,
2, 3, 4,5
Loraj Consortium, 2A Orlu Road, Amakohia Owerri, Imo State

THE CONCEPTS OF PRECISE EMPIRICAL MODELS FOR


HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS BY 156
1 2 3
UZOIGWE, L.O, SAMUEL, C, AND MADUAKOLAM, S. C
luzoigwe@yahoo.com, samuelchinwendu01@gmail.com,
1
Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Imo
State University,
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2, 3,
Loraj Consortium, No. 2A Orlu Road Amakohia, Owerri, Imo State.

MODIFIED INTENSITY DURATION FREQUENCY (IDF) CURVE


DEVELOPED FOR PARTS OF EASTERN CATCHMENT USING
ARCVIEW GIS 10.2.1 MODEL BY 165
1 UZOIGWE, L.O, 2NNAWUIHE, C.O, 3MADUAKOLAM, S. C.
AND4SAMUEL, C
Lead Author: luzoigwe@yahoo.com,
1Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Imo State
University,
2Department of Agric. Science, AlvanIkoku Federal College of Education,
3, 4, Loraj Consortium, 2A Orlu Road Amakohia, Owerri, Imo State.

THE EFFECT OF FLOODING ON SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND


QUALITY IN NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA 140
1
Umeojiakor, A. O., Duruigbo, C. I., Nwaihu, E. C. and 2Umeojiakor, C. T.
1
Department of Forestry and Wildlife Technology,
2
Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

Department of Chemical Engineering,


Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri, Nigeria.

Emailaddress:heavenlytony@yahoo.com (Umeojiakor, A.O.)


Phone Number: +2348036136172

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