IISlAMIC' PHl'IOSOP,HY

T'H'EO' LO"'G'I'y"c'AN-' '-D'" S'~ CIEN"C"'E

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Texts and Studies

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H D~ i ilL. TfiER'c d ,en P;ifN- GR' ~E ,.I~ ..' 3,,0. JlJ., .11. i'-,'JIk:.;!--

VOLillvlE, :XlL V

( ABD ALl.A.H' BAY,OAWr~s text 'Taltlali ~' al~A~wW" m~~ klaM[i: ~ al-Anc,at

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DR'ILL

LE~DE.N '. BiOSTON '. KOL1\T '2002

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,po:rnusW.!r._firJm tk ~tii&h&r..

aON~rENrs OF VO.LV.ME ON.[

.,(i\,Ck_['i,.owlodgn\c/n'tlj [111111 .00l. 1111111. 11. I .[1 .111 •• 1 .[1 1'.,111".11 1111111. I .11 1.1_,1. I •• Il ••• I .[1 •• 1 •• ,11.1101. I' ••• I ~V

Tmn:-lJ.lltllJ]t$~· In~md.'~~cdon .. ,' .. ' .. ,' " .. ,' .. , ,'., e e ", •• , •••• ""e ••• - ••••• , •••••• ,.. xvi~

A note (I\~ the ~ra~~tJJ~ ~~~. edl'l]o[i ~t!fi{) r.e""isio~] ·,·P.',··' .", xvii

.A ]1ifJi[e Oil"] ~'AJbd ,A]]i!di, :ID(~yda\~i [d. 13 ~ 6?] . "."." ". "."., .. '.'.0 uii A note OlD .rubhxrnw rn~fa!h~li I[~, 2'!'6-134rB] . "" .•.. ".,, ..•.. , .• , •. ",_." LXX\"l]]

FOHfWO!l.~, tn t~],e COI:nmerli,t;a!!I.Y by Mahmud, bfii.han1. ., .. , .. ", .. " 3

FOI',eword t'O rhe SlJlbje{t Text by 'Abd .All~h Ba}'d~wi p".' 9

bf1.!ihanrrs CQmrnii:L'lJt.ary iI:'o Ha:y~!aw.~.~:5, T~~x:~ begin50 ". ".", .. ".,.".n 1,0

r\U '~ORSi' i\1'TItornJC1f[ON SJ['U.DJF:~, IN I..OG]Gi\i~ REASON[NG

ClliILapt:ti1." l ~ Principtes of £pjst~mo]O'g}r .. , .... , .•. , .. ,,,., .,', .... "., _" .. ,,',., .".. 23

1. The 1;lN'lQl phases of klfi.ifiwi!J:T1S~ an ;al1te:rn~1iCkll

~p COitl~)'~: (Qfilla,ItlOIl reg~rding wh~[' j15, bell:!Jg

pe[~eived ,1,1ii;;; !,;;;,~,lio! l.iI 1.1iI I; Ii I II~ Iii .. I •• ,~;;;o! _. !, ... ,liil I,. 1,1iI.1 _OIl; !,",~.,I !!"o!,!".,I,Iii'1 Iii .. , I,. I. 1,1ii"~" liil,~ III I 1111 ...

concept '~i]lg formed .'1 •• I. I •• I'. I .'1 •• 11. I .111 ... II. I ll'l I'lU Iln I. I 1111 I'lrl 1111 .ll l'i'II r.. III 2f~;

c, [EC:liic..1ru phas~ either by, intuition o:r 'by rational

:t:H~q •. j~3i~iCJin of llin.G'!NleJdge .. ,.O~ •. .a, •. , .• ~ ,,~., .• ,',." "~., .• ,', ••• ~ •• ,.o,',.".~ •• " ••••. ". iB

2. .ilLogjcal re~:~:rdng~ the me.ans of S1J~~;cb @.(q~ .. i-~tlC!n . , .. ".. ..... 42

Chapter- ~: EKpJ.anRl-cn)' 5'~ttITh::[I[S "n P.,.,." •• , •. , P. ,,,'.'.".0'.' •• ·."'.'.0. 48

1. CO'jjld~;ti{JIns. tl'mt ,mo<v~r.n ,tt, defin~t~,o:mL .,." .. "a.' .• ' ••••.•• ,." •• ". , .• ,' ". ".,. 4·8

2. 'C]8iml':~ of cl.cl]nitiio:n~ , , , •. ", .. , " ~ •.. , .. ",." •. +.,', •• ,""" •. , .• " •• " O~ •• ,"0".. ,60

.Razi~;~, Oi'lj.ectiODS ... , .. , .. ~, ..•.. ' ' .. ~'.p';'p.; .• O~.,' •••• "'."'."".';'P;'.' •• , ••. , .• " ...... " •••••• ,',0+. 164

,~aycU~,~'s, ~'ep,[y 1\0 '~~j .r. fl.,I. I 11.'I.r. I'lll I'. I. I Il. I'l. I ... I'll r~'I. 1'.'1 I1n I .'1. 1 •• 1'1111 I'li'll Il ss

s. Re8J~]tie~ ,defi!Lmb]~ ~.J!J.d definitIvE .. 0 •. , .• ", •• , •• " .• " •• ',0.' , " •••. ,. 7·5

·

Vi

alJ,ai~lte[ ,~,:: fu,~ent,8[rlo:O 11.'.10. I •• I .11 I .11 I"l .... I. I •• Il ••• 1,1111 .... I •• 11111 10111,_11,1111 10111.1,.,1.11 Il. I.

[1'" Ki...J1 f .

II jlllJulS 0" ,aF~mellt.aJtIl.o:1l ~ 1111 __ I III .... ", ... Ioliii,;;,. I Ii 01 I .11;"';;;;;;;; l,iI I, iii I 10 .. ,;;,;;;,;;;;';;;"';; 1,111 •• ,;;;';; ;;,,;; ;,iii,l;;;

Anu31logical deduction ".", .. , .,' .. , .. , .. ",." .. , .. ,; ,.", .. , , .. ,' .. ,.,.,,,., , .. , .. , ,.,.

Ii:lvesl1:i,ga:d.~,fe ~El:,duc(i()n: ., ,;,.", .. , , , .. , .. , .. ,." " .. "., ,.,; .. , .. ".", ,;, .

II1h[lJ5JkLati'Vt, l1na]ogical dedlUic~IDIl ""0" ""'"·'"·"'0"., , .• ",.,,'"".,', ,'.', .,"'." ."., '" .0',.

:2, J\nSllogi,(a[ deducdon ii] the ::iyllogtl~[n aJTJid its typts . " .... ".'". l.~,!]C :t:I,~lir.rth.el1cal exct":ir~tivrc' ~l/.]llo,~8]]I, 1.1110 .. II. I .11 ••• nil. I IHI I •• II. I .11 nil I. I. I II

I~- ~ ~ ~

The cat $,go:ricaJl connecrive syl~o ~gm and 'It'Hrt,oe

~ :(;;

~o.ltlr '[1g-1J.l'1)~' I"l" -+1 •• '1 .'J I"l:"ll I'B r.~ I Ill" I'HI .'~I'i "~':-.l' IHI I'l.' :"11'1 I'l:"ll 111'1'. I .'J 0'1 1'.11 II I I •• I .11 .'1 I'll' I ••• 1.[1 I.

:Figum l ~ 2, :3,~, 4~ Su~.a!ty' of igurtS a.[]d, moods "" ".". ,3. Tk,e; p~mised. Jnateri~: ij]f ,aJrgtrUitll:e;ntatLou ••... " ••• , ••.•• ,." •. " •• ".", .. " ••• Argument;~r~UQD ~trucbJred. Q~:lI rariona]h;y-p(~O~

rhetoric, ral[,a.~~' ~'i'r.. 1'1'1 '1~I'I'rl'l III ':l'I'1l II l"l'l 1'l1'l"'~'1i r.II'I'l'1 • .,'.'~ I ~'I'1'l1'l 111'1 1'1'1 '.' I"! 'I Il:"!l" .'1 111'1 II •• '. l'I'lI'.1'I 11'1'1'.[1 II

lo~ca[ ,r'ei!IJit;o:~iD]~Jg .'. I'll'l II. I .11 I"ll'l II. 1'1'1 I .11 II. 11.1'1 1111'1 lOll 10. 11 .... 1'1 I'll'll'.l. II. 1'.1'1.1'1" .11 ... II. I .... I 111'1 1101 ... '1 .[1 II

~,. SO'Ul'Ilrl ,IO~IC~i l"eascwog yieids, kIllo,",iled,ge ... ,.", .••• ' •.•.•.. "., .• , .••. ~ 03Jj~eC'tioDs lof~' ~:hre 'BQd$dJris=~ I'l~"'~~ ~'~'C I'll' I'll'll 1'~"'I'l; ~~'I'I'I "I'I"1'~1'I r~,.,-I'I I'~I r 1'1 'I'll II ~"I ~I'I I 1'1 111'I'1'1'l1'l II O~~f~C~jCi[j~ (';{W tt]he geQIft~tcld~rn~ ."'.0' •• ,, 0."" "0 ".',." r.","" '··'.0' ." "" •• , ..... 0"·"" [}oru~l~\'rie!) 'to t~e yiddl (~r knr~'!I]~dge' ; ."',., .','", ,'.',", n·, , .• ,., •• ".,., •• ', .• '"

2" S~UJ1lid lo~'~ :reaso,mo.g ig ~1Jticiel'lft for- knowledge

Inf God. ;10;1;,1.;;1 I ••• I,II"~;.I 1,"11 111;.1 11 .. I .,1 111.1 .... I,ll I .11.;.1 I," .... 11 .. 11 11.",1," 1,11,1,",1 .,1 11.,1,10 1,";.1 III .. I, ... , .... !-;.I 11;;;.1 ",I 11; ...... !,o;; 1,";.1 ";;:,1,

,3. So~ndJ :loglc;aJl ]"1;~:so\r.dng ]111 QibJigato'l for :kno~ted(ge

of God 11. I .'I~"~" 1'.'1'.'1 ~I'II ~1'II'1'1'II'1'1'l1'll ~II I .'I.~::-n Ill'll l'l'll'll ~~'I'~" I .'1'.'1 r." ~1'Ii ~'~'I'1'l I I'ln 111'11'1'-'11111 I. I I'ltl r.1'II 1":",l'1 .'1 .'1 Ill'll 1'.'1

mO"OK o"'"f;,'t'oTI':!

.~ •. '.=, ., "-J.l-.!'~~.1

:RE-..r\'t,t flF..S POO&[[B!L.E

82 82 82 82 82 88 94

98 100 :~ 23

123 19;9,

,137 ,IS7 ] S,9

147 ]5]

Chapt,er' 1 ~ Cla~sificaJt~on of thi]!lgs ]knO'~'II1 ",; ~.,',.,' •• ;,.", •• ,~. ',',',0,;,0.' ~.,.o, o. ] OJ' [

'[. Ac'ClOr(~ing' t'O '~he ,A.sha(ir,~h, and the Mllfi:tll~j]ah ." .•.. ' e e , •••• ,' •• ' :~ i ]

2. .r\coofd.ir~g to d~e Ph.il~opJ:leJ"£ ,~nd. ttlllie .M~.u~~ffii":l!'.u.n~ ., .""' ] iifS,

Chapter. 2: F ~i~ttF!l!ce ,and !r.i;o:nelt1Js.t:en.x;e "." ~."'O"'." •• ".,.,"" , •• "' ••••••• ,',.,' ."'". ~.,., ] ,SO

1. The ccncepdon of ~il1telf).c..e. is i~J;ti!lhive "'."i" , ••• ". ,'." •••• ' •• " •• , •• i', i'" ] ·80

2. F!:':;d~t,e'l1(;e is a Cij]nl~nml9,nty ~mO'fkg in e]{jste~1hi .•••.. ,". i •• ,.· ""i' l ,8:7

",llt proof ifrolll negsrion .. ' .. ,'. ,' .. '.', ., ..... , .',' .. ".' .. ,"., .... ".,,' e e ". ,' ••• " ".' •• ,' en •• , •• ,.. ] :8.9'

3. .E:rist,e[~c(~ is ~Ja, aJdili~ifjfi tlO ttl€: qWicliliHC~ ".',., ".,."."., .. ".,." "., .,,' 19 [

A dL ~.~ •

ff~~:I: an ~I 'vart.ant ,a.:r.:~m,t:[~)t II IlIII 11.[1 II'" 1,_II.nI 101111. II. Ill. II ••• nllIll ... I .ll r.: I r.~ II •• II~ 11.'1 •• 1It11l11

SpedaJ !Case of th,e oep~ary 'exi~te!IJIl!t a, ••••••• , •• , •• " •• ,., •••• ,', •••••• ,"." •• The. .pl!1;iLo>$!LrpJ:lers~ v~ria;m argument ."'.'; e e ' •• ,', ••••• " ...... , •• - ••• ,; ••••• ".", •••• ,A eo-roilla:ry'

4. The: nClrnle.x.i5tt~i'~ is not w ctrtaitl1tjo" e~ten]alIy .. ,.,;," .. " .. , e e +"".,' e e h:gume.n·~ of' dIe IYLu."'ta:z.i]am om!. d"i~ '[Iton,.txi:$teillit •• ".,." •• "., •• ti TIl,e ~;ttr.,ibrl.u:e~Sit:ate is 'to be !elId!IJ.d\ecl .'" .. ",." .,' •••• ".,',." .. ua , •••• , .,', •• ".

~'r~1'II Ill" Illi I'll' 1I"!.,'I1:":'I':11 "II'I'1l1'II :-~I'II'r.tI III l'II'r.:r. I'll I,~,r-';'r.'i II"!~ r:ll'1 -~'r- .'-';'~tI'''1'II :--'~'::"': -~ ::"-'i'~':'--':''::'~'-~'-'::

ct.~" .~,~.-, ,I). n'l ·d~~kl' l~,pller. oJ. x1!ll W.":r

] _ {In the i~[I,.i[~ddiity iiOOelf .•.•• , •. ", •••••.• ' •. ",.", •• _"' •. ,_.,' _.,_.",_., .••. " •• , ••• a." •• , •• ",." •• , ••

2. c~~"~s of quiddity

Coro.hry reg,~H~.iii,g' '~]]e ~ilIiLplt ,qlLi~dklity ,." .. , ."'=,,., •••• , •••• ,'.', •• ' •• COlfti~l"8lty ~"eir,lrt~j;lig dlii;; ,oo,m!po.site quiddity' '~d]

d,i~ti:l1J,pishalb~~e ]l~]~ ~~ ~.;;,:, .. ;!; ~ .. , .. ;;;,!=!,;;;+;I,',II;'! 1.l;,!,I.;;;,I,;;;,!.IOg;,1 1;1.1 .... , .. ;I; 1.";;,1, •• 1.10,1"'" 1011.1:1;11 1111,1, •• 1.11;.1 10;1

CO['lLd~[y rtgaroillg;' d1e oO'mp-osit~ q_~~diU'ly ,~th

3. Inru,A~dua:bo'n, 1011,1,01,1 llii!~" ",.,1 .,I;roO! 1.1. 1,.,1 II .. 1,11,1,.,1 I, II ,I, !!I II 1111 1101 1,1.,1,11,1 II. I .11 .",1" Ii. 1'.11 nl'l II. 1 •• 101'1 II. I •• n ... II.

Ttl-'L: p]niifUSO]l.hLn~ GOmUii~' ::I 11_,1 II. I ...... 11111 _.II_,I.II. I .11 ....... 11_,1 .f11111'1 II. 11 •• 1111 II. 1'.' II. II.

- ~ "

'Ohaplter 4:,~ Ne,e~h:y and Ff,i~Jilbir~~:rty,~ etmr~:1iiiry and

[te~rnlp~CJtrali-~ l'I'I'Il";; :--'i'~,;,:-,; ill 1'1 Il-~'-~ ~.;;+- "I'I~.;;;- :'-~':"':;'~ -"'~':;':--'~'-+-~';'~'i'-'!;;'':; :--'~'-'~':"';;';;'- =.-.;;,;;;~-,~,!-,:;,=,-,: ;;..;;=:.~ !,_

'~. These su l:!je!Ct~ are :m~e1Ie(l!)'I!I(d ,e[Mjd~s ha,tvlrIJg no

external Ie.x:iSltel1.tce 1I .. 1l •• [1.1'1 1 ••• 1'11'11'1 I .1 •• 1'1 ••• Ii 'I 111'1.1'1'. III. 111'1.1'1 .'Il'l I'H ••••• r.'~'1 .]1'1'.'1'1' •• '. tl •• IIH. ~'I Ill'l ••

2. Tht:, di~t~nprisbin..);{ p,roptJ!ti~; of Ilttioessity "" ... "." .. ".,., .. ". , .. " H •••

3. The di~tlinQJLl:i~hiF!i;g pJfo<pe:rtIgs, of pus~ihiHi,ty .,', .. , .... ".,." .. , .. , .", .. ".

The ,p~~~bniry make$ @ .PQ~U:de ,[:eaillky h_ar,ve- ~~OO

far' ;8j, ca;use ,., Iii .. , Ii ... ,01,;,111.,.,. 1101 .... , • .1.11. a , •• iI ., .. ,.,;;,01 ..... iOl,. IIi. liil a, ••• ,. llll ,., II .,liid.1I .l ,.,. :l.:ill •••• 1. 1111 .i.

N~~thef slate, of:a_ possllible !Lr~diilY has 'pliority ",." _. "."., .. "~a

,A flQSs:u[bie ,re~l~:ly"s 'existenoe dl~1Pends upon 1lr.JJ

~~"',10;":'''',' ,11',. "'.'1" _~"'''".

~~-~~~'~.~.!W ~i;IlJl.;;II.ic'!.:J!II !!!'!!'.'!'.';;;;''; 5._,!!!! ~,!",;,I;_,.,_,; !oo!'~ !"o!'!o- :I.:_ •• ,Iii .. ,Ii", !O'; .a, Iii,; 110 01 , .. Iii " • ~,;;''',.i.,.,'';I! Iii .. 10 .. ,.,;;' ,., Iii .. 11011, ..... ,.

A poss]~~[.e: '~hy needs i1ffi effectlve cause as J~~n]g'

4. Et~rDirrv'

. , , "~

5.;. ·rlempoll·a.ll_~ :r.'; i-~'.':"~ :"~ ~'I'I .'Il-i!!o'; rl'l'.'~'.'Il": ~·'.'Il'1 ::"l":'1 ~~:r.-i! i-:;;'i'::"l'.'~'= I",,:,., •• j;;'-i! !'';'i'·'.':"·: :I.:;;;'.'.'.';;;-i! :"-i!'.'::"l,.,Iii-i!.'; !,;;;,~,;;;

...... ,.,",!,IiiI. IlI1 ., a -!-li;.l .. ~'!,.,.,II;I II .. ,!- ... ,Iii-!o ••• II .,.-! .,Iii,!,.I. 1111,1; •• ",.,11" ., •• III. Illl .... , •• ! .1 •• i ... , •• ,III ... Iii •• , •••• 1 ... i •

IC:ha[joc~r 5::' S~:n.gu]~ri:rty' t.lIU:l plulf'alit:l .. ,.[. II .. "[.,.1 •• Ii. u. ••• , •••• 1 ••• 1 ' I 1.

1,,, On ·~h6 r;.~aJI nature of ruillgularity and pl,l!I.r-alitv, , ".,' 0" •• , •• ".".

Si[ijg1]laciily i.~ net the oppm.iID(~ of 'phi'[',a~~[y :iIil essence

,2,., CJ~3.$S~ of ;$lQ~~nt~.es , .. '~';;'.'.'.-i!';;'. !-.;",!!,,;,~,,. Iii";;,~ ~,",~.,~,.l,.,""",.' .-i!'i:. •••• ,Iii" ..... , .... ,;;,1 •• ;.1, .... , •• ,. Iii

".

Vii],

196, H¥B :2ij9 '2:11 2J,3 '2~ '1 2'21

229' :2,29 :2~,,;J. :2'39

'24:2 '24,S

:247 '250

'255 '26,1

'266

:266 :~81

284 28] :290

:300 300 :904 :3~Jl

V]!IJ!.

,3~ CJii:2lSe.S of P.]JU_i:;;~IlJ'" I'!.'. I Illl ..... I.!II l'!i'1 11.[1 II'!. I .11 .'j ... Il.'. I'lll.!II 1'111'. I .PI II. I .11 IlIIi 1111 1 •• 11 .'1 10[1 II. 1 •• [1 II

ObJ!Oc~icn5 ,[\~.:c:ni.ng the bl:JJ.ckI whiJtt, COilil'ILl"1iIJS't ,', •••• ,L' ".,.~"_ "_,,.

&JIT[1.E corollaries ';;,1.;;::,1 ;:.1.1.=.1.1:._,_'::;;'':::;';;:: 1.11; I _';;,1.;;.1 :'';.1,;;;,1. __ ::''':;,1.;';,1.;;::,1,;;;':;::'':; :'':::.1.:;''::: ;...:;, ,_.:; ;;'::;;,1. __ ,_':;, __ ,;,_

C,. ~ ik,:;Ji,rlI ", ri'''::1JI' t:!.,", ,'_', !~.., ~ 'II ~" " a """.,.i) ;i:i ~w.;.. ........ , -

~I~~~i~~ 'J ~~~~~. ~~,~~ ~]I~~~ -~'-'I~-':'----'~-'~I'!~~~'~-':'-~-I'I~I'I'r-~'~~'~-"I'I~~I'I'r1'I:'-':'I'!~'I'!'I~~"1'l

11'1' C];tt~B$iesl 0'£ cause • l'l'ln I'l.' .!I'1l1'II I'. ,'.'lllltE I"l" 1 •• tI r.1I 1'.tII'I'!'1 11.'1'.' I'ltl I'lll HII II .... tI 11.'Il.lI .11 Ill'll 1'1.'.1'1 n. I II II.!I II

2. M'uIJtiplc:' causes ~[ld effocb II. 10[1[1 1011 ••• 111 •• 10 ill II I,'" 11 •• 1";. Il.,1 1Ii.1,1O '" 1.[1 Ii .. Ilil Ii .

,3. The djiffere:oc,e between the cause's df-ect~,\i';e p~rt and

... 'I~,~,~'· ,A~:t'

,I,~LS ,_lIt-lttlg CDJI.',ru ,ion I. I •• I,IIR II. I .11 I'! 'I 1111[1 1l!1 1 •• 11 I'! I .. " ... I. I .11 .... II. 11.[111. I .,1,11 ......... I .'1.10 ...... II .....

4,. \i'Vb.ethiE:T one thing can !be btrlith ,~ve~r. and arel:1it

,Qj:' iC,a U ~itio :Lit s in1l.l!Jl~ taneous i y .,'" .. - " ,', - ,', ,',. ,', -. ' .. ,,- "' .. ' - ", .. , .

310 31'9 320

326 326 329

336

Cha:pt:e!r' 1. ~ Geru:!l"al topics _,_.~, ... _, __ .,".~_" "_'._,._ .... ,.~ __ .. ,_~ .... ,.~,_ ... ' __ ,._., .•.. _ ,, -a e- 341

[, T1h~ VID'OUS. Jdn~ '(lif ~Loo~ie1]:~~ ,q,~Jalj tie$ .,',,',-"',,'0' """." -. ","'" 0" e a- 34 ] 2" TIiLe 1.mpo8'sibililly of ,i!lJctid\e:nts t:itan~ifting between

~_n ~",.AI.,f~

~11~,~t~"~it~ 'i P.'I'I'!!I'i'!!!'i'-'!'.!II ~!II'i'!"i'p.o!!!o- I .'1 11'1 !'lo!! !oo!! !o!l!I'I'!!!!'ii-!!!'!! P.!!! P!I I II!I!II !!'!!II !o!l'i'!!! 111'1 I'!'!! P.!I'I'P." P.IIIHI!I 11'1 P'oj !o!l II !!I I 11'1 I'!!'l! I' JEr~

,~£cid~t . !II I rJI I .[1 Illl PI! PIIII .'1 1l!1 I'. 1'.'1.11 lUI 11.'1 Ill! I'!" 11.!11 r.!II I Ilil P. 11.'1'. 1'.'1 Il!ll"" I. I 1'!!11 11.'1. I 1111 II. I .'1 !II I •• r.. II ... r.

4. '~heth,eJt accideltJ.:ts have permaaent eontinuance .,." .. ,.,." .. ,

5. The i~,n:poss~,bi[]ty of one accident sllIbsisting in two

:51Ulbi5t!La,t~ a:~ Qin'C)e ' •• ,' •••• ,._, _., •• ". L •• , __ ,',._ ••• _' •••••• _' •• , _.' __ ._., ••• _' ••• '_,' _.' •• ,',_ " •••• ,',

Chap ee r 2: (baftfitit)'

1,. ,ri,.;~,ll"_';:o '_ ses o:f', iii '.'""_J ,"i""'~'I"tv,;.

~ ~l~~~ -~~~~~~ ~ ,1_~~~,~~!,_I~~,""b_~,_,!!~,_~,_~bo!!,~_~,~,~~.,"~!o-,I,~~,!o-~'~~'~~!o-~-'!'~~'''~'i'~'!'-~~-'~'

2. QU~.'ri!lity in i'~ ~~!ID;ce' :.lrlld ~ ;;Ul accident "." •. ".',., .',., ". ".""' ".,' 0[1 ~he ~on,e)rj$renthd, uature ,O'f q~at! i ti,e~ .... ', .. "" ".,., ." -. "., .', .. ,'

3,

4::1 Tune dIJJ.I[,alt.16,n 1Il~':r.. Ill. I'. I 1Il::ll'!lI: I IIlIllll III 0; '1'1:'1'. 'I 1Il::l'I'l'!i'Il I 1I"1'.i'Il IIlI'1 1Il1l1'!.'I'lCi'Il .11 l'!i'Il I Ili'll Ili'll'I'. 1·.lI I i'Il'IIl.'r.. I .i'Il'lli'lll .'1'

a-gaiosl <1,(,. (,.,~ 01<1 .... II. "'.~,IiI~ .ilii,;,.,~,.".~ I,. I. I,.~ a, ....... I "',I .~,~ ... Iii,;,. I .o!!';;;~~. I"~"~ ~,.,I,;;;o!! ~d "iI,I," ~.~ __ ; • oil,

The 'extfjm~ m""l!tei!i.Cf".' of 'a:]m~ dun-\'tim:1L~ argumen~, f(n~ Theories Q[l dIe n~U:!l.B!e 0'£ tLme a1l3xilitimll "" •• ,'.,'r, ".,., .,'.,"'., .... , ..

5. P~i1Iloe ud vru.d, .. iii 1,.11,. I iii II I • I,. l.fIl ... I,. 11011,ll. I •• I,. Ililfll, .. lI .. '" I. I .,1". ll. I ...... l,iI,I,IO~ .... iii. Il.,1 ",,1,10111,.,1

Theories of place

CI:t~lle~' s: Q~l~Ji~1 ]. Sensste q.~aliue$

IIIIII'I!!I P!I i'!! I II!I'I.!II I'. 'i'-oii'p. !II I'll 'l'I'!'l '1'lI!o!!'ll II P.!I 11!ll'1 !'l'i'I'!'I"!ll I 11'1 P!'l i'!I I. I 1II1 Il!l'r.!I'i'.'1 .[1 p. .. I • i'll'

C!aS:-Ete'S of senssre q.ua'liri .. e.s II!I'I 1l!1 P.!I I'I'!"! 1'!ll'I'. I I'!lI 1I!ll I'!I'I II!I'I .11 Il!l I P.!II I'!!I II. 1'.[1 I'!lI P.!'l!'. I .'I'P'!II I .11'

348 351

3GO 360 363, 365, 37,2'

S'l'.2 37.3 :}8;]

~S7 387

4¥Q5 ,4D,5,

405,

".,1,10,1 1il,1 10 .. 1.1,.,110",.,.,1,;;;11 ".,1 Iil .. Ilil 10"",1011. I II. I .,1,1011 I,. I. I Iilll 1101 I .,1 .,1 I'l. I. I .ll.1I 11.,1,

- -- - - --

'~r'emp'en~t~[e: h,e~t Tcrnpt1l1Lt'~iJ:r:~~ oold ll'umjdit.y

W'eJig}l;j:[

T,e:xtru['!~

Vlslon sen~at;,o:n'!; (;(i~or strength NiSIlturt of light J):,earing sClls~Jti,Qins, Tasre sensadons

rll'l IIll I'lU 1111 :'::'1 ::'I'::"l~ I'. I 1l1~ r~'~::"l~ II!!: I'lll I II': --:: -~ I iII~ I'l:'li r..':'-':'-- ::--':'- I'I!'I: :;.-::':'--::'::--':'-':'-':'

,~_~ ~",I,;;l,I,;I,1 ~~,~,_+:;,.,I; IO.,I,;;;~ I," ~~~,:;',I,IO,I Iil.: ;;l,I,"~ ~,;;;,I iI,1,1il,I "iI,II.,I,",1 Iil. I ",I,.ll:olil ";1,1,

Il.[I'.~."". I'.'I.~ Iln I .,1 .11 11.'1 II. I'n I .[1 .ll I! 1'1 '1'1'1 I .'1'1'. I'. I'II~ I!~ 1'!I'lln'l 11'1 ~~'I'I'I':'I!~ 1'1'1 I .11

:Sirne I[ :Be nsati on s &}f.[.hk (jj[Jl~,1ti,~ TIl,e Jj,,-ing rJJ~~Uife [or, Ijt'e ~J1td. ~tlS absence] """ ;,+.'"" "+,; """-.;.-,;,-,, Perception ~]ldJ ,ulcw]r.5dge

Coronaries, to 'lhfj! mental fO:m1I,

Th.;; ['\iulooal wu['~t f.our :$tagi!;~ of i!l.'il.'IL'1.".l~ect.ulli development TIle power ()f aulunumOl:tlS actlen ~jj);d the 'wlliljjug

;;;.,:;';;l, .... ,;;;;;; I,;;l ,I,:;' .a, .... ,.,:;..u; IOliil, ... :;.,. :;. ... ,. ,I, Iil .. 10.; ... :;' .. :;'. 1,.,I,lill 11",.",1,10,1 Iilll I 11,1 lOiI 10 .. I iii,.,

-- -- - - - -

'::--'!'Il'1 ::-I'I'C"I'I':'-'!'-- --'I'I!,'1!11 ---::'--:: .".':O-'1'I!': :;.-::'::--': --::=::-- :,-~,-~,:;,,::: ~-,:,-~ -- :._,. ::;;~,--,~;;::,!,--::,

, I!t! tl"I. 1'::'1'::-'::-1'1 I .'1 1111 l'E"'1 ::"l!l'1 ~ 1'::1'1 1It!::"l~ r-t! 1!:'Ii tl~ I'. I'I!-:: ::-,'1'-'1'-'1'11": ~-'I'-'1'::-~':'-'I'-'1

na t (]ire :Pieas~.J1e ,a..w l~aI~n are seJf;;'e'VLdent oaneeprs U:e-altlh. and ilL!l.Q@ and re'~a:!J:::cl eru,01ionf)

I. I,IO,I.~ 1,;1 ,I,:;' iI IlI1 II.iI .. ;I .... , .. _ I,. I • II, IlI1 1,;;;",:;';1; 10.,1 10 .. l,iI I gil,",I .. iI II. I .... ,I,. 1,.,1." 10. 11.,1 lOll .11 I'!.II .,I .. n I,. I .11

, ,

s. 4.

~~c:ifi.c to quantjtk~, of :~u1edispos:utioFtl.

Cb;'tl!-p~e:r '4~ A(tjcie:iii.'ts o;f relanon

1. '\Vh.e['h,~r' they arppcat ~!Jj. e1-!:l~r[t~d 'ILKtt~reb1:(;t:-

2. ThE case of ~plao~~'wfu'e[\e/ GI'~rl~~. motion-change it) qU~J:.uir;r~ qlJ.qal~,ty ~ position ,~ndJ pb,ce.-whcrt,

G~DCrn.], f:3Jcto.n n~g~Ii~~t Invelved iill, gradual tnotion-cHlal1JW! 'lrypes (.f fO['l(e ~equl'r~d to m:ghke gr,tJ@uail motk~ilil-c~~arm;gt Lleo~s.sa[y '\'Vlle-ther qu~rt.s-cefiLce;, OC(;l]it3 when st.['.~1ght~li.i!J.e

m otio,lIl cJh.i.:3!D:lS,f:;8, d]1[\!3C tioitTI.

3,. The C~$~ ,of the ad~,l!LPcti~!;; 'flel;:llciO:I!1!s]wip' "~~._ ._,',0", •• L_,;,O,',~" •• ",0,' .~,._,;,_ Ol,[lj priorit)' in t~1e ,ru1jultlc{1t-e [lela;uio.usbjp " .. "." .', e e ". "." -.' e e " .', e e ee

,I _ .. :;. ...... iI,";;; ,;,;11,1,::' .. :1. .. ,1,;1:,1 =iI .. iI,I,;' ,I,:''' .. iI .. ':: 1,=,1,1:;':: 110;; 1,lIiI .. iI "~,I,r;; 1,1Ii1

- -- - - - - -- - - - -

.. l,iI ",_.:,r.;,1 :;'iI,". 1,11,1 .. II,";;; '1,":iI 1,1i I,II::,I:I;~ I.;;:: ;'_.1,11;1 10':.1,10,1 l.iI ... :;: I,. I .iI .. ~,I,.,I,IO .. , .... 1,.,1 10.1 .. ll .. 1i

~08 408 41] 4ft2 -413 ,4M5

41.H '42] 42',2 421 43·] 4~3 434- 434 4139 4,.5-7

463 4,0.9

41"1: 4,]6 4,j7

4/~J' 479 4B,~

JI'@O "'iL:.IclJOi

506

5,iO 5'~.2 ~:H8

x

III .D~'~mZYn [iI}j~;' a ilbod.y'i "'.[11111'111111'1111'111[1111'111 tllI .. lI •• I"~ ...... 'IIIII'l. Ill'll 11.[11111 r. 11.1. 1111 1111 1111. II" .. ;lIlIIII.111l

~" Le'a!~:ng doctfiTh~ij 'Iilieooi.cs 00 the pat4iS of a, hody .,.,." ..... ".

Thifi :fr\.,1:l!l'mkaJlJiITliUl'!i. ::!iT~)J,llJ'.f't€;]jJt ,tht'u, a bMI'Ji' :is, 2Il,

;('~~~i'le of indivisiblle ;~10'~~",,: .' •• ,', •• ' •• ,',.,', •• ' •• " •••••• ' ••.•• '; •• '.- "., ••• ' •••• ,',.

TJ).,t phllosophers' ~~meil!ts ,~gaiMt the rnm:pla5iJti.on

r~r bo~d_~es. f~rom, :r;a:nuJTII]'s ";';;;1 ;l;!l,-.; •• I I,I:;l[1 ";1,1,11 I.:''' ;o;l!,I,;II.1 11 a 1,;1;1;1 11",.11;;;,1. I!;; ,I :10;1.10;;; 1 1.;;..:1 I ,::;

'1]\e ph:Jifu:oophern sa.y a, b[!ldy is. a con!linuity '!mL itself

,a_n(~ ~,~sibLc: '¥~:h..ou,t ]i_ml'~ 1111 I 1111 II. I • I 1111 II. 1 •• 1111 ..... 1.11 11.[1 111'1 ,'!I' .[1 1111 II. 1111'1,1111"01 IJllil,1il

Co:rollxfcit;i~ '~o dtc ph~:~QSQp'krs'~ docninc Q:f:a 'body .",L' ".,', •• "

3,., Classes of 'bodies. ;;;,I,iiI.I,I!;I. l,iI.I,;;;,;u!ii! ~;. 1,;10 M;;~ ~"!,I,_,I !!o.,I,.,!;;;~!!o- l,iI ,I, 10 ll, !oiIJ ~,_,I,;IO,;; "_,I;~'!'~'!!1"-.- I .o!o!!oo!!'l,;~ "-o!!"

ethe.[lc~d, RamEe I. Il,;iI .,1iI I;" I •• 111 ....... 11111.[11'1" 1,;1iI,".,1 .1111. 1,111 .11.11 11.ll 1,;,1, 101iI, .. iii I • I .rJI,IO .. I,.,I ... I,;

Co:rolhries to' the ~!tenu of the sFJm~[',eS(:: :mo'~I@n

it] ci~_l~r rrna;~]GIJ I'II'~ l'I'l~r.U e eti r"II'I'l'I'~1'I r.. I'I'l'i'r.'~'~~ r.1'I1'~ I'~I'I I'~ i'r. 1'r.I'II'~ 1'!"l'i'~'1 rl'll'~'I'1'I11 r

Simple' bodied eelestial orbs are :flrx£d, it] the spheFe3 a , •• ".".

S1~np~.e bodied elements; firr.e! :l1'r:~ ea;rthj wa<ter. " ".,', .. L.,',.

CrnMpo:.~t,e bodies .u'e' made fN:!']if}, the elements ~,~_.~_ ".~,_" ~~ ~_~_

4", ]kJdle~ a~ 't!e~~,o{ral phel1!lJ01ena .' •. , - .. - e-",-.;.-. ".'.-. -.' e e "' ••••• - •• "'."'- •• -"'Tbeories ,o;f the p'hj]lOOo:p~,eTs on 000 m(!lPf' .""",., .,'.- ;,-, ",',',' .. '. l\rgt]mC!r'Iits :w:r '~h~ tot:lil!Thpm,aI. nature of b(lidie~ ".,' .. " .... ,."."." ".". ,]lodjl~s 'wol,ddl 'have been, q:U.!l.iesc~irIit :If 1!hey J:~.~d

been present hl p,~t ,et~r.u:iqr -,; .• r;",-,;,-. r, ". ~~ •• -,.", •• ",'r- .-"' •• ' ••••• '.

:~odid ai'!IS ~siJble :re:8Jlkrit~ and a'[e caused ... " ", ".',." ". ". , .. " Bodies ~:re insepa[ab~..e l[vro 't'ernpo:rai ~rlhe!J],ome[i,a -.' •.•.•.

A~m,e~)t~ ;~gah[,~;t: dl~: '!Je'Mpo:r.,al nature Qf bodies "',~,,., ;' ... e e t-

~ '8- ~-~,~""", ";"!!' l!~"-"-.~i,,=,~l .... 'lJ.';,.,.:; ... ,:,.

~'I' ,,' ~:J!~~ QIJI IJlu lJffl}l;;Y [V~:J.i~~ ~!L-IJI '!l'P!!!" I!! 'I r.'!l'i'!!!~'r!ll'i !!!'I 1'1 !II' I' !I! I !"!'~'!!!'~ rl'l'I''''~!''!! !'!!!'i'.'I ... 1'1 !II i'!!! i !!!!I r.!1 1'1'1 P'!!!'I r

C~fua.p~:e;T 2: :~JiltOO~l stjibS'~UltJ~[ ibdngs "' .. ". ,,. ,'., .. "' .... " .. '".,." .. -u •••• " ~ ,', CJ~t.sses, of ililC([i~.f"c~ sll.ib~taD~ t.eJin,gs .,',." .. ,." .• , .• "."., .• ,L.' an, ••• 2", T,ih;e :u!i,'~'e]J]etts (if idle: celesdal S'Il~Il:e~:!i. ,r-",-",o. r~ ".,',~ ••• ,', •• ' •• ' •• ' •• "." •• r- .- ••

.'

Intellects 'Cif the eelestial ,SY5~oejj!n U"'dJlfiltX:!~cll ,the

1~]tadj,[D:I]tS of ma:tlDr:;.:F fII il .. I,. I,. II,; .. I,; iii ,I •• 1,.,1 .,11,01 11. 1,.,1 10. 10111,. I,." I. I 10 I 10111,; .. 1. I ... 1,;111 •• 11.,1 10

523 523 533

534·

5- i':~, J.;:!!

55,S .5 ~1"1 571

5a9 ,592: 593 ~!]99 ~06 603 611

GIl 6~O (j2,l~

625 63'9

6441 644 648

6~,)'9 661 666

R.t~a:.:m]il !?[\ovnd~ evIDd~nce 'cd:'" '~~~ :r.,t3JJtiDRaJ~, :¥O'~il,;L'5- lncorporesl Jli~tfj]n::

'"fhc ,(ld:IDQ:l1al soul's Imm~,€rlge ,~bQu,t God is not ,m,visible as 1lT1aU£~

II~ 11_,1,." Ii. 1,.' IO_' .,1 ..... 01 I,. l.iII Illil ,I, iii.1 II ill II iii 1, •• 1,. I .... 11_,11_,1 II .. 1011 ,I, iii ,I 1011 ...

- - - - -

Ra1t1cn:taJ :sA]uls, can :pef'Clei:ve' (;O'l1!tJrar.ie~ silimuLtafleouslfy Rarlnnal ,OOi~l1Js, eonceived ss :mifl,t:eri;d bodies cotdd

not think f[\~d.y

R~:tion~ 5([nJlli;, i0an 'oomprehend :~i.mi.~

not perc~,ve 'L[,r.liive~s l'~:,~~.ti(rj~l [)Lrovi(b~s ,evidiew'iJloe of the' radonal sonl's

i'liiI~reaJ, m.UtMre

The temporal nanrre (Jif i1tbO'naill ~oub

'fhc mtialllld :5:OiU~,~~ ]jl'Illag~ to '~h.e badJy a:L'iLd ~o:ve:r.na;nce ~t:hjlj ~'t Powers 00'( external perception

Sap:bt

on

i !II"'!!'!"!!!o!'l p.!!I I'll'! 'I p.!,!! i'l'l~ r.1I'i'!!!!i'P.o1"!II I !!!'i'!"!~'i'li 1'.o!!'~!'11 I'''''I.'I'.·~~'' P!'I I' !II II' ="!'II I! !II I'. II' I'!!!! P.

iii I iii I._.I :;..~ IO:;I!,":",I _.::,;;..:: I,. ,1,;;'.:1,;;' _ .,:;I!",;;;.I,IO'::,;,_,I;;;.I ;;._..: _~ ;;'.:1,1:,;;;,; _~,;;..:: :I.:;.;l,I._~,;;._ 1,;;;.I,;;;'::, __ ,;;''::,I,.d,I:,':: _.:: :';;..::, __ ~_,;,_.I,IO

,I:ib~~r.h]jg S~:n~~

TR~te'

Touch,

P:{)rWitnl, of :i~:ii.u..T':mLall !pe;r~tioD. eo (~~:"dan ~:~~(liQ Im~giro~,1ril~[I

:[sIDmatiJOD. Mem,oJry EN~u.~on

II ll.'',1011 10 .. 11.,1 .,1;;;01 II ill I ill ,I .... lOll 1 .. ;1 lolill,I,;;;i1 11;1 1011<1,;;;,1 :III 1l1l,1 ;;;,1.;;; I II 1,.",.01 ... 1.;1 .. ,I .... I ",1,.01,10" 1,01,1

- - -- - -

i_

aueenamie ~rTa,e permaneat sU:f!i.ivru the bQd.y'~'s. death

GiS

en

6~l~ 684

690 693 693 697 697' 698 6ea ,69i9

699 1[01

1'[02' ]'fJ3

... f'ioo'll /[",1'

707

BOOK T!r\fO R.!lf:A]~.ITTF2.s, UIVIN1&

:~. 1!I]'v,aiidado!J] of circular and lidliLl.rle series a!tg)Um)C]i't~ " •• ". "."

2. :PrOQ:f :fOiJ~ the existence of diei .N0(i~~ary Exi~b:nt ".,., .. ".,., ..

3. :E.~er:i~niC:~~. illowJA"'Jd,v- {lif God:·.~, e~~·!8nre , .. , .. , a , •••• ".",.",." •• ".",." ••

C;hapter ~'~ QuaJi,ti:~~ not properly a'EtrlbuJt.'able- Ito Ggj ]. E_~clu~on of :~·~mbJlatJji;::e' bctw~ God'oS, :r€,a]~il:f' and

j27 727 140 144

aiLI~y other being [I'II"~" 11. I iI!"'I'!" 1'1'11 11 iII:"II'r.'. 1'1" .'r.~ "~'I'r.tI I"l" ::"~·r.'1 iII"'r.~'i'1'II r.:"I~,r-: :r-1'II'1'r.'1 I"l" :--:'I'C: i'':;~'I.':; .'~'.'~": i49·

2. Exdu~1!lUll 'o.f (:olI{JPr£a.li,ty and regicixal.ity' ". "." ". " .. ,., .. "."., .... "." ". 1,55 Th~' ;a;rgt~:rrru;:::r;n 0$ ith.e' CiQwponalis~, .",.", .• _. _. " .• , .. "., •.•..•. ".",.",_. ".,', .. _. '1'.58

3. E~cltj~Q:n, '!!lr lJ.ttdom and incarnate indw\tHi~ . ;.",.",_' -.,,,.,,, .•.• ".".. 76]

4. E~rll1l~O~ or '~m[po;r,ail ,p\h.el}QnlieD~, from ~!).lbsili~!IL'einfle

in God] ,I Ill'll 1111 I'll I Ill'll r.1'I: r. 11.'IlIl" r.::I ".'1 IIlI=1'l1'll 1'1::: 'l'IHI'1'l '; 1'l1'l'1'1'l~'I'=·1 1:'1 rl'll e e I'I:::'I'=~'I"~ i>~'I'~~ r~'i-II'I'I'l·1 ~~=i-~ I'~;'r.-:::-':; l'I'II~I'I'l~ 7'67 511 :~'~dJ-OSiO:D, of sensate qI1ll~]tics [111111'11111 1111'1 IIlI'nll 1111 1,11'1 111'1 1111 I IIll nl'l rlll III 11'1 IIll 1111 1111 I 1111'1:1'1 11 II III IIrl i 78

~lIer 3: DO(Jcripe '(iif Ilhe di,v]~le' ~'hlgulariJty .... ,.", .. ,' ....... , .• ' .. _. "_.,, ...... , '!',M ].. M~e[r]:~ of djJit Mus1Jim, philosophers snd of the

M.fUJt:it,k,a.1'ji~,lUlll 1,~,!!o.,I,",1 1i~~;I! 1I;I,Ii,I!!oi! Ii 11,1 1111 .,1 ,1,1i0i ,II II '!-> II II Ii;llll'l Ii II I iI,l 111'1 Ii 01 1111 ,I, lIiI II .. 1,1i 11101 I'lil I II 1,111'1 I'l[] ,II iI 11,1101 784

Cbapte.il" :I.: E5il",i'lfilbiJrted aurlbut,t~~ ,~'.~1 e" basis ,(!if G!iJid,~':s, acts

I. Ood">;s, on1[~ipm,e-[liQ!L in 3iJUtonmiJlO'U$ action •• ,., •• ".,."." •• ". ,' •• , •• " •. , ,Divine (!Inl~]pot:enc~' re~at:ed ~]JI' SOIl1!l;! p,roible.liThS, Qf !QW-ic ., ••• God:~:5, omniporence in i!JIiJ.'t.o1l0lillQUS i!!J(lion is over ;~UJJ

~tSmbl£' :r:ealn:Iri~~ .:;,:;._ J;;.I I 1I";,_.1 Ii;l,lilll~;;) I IiIHI I,~,:;':';,I,II I IIll ... 1111 I II IllI;l IlI1 1111 I 11;.1 .. 11 I II I 11;.1= .. 01 1'1'1 'Il 11;.1 II 1 .. 11 I

2, GQd ~:5; ever-present om ni:s[ience ' e e ~ , •• ' , •• , e e , •• ",." •• , •• "o~,o., •• , •• ~

.r\n argument at varlance .. ;"", " .. ;'., ;" ,." ~.~ .. , .. _ ,_. ~o+ •• , •• ".", ,~

CO([(iI]~'ITy [:' God comprehends aJl, il'u't11"lgibies .'".", ...••. ;.", .

COJ'dJruiiilJy '2,~ God,~,i) '~.know]ectg,e and ~'pOlNe;.r~ are ~~:I)]ti.e-s

..lI~:" ii:: 'U,~~ ]r·

wSI!J(iCtI:. trom Jrlllli: [IB 6 , , II I 1111 1'111 Ilil I I'! II I 1'l ... 11 Ilil I II I IIll 111'1 I'. i'II'I'I'l'1 111I'i 111'1 1111 PII i'!I'1 Il!ii!"!'i!l'!!!! 1'11'1 I'! 1'1 ..

8fJl3, ,8103, ,SD~'

,82'] ,82'9 ,83'9 B4~

3. 'God,:Ji:s, ~i~r[lj,S :nlo:wtJl,Jre ", •• , •• ;,.,;,.,;, .. ".,',.,' ;,.,;, •••. , •. ; ." •••• ,;, •••• a, •• ,.,; •••• ,.,., •• , ••• ,., •• , ••• ,.,.,.. 8167

4. 'GQ·d'~:s '~M ...•. ' ..... ' e e ,'.'.' •••• ,' •• , •••• "." •• " •••••• ' e e ', ••••••• , •••• ", •• ,." •• , •• ",.", •••• ,', •••• " •• ,.. Sl6ij,

GQd:~s, '~n is not a t'ell]p~JiitaJl phenomennn " .. ".' .. ' .. ' '.' ' .. '.. :87.'5

Cbapti2r 2': Oih~r' ,8iJtlriJhlJit,e~~ not the b~is of GOd,:~;M: ac~:s, ... "

'I 0" ..:I'f ~ • ~ ..;il '. u,

,.:; a : -Oy Si ~Jle~l'll.-r a~ru ~~"1~,1: H ~';~'r'c _~ •• ,:..:; :'-!!,!---!!:;;;-I ~~-i-~ ~,I:;;;,!,";;,I,;;::" n :-.l.;;;<!-II. I0Il .. ;11 1,;;;".10:;:;"": U;!I,

2~ '~d ~6; ~peecll ~ rl"!'1 I"!~'r~ i,.,. I"!I"i: :-~':--'E'~'i'r.~ 1'.11 III" ~,-~ -;,r.~ ril-i Ie 'I I'!II r;:;~':-- :,~,:-:",~,r. i::"~ :--,;,-+;;...:; :-,:;,~,-+:-~ :--,;.

IGod,j!!SI s:pohn, word is tJJUIthtul ntl 1111 Il ••• [1 •• 11. "II~ r..,.','1I11 nll Il. I I"! • :c.,'r.~ t'.I"I'1~ I:l~ Il.'~ 3.. God,"s. ilr}1ll1ITi.o.$_li:t}~, ,!;;;,;;:-ioI 'lilliI'&~!ii! ;;-o!;;,,;; ;,~" 1001 'I_,I,;;~ IIi! !!i;;;'!';;; ,!, ... ,I, 11,1,11., 10 .. !'o!,r,;;;;,I, •• 1 1'111 1111 I ... ,Ii;; 1,01 .. 1111

4-. Other qiJJi.:ai[ilies dn;~ aI·,M ~a:ri named ,iiWtllibut-es: .,,' •• '·'i'",'.' •• ,.,

5. IGod,:IIs, prcducdon o~r being 1.111.101. n~ l'iI Il ••• [1 II .. Il. 11.[1 1Il~'I'.I'.~.1'II II. IllI'.'n'I'I!~'Il.I' l'IiI 'l~ 1'.'1'

6. God~';s, 'beatific 'visib:i~]ty t.o be~jjr;;,ve["s :U[I die ke:[~8J!t1et ,."

M:"Wi,'~Ut'1.lilab i;1_;fgume~:lrcs at w'JJdatllC'e , •. , .. ' •...•.••. "."." •.• ",.,.,., .... ", .• ' .•.. ,"

B7~ 379 mw: ,8[116,

'BBI ,8100 89,2 896, 9fJ6:

1. O,n the acts or IIII!.Mm,iklillJrl ~ •• ,;,' ••..•••• ".,., .•• "" s s , •• , ••••• ,_. ~",~., •• , •• u •••• , •• ,~" ".,., 9 [.5

l\.['I;ttal~i.h d(iictdf!lJt~ '~Auto:oonl'l~ m bt~r-nm iiitt~ ' •. ,' ..•. , , ..... , ,9,21

Mh~!lrah d'odrlliT.i.e~ "C~~,bi'D1'iI,'~~ :iE. hr(nn~:n i1!CtS ., .'.'" •••• ".'0 '9'29

2. God is tb{i' fLgt'iil],Cy that ~i,~, moral phenomena iiiJl

aJ1 c~:~r~ure~ ."., ~.,',.,' .. '".+."' •••• ,.,"' ••• e e- •• , ••• ' •• '".", •••• ",.", •• ",.",."' •• , •• , ",_" a a, •• ",.,,". 93 [

3. On premCMrrl(g the: good ,~]ld me heinous '. " ' .. '.' 0.' •• ' ••• '.'.' ~1

41. God i~ under no ohligaJti~J{n "wil:lldwt:ve[ " •.••. " •• "., .• " "." " •••..• '.' 945

5. God~'s acts ,aJlr'€ [~iO;1i: based ,on hid4:'TI purpo.se;s, " ,., ... ,.. 9-4tl

'6. OCb:ligat.i(}DS irnpo~_d are G,oti~~ :~1Iolic!l! '00 :hummn.k.iud

oi'" iil fi.m;a;l life evalul~u.i(l!n .. , ... , .. , .. ", .• ", .. , .. , .. , .. ,'.' ... ",.", .. ' e e e e , e e , •• - •• ' ••••••••• ,' •• ' 9.iJl2

:1ll00K "fliUlilEE REA[.ll]:E'.8 PROil:c":~]:ETIC

]. ~ .. 'l'a:riki]IH~,~S need fQ:r the P!r'ophet .. ,., ,,,., .c , ••••• "., •• a , •• , .,., ••• ,. 9'59

,2~. 'l,he 'po~"'i~hilily of :Ii1i1i,]I:'acJles [ilrri, [bilSych.o]~ ,and :[\~.I~DEiI .. ,. 968

~·t m 'he IMmpJru,e~h(!lod 'f)f the ~pihe'1! 1\;f~;dttllmmad •. ",.",." ~.,',.,' .• ~. 9'B4

Ref[JJta:~i]n ef (he B\U'allima'rjs;" doctrine on Ithe i~.'reHec( .,.. 995 Reftllt~:o:iicm ef the Jew~~ doetrine on 'whe '!I\lIQ~~ l~w .".,,,. ~ O{!lO

4. 'Ilu: bbl'([ildt3s:n,~ ,0:[ me propbet~ .", , ". " .. , .. ,.n •• "." ••••••• ,.... ] 003

Blamelessness is a psyehk posseesion preveudng

i, 2.

U)21 10',36·

The R.cs'UITc[;tI.on &sernb.l.y of human bodies· ! •• _. , ••••••• ,.

·~Vhetber the bQdy~s a:~m~k :pI:rticles :a,etua1W~~' ~ be

.. ~b.l:L ~I ~,~~ I' i'i. '4. ,"'ii,'

alrtl;rw~'teu, tll,1..clm. r~tDre~, [1,11 •••• 1111 ... il •• 1 .[1 Il. I •• ill I. Ii .. Il. I •• Ilil,III,I. I •• 1 I'!II 1, •• 1 •• [1 II 'I._~.i!1..

~IL..'::I"

,~,poru'_iJ_[;Jfjt 11~~ II I'! !II Il.II I'! I 1111 Il.'1 .' •• !'I'll. I'. I Ii. I •• 1 I'!. II. 11.[1 1111 tHI II. I • I •• 1 •• 1101 ...• '. I •• II"HI "_,Il. I ...

1(1 o-cl ri ill e •... , ... ! ••• ! ••••• , •• , •••• , •••••• , ••••• ! ••• ; ••• , •••• " •• ! ••• , ••••••••• , ••• , ••••• , •••• , •••••••••••• , ••• , ••• , -e

5,

4~, 4'b. 5 ..

The Cta[:d.e;;n and the .~r.'€: .! ••••••• , ••••••••••••••••• ! •• , •••••• ! ••••• , ••• , ••• , •••••••••••• ; ••• ,.

'[he G;~H'd~n and dte Fire are created ~1i1J2_1ties •..• , ., ..•..•.. ".

,";1r'1 'M'" ~1'~;1.\.. •. ~.-JI ;~ • r~'! '

.Jult' , II tBiZIIlI;,.,g1l O,iu. :rew.~ {!L :af.Cu :pl!Jm~lment .. , ... ,",. " ... " .....

The .~\3ba.'~ill.3h On row,am and PIIUii]&htmeil1ii:. •••..•..• ,; •••• ,.,., .•• , •• ,., P~iL~[it and. ]n~eil.~eS\\Siol'1t :fDil.ft those SJI1iJty ;Df ,the

d~~a.d!f~, :g,reat :sd!ns .' •. .e •• , ••• - , •• ", •• , ••••• ".~ •• " ••• ';'." •• , •••• ,' ••••• , ••••• ", •• , •• ' •• ' ••••• .e

Ceuailinty of earned 'torment in the g-m'!!.~e .. , .' .... " ... '.'.' .. " .... ,,'

O J1... ,.11." ='11 d •

~:!1J'!e:[ t-r~Ultju:OftJJ (lioct[]]nt~l [I I .111 ••• [1 lOll. '" Il.[I. I .... IJIII •• II. 11111 .11 1111 !olio! II. I Ii II Ii .. I ....

104'3 10,.l8

~.052 lOt14·

]073 10'78 1080

1Q6:1

~ ,., 0'11 il:fue dbligaJtiQrll ]:00 ;a;ppo][bil a. ~wpreme leader ... ,." e ee e ,' •• ' 1089

The SIU~'[lfi, Ad1la1~ ,~'glun:~epl (lIf h'u,rmm tratUij~~a]

,{;: ~~,

7., ,8,,,

1039

The ID'ilLftmiy~h ~[g1J.un€'.n't of the diiivillit benc¥dltellce .... 1 09~1

2. 1in~ ,aJU:i!.'~hl!ltes. of WIll. I~itam ._ •.•.... ".,', •••.•• ,;,." ..•.. " .. ", .. , .. ",." ..•..•. , •. ".. I 095, ,B.~alTIe~tsmess not a p.rereqvmsiJte , .".,.,; ..••• '.'.' ..• ,.,; .. ",", ... '. , .. , .' .. " ,",;... 1098

1. C']-'it,efla ~o 'be nil:e~ 1[1 a:pp'~['i1dDg' :aU j]'mIi'[i!l ." •• " •.•.• ''',. ".. •..•• ~. Hr~

4-a. The :r:i,g'htf1Jll Imarn dre:u- !hoe ProphEt· .. "\bu. B~kT in

ISuifil~ni diI:Ii'i!;lmJH';i .,~., •.• " , ... ,~ ••.• ,' ••.••• ,.,'.~.,', •• ,~"'". " ••.•• ~. " •• ,.,' •• ,~.,' ••.•• ".,', ••.•••• , ••• , •• ~. ~, '~,11)4

4b,.;. The 'QghdUl bn~. ajtew rl'l~ ,~.\Q'p~Det:: ~Ali in :s.bi(~.fu,

II~"''';:'I~'''''''l'II~'~''''''''ii:'oE ,i',.... 'iIP''-;;ij"i;'~"' 1 ;(:', t· il"i!1'!1 qo ,

lu';II..oIJ.aI'!r.:~ ~~ ... U':.IJ~I IIoU J.l.!Ju~K :t. ii".J.!Ii..J ]~"U!-..I.II.J ,.] ~ P'!I'I' ••• HI'I'l~'!I t!!"!!! II!! II~ .i.'1 I!!! II •••• I'l I .t!! I'. ' •• 1. II!I".

B:]b.!lio.l~:phy 1Il.11Il" Ill. I •• ".1." •• 1. 11.1. IHI .. ;I 1.1Il.1 .1. I'l~" 11.1 .ll ' •• 11 •• I •••• IIll .1 .. II. '.:;1.1.;.1 It. I .1. _;.I •• ~ ••••• llIlIll" :I.;I ••• IIl.I ....

Index

II~,'," 1 .. ;.1 ., .. 1, ... , .. 010 aa ,.,. Ill,' .. ;.I, ..... , ........ 1,;.I,I..;.I,",IIIl;l I,.,' .. ,1, .... 1. 1Il;.l ... I Ii,' " ...... ',;1,11 ... , .... 10;.1 1; .. ,111 .. ,,";;;' ;;;,., .. ;.1 .... I, .. ,~, .. d ........

- - - - --

1'1 J2 11j,S

113,1 ~. :139 1149 11517 1 iss

/!iC"- K:'r!.TI[. 1L'iJj,,!:Jll' I'[;"~~""G' ",I'Io,J.,,'uN>Tf" n, , J, "'1 §- T- '~. ~lf~. ..L':\-!.~ .• I:'J,.~.~"]I

] 10 the ,kiim:il Cl~attOF,~ Willi) befric1il.ds

AJ[ wbo, hear .iJJ affirm; 3&1!d so receiee,

A .,iI -, . 'E..:Ilw' . r. .11 1!i'11.··· . C' _-,,~Cil ..... _ _ .J, .. c l'~ .~,. . d' '. d

th,lL ~o .(L-,11li a:fiLti! ,filCfJiUOif> !iI't'V~ney 'IW IlU,~ ro'de arc frraye ,

AJrnd '[\0 EWIL]'" and. Eva :[)o.s: w:ho 'Rpoik:e ,and e.Dtlr.lJThhte:d~

A-.1I1 fro Ii.. - Ji ~iL -I~'- 11" . .- .-h . I" ;m;:;....+i, .,~ f:" L , . ill' 'I _.', _. a, ~,

nn to ,!E\.,~.c~,~.e!l ,lIrO MJ'C.,K '!,N, , ill lenOOHlrn,s~ wun artn a..!I,l )'eD]'[1i1il.n !J]£lLp~

~~VV'e st~~:1id ;8)n]Q'IlG th!l)3ie' :rmJurni~g' ~rlu:~d,e 00 yo'u .. '~

Wit be~;[ in inlD!Ld also and alw.~,~5 -tbt: happJt 'Inilit:i)], qf ]ih:itada'£] 2!'I"Jid 'fu~,ch[rng fr,iel'lih at Indiana Ul!1iv.;nity,~ ,lBlo(1l'lui:n,giOOTIL 'OOel of these at me outset i]](-O'rlJedJ, whnl~ taffi)ping m~r1itall~"" ,on the 1l!\ery' piT.Sent; jde~ or ill, "A!Qm processor, ",r.\tV]d"tout such M 'this, 'tl'ha.1t book pr~jen is 1i1L()i~ ,po~ilJle!~~ Od~,tt:s, there ~ssitSte~, :in mtiJdmg Wll)oo'tJJg phomcopies oJ 'the Wro snurce '~;nint,cd ,~dhiQ'fll~ and in '!p'l"hliing for the same US~ lenlar~:n~~u)S, of [(:iur of '~e '~;~U:lfUf)cript'S on milic~~(lfiilm purehased fro~n 'the :iPJtiIj.cet~n 'UiniVef~4ty 1[..:.iIbr.~ry co:tillecttcu:!Js. AJ~d (JI~l~[" IJl;)1,r~rian8 have served t]jji~ cause in grea;lttt or lesser warys.

H,e:.atty i1:'ha:IJJK.i;, ,ii'kewise to ]~Tofesoo[, ,'t~~meg C 0 S:pa~di:t11g fif me 'U['iilive~ty of I:o,ij',~ Sc .. hool of [te~Qll~ wl10 ini'daEly re~] portions aLnd ga~: :5ct__p]}Offtiv.e advic-e, and] to cousins ~ and Do-rothilj Daw±d~o:n Fb,r ~ldr. W.ndly g~.danL-e' Wi t-rul{]rial fon[~aTI ,~[I~l ;jl!y]e~ .t~[iLd ~o brother

Jo~n ,G. PbUock for tin;ndy oorrfu'i}ti~c adjUi.~l:rnieDt of sy,[IItact.icru pc:r-.. gpeC1tiv~_ Indeed" a'll W]Ii,O ~e~k to t:h,i~ tmn~~a.t~cl\l1 M~.~ have aimed '00' ~:t.~, ~,mpr,ov~me~'tt"

:U:any Qt~'f S01i,]J~S are du~,re too, ,~n W'idenrhll~ rounds ,of 1~jtere~rr-

Of circle$ [~!ll[ni]18Jl.!i ,a'ibvut th,~ glebe, :In all time heyond~~F~,~:n~1;trrl!u Iakum min ,:!JJL~lli.i:ilJ'~,~

In 'h',a;[L'9H,l1IJMn, ~ ,~b([!¥!3,

TR ,'ii"N' ''::·1 A TO' ;1Ii),C',~ I't!.,W1Il"'R': '0' "'FIi,U"C' '11""111',0""

M~,· ~,~ ,'.' "~ ,J'-'lJll.,,·· ,IL). ··~j,W,:.",

FJ.dwa:n f:moiIJt Calveit'1,ey fI ,88,2'- i 97 I) p~"er~~red in draft a ~o:rrjJ~,I,ete E'Il,glh:h 'I.lraIJiS'~aJ~OI~ ()If: the dcuble-boek ~JLnllmat1f lair Islamic ~~~.rj:r~;1 and revealed t~u::dlt)ID' co'Icr~risdJrjg l\.bhlilfLUd ru- Is.:[~lL~xti~s eoJ'little:D'a;~£!Jry mlcitied, ,Mtl'ti1ll' ,al-.an~l:lllf~, JiUlml Ti2W/lii~ ,i'd-DJUW';f" t~tbcir' \\'I,r:Etb iiJ1;; s!J:ub·ject text, ~Abd ,AlIaJl ;aI-,iIl3:aydaM~~' T,a_W11It ill-tJ'I100tJf m~'n t»tflfJ{;f ,ai-.t1tl(;tl'f.

The IMO W'or'k~ were published together in rrmldcopy' ,edi~!l)ns by

• , G: IL 'I' 'Il- 'b·' 1\', I' ] ';>;<1"1 ~I ~ 08- ,,:1

prmnng presses, nrst lOY' ~:~H1ogTIip,ny m ~talill,llJl] m 3~}j"~, 0 I, ues-

'igna'~ "L' l'iie[\e1Ll:~ th-en by ~g~tillg :Ill Cal![I!l) ]0. lS~3./ [902~ desi,:gnat~d ~'T~' herein, In these tVioiD' prlneed editi~ns; fJL,eh dlv~:Sci~,)n ~!~,B'iL~y"da~ :rette ill, 1IiLi~ cand~e te.x:tt wa!l fo.JI,o~~ by rbe presenra-

tic ,,~.r. 'lL,£:,~ l ,'I": , II '," """';" ",' ,- hat d~.'··', -},-I, . _]I!:t' ',~ 1"- 'f' T

l'!.'I1I. IjJ.l,I, D.Lallb~]jJJ 3 comsneruary 0111. Ii: , a", 1\1'] S] o n, ne iC'Ll!.I! 0[.$ 0: ~

based their work ~B], L, wlli~~ checlcirn,~ t~,e '~'e:N,~ Mill available 'm~.tna Ul2C.TIpts.. ,,[.hey corrected lli.L'lost Qlf L's 's.cribal en'(.Iil'S butt added some typogr~ph.ica~ errcrs in 'me process,

C;aJ,\fe;j-1ef ptur.eha~~,d ,~fiL exttlfje:nlt: :r.rM!ir~,!J.U](:ript C(!l,PY nf the: ls.fa]]~ttri ,aOim.IT!lE]]]i;t3Jl"Y from Ist~]ilm.1 thrO'[Jigh an a,ge]~:t he h.a,fj i["j!]mmi~Hs~'on'Ed~ and he ,des1gn~~d th~:s, :pe~so:n@ti)' o,wr1,ed manuscrip:t ~~~[S 8!,~H in his draft, fr'0'1[11 rhe Hijri -cl.Q,!te !iJ(f rut£ completion, A,H:" 8,751 A,m. 1,470" :Due 'rr:o the editor.'s use of :;1nothtt ~I.s also dated 87S.~ C~,dt<'t:~":s

• - 'L ' '''' d . 'IL, ~ ~Co' ra A.,F" L 'rr - T 'L

:n1..rivIB.1JlScnpt :~s 1m erein d!Wl~:1Latc ,GJli1llply tne ~ ,M, 6'~ ~ \. vitn !I~ and , tniL

·MS, .... Ila;s been dil)$e;'ly [le'l~ecl OiQ. as ;[;ji, transl~tiJO:[!J SOi!!Jr09~ [it :r:J:ii;ary be ,read. in the Ln~'lr :U~)f.?JiIY:l' ill'U:1idJ:;loa Ufj~.Vt['~ly", I11,((i!0m~:ngl~(!in"

Cal verley 'wro~e' a :s'Uruma'[)" ([if '~i~ '\¥Om and a, dt:scripti(i(IDj '0'[ 11i~ ptnoc'ha£ed m:£ul,UscriiPt lin an article p!iJJblislil,oo in the l\~m,~im 'W~tM' in I 96S,. ~ w.her-e ~]~ espressed tbe hepe of his ',1i,1l)((-k" s eaidy readiness ,tor: 'lnub[jC~iiotll. From d~:~ iill DM¥U]~""J'iS; :m~t.erla!bl, h~ wo:rll., en this

r ..

d01ib]e~tex:t exl~J]dod from about '11iLe: middJ.c 1930~s e~,5, ,Al!.Igug~ 1'93 i~

on trn:iUlJ;atio,n ms p, ]16~8) up ]000 the 'e,8jt-J,y 196'O',s {~~241~4-fiS" OJIiL

" - o(]" T.J , •• r.:- _:I ,-.I':' 'iii" __ 'i '. ,r~i~ ~ b l'~EC'O BE' 'C"

, p, QQ.;. ~ ,g,!!:' 'WFQt~::. _. L;_'illli.!.l VJI: l, ransianon ,,,"'!JI b(ipteTI'Th cr' ,~'UI...:;."" .,. ~,

O;ID, his UiHjs]~tiun p, 24H3;2':Ji ,~,tb ~~:re and init.ia1~ O'IDl L p. 4-87, lbu~

..JI 'h" ~~ f " " li,.~ ~ ~ ••

as JirO!!it>!.JI ms WOD,Ji. fjh te~o]] was OIL!!'q.~I!!om~.y ,i)jJ, iCO:i'.I!Jt.m.lIi~ 'C([[I![lertt.

Callv~tLeY' ~r,ed. fr~m his t:eac~:ing l~~t ~[t ,Arabi\c ,~d bbu![llc Studie~ ,md edi,t~[lg d'),.t Almlfm. Wynd a;t ~rtoo:rd irl [952, ,~]ld Dr, Kem1Leth Crag wrui frnmed bLis ilcucit;t5iilOr" In 1956 Dr" Elmer H. Doug,bs (t 90S- l g.90} followed Crnm ][1 tb,e tcmcJhillg role, and Iatec in d]e jOllr-nah;. erl~to!rshrip.., ,be!t1L '~[] 1'965, Dot].gllL"'i '[O()k a 1iJh.i.re.e.i-year 1ear,'iIe' J~ :H:doJla ee aeeept a cw~, 'lc[) t~llr;h :i~, Trin~~J ~nleologj~alJ Co!]jege' In S~,ti;gapm:'{~,

On ~L;av,iJi'iltg H'~rtfo:rd in 1965 :Dulll,glas pt!Jid a ftiJ:r>t':1lN'C[J call on Pn:"(lJfiJ:'Jj80r O.aJw'rll~y whol was ]iviillg :.at A'!le'Jf :HOliil:!i'{:~" a, 'rl~t.iL"{jmfm:rtt care i-~d~'i~ r 'OLl 'd]a'~ o~(;~£o:n C:.d\re:rlazy requesred him to :fin~iSh ptq)a:ring tlhe &~',wiJlldiw.~illri tra[IJsJai~±Otli 1100: puhli.calio[]. DO'i[agl.ill.~ accepted th~ t~} iiilld, '~he!l:·'e~poIi.i. rook h.i.orfri.Le ~.]il:h h:um, the translatioo and ilts ap'p~ra'ms; IlO ] 'St68'~1 ~fJt~i1.· f!eiC1!u"lWins' ~:Q' tlh.'e S't~e$~ 'Dcrlli~W [Q{t'fJ;)jaJ'l.y rtttred fro1n 'H~rtFo,rd ~SeminarY'jo d.lrL1,~:n ~ook ij,.~p the C~ve~iey tFafls1aJ'nI(lil, :p'rojt:(;~ as well as his own research ,wid :produtJtio:n of 1I;:rn.1ls]~tio:mi and ~t!l!l~i£s .of ,Atabi£ a,utih.on, a]though ,[\eaJiziillg 'that h]8 sigbt, had 'be,~m ,toO 'Iil;i~.

In 1915 Prol\es'~O:[ DQ~Jglas, in\"'~:~ed James W'" pl()!l]o~k.; wh_A1! h~ been iii. s~t:fid~(I)t of both C~Vierlev and ,D00 01]a\l. ~t Ha11fo.fd, to 't~ke;

,(:. ~ ..

(HJC[ tlb.l; 'WOIIk. QIJ], Cah~~~J~lis 'ttr.~iJ]sh~Jti,O:Iil dr~fi. :H'L affi[m~d. v~ry

d.e'arly 11)]- PollhJick th~:~ hID~ friend Ca:tVCI:-ley :~a.d p~aoed :00 ~-umni1ing rondjt~O:[jfs 'wh~.u'.soev-er (I'~ d:)~ h~d!Hng: (If the ul)j~~%_heclJ ~~mer~n.'Y' prod-

~I"""~; ~if" ::.,." ~"'" ';:;;-P,i'iil'~I~i.'lli;:;" ''fib .... same M"lit1I~I~.:,rt.anr'l~11!O' 'h>!llo:'O'f'f.'wim-:-..J1 '!I'I 'I so

iJJI"",1.I 'iJl~ O.l~ ha f!I, lJt'~C!. !l'I!!I.~"". Ill'" ~-!c."!!1!0 ~ .... It!LQ,' J,€!;~ .. ~~,~cl[~'b' ,_~£.I~ Q"~ -e ~_ ~~ '!)!dl'-

no, the' 'U'ruf!L8fE:[' of ihis privil.e,ge and ~'pon~ib:rulY' .FruIn Douglas to .Po.lil,~.

The ~.I(,e!l:'a'~ (fi~teriaill:!), mCf:'~,l'I~d in, t 915 f[,om Pl'\o.f~8mJf' :&ug1as iildmd!e'<i~

i) C§itve:D'i]£y~s Cop,· of L~ tine- m~t~ID.bul Hthug.,iIlpn .of ] ,305/1, 887 dID;alt. ~ndud£s bQ1!ll HaydaW'i."'s ·:r~it-r ~i-A~f and bfiLhan i."'S, cammenUIJry upO':i1 it;

2) Ca1Jv-edeys .r.r.ll;1jliI.'!I1lSCrip'~ (!if t~fie' 'Esfahaui ,e~rnlJl!e.i1.t~ry alene (dated R~:bio; I~ !FJ75/1470)~ to 'be k~m'!.1'n hcrehl as the' ~~.f:S~;

3) Some; 1. 01' page.s [abmJJt 20~25 by' Calverley, and ~lbouJt 80 by &u~"S] off'ttv[led, ,t;Iranscflrptkufl of 'lIJ..e 1rn.an~-rirttttn tirII!!1ib'Eion. dmf-t; ruu.d 4) c.aJve~iey~8 handVilT]u!;il1. ttcaos]a6,Q]l drut: (~.n ~,~sliI.y .lc,gUboc, SltHptt mostly in ,pe[lci1)J ootaUIrn,g 2'46'2 pa..gel".i ,of loose-leaf 9!~ x 611 ~1IIi1.rpet,. lli.h~rJ t1]J;;.~e pages of the '~r,~fiSbU~O:il dEaf~ were collated, one [ear

·

)[IX,

(= 2 p\-) was, noted as ml&'SUl(~ so i't W~ re1nf.!i~~jl;.eii;l All ~,Q,ge"ti~.'e[' they ffiJJed lfi ring-binder loose-leaf notebcoks, 2:

\r\lith :PbJ~DCk :3]!:;. {jcflitoir:.- 't.hG.:: translariort !prDjric:t~ ]'CtWlJJlriu1I\g ropyir~' into 1iJ'P~-cript~ a :gcl'!OC::ral m:I1itim~~' and cl~e f'e'vii.sTO:IlJ~ lno'v~ ~toeadiiy :(r.{[!111 l 9'7 5 b1oi'~ wd 1l,([J( galfn :mO:IJlIl£rm.:mn, UflJlo1 th,~re \o!,IIer,(ti ~~:r:ger b:lc)G,h of Itime ~liv~i1JaJb1e in a ~9~;6, sal~hHiI±caJ~ leave and ~file[" redrernent foo:m)], ~ub["l1fr~l ,empl,oyl!'ifliEmt on AIJ.1~n1'ilt ~'ll ~ 1 {JHl .

'I ~4e' pa~;t~a] table of oo:..r,(~ent~ l)~inted ~n Land T \~ translated, filled QiL_~ '(@lnJ~letEely~, and eorrelated d,oseJy ~ii(h the ~'OD~,e[ll of tbe

... Jivi:,:;,il"",--~,:." 'iil'-"""'f' .. r:~~'''''fQ!' '~\i'I, iJlll";iI'!J\d,;;"wit~ ;':,- -,t, -. fi ~': ., i'i'~ 'iI'~{;'~ill:';''''''I-'1;~ ';;;, "'"~~~"""~~;l1l;ad""'j:t1l<s...

.... u. _ c!JOOIvhiS ~~"_'''_'lU'iI., .. lUJ..o, ~'iV ,PM,.. __ oJOII _ _ ,~ U1! ~UjL a.lu IQLm,_, "'~ '" ...,~!'l',;.I! ~ _ ~ .....

ID:t: serves as 001 (!Jvt'.it'v-iew of 'the' sl1b]ec~ matter that Bf)/yM',M ~~~d ni1oru1ita.~[Y' ou:t:lin,eril ,~~~:t:h daI'ity and ki'~i$ic;. Oil'lL€; :~s iFlfD'iltinrld 'by' T'lus concise !ol!!'di~I!,'e :r:a:the'[ d1a~1 :my,s;dJ1ed, as ODe may be with !cl.'!Ie books of J3.a:yd;a'Wli~3 close eompeers, ~S' in, the tl:):r~mlur~e Teheran 19aO'~ f;dit~,on of Ilbn SJjD~?~ 1$~'tJf,at ,~.tl'1l. d~e cotmlnent-a:riJEs 'by N'~~r ~flJ·,:[);:nl. Tusi and Quth :G!jl-:Dm R~~~, the CaJiro A.J:I'. 1,332 rep.nnt ,edi"cio:n Qf

'iI!:'~'~,,'1., ~ D' " 'n • ~ :Ii A"~"it ~' .... 1. T . ~ ''7'" "r,ut.· .-21 '1.-, C-· ~ 90'!ii ill.'!i:U'il1if' ,~!L~ .·m Ail!Jzl s .lV'l!!&,r~a~ "l,l!/m,m, IJJ!SJ!"S J: ,a~~J'~ m.tli. the U atrO II, 01.:;1'

€d~.tiol'il. of <,Adud ru,-D,illl Ijl'8 NJ~fif ,Pa.giFlJ~ FD1' these tid~s cited in om" t(o-OiItr.teni3-.s: are :ttrm:'iJ], these I8d~.1tion.~.

In ]JI[lepamtiii.)ll. fzy,r d]e nl.~jor ~k,~ tilii:,ese and Ot]ij.'e;:r.' ~1J.!I.'['oe: marerials 'we ee purchssed, plus a rair.l)~ ~(iilup:kLe Hbwa_l)t '(lif 'the a:vai]albl~ ]ireJtatt~r,e en ~be ~taj~ fJ.dcb; covered, the ~1tfftk.JJHWi~: td .l$I~r4 new edtitiOFlL he'ing en ,a must 'u~eful ~iild v,~LU)ahle p!E'rnoll~] subsc riptDJl) n,

'i\Tolkifng pibotDcOpie.s o:f' both .IL. and T Q:r.JJ d:l .. u·aMe [lew :r~per' we[~ made and. bound, From. 'me Princeton 'Uahvers.iiy Lib:r,[ilry:~ micrefilm copies wcu purchased ~f 'three' ,MSS, of .1Bayda,M~'~, TmJiali &1l"lW"ort"CilT m.m :rnl1~li tRi--a~w alone: Ga([[ctl 283,s (dm:tcodl 'j'l 8; ,A.I8l.lI. 3::~ 8-1'9 ,A"ID.)~

~ The inJ~~l'IPrullJl il;;Q~OO:ii oii' m8,I1;lJti!i:r1lPr'~~ lrtl~:1!tiQori~, in Call,'!l(lnl~y'~ ~.'Q63, Mml;m 'WL'l'oIfJ' :3.Ft.~c.I!! IIp''Clfl:. not 'p~~iI1tt iUTfillDng ~ '~l¥lli~tiG!LrJ! :m8ibi:.dail.a, n!~~ ''!.'ii\a:; Dr .. C:ihl''!¥i!!':rky'5 c'(J,~ of 7':; !!h,e iCruro ~~t ~dhi{JJ1 Q,f' 18,23i1 ~902 ib.a~d OIL '[[.'1' :Pru~ :!ii!!rfIt rurwll~ lht· ~1I1IZI!L~~; ~il}~d"

This J~Hltil' b~[!o1: w:;'lS later fULJ.tI.d ;illliLiill, ,~~::d@Fd '!,'!,'hen 1.J<@liIJ:li!1k, .=!is lilflitlia!.tI.a"S Nif.' if ~ tfut.(Jjn~ui, ti1l1tli.C ,,,tt~. iii: 'iimJ a C!JIJlloctlm·~ of AcablC~, ftlmtedy IQW,~-iIJ by ])t. C~~!{e~,(;y. Thjs: 5pe;;::I~JI. (;~II.eetio.u 'C·~fiJill: ~nil'Q d~e !!.(:mj}Wir:ilry wst'(ld,y -of jjtld~~~" Uf!J~v~r~:h~:r' ,Liib~ry in 193:~ ~f!d rlii=~ai ... ~d tL1e:tIe to ;al;iiO~~ ~,'9'U, CQ~oo~ja, 8~minar'l ~!I1i, SL U.lllll:s,j whieh hllid pureha.!led De, Ca!i,verl~:f.s !l'.[ij!i1l~' ,lillbra'F}"; had ,~litced his Ax;)_Mc 'botib ,~th Illilii1ftia: 00[' :ref.1,<ieilfLg' <lind ,cLnJlJ.I.uiilm ,~liI1lll(~ aLIfi. ;,l(;!j}~ ICtie~t~ in Mb~c Eh\!!rui!S, .D~~ te dw CQS.~ til oo~lh ~'1iS~dq;l)tiQ"'.S to:~ ,pr~a~~JIi me;:!iSl1Ires, ]ndi:a!J]8. U!1].,y~rsi.Df' d\3di:l~d ton '~i!L"D!Ldilil8tf!: dTII~ M';l;':Hlge\T;fUm~' ~nd ~Q ~~~med ~.~ A.rsbka eollectlon '00, ,Co:I:ta;iroU3!_

'G~:r:[<en 9i891-Ib (dated Dh.u ~J-HHtiJah 8741] -470) and ·G~i'r.n~U- Ya'huda soa ~ (d9iterl 'by .R. '~l~h "before 850 .H.l'Jl] 446),. Also .from. the ~a'ine l~b:raiL"y ~ copies. were pU["ichased ·o:f ·t"wiD M8S {.rf :Lfah~m;~ enmmentary', Milmfi' !al-~a.r s1mrl~ T tllIJt1tl al"'a'nlt't1r~ IGaFret~- Y~hli,1da 44.436 (mt,ed ,®64/1 i59=ijij) and G~,re~ 989H~. (~la'med Safar 87 ~l ] t 70'),.

Cal~1I"1~;y~s lmudwrit.tc[U, 'tnu~1atio[l o:J]u:~ined K[Jeah:·d :~:&Q'c:i~es to 'brim3df of n~gU!~:red ·[~'I/-WW[~.g· '[]lat he ]tan hoped tID :prov]de, whal~ revised paJS~iIil:geS were O[!t'!'!11 p[\es.e.mJ.t .a[on~rle: ·e~.u~l]e[" cll['8Jft~,~ and. :Ii->e:qJu~~)t alil:~T1I1at~ ·W01"ili!ll.gs. fQIf terms, ph:rI3lIDe-S and clauses remained ·th['oUP01J1t- Furthermore, as a coneequeuce, the censtant and nor:~l ·e.x:act K~]ti,oriL @f ~t~Jte[[le'.IJ~t5, ]£1 ~,(Il.8Js~i( dirua_gue US!a~ln~t W.i£tIS :~!ilSit to .,.g.,~,"\"",. in 'ID'h,~ dmft. Cahreldey ~'il;aJd begun typ:U[lg' a copy' of ]his

'b"Thl1 i"11",: . .....:ii'~_." ·~,do"tllj'k but [1';:;'~ ~~ ..,.1\,~ ''''': ... ~·n~:l~nO' of ... 'ih..., ·1~:l""I;V"I.,ju,~;0'n ~ n

JW~~_J}.._;Jr~~\f~II!"'VJ!_:_.. :t.~lVr..!!!l'!!_, Uy __ ~~..Io!J ... .Ii[L.~.}' u~~~_~_~iI.j ~_. y] ..... r.!"!~_I~vQ~~ItlJlV __ ~_~

oVt!!;['sir_gpl't 'WaS: rna,d)e where a. ~'Il.glt:: s~qu~[i.t±rd :[i1age :0 ill mOOn og' for 'tWQ di[I~fI~nt df~J~ was eurered ~'!i. tr.i.~ tvned n!"1 iYES_

- ~ 2'~ 8_ - "." .7~~. .~~ - ..!l.l: - .. f"'~e·-

Ir became cle~r 00 the editor, therefore, tl~t. a. dose aad CQrn[)~e~e revision ·iJJ(f the wl'liu]e 'uaD~a;!Jjj~lB. ,cljrafi 'WillS ne'Ce.$S3Jf'I v, 'fl~_s has been

"'

dane mith. care, with. ~ff'(;l[:rioll~.de :pei'So(fi]M and profes5iO:Il~d ITSP0C~ :fOF {}1.[I' fO[cfibe;aili':;- and w,iJtn. CO:DSrn!ll[, reliance upon his massive aOCO'm~1~S~lIm,e;l]t. This emtu.ial ]mhr.!rty W81S taken ,¥i~h an awareness 41f both irs present .prlvuleg:e 'OYU] 'i!t1l tI~rn .~~ 'boO:k:f~. ltl)tyre' cricic~d :r'e'v:iiew., :koo~r~g' t'ha'~: ~1'1e latter would be ~mteuded for i'mluov~me~lt in. the

d]1; r 'I ," ili _ 'b b 1(. h d M 'Ib h M

air1. an ,G __ ort 'o:_: '~[I3l~lS .atI!Q,O:I' SIO'_ at. tne t oO.:m . an C(U,l!i I cne "

as a ~fair cO'py' and v~1ic~bie',- 'wl1ili~e in EB:-.glhdl.,.

TI-'d$ tran~b.rlQil~:S l~!i.'~~Dd~d r·ead~r~i1iip he'gjrD~ ;mi:i;ong the r.anik.s ()if iiIlu,edle.vi!iH.jjSJl~ allrl, Idrum~~ seholars. V\{itb1n d'l!~~ ~.p~(:ia.lized i~·e~deJrsh~p the Edioot mope5. for and, ls relying :p.rtl:mari1)t on ~. jud,gmeIDJ!i!ii Mir ,a;nce S"Cale on whlr:h~ as a res!JJ1it ,O'f these schd1ilnt p~\f::88:~o.Da] a~ays:~ !he poineer iis ttn(ting OCJ!!W'.ru:d ap:proillat ~)re1lhllh]~ry critiij1i1es have :I!Jjd~caJtt:d b:a50h.:; {~ctcm dlii'~ ~hotUd. clmraotet1~e :~ tr~~~tio(n fl:O. make it Th~tJuJ., OiU ':rc~ch~' has bet:~]. fo.:[ these f~ctot$, ar:I!l:l. M t~ley have

" .. 'b!: ~.~ _ i'ii~' ~.'Ib.,"", iL,.~.... '11... .......... '! _" """rt"li ..... _-oCI,~·"",~ 'J...., .... iiI;,>'

come WJILlll.l!Il. O[~[' Eli.. asp ·d!l."'-"li· 1l1.::f'V;"" neen ,1l.lN v: .. .lFv:r'Ii!I":~i!JL ~,~1'.r.!O e.

1m adcltiil:~,Q[i~ and beyond ·this ~re,[I)Ge between i:1peci~l:htt and non~~pec]r3il]s;~ readers, by presenting the work :U[l Engll1ih..~ we are '~.ng (0 interest everyone who wa_:_tll'Si W :SiLurly' the ~trlUictliJlre '0:[ I~~'iJ]. in

.::tX

:utse]f ra]O[lg' w.itlhi. its rn~atior!lg~1i]pS. t,;,~th ,mher. ciViI.izatiilU}So Thi;; '~ide:r

~de['dt:in ~KJtErt"i ~:M~ 1 ....... ,ail] g'ilI!1,den~'''' ~A~ . .riG~ and ft'lhJlWri='!....:1 l" th ~n. ~,h,a:

I."" "'" .L"'~ I,.Y .. ~_ c. "'.~!""'~ iI;",.,~!!"II ... ",~ .. ~I!! ~ ",'VJL ..... ~~~ IJI "'~ ~ ''''~~'''",

:re]igil))'m ftJjhh~ and ln secular tbjjflDillg ,M wcl]:t '1,·'{[[lllilI the ,glJoool OI)JJ~,~ ~~,lJj'~li'~y ilidt ]?) ;!;'~ore mltnlJiar "'With the use of E[lg_]hih than it is wit~i .. \r"bic" N a:tu:[~Uy'~ du:' 'CJ1l.ptiL"It:aJti.o:uu..s, and ~nrun!llati,o[l:a.~, needs i!]f such a :rc'"adeat:s'bip are; Mcl.e and. varied. 'Tbe translation of dris, claJs~caill,

"~""<:Ilb~,"" '"'1.iIm''0''''' n,; o:Jf" 'iii'", -I~ ~'·I'" p·i.'·I~.r-w;nnll.. ~"'""'~ ",iI...~""I'''''~~ t .. l"ti"""'fi;'~l'i",i'~~' i'"oi""fI ~~·"!:In .t1._1J,[1al .. - oIlL .. I.;~ : I "lJilj~~"L __ , l ". ,U w~ )(~!;~il.: ~ I [U ~.viZl'2'll\l'JlLl!~~l l!.~l"VI_.V.O~ ~~:ti ,ri1·~·~.~.Jtcu_] lW ,~tM~';I'_,I~

meet e\t"f1'y :rea:d.er~;s, 'pre~mimry ~~h to ,kmOIii<V ;aDd [I!i1d~r~,talld,~ and we hope ['[ Vi.,]J :[I)O'~ preempt a.oc1YQ{Lle?8: jmpu~~~!t to eeereise further

'n 'I :1' CO',',', 're" iI... ~,~ ~~a " f

~c I {Ul:bY ,mIUM~\i'e, JI.: llilttueTm,ort:_. to .-'!lUGII! ~ a ]lii!i]lI.o:r~rru(: inilf:MULre 0; I

ti1,e: subJect fiddb d]~, trn;r.us]a!l!i,o:n 80n11lS tiln[y 'biO fuHiLY'W' t}u":~ authors ~t a $tIli'~.5J'b1.y dlli~~1Jl1Jt elevation, g]ving :1'e-.aJd'l.::rs ,j3J, ,1J,b~mj[][Jjg inb~['ffi~:dUtcy b~it~!~:n an edito.r\i; 'f~niJ!,n: 11in' 11rOOure an (IiUI!e:f ~ae men,W view of complete ifllrorm;t,jJdo~ ,~\Ot~litV,.._...,."tdw~y5i Bayd~wj warns a.gairu~ such absurd :lmpu~biHttc:r-;8J!:rud a reader' S; te:rreJl't[U'iSl~ pedt~triaE It"K_p£.rin CliJLCc- ,£!of ]~ibLlriOUS gliZ;a!l1ing- of ,J.rn,ow]~dge. A~tl:10l!lgh ;scme scholars aJ:[\eady have proaounced dlie era (fif Ba1lda:~"fi't.:s, phi]oo.op'hlc~l aad relli,giOt~S thought '~D be moribund, there are om~[;s, ''!.~him r[lboo~iz:e itt as a plateau, an mt~la~C1JuaJ. 5'~8;g][b~ ~oo.a,~, and the: dlrnshQld to ,~I£ ~nd cr'~~tirve new pha$es.

mll1l. :!Prof~O'[" CZillvea>ll\ey\"5 attide (ired al~ovie f'eg:~:rd.in.g chis U,aa1slatien, he had pointed OiW~ how ~serlllft k"ydawi,~~ Q}tr\ulJ C!ornl~]euJt.ary was to :~IlUl~m and, no:n~,MfJs.llin~, :&chol~.i'I,~, ;]Ilik~~ run ,th~i.~- ;.o.:;turly ()f I~~aJj[~" He reasoned that gin;IJ,:.")(~ B:aydal'Vi,'~'s, (m:rnmernta-ry was :;mn~nt. :for :int\E;:~1:re~~iJ]nlJi.i. a.J1Id] ]~a'Ii"'ID'lli1g~, ,then the S~~ antbQr'~~, summartiO'ui of the IsJJMnk 'r~ ,eology '!llf'J}~b::dy.itn;g, his ,aon1.L:i!l!!Il.'1'l!t~ry w()ulrll also hiN"V!t a W[['!tioul!ng :imUJortanQe. The !eX!t~lilt of its s~~~:fi{.':a[u~e has yet to be estimated and. :['ea!li~. ~t~.:u1ll\ernl,ore~, [hr. Calv·er'ley Id1~~ N~ ~y~ 00'£1' GH i~ .Yd~$l 1!$klP:~ ~s the Etl_gl~~ tittle fo~ '~bi.s el'~1Sla;timl h1L nrder '!!if) 'r'1e1!aJ!e it both to (m;glling S'lliiJdllie$ ,t.!l!tld eo .N~ta:ft1~ Mm~ (i~tl Gatl~ th~' Giff'lOircl! Lecarres 'by n~}l"Op' l-V,~iam Temple, a m\~mlCu:,~b[\e p:resclllIJ:atioIlL plilljbli~ in i934.

1'~ U':J;'diversity of ~1,-l\:?~baJ' dJ:SSier~ti()lm, on Ba}"da'!j,'I,~ 'were published '1!I:l the early ,I. 9810~s~ as deed in, flLill in B~,yd~w1J~'~ hi.ogra_pihk:llil, ske'tt,clll. j (JJ~~ foUowing here, I!J], ,aJM,ir.~O\n~ Prf]ii:ef5~o:r MU~lIa:mmad alZun;ayt:u Cl<f' '~he: U rn.~,\i'e~"slty of n~JTIla.SCI!.I~ p1ilhl~h~r] h,is b![~ok.. ~~-~' td-13tt.ydlluri'f.' ]!Il 1 98ft .. !~,lI] th![:,e~~ ,nf these iYl.!lJd~~,'n 'writil!r~ are Ml],v:e in the fidrl of ,Islalirfk :~~W ~ :in, whtch lBaydawi h~ served in lu~: pro(iL~sio.l!1a1, (ap~hy as judge, IPrfj)'Ee'Jsru' ZI!Jb;y'~ '$'Late~ [Pi' l56]:

[b:iydi1L',\'.;~'5l T4f,~i"l! t.!l~~ :i~ Sil1Lpr;..o.riQi" fm' tb!':;:i ,~d]~n~e· '[If it~, ropi,!l:al ·m.l'l~ctn,~meiIJIl and :~IiiI;~:e:rio,r ~s,Wbdlvisd.O'ns. its :p1\edsio.l:ll of ,eXUJlfe-ssj.o:n" its, :f@oos on ·d~litllOOltStn!Lt~d proofs, and its comprehensive use Q"§ the 't~cllnj'rnl terms o[ '~lhi,;l diG gt,c::I.l, sta'~memt.

The .b.i~to:rica1J ~iriill ~J1'K-iIIltdlila], ~t:tJtiflg ,in wruch the ft'VO ~.u.l'IDon ,~tk,tid must. be elear to €\i'ie;~ reader's aWaJHi[il,C',s.s a:,.LJ. WE prQ!:_,_'ODd in this t~~O;]:[ll.~a1ion- The hop;:; is th~:l :~~lt~~Siiied ~!tucl\enf.s will note ,~1cl ;appl"e~' elate ehe i1D.'~ellect'!Lla1 landscane (tlf OlJlr aurhcrs' worldview as; thev

]'"' ,

5'lIate '\'Y.h~t they mean with ,emotj!l]nru, perseverance and con'li,;]itltct:d

Jliidg:~raeY.i!~. li~re. w~ sho'liMd :uiO'~e the aptn~S5, of their 'book 611les :iiJ'lI tllis p'u rpose, m~,yd~'Ij;\o'·rs na'Ilii:1i,1,,_~ (br hjs concise ~t as i.t may be translased, '~ .. ~j. oj iJttumliglsJ' Gitl~~iR;g11om ftJ" Jw~zons ,rtf la,gfttd ~,~irtft ~ i s more than a ,~h!lln·,l]ved, Haml centerpiece of woro"l", IlildBed~ ir oonnotes 'born, 'the ,p),y:tkail, :pr~~en~,e of [he OOQ;JJIni1arhliOl:!l~ terrain Qf h];~ rlat~V(:: I'[.@jfi snd rhe pajp@bie bndlerma] rflJilieu 'Of the gfta,~ iJ~nd!!) W~lQ '~~TIlO'iIify t!mt'E; high p'e~'b ,~nd f~;F hQ~n"j. of ~ogi~~1. :[!~ii!.IS:Ojlihlg. Then :~3fa1:uani~s tiUle ~:[W{ilftS :B;Ia\yd:.af'li-~,~::"; ''!.¥Oftii'ng and ,gl'''ItiiS a different 'pl8nrpe!Cti,\i"~ in whic~ the 'iXH11l.UOtaJ!tiOIitS are ~]kt:m~ imnu.ooiate:Jy p~I~·' ~eptlbk:t. ~1~0 as lr~'Ul$b.ted~ ~~'.l1~ ~~~sta~, ftf' l~CfJ~' '~l9m'iI1g) fl ~m~t~ ~n, ~j (jl d:att.mJ~~ ~[l~lrawing. - ,~~:iI Thro~,gh these titles Bayilawi, an,dJ h:i!~ Cumm£11lt8!ror tD.ge't'her' make the plain striitemt:F!Lt of 'dle:iF ad"t1[iJ,h~~DQU, and respect rO'f the ~.;,?!O'&, o:r those ,otl:ter 'sc~u")lal!:~~ ,00[1)·'

t,~mf'l:'l'~Ti!l" ';;i'i'iJ,_.;lG'fi.:io,r;ot :r."i'i"Ii.-wi ",,'''',fiIYi eame "'~1;;:;~"" "Ravs ,"""f:· ,.,IawnHo'1l.,1i' ;;;;\~.~"',-

l~ _ ,I~U"'~' t m_.~~U, r.~~~J' ~.l Y'~.IIJ. "r.-~rI_lv _~l!l ~JI!~!!!"'" tU _~!ZI~ ~ ~ _,_ r~ v ~. ~L~,lIl;ll~ ~IMll~

streaming," From AA!jtod.e to Aibo!:ari. ,~]1Jd Jubb.a~~i~ to Ih:n SinH, GtilJ~_zdi and F~.1rJu:" all.. D ill. hz]) J;;;uyda"yjj g~tbe1i"ed tOOt !l;d~,~vIlUgbt ray;s;' of (;aii.',e:fi.1], t:Iri,n1Ldtiig and $yg.b:::ttIl~ti\!MJl1y focuss-ed. them, :i:tlL1to ,a_\ ,cl~Ju· alll,dj, ,where!.l! pkvl1lJ[le~ v-e~ :nwuiLh worth t~e abs.~f'!I~f~iQn"

A. i1Ji~e chart is presemed ]rje:f\ewji~l ~h~iW'j~.g the Icla:rlive dates of BiLyda;wi and I~f3t.aui, '[((Jgetbet wiul d~,'~t:~ for other great sehelars Jooming up ]'1] th~ ,1P(8JIl,Ql~a.

~ .A third 'W,r.i!IJ~:r c ~t:r :r,el~lt-cdi ito ~h~!:ie two ~,:> '" Aclucl :r.~l~,iCHn [ji:! '~Ji/h'lJ ]JJ.;:c ,~I",J.l~mud, ,Mt!ihil~i W,j}:!: a srnaem, of ;,'i; Mildi:~i of :1b)I(I1<J,M" 'nlE: ~;['a:mlat'ti] tL't~ of lillifl stJlM'm3il)" 'W(iiJik m .7/Jt ~~~ A"!P'ctF. s~JU :r..t ~jI;l ~tJrkm W fk '!l£i~Ci rtf ~f(J! ,:I'tar:ffl'.ltmi'""" [= r'l{,-;.~~tJ_~lIilif fi: ~'trn, #:,t.~,'kr.ttil 'TIle :mem~~~ (if :1iDi)-llJiiUtrUlilil :3i!l1ld ~ !il%!l!urd tbeill:, ~ornt:: '~mB;' (if Ba:!f'da'" ·Willh3l.fii and! Ijl 9i!t1pcd ~,III M!l!rntiiJ[y fiornil"]Jl.llB~uilllg' ~.lridr 'billi[]J};: ~G~!!".!'l. Ji'lfa]n:i:lLruL as 21111. r.l'l:-:palir,i:oD~, 'i9 iEigypt weU .r'Eli1bl!m'fu.L~redl the: <l1IIgh, vl5t'::L'{,

,..

XJ.i:m

A. n~IE CHART. :iR!I}3L\T~NG S:E:LEC'fEO MED'IF.V IU.. lJHlI!DJOSOPHERs· k~D TfIFJOI.oG]'.;l\NS

O.E. 800'

K:l1J~~Ji~ (:a} Biltl! -6f}·; A~h';:jJ;']~ Abu ~,.UflS!U!l~ a7.3/'I':~·-'Sh3ji&. JI!l·bb.;I:~~i J't..'b'ul ~.A..!Ii ·M:"l~allJiIXf~iI1d. oJ. 9 ~ 5!ft;. Jubba!?i. Abu. f]':3!'iMm ~,AJW a]:-;Salam. d. 933t~, b'~fu.:~ :aJ.-·Blmm~. Abu ail-Q~.m~ d. ~3:~ ox 2~ 'Mi3.t!llnm •. Abu M~(1~lr~ 'u .. 94':1·

lIOO

,ffiFAHJIi..li:'\ll, MmIliLildt. ]:~j&:-] J4B~ ]j.~, ~M~loii. :~:DmJ ~.~Et[ - r.35~; '!bftll7.Jwi',.

'C" __ •• :11 ._~ .iI'";;; _ ~~'~-~ d ~ -!J!'Iil1L-'] a.rii'!i. ~L_ ·Vb_._'I_,l'__ • Ji._~~.11 ._'~ rEI; A~ _ _. I ":l.q....__~ '1]'(I;(t;

~ I!Ji ru~.IbI'J]iL • _~ u: J' ~ ....... ,.. ...!';;o""",, JiWI Jr.UlillUtufiit. .il'1II'-!Ut ,iuF,ll'!;,_ruill}~.~~ . N.l:;,- .... 0''''

J'tI~m~ "AM ib'11iJ M!l}'h~mmft~ ~1-&'''fPi{]l :al.Shruif~ '~31'9:-'11J,::5

B~;]th.1;wa. :freq'!Jle[~tly referred '~o ,thL' ,a!l!i'fr~I])L~ of tb~ ~hula:r.Jy wo'i:h: tlt~:t ·\~U his m1!ll.l'C€S, usi]1Jg their hO!l1Qrnry titill-e:i or :ni.cbt~mts by 'WWdl '~hey were 'fil'rrkiliatly knewn. The 'hr:!lJt: such dde e;n(,JOlllntf:n;:d.

"·'L Ji'~_·lm • ".iL. • " .1. ~~';;:;Ik Ij6.~~ ['~V il.-..1i

wUJJ]Otn a IIl.WiL iitrirn:li? gtti'!l-.en, WUn U :RS toe dl[ll~;Y.~ I." enerabte

Teacher"] :i!l]. hi~s. hook. ,~~ at-lsnmal' [at L l4],~ whicih.~ as here, ""ihcn ,giJve~'i.i. Mth :h.'is book d'ttl.e dea:rly means Ihn Sin~ .. nut more' commU!l1~.y '!i;Il~ f~r IDem Sina aliI:; the tidle~ ~<lm~m.~a. [!l.J;~d~r in ld~jJn.~1 and ~~H~Jkimn ePh~icim~Pl]i]~~~p~ef].~ ,th~ btt:e~r b~~n,g d~tilJJcli\'\ely his, The ·t~des Imam and] SBy'lkh are (;~,mm'(m'ly iUiid \-~d,df ~~ed of v..ari,cn:.s £liidividu~. 'mlll&~d~ '''Shayklru.'' :mOrt frrt~j£f[l!tfr :rcl'eh '00 Mh~ri~ the fiJ'l1rndin,g scholar of lne oO\r~hodox. SlJ,il.nni schoel of d:u)iLI~ht, and "hnam" more {re!f~ "liuJ -, refers 1:,0 F~khr aJ-·Dil1 'Il:azi the ~o,IIIIit""essin

_ _. . _,. _ .. ~.II_U:::l . .'!j 1. , _" ,. ,_ _. . ,~_ ~.- .

SUIDui :SjpQ!kl!:;sman f~Jr the gcncira-tuon, jutS'tt bduK Bfi)ldaw.i,'~~, career, 'w\h.Ue ·~~U·~tadh~~ t. ['P:ro:[c500':D:/] ~. appl1ed olli1' a fel-V' ~i~ to ,Abu m:shaq ~~~Is<tliu:'~·i-1n-~. The edi.wr-s of the C~i['o typ~set od'itttQ1i'il (a;~ T '14) :kb::rfLdHed. ~zi ,~S the person :i.ftrtmifod bf Ba¥dawi.'~;~ ~l'fi.o~~: referenee, "The Ima!l.TI.;;·~ 'but L (~:t l. 3,(}} ;a!l.1d 1l.w-o nru.a[l~SCciP$I' ·tth~ 'MS and

-

}tj"U"i,I'

~iS Gsrreu 9S9'Ha! both, completed in B-75/ [4FJO, did nafr :Fh]ilri'~~~ the need to add this lde[iJ:vjJill::a:lt]o[l, Apin" ,8l!t 1(1, 63) "" "he Inig~m" 'is :S'u-ffi.cleraA. 'lhT ir1enli~icadon as, 'R~~P~, llook 'th]e ~S-A;f~~s.a1 aceompanies :arid darif:iif~ the re ferenilde.

O -e 'I . 'iii' ... J .~ F 'I b fi

~, n ". .a, "1.0' I ,-, ~ - ~1'I',r, 1 t-~,-·" '1t:iI ilIt 'IV : - 1 . -,-,

.~_ ne ~~ C! es l~~e CO\li1tL'~::I!g~ m ,W~L;::La:LI, ~ OO:!i'.!f!iJ Ihel~"a ~ I' • or L re eene u

of the' M~mlitik Kililg' N,:lIJ!rir ~fu]l~mrm~.d.~ b~har.l1i,~ ItlHti£h mO[1e oft,en 'than. ,B:ayda~~ b;a:~ rdent~ed fo[~m~y t'h-e ~utOO:rs who, '\~"e]!-'e gu~~ed OJ," were tbe olbj;ec~; of 'h!is Crit~j;dSlliLS. m'tt seems very tvidcinJ~ tbam: berth out ~Jj!l~h~i:',5 .expe"otcd ~i-eiE listeners and readers to. be studyin,g the ,groa:t writers COnbUl.J'.r!EJll!tiy ''!.-'l.i1!h t:1m.e][ 19C:~U[\~ cnurses, and th.e~{o!['e Dm to be i~:l 00lili'5t:ant need of owl\eHtziJiion. Eut such espectations often were beyond medieval :studC'-J]~~ jw.'tt as 'du~y are beyu~d mo~t m{]dl.. len] '~ea:mc~:m, The ~;:x:ce[knJt. :ma.ullilscript of Is:rahal1L'i~:s, ,eO,1iI:il,liiI:1lJent~l!ly that \",as (l!Wllled. by ,!P!rofe&SQr. C~~]\redcr :i$ peppered ~t!h, tiny' glo~e~ (Df coded author ~nformad on dun were added from l4. In GfiW,~F& b~f :s'Ut((i$sh.-e detcmil±ned, ~r,nen wh,o ~11; ~]tbiLF ad'V~[IJ!p!l;;d. gra;du::r~e :S;Nde.I'lJu qr ;f1C~hf(: as ~~cher.s"

I'ili'u' ~J~,Djn ~~i and Ihtt S~l~~, a,ppe~r 'llO be '~he m(iiS'~ influ,eJflti"ru '5-(:hol!lts ,tID, E~;rd~,w]:~~, thought, Irs. is the cusrom ~;mQ;ng ,i5!JC~de.ll[iLilc lecturers in aUf ,glveF!l :f]e]d of knO'~aedge~ OUiU' a;uftlil.or had a&:S~.milatBd ,th~ '~eachilJJ,gs O'f his :gre~J: f()['~beZ1:rs~ qiULocing I.onge[ 01' shorter w!J).l'd :Mrin~, !Or f'f'!s1;;i[iil:!ig them as the hes-n eurrent l,][I!dp'irnt~ndin~ of it:'ti e

" - '~, !- 'k, ~d' 'iU, -~"' r";~=i-.1"- ,1;-- -, I~' lI..rro_~' ~ . ~'I ~" - - t l' 'I-·.r: -'I "'

l1Opj~, ]n J,~a~1 0 ,~'!!ii~~~:S '~!'tV~[4:I'~ ~ - lfAw~at.R~'~ w~~ mos .!I:!ilt pl!,[,~ IJ.O

JlB:ayda-wru witJil, -lt$ '~'ili'["!,fCy' and :Sli[tin_g oJ dU;i' :~c~din.~ t~ll1lk~!L~ bt1(h "anclent and :NI4ode'rQ;j-j ReganUug Ibn &ina~ J:~el~]apS ~Ne :m.a~; charaeterize I~ld~ gifted d\ocitor ~f medicine and 0:[' p-hiilOSOP]-ly as Mvi.og ~r'ba!l hvtoerllae:ll~t][ ooo:i~o:naliu ~ 5'~~~t trraoe of~, ""bltne'V~

,/,~ ~ ,J

ole:rn moo()'~ret.n,~'-t!hl~Jt centinues to push, :rr!ma!rty ,~jftat'~er' sc]ljjjJ]a.r '~O

th,~ ]mli~ts of tbdr ,kiLn fO'[ ,~Qg.ic:al, tn~a.lJ'li~~' 'OOOliI[O:n

T.,hes-e ~~ '~:r.IJi~)!!)encitliJ. ,,",rri:re.r;s;j; Ibn Sir.JJa (oJ.. 11 O$t') ;~!t1id :F,no :R~~i ~d, i 2l0)J ~"clJ OC'e'p~~ellm the- rwo _[:)Q:raUcl iilnd m('.!~~'ly m$l~tlu. eurrents

~' 111 = 1 ", ,1iiI.~_' • 'II.-.. 1!i' I· . .

0] :ilute' ·~e~tu~ll actliVi'W ~IDilr¥iIlli,g till ene lIIS .. :a:mlC, commu]Jjty's (IO~,Cii~l

s~ream ,~r 'oon{lci01;l.~['iie;s$. 'Iiu;$e WGI~ [~~aql] d1'C tmditkHi[;8J~, ·['~I~ij.]i~~t5. ~ (l1Jjnea]t and ll"(aq~ tthe r,ariol1li~ ~'pllibQ,pliiCZiJr curreer. CQ~llImg do~ to EMy~la'!.",j 's 'liirue wtIT oth,eF rl~,(jb~ ','Yitlh R.ard ill '!J:lL't tlta,clJ~tiona1 Dutre:ilIt~ ~1'itlJ!JruDg me fVfO Jub.b~?i~~~ QRd~, '~Ahd ,~l-J81btrat aifLd ,Abu ~J_JQp1.Sinl Ka ~bj al-,B~illl::lli ~ Mh't~uiJ' lla~qillJaill~ [mam al~,Ha'r,~ay[l_ a_l-

J'lIJ.w:8!yn]~, G:h,$~z~li~ Na:saH~ Shah[,~srnitli~ Abb.,u:,i and T usi, i\lon_g willi Ibn S:ina in 'the rational current iare the :pbi~k:!-ro:~h.c[S {o1[.\)~ring' f\rrisootle; Kindi, :rarmi~ and Ibn Rushd,

.sit]oe 'me Islamic L-O'mJm,1lWlity~'s common stream [tIr censdeusness S'!L~p:portlicl, the fi!H,'!j,l of both tb'IL'Sti eurrents, it ahould ,n,ot be surpris,m_g. that seholars iL'ii, ~1tCh current '!iIil!Ol!l'~d be to same d~e~ 'br:)iUDW· il!iS' ,OO1l1l.oepl:s. and argu~ment~ [ram scholars l[lj, the other current, ,Each ,~r t'he:;;,e ~mo.:o!.dy diSicl:ncC' 'thought CII.~:rreTI."U had lft~ is,PQk;esmen who ~~ro~td.y S~,nJJmOO t~ advance the le:g1~jmaq' and S'lu,pj~,emac"l of

I ' ~if .. i1. '~'Il..!' t'"'i=~ 'Ii.. _.. n., " :IL. j'"'\JiI.. ~~~:~

t 1(1[' OM~ l\i',~¥ 10]' llimfugjng;, Lnl:;Ht [ruQQ, WLTt: ~n~~t."'J]~ :S1jVIl as 'UiIIi;"2~;!)

"l"":.1L .. .c' ! ~- L ';.f:,.,~ (= "vl' .~ _'il. "J'" ... I! ru LL ,,,,1 ,~JlI . ..:11 b

lI' an~,".t~' a~,-£.r(J!'~*WiJ' . - s tit; am1il.1\1l~l~rt~; ~. ,n~l'WSl1r'9') ~ anri: ,gTl,";;at tl:e: ares

were held, The ~hol]gJ1L~ of Gha~li~ rhe cliL~mp[l(IIn of ~~irnrliti(tln'~, ~"tiilS fimJl of ~l":ation:d~' terms fil!ild ,aI'gt!l'm~n~rh .. Awn.d. G,hapl:ali;s efi'urt icilltd

~~ . f!k . \'". -,1·.· ~'I' -"tot 'I .~"' ~l' I n,· :'h~ 1;.,- ....... · I .. ~... • "1"1·' ·oiI;\· ., '. ,

,aiOYIJ[!l a Wlh ~ily 1I:1.)'lJ !J.'~a .amr.il1 ,1IJ,):l1i. ,~U$ !L!I \ ~~:~n was ca ea ,nve.ll".mes

~u~rth {!if the M,~d~t.'Cr.,r~neaf.i J~ who wrote Tai~~ al~''L(mlf)fir'l' t= Vw

~,' :.r -~ ., .. I' "-,r"J' ~r"', t- "',~ ":'1. '!~' -~" 1I!lI. _...111 '

,'(.Li'Uir.ritl:!i~~i ~: tWtil_tm~ ·5j '''1~.mt1ritWi~·Tht.Jtl 'J. .lllla}'U~,~ was ,a., 3tf{.lng sup-

]llttrtt:r of tthe I[Ki~tml~' 'mO\'l!::;:ri]lCFI~ :111 traditional t]u.':{J~o,bry Whltch acM v dy reached ij]1.iIf~ and 'inOO~)Ol':.j,u:'ed nla:b1i,y teHn$ ~d ,a!f·~['m~lJJ~ :frQm, phi;.. ]os.o[J(hJ~r- The S!u:I!.:~W,es and il11:terp]ay 0;( ideas between the ~'ll(!kdiQ[l;aP and the ~r(;ljtionar (:.tu~t) began ~mon.g me ea:r.]y ]v!t'iJ'~rari.lih. ~tmd rotriJOniU,cd. fOT m:ll'iL)' dead~s bFQ'ke~:1i. loolily by '\vh,at app~~fr 'to be iffiLfiQ,jj--

mal '·h~t ri .'1 " t· ' .. ~~.~ ""Bj'·c. _'II .:1 '1·"_11 .r ; ." . - - "t ~ ~." ..

~~~;t.L , ~$'Qb~C;Fll.J. res' penoes '", I. '[Wy'~, 'uiL'e:5ll:i:!iiilllC CfJImN.[!Jll1l] "I:Si :\:l,(te'am,

uf CQnoc;iou5:l1iess:,. 11ik~ '~bat of OdlU :mi]g]llJur. (:.-1)m:Inu.niti~~ has been

ar .,:""' .. .,.~ ,,", ID..... ,_JT" ~ t·1I. " ~," ""","c"d ~ d s.. JI.... '., . ~,...'~ A. d t' ~':'ii"""'

.:;~' utt ... es :;;~ nv"i.,,",' (n S®(~ IIlllJi,g !L ap:u s ann . WI1Uii:: W'~I':":'r', .l~'!i;[iJ; :a:. nrnes

'~e COFtl.tr.r-as'rrrBS moods of ·white wttJter !F:d!plds:; "!,iI!?jr~ILlCS, ~calm tf';t3i!J).q,'H![il]ity'~ are both to be :lOl:Jlldl ·~\~.thilil th~ career ani] ''''1~:tiJmg:S. ef an 'individrjJ,~il ,~hol~"

O 'I" "iL. . .i.l" ~:j' 1~"1 ~_o., -jl

'lIU gt:llcr-a l[,!rrr'~l1It~j]l1i. 'W'IllLli, rQ'i.iJ!S ,ld,rI!m '~s 11 U'3Ji'iS!L:i!dJOll lS tn ]JT>'rll"V1ne; an

important Nlu8llim, ~~&"'5sica] stlm~:na:ry sta:renli£lTfi: o:f Idam whiCh Jl!II!flLy iFliUw.rluc :8,l wider und\j;;r.Silli.uding of this, dvJi~i2~jtiQ!t1J. and it~ ~'eligiol11cs. 'f01iJ:nd,ation., ''\Ie have ~trlive[:l lf1 ,s.ym,:p~dty 'to br .• rag over the it1f1~nd and 'expwe.s:;]!l)["lS of the audjjo~~, In clieMirug ,~th the 'Wri:tce[S~ :H~iLe Mabie language, to lJJ~ a gooo earth :Ln~pbcr~ ''Jf\ne have ~pllowed a:[I]d, dis'kcd.; the m;1:reda] :I!I.'ifto the iEr~g5sh iorfn ~f ou r dJa¥'" The ;[bot· notes deal 'M'm ,g!re~leir or lesser questions ti1Jat arise ln '[lJJ~ field. or 5'~~~~l~, as tile illiIJdJ[lY gio~s.t:~ by the medieval ~oo.k. 01lNilJe:nl, demonSi~F~t.e. Hewever, as ib1idIll~a,tfjlf"S we have declined to dilisS'erlaJ.t:e. N'mi!ri" in, ,jiIj, ]]~utlc.li!Jl, l:IJletapJru,o(Jr~ 'we :rolLillld d:8a:~ to ri;:'ha:rt and IBncm:np~8{~ ,i~1 ,the ][itdl!ettua] deeps a!l.1rl sweeps of this h]~[1.)F'f and its culture would

"

::;::xV]

~~;rl);Lire ~lting' a~lcl :rema'i~gj~ !~.f' 1m- ~f\cmd the 'va]ue~dded fea~ !t~:re' of the p&t.!im ,~_;gfim we 'i:rrJ.'~e:nd.

SpedJ.f:lJC~ty'~, we h~tve ~Jttt:mpirod to m~;~])l Eilg',J]&b to i\l.~1b[iC terms ]11 thgJ[[ C.O[lJtE-Nt~, the choit.€: here ball~J!iH~][lg between 1.) th~ (lo:r[\e:~~p tiomJJ '\o'!,~th mn:te-mpO\i".8JirY plain :if1i1l~nings5 and 2) tlmfJ fDUO'"..{][Jjg of traditioual scbolanililp~ Mth notes exp1ail;uing their reblitiv('! vaJJU~$_ We eanncr )}e'~ Mriorliy on poo'~ ~bto]~y t~dirtion in ~t.dl~ng Engt1m 'I,\'j,l]Jtb. '~he ,Arab.re" ilimf' ibtmc itFtt';;r-e iC:([i<]lrle8, a (a.iblU in ~h~' :m",ce~~

creative tensi ,,:"ilm between ... "'''''''''I'~~''''''~''', i2'~~'Ik~,- e,(':Ii~v'(Jo' ~FitD~·"'p::~·L"'!",.. ,~~ ,,;:;, '1I.o;rm-'-

~~ ~@~ .~'!I.., !.II._~lv'r)lL y~ ~~!h.l Q ~~~-lI ~ !Ji~U ~ ~,'!J.l.Il _'~ ~"Vt_ !!..J~ .1Wfl~ IJ\L OJ ~

- ,

and, th.e- dlJje[.:itivle ~]iCi!ltilln oF :it. Thei.efule~ some olJdt:[" vdrl espres-

SiOI!I.S .tUiV.~' been udesigncd a;[)]d, ,5-t~Llck, lJDJm EngRish, and are here off'fl'FBd as :fiew bea'r,e::r..s, of :mgrtlilllng.

Our hiOpe is that ma]1i,)' :s!tu,d~[!lb ''WiRJ, <dis~Qv'Cr in d'ds, u'arudatioifil mere aspeets of td~Joory aed theo1J1]gy -mart: rn,,"~e meir Q'Wflt research

_1 =--ll~ W' ~ "] "cl" L -_.1- Co

HJiiu, l«:tJi]IDng'.> nerein 1i;]!Le q iJte;9:iJ.Oll U]"!Li{}OOmg i1Jj, OOUJ:f.:::t:· UI[lII[JK ,LO]'

omn,~.T~ti.\I'e stJudi~8 ][1 ['eili~'(m 'may' eencern m.tln[y ·'I,."t{ryi-ng tastes ~[Jj values, ~mdellt~ '~~m at least agree '~.th the s~~ng~ '~'De gM.s.dblll~ ['iJ)O'll est dbptltiil:!i]dtrm.~;~' But wherein ~itl eJotCOillt.fit Ide~~ptJ1l)l1 of a ,da15~i.c human mni,gio!l].~ pos1.U[\!t provi,dJitS n.eeditd mate;r:Ea~ for analytleal reflection and intuitive co:mpills1rion~-i11. a ocholarly cOlrnm,UIlity of mll!!,'~~:1I;!Ury ;~.(tiVi$ gtl)od w]UJ~ ~tL"U;;~1 aU dlevilJte!C~ ~f kIJJQ"W11i;dge ,:;u1id frieri(iJ]y meel"i[fJlg W'll[ do well when 'we' shall dritllk again 'togeIJier.

~Abd. MllahJ, a[-,Blaydam '!."1itS born iITIICj;1'[' ghi.r:liIlz~ 'nra[l~ in t'me '\!liJ~.a,ge of B~yda~. 'No dJautE of ]htlis birth can 'be found, bll~:t it wu.s b~_':liJ)ir~ the

~; ~'il.! _.;n ,', '~'L'; 'iI... - !f."_ L,; "'- 1.., "_L- ,:i":; ':~:ui :mOVlet . .D mro 0Iriil.'r.8JZ '!li.J?CKD rus 'rnitu€ir' 8. 'ttppmntm~n.t ,t3]S C-l~l~: qaw,

there, ]'h~, a:I:1!,poiJ]t[[8II~~!t 'cam,e, semetime duri:og the 34 'year l;;!erioo, 1226=l2GO~ whea Abm BJlklr ibn Sa'd 'ibn ZaIkgl gover,ned in Shl'~ as Atabe,g of F~jjS province, ·Ilru~~ BtJ.yd:llfl!¥i was proh~!bl~ ])O'rr~ in the first half of the 7th/13th L"e:nt!l;l!ry; L€3~ v-SJ,b,ru!C-ll¥" bl!J:[ :adliJtJi7i'[i~.f', 'we' ",,,jj_[ ~a,:y l'haLt. he. was born 'ca. 1225?~ H'e- '\iIi,'(i!!.]'ld bat'le 'I~,ved th~!'!lJll~1. the major'liph.eaV',d QfI51Bmk Chd]lti!lltlO]1 lj.'IIIhCIl Hw'llllguJ and Itnc M,an,~' go] aFOO~ 'I))'\;lf;jirihrew ,hihd~d amcl killed the callpb in ] :258~ lhelrij, went on '1'0 es"Wb[]sh the: II.k:liJJan [o:r,~ M'.ifiDgO] .;L\ri.et[\Oy~"] ki~.oUi ~o.

11'1 " • h T 'ii...o ,', ~ ·;i.~,1 D .JI~' L. 1... di'·'"--..:Ji '1Ei!, d .

.r€l'si~ wit - aU.11iz: ,~S us Gaipliiu~ , ·~-piE11Lrnrtm;g 00, Willen .I!~t:'- 00, da~ - a'!N1.

'o~~ld have bved as, ,a. citlze,1!1I. unde[ the rule of U~' 't-o e]~:t of the diiie~elljt I~klml1S~ from Hu~ I: l25Gr~, 265,] ro' lTljal.}II[U [1,304-13, [ 7]-

The e:st8ib~'i3hm~njt ,of t.be' UkJU.n :ru.~~ ~iIii PC:Fsga ail~i' tlku~' .l\1o~~~.s~ vJ:,O:~enJt e~].try :u~.~m, sO'llJJlhwe~s( Asia made the pO',PiIllaoc there extremely at'Pf'ehensiV!e of 'W:n~t ~i\gh:t happen 'f.IJeM~, It ~:s; ·r;!i~tu'r.FJ;[ thar peop'l~ ,of an clasees 'in :P:e~ia.:n s@cdet'! 'Would have s,1lJU!d~ed. r.:::'I()i~~ dl~ actions

'l .'

and jUldgme:nt~ of each Ulk]Ull!J ruler for ;rU]ylm~1g' tb~ mig.ht aHb;t

the lr<",dff!Jfe of their d~ad and itlJs~i tutlom~ .Ili!S wen .M of 'U1t':mS'ellves~ their H'I]lF:Li~~es.~ ,aJtl!d 'flli(;ir rte:ighbo[~,

It was .know.n that tb~hagu~. fj;lwri:le m§;e and ~:nany iQf his so]dicr.,s· ,ca.fitIC from C:hri.siIJi~r~, t:cEITnutll:!.llr.~~.t~es that t~~,f:l' :: ·esMxr.ia.r.~s had estabi]~~~:ilecl itiJ . .Asi;a~ :ldnd ,ailtku:)i~~~h, the 'Ukhal1 h~[r:J;sdr was not a ehuistlan~ he indeed :S'hD~r.ed f~.VQr to dlis gr'o~p in $odety" On the ether ~a!f[lj(I~ his san rhe next ruler, Ahaq.a [i2fb-[282]~ 'was ope:m]y a. Buddhist .~nd 81ilp]JQtted dllk!Jt: falth:~ 'whii~c 'Ol1l.C of his '"~vcs Wi!IlS a C::hcistian. }\;t Cine time the S,biC:u cC!!F.IIU1l'b.l!!ll.llty :~ad been iin :£ar.voT, and a,ltlb!(JLlJ~h Takadar K~UUl [~. 282-], 2'8~1~ had been ~ 'M'1Us~m and c~Ued, h~rnseU Ahmad, no f~i~h W,~~ se~: up as ~hie S'~~te p6licy 'iJ,]I1~i] 12.95, when Gh.aZai:iru, Khan :It([loJk the name l\-bUl!l1fLud ~!rUd tmblFdCtd Islam. in the Suru;ti fOr,m.

Ben'huld Spule:r 'f!e!l~~}t:Ci5, .~liO"W' ·tthis nkh.ani~, ])o:licy of :reli~,Qu~ toa.. eration 'wars considered .HI ~~uelDe:sszHY expedient of internal ~ilJmin1~ '['rn~ioJIIL.'·~' Exte[nal~y, tl1i,e lIikhalLr:t\S. 'Il,Dbr-elheir' mth. 'the states ;~IJI:u:~, the l[:hl.'!JJJm:h IOf :l!:uw(::!cl'Ln Chri~tendmn became "!{e:rv ~:r.)iJ,~iC'll. ·huer"i?sted in

, .

d~lelo'piI1--!, a. mutual rellidio'Nl:!]·]l",PJ b'l,l~ {')()}iI:H1I:lCTCe: and eommuaica-

tio" by land between t] em were :hb dered bi)t the :Strong IVluslinl 1\.1am.]lik ~t~tt:, ] n Egypt and. Syr.iIt.

,f\J.th~u.gh these dlan ges :~n ,rdislQUSl lQIlfa.lt.iec:s and the cm'nse~uel'iJ.t [a,vo:r.,ithim of the :nkhall rulers for certain grou:p~ d~d have u['lseuLiJllg !!;if.f~tt:s on th~ 'to'[:aJ, populaee of 'Uleir empire, :ne"{eil:-the:le.~~, their !polit:~ :i,ca~, and Etlili1!ary :stI~!L'1lgth :!!t1L d,clen~f' of the enrpir.e'j and the~f, conceru [m" :iits hite[na~ peace and p®Ospe:['ity tDge11t~[ pJ"!O,vidiBCl d:l€' eppertu~].]ty for 'fIO'u~ish]llg gr~, in the art~~ ,1i't'er,a!Jturt," [el~~,('rL~s, stI\l:dii::~ and ehe ~1ie~l(es" Sc:hoJ!~n [cHering' diffeW;lent ,s,ubje(t 5peciruties and represend ~~g variotltS :iFe]igi,fJius and ph~wuprut~i wifiddvie\'\"S moved

~ l'h' ,M~'im '~VLW~ ,;2 H.r~iJ.ri-:~1 ~m~ ,1\1rt II '11:11.'" A1~l hioJ/lby B~n1~(l1:{l] Spule;rj I1D1tLt~~ !from 1iI1,~ Ot':rmRlIll. hy F.,.ll.C~ :HS~l:~'" :kid~no EJ,. (hi'll; 1'960; 'P" 3,~ in dil"~ d!~,p~ef' '·'The D_h:;tJ;J:!j in :r~n1~,", ,Pf-'" ~5~i'2'~ ~'!i'J,lth lni!lp:S. '~'L"¥et:n p.J~b~~ 6$ ~nd 6£1;,. ~i5C: .abo Spul\c.r~ii QOnLTiibl~~;CJI:tli !kif tlie h~tgr:i!l;a!I. pw~t to dl;e: ~"~I" .... Jlkh.:Mii~~'·, :in l!Ifi~' JE.rJ.~.I.-1l:,

• Il.

llVU:ttl,

'to lab [',i7., and Sl1ih"a~ '2I)S :Ieadj~g' eines ~n dl~S ]lOW r,eli:~JI\"e}~ peace{~.~I 'land. l.e~rn]iI1g~ 't~'li:JiI~'~it ;~d ~'Til'j §~g o;ppo:nll.tl]~~~es; were :p~e]lti~ {rid ,~ild We[~ '~~ to .~dV'o.\utage"

I ,', b11 ",'lL •• JI ,C: I

It l!S .lIcascmal-we to surmise tn~t. a Wl'iL11:Il'i.i.mDg· neea was l-Cf~ ,ail:non~'

I-'-di - --- -b- -f' h- -- • -'- 'M'" ~ - - - -~-" fl' - -- .

I' .' 'I'r' .. '. _}', .'.-' ( I' I' 1 .... " " .'.". 1 . .'_ 1 I [., I" 'I' .:.0' (··'r.

elaJ. n~ mem ens 0., 1 _ ,iL ,llI'!I.:a!llonty .iI,. :[IS :IiIi1 pop, non DF ,:3IF!i. iUp 1i'O

clfut~ bueUec.~ ~fe~ and Sl;nnm~ pr.<e.~t8Jtioiflj -of the I~~lic WQddvi~w'~ t:l'llie :[D-U:fll.d~tiO:nJ 'of the:ur dvUizati,otl, :h became 'Abd .AJ1aJJh a.1,~~ay-da~vF~, OOJ}Qe'm to ]>mvide the arguments ,a.tldl syst'em ,0;[; ideas '~lli~t "'_",~ou'~d, 3ie_rve th~s, pu~e.

H~, :~a!t:-:~ndf~tril.e:r. !l:l\Ji had been, ~ rcseecred local im~l!n in

'-_. ~. ~

D' .dl ~ L" - - .Jet': -'I!... M'" 1:.._ - .JI L - d L - ... L.~ f d"" ~~ ,',

.D8ly. a" ~ 1IlJ!~; g,.r-;::a:oll;J[atlllc[· ,': uaammaa na loocn '(.n]£ q)8!' 1 ]0. ~~Ji][.az~

and his 'QWn £athe.I: "U'm~:r :G:!]]JiJw-ed in the ~t,~ps IQlf the ,gr.rfflldia,itlliJer in the same h:igl~ PQ~~a, ~~nea.ge [lIf oc()~mpH~hm·e:mJ' honer, and pFeMig:~" ThiiS hOlJ~old of "'uLamfl.) 1;,V$~S one of [(,:~Fn:iug' and ,It:~ill rilredml!ilo. The :mmi1y~'s tn.d.lJtiOJ!l~~. ]'o~'I;' was, in, Plliliblc :SCit\~C~ and ~:~ was ,~li'i1ie "JI[ rhe Level of the basic religious f~mlda~iQn of oo~iery.

'f,~ d1~~rtl:a'lt~on~ on ,BaydiftM,:~;~ ]ife ~iI1d 'W(~rk wcu puhbslru!E.-d at tffi:u;,; begl~nTing' of the ~,9·90)8 by studeDt$ at the IJll!iver~i[y of AI,-.J.\::dl8!!r in Ca~ro. Due) by Ja'I~, a!~Din i[,Abd ~J .. "B.a.lunan],5' w~s ill MJI.~cl~r ,of B~yd~,wi~'~ !t~er in j'~l.i~[·u~lence and '~Jts :Ia~ifll,g inllueitDce, :U[I] b]amk :s~ci~ty~ wbile the' o11ler'~ by ([Ali ~1i'll;hyi sl-Din '[Au a]~~rnh D~g11iJ,t;

" ".,.,' .'] - -",-," _, -. ,·1 ... c.:.,' 1 .. ·- .'- . ,.' ,.d· , ,- .,-1 '~'(" ,~1I - . ...!I~: .• ,.- .cf

is toIIi.ip .r:mentary 00, me nrst, [liang a S'lli,· 11 ana cntiLCo:u (:{,l!1!LUJlTIl G(

f n d n ~ - "' .-:I ~ R .JI! - ]"Ji: -,

ene QI ,nay a'lf.!.1,'s boek on jil!tn~nl!O!L[lCI8. '. '~ga'['iQlIIiIl~ the die and times

of :Bayda\'~l ~[ah Dag~j observes th~l O"UQ:r &111th(H: was saved the :ITl!oot$.ity of tra,w,eli:~ abr.md. to oh!t~it1l. advaneed education, fur..st by the ,1~,br.2u"y ;t3Jnd ,teaJching ;aiV~1"~~;abil1Jty of hL~ :£ather~, arid, :s.eco[Iid by tJ11e V,t.i!riJe~' of rtaJienled :s,peciWSlm5, ]51 the ramLb of the :8 •. ' holars who had moved out (fir W@pFa '!,lag,ed te~'i,'~:ooiries and g~cl!l,eredl iru SMra;l,,~' llrha'~ he made '~u,~ntiv~ 'use. (IIf these ,ad,wnitagie~ is a,tlte~med by b~.s reputa'lion 'imJ. which he eurpassed his peers in ru]~~ledgit of ~he '!t1trlot:]s I'elig]OIIJs seiences and. brt.am(:i lDm~[], :~.f h~, learn][iJg b-ero:nd. hl3

-

'"',w.' 1f1' npon.'" ljI'n',"",'"

.. ~ __ ~Li,Li J .... ~ !.i,~.~ ~!!!~~~1;;;

.,

::crnK.

The events in 'Ba:vda:lll!fj,:~S liFe dj;!i,t can 'be' aligned. vt1th, dalles' @f fail' cerli:..unt;y are ~w. The da'[\B of his birth had] not been D6[P0'J!'t;oo5 aDd f{li~ his. rleii!th 80' Irlimy 'rj,)~1itllctin;g, dates bave been recfil\r]ed that its, date alse :i~ :Jl1.":ga:-rd.e:d as uncertain. A ftiii;unber of :fr~oole-:.".ca'R 'bi.ogr,aJ.-, phers, ~ed by Kha"~l fbn Ay'ba~ ~l-S~f~.,di [d. 764! 1,36,3], place it at 6851 ,I. ~'S'l5, and u~~~ dat\t:' is still $l.liiOC--pt00, by many as probably corn:Ct.I~ f;'vlrlc:nae 'ifO"f ir, ~iDwcve::r ~ seenrs blurred illIUj lIloO'J1ldlursiv<e. Otb~[' 'w,rlt'eu 'f;!l~_£' dlat~:ll a "few ye,a;~s ]a;t:er. H'i;1J~:nd MlaJ~ ]\.1:u~awf.i. Q.a~'Vi:nri. [0. 1330-.1. 340] wrore in 11ls 7~ti:M~~~: GtlZili'al" [p. 706] ,~~t Ee,ytla~vj. di""d in 7:16/1~,116r-17. A~ a summary of the diff".erent d~tGS :mCIltioned l,l,Mfj; are '1!t.1l. the 'oBtYs Hljd, 'c;hree ate hl tJ1C 690'8, :a:nd l~u are in the fll.[i)tt tw~ decades ef the 7iQ(JIo~, ,Hijri. Eh.i'ff'd~;",,,i had eomposed ,~ V!fO:lftd h~'or}f tll~t; i[IJc'~!udtid. events d~nv[1 to (57',4/1..2'75;.0; but the ttrmin8i~ dl~te in this rust,o:ry comes well before 'the ,eaJrlliestt date ~l)..1gg~t,ed (Illf .his death,

'From ~ nrO'F,t1~l~tion '~lwt has been assembled UCl the IL~ dissertatlons :m,if:.~l]tio]i]!edJ, i'lIud, 'In t'hk:' hiopaphilCal. notuces in the twO' cdlt~!r.J]t5 of the ,EnCJd~~a fir .ljl~rlJ,~ and espe!l:ia'lly :~~l. tb,e munTI!I].ati~:1lg :stuJdy of the question by, JoseF van Ess, 9 a N~Dtati!ve' outline :Ds :!J!1Jggtsted. hertffitb fol" our ,~U!th(l(r'~$ life taun_g it. IJfP to 7'] 6! 1.316.

The f~ielfld_i,p of the Atahe;g I[!,f Fan pWO\llfice fhr. tin.e :8aydlm'lJl'!.~ family 'e'.lllt:led with that govel[--no~;!'~ de..ad1j, fn 6~n/l,260. '"J\bd ,Allah .IDayd.a'i.'vi_·s father, '~U'ma'r]. cmT~n.ll,U~d ::re:r'!,i'11n-,g ,the [p1'O"!.dnce as, chIef jil,1dg:e~ IQ.JJrlj a1l~(t~t":> or, 'Wicil 'the new th]t and rank of a Se'rd01r Jwj)ge of Ith,e .Em.p,ire~ "Qadi ,~["'~M'~~frm~U.k.~'~ ~:o whkh the ~tt A't~beg' had EiSJmed. lmJim.

When ~n]af a[~'Bayda",ri, died in 673/]:2 7 ~~5~ \,'le ""riUJ] a'S~Ulf;l;e WIl!t, bis son '~Abd ,i\J~'h ,~(pled for gj,~]jd, was ,gr~nt~d the' a]j),O'jntme;n'~:~ :pos;sibly doiug ~o in person on a speclal tritp to Tabrie, :@Jnd. ~o came • ,~ Ib~ f" A;i'!I\ ""-'l.~, S I~~". 'IL !Ji,,'b.Ji Iitt,1) OJlJi~' ail, CII."lJi.e: Jy~,e itil, "iu,lli.:ta~. . ome 'Yi~rn ea[~f'~ '1r~''Jj;en'ri"' i0t

,t\ll8iih, Barydarw;, had begun ~"riSl li::0irtt1:t in pil.iLb~ic Gfficrt • he bad received :~c.ces~~' a!rij]~~n'[m!;:n,ts ,~S qadi in ,~, ~e[~e8 of JU1L1iaU '~'o'Wns in thf:

Stdraz iti~wri~t, ~Ui~y mchjdj~ ]Us home Wl~. ]J~,yd.awf~ poo1fe£sioo.a[ ~Kpoc!bliJJlio:iti had, been of~, ID[~g' career i:ij[ Gflic~~", ~i~l!: :hi:s f~tht:]f and ,g;r.audtf.~tlle[' before him, l~b,V'h:lg' situdi,ed. a~l ~:~]Sl iif~, lITL€: knew ¥ery '~'tU ] (J;~ (!l~'dy' hls is,ped~'~ $lJ]bjcct: ;of j~JrllSp\fWl.den~e but aU th~ ,ot'i'!Jcr rellgious sciences '~h~t were the r\Qf]~r~dl~,dO'[!j of Is]rur[.k >c:hn:tiiz~;ui(lin"

lin the y~f5 ,of hl~ ,ca1f~y C~l]"t:'(::ff~ we ,Siu:rmri3t rhat he may hiiJlle _gTG<\V]]J 'impatie1il:t to[" the '~,dJe[' public 3emce ::.ind, rucog,:u:itimn. t]lal he' ~ec[~- l:'b1Jdivid.l;Jal j1Lldidal cams of peop"l!G' :i~:iln~c£]ll!tly ~r ~viU~ ftilly erttill!.~g]il1g dle"J:y.iliieh'e$ :im the derails of ~e 'pu~)lk liJ!.w '[]O (b]ubt u}'!i.:ul\d :h~;ve ''!.-'VOI1Il dGl'!.~ his paLtie:nce to the :prLl(;F['~ whert' he h~gd]] to act artid ~pe~k (!!tn:\,;;,aJrd[y ~, he ,may :hawe tb,tiJi~,ght :;:I!l'ild w.IIJ~e in ,1Piliivate, that. ~5;~ 'GOiiJcis~:::'Iy" :ptediS d,y ~ ,amLd '~l~lite S'~]o:r.~ on toleration of those "",nlose '[\easoning pOIWCrs '",!E~'"C sl ower " '~hll::[1 he ~&'ifed ,SlS a ","',,",' ~I'~ , .. ;,~ "if, ",'" ,,:",.~ 1l.,~ ," lid' be th , '~,~, ",,..Ii~:t,·, 'dl pe.r;sona, m'l.!iJiii: ijm rOU!ll~ mmns JU€i !DOll!, . ,e [, ~ gO~f: ,at~ ul, ID" ,aJl!l".

al.rErl!OIrity O'f dlJelli"' :progres.'L :B'M:~ ;ID.1;j, a jUdb~' of h~~ f€~~m!,{ ("jbZ)6~1~ O€fOfiE 'the []illlblic ~nd. :rellguc:u]s ]aw ~ t~1iLt ~·h.e app[\oacherl ... with :~erren~fj and reserve" I,D' h, ~eerrr~.$ tb~,:u. nbS ~~~!;':Iy correct t,empe!l."'a~~ru. and the j IU dg;n[lej][r~, he rendered ihega:-§.!; bullwllg up resenrment arnO'JLg rhe :fiiITLao.r:i:aUy and, polittiC8JUy k~t(:I~n.g citi~cns of t]lC provlnce until this

'~h d d ~~ beca 'I" IDAr 'J

I .. ""::1 • .• • - -' [ • . > _ ;,o_: .' I ',' '!Il f , .... -_, "," ~ ",:' ~ I' [" '.

resentment reacr e ,a BgTI. ee l, at - ame exp. OOli\i'1;J. , ,JG: '!jij,,~ on y

a few shen ye:3lF5 ~mo his 'CSJreer $It Sh]~az. wfue:n ~brum>'~;t~' he was ['emO'vt'id f[iJJ]iml, offiQrt~ ,~~boltlt the ytlar 6711] ,2 7Sr-]'9. ,HIS ouster foom

,ffi'" .' ..... .:11 . "t. f :'i:"."..!il . -,' Ji : i."". ' ;,' "n' iL.l he

0: . -!pe p.ro"""e~..!! :::UCJ!I. a .u.aJIDIJ! 1 ann per,mmJlI!!L embarrassment 1):u~Jt , L

leiLn.crved '~im~Jf From S;h,-UiLH. and. h~aJ.vded '[0 Tabria, ~c cap.li1:aJ of the Irukhan empire COl:TIjplr1\s:yug Fi:ll'S and other ]::n:;ovil:1Lce.s~,

M,~;;;;""~J;pl,~~~, ~~, ,Q:IfW!t"";;;'"":,-,, '''h.;Io'~' ~,1i..;;:;!~ 'Pj,V'~~ 3110..,.lber f.-!IImi~ v Fl.f th ... ~~ ~J.:ilma:l

. ...""'~,~ .,,~.!i:!! liU:~~ ,;h, ""';Ij'"1["" "'Qi!!.,oJj iI,~_G~ i1.,rI ..... i!i.... "o:.!!~ "_~ !J,. .. !r'!} ~ ~""~~~.. v.. ~ ,~'!" !liI~ __ ,

elit~ who ri'llalfld tile vib.\ge: ~'B~y~law.i£~' Dd 1"'8im'~ ]e~d,c~rnhip in. the p[i!JJvill1cei~~ C.aF~,1Lai city,. ,W:'~ ,may be speculaeed mal: on ,Bfri.ydaM,~'9. ezir from, t}~e scene, a rOlling ma:~ named F~r an.~Ditll ,W1ilLn~,'[j] alShi'r::!l!2:i~,~] k~t~lLn 'YL'iiJr~ of ~ge and, [ftp'lJJted, to 10· ::i!J prodigioHs scholar,

·

XJOiJ,

lud ~]~L«lf:djhtldy been :Pi!jj1 FOJ:'1W,aFd .frum dle r[lids~ of IHhi~ family as CiUididlillltc' fOit' the' tJrri~f jllj,dges:ilip ;rnf Sh;:r-az .. Tha !boy w,a]S q,iLiiddy aocepted by d"u~ Slijver.n~}T' of Far~,~ 'woo 'nQ d!lJ~J'Ib't ::;aw' the ~,e~]ng j_,lr.:i~t ,aJS !being' :1WlI,a~: docHe~ ,p~,t~ie[lt'j. ~nd genrle in d1ij)fi~~US ,p'M,blk jioS'[iice 'to his elders,

A date for {h[$ e.\f('::[~tfw change 111 rhe careers (~f rhe tWWi riv,M jrudf;d :bii!!lS been !teamed by ,cak1lillat~~ns, froB], .riUtii' ,~J~Dij] 18iiIrua,~U~~ death date ef '5611 S;j~,,~ ]e$t'5 his, ,a;ge' ,af 911 ~,t d\e~tb.~ ~""'hicl1 give hilS;

iJ...~'r.t]",.,:I"",,,,-,,, as l:C2'r] 2·' ~"2'_t::~... then 'I-;~ - ,r. d'''~'ifI~ ~ 5." -:-~..,,~~ 'k'io2; ~I(!l'i'" ,;,;.' ~n.fln,;-;,~

!IJI!1I lJJl~,I""~"", ~ {\ll(ll_ t , '003-'1;11 _], ""-_ ... _ [il~ a ,m."'.l:!,!L y,,-"!J1i~ '"'~ U'_.:> ""\b"-" ""'''' ~ _ _li';h.i!'"

tion to offiJDt~ t']i1.C 'Ye~F 6 !'7/l27'8~ "79 ]s pr-odlDliG"ed fDT tth]s his: ir.s~' iUl~;tall;aticn as cbrief judge of S~d"

M~er ,eompb::ting :his move to Tabris and ~V]Dg' ,sev~ed into big],

lodgiir[g!),~ ~Ahd ~~:i B:lJj,yd~lcvri one dary dr:~:idedl '!to auend dUll cit!('~

_ L' - f ~ h I~ - '1- t I ~ 'iiI 'M!!' - ~. E ,:IL .. ": ·C- ~ ~ - - ~'Il~ ~ _ -

Cnil.~ , 3C ,0 III , or, fie urn ,1iU .. , ,1Ir,ror'€~OOir ~,!JWIIlll! . ::::UV£-l"1Ley' :r'l?;l'e.l!J5 :urom,

T~~ al-Dir; '~.Abd 21J· \,\fahhab ,~,-Su'blk1~'~ T~~\tlrl~ f1~-SA~ynA l!i!l-.K~brn' [\0'01" .1]1 p_ 59]]~ '·"ih;!l'~ :n~:ppene(t

He entered aJ 'school lhiei[\iEi' and took {line ef the back se;mts '[H2C0ll\.1~ iJ]O Q[!)I; there 'Il:nt."'!W' bhn .. ]]~~ im~~,truCiOI[' put to 'mho~ 1P['e~rrl.t ~, ql]e~t~QH '\vh~(h !h~ ~0:~dJ fi~:'j(r.t Qf' il1(i~e ~[tr~iOit c©uldJ wl¥t (n: it,eWt',:U., '1rh~~, hyda'i;'i'i sta.rt£:d 'ItO answer, ")rih~' ~.j]~tructo[' :said, ~'!K """ij;[~ :Uii,O't. I.is't~~, u:~til ] know 'lfha[ }!Q'!J mdeir.stal1.dI dle 'iiuestiion~I'. 1iJ .• ,R!ii.~rdri'Wi, said, ~~y ou l11i1\lf 'CbiOO:iC whetliler 1. shou1Jd [iI;pei~;~ [Iil.e question word :[OT ~Fd.t 0]1 gilllt th~: :5f.fi!.!1~ of'it"'_ The t~-ac:rlll~,i" w,0.'S :~IJ;rpn~d ~d, ~a.id~, ·~'Re'pe:3:t t.ib.i=' q~.e~-

,-" '. ,'I C ~.,~.JI~~ TL. 'iIIll,~-,A--~', . ~ . ..,.~1 ~t ,=.,./1 t'b~~ r' -'L.-

[Inn WOII.C ,~o:r 'I,.;,i\!Jnu L , n€1IJJ ,tID\i;l:r[]~,'I/!ii,~ [·~peaJU:;!il ,i. ann men ~a'lf: [111,e

:s~hJJ~oo~ and shQ'W'led '~hs;t, the ()e~c:h~[' 1Tiat~ litO! iVt:alt.-"-cl diLC 'p:roh'~em ~~~,. ,nu,~I!t' _ Then he ooi::ifmrli~ed, du~ insl;J:"U,(;ocrr w1Ith a, :rimt~~1.'r p;oohk.mn ~fld reqeested hinm '1'O solve ~i. Ibi,ll)t. die :iiiil~tiri1,q~til):r b~~, 'ti\)l be e~r.~~d. The "wmibr (of llhe empire] :hii'll,ppened, to. be :p:-re8ef;lj~: and rnU,ecll~,y..~wi ~D hills. sXd~~ and when }l,e found {)UJ[ who :he w.as~ he had j~ydawl :~~.Qted. to I1j.$ pU!siJtiu[) iIi ~h~r~,

lEl wide:Hi]~ 'CiFCk'S I1F(1)O']lg :iJcllU~l'S of the ESJs~ 'fuis :iF!l,cid~[lt WilJij 'oo[d and recorded about T:h~ydi.n~,. 'rum,€: brilliant but. :impatiem:~ and se\fe:rcl~' COFFeciI:. ju:riS[ '~h~~llo~aJili Wnf) .h:"jf)j been -(u,l:;;;ted f!rom o'li..oe by a Jocal ~'!Iew,nQ[ but then :~es:~,!,')'~"\etl '00 }[; by d1ie ih'ig'bes(, anIDOWlity of dte' e~p:lre,

.,

xxxn

"rhelil the imperial C([IUFit, in 'I ;.iiJbriz restored Efiilydarwi as Q'aw alQ~dal 00: Shl~~azi. lin ,about tlBil~ 'Year 6901]' ~:H 1 j] S the. judicial situa~ tien as 'it had, been under Mm e,t.ui~e;r J .• ;ul1'em]it'abJy began to repeat ,lltSelf. A~ijJredly th~." '~~ne, T a,brlz 'AllO'Uki ha~~ been fu]Jy in10nned of the ha_rdm,p flO\[ the people :HLl1d Jeaders or Fars '~hl'O'ugh fndJlLtdng' 'the S!e1.l\eri,ty~ of t.his chief jlJJS'ijjc"e. :I~;~,~~s bnu~[I£f: of :rtr:tind was not qU'i;-S!tiri."inf':d~ but ~hf1 :rendl2rin.~ of his judgm,ent~ had !raJl&J roo, oo,:re~y', and n;~"ulSt hls j~.dic:ia] career in Sb]OC'aJz ~'S b"ro1UgJ,n 00 a ]i~iI] s~'(),P' if] 68], / ] 2.B2:Ji Q'.D:llly six :mouthSl a[!llet his ,['eimI!lta;@('::ment.

An.d. again .Ihlydar..\;], left the f:airn.iliaJif ,city and tra,V>i;,]~d '['he: miles, 11lm1i t!l] the c~p4ta1J~ I'oori:'~ an arren~ where he said be WM determined '~ ~elirl his ~~me :pta(efu'~y m ,M0eU,{ lhfifig~, n[iJgim'L'5; medi'Hdiun~ tre;ach;ng and 'writing. This trirnJ' in 681)' :12,82' !L'[l~U7.k~ Eaydla,m's per;m~ne;n'l :mQV~ W T~.b:riiz"! 1, Arid ~itbO'ljJft fjlCJlasy~, in Shlraz the youth .. fluJ I ak11x aJ-,DJIt'D bm;l(i! ~~a[-ShLh~a2i·~ was :[ei~Jt3tdied as chief JI.!IJ~sllic.e,~ and fr.,C)FJi!L then h:IStO:r.y records 'itlu1.t he, held urn£e flfi[ '~eDty-fiV\e ye;a'l'S.

The wil:tole di~(~~Jj'agi:ng ~Jf.cOr~!!5&iO:r!a1 ~~p~ri,en(e' 'iltl &hi:ra:~ '\~'OuWl lu~vt, '~tl pilaJc:e dUlrir,g' dle reign '0'$ 'me son of H'u]~~ :rnl1~h~il Ab~,~ cllul'ing the 'Y'e.8J!f:S 15!33~6BO/l:265-12ft2 .. And ~;[ U1L'G' rime of Baydru,M~s final trip to. 1II'ahriz~ the: new l~khlUi, Ahmad T,aJtl!lda.[["~, would have jusr be.gl!J.lo hl~ re~gn~ the ,da:~~ of which, ~'(>~ 600l=ij31]. 2'8,2·~4" L~Lij,

:Fn h~~ ~-Az.har lJ'[!Jl~r'.$I~l d~E$ rl!~~JtioQl1~.J alal :aJ,~D~n "Abd ;ail,~R~himan

j~ V.atnli :~ lN~FOTl"1' ij]BO/'12EU ,i:!I!'l the ~3ru:e r.i:lifooJ8Jt~ firor liia}d~'iIiIii,"!i' :rei"L'OJ'atiicn, ~) '~il';' jnldp;hif,i [,~~ cit.; :~_ 265,;, ~_ :rl]_

.1'" 'Thit; ,cl3!~' of GEt 1/l:~~2~ ,~ 'p~n '00 'tne 'r:aIDNj."iWm. ~cl:l r1!ported by JaltIl~ :!I,-Din ~Abd] ru-RslliJ.man [€i~" ci~,. 'pp. 14~;-":~S] ~ ~rn:il ~r "'M .tiili-Q~[an .!D~~ L'Qp. dt •• Pl' 5:'3'. ~~01)!.!: '~J

J. ~n ~ [~,~, ,cJiL" [p, ~6;j" ,tMtfe 7]] uses ~TIe ~r,; ~J@tja~ b~~ ~~~ it ,ooJy to :~~yd.sr/t~'I~, ~e'ttm.t@~~~f!nt in t5~Oi ~ 2iil_

j~ A, ,,'Ji!fti'A ,&:a SirJ.!"i$ I.I~ Illy Jere l. ,khi:llr'c!I,ch, Seil.rttiI!::'~ lilrn,v, >lJfl"'Vi!l.lihrln~m fu&::;~ :~'OO$. !P- ,4 L

,16 There ~:i, ,3, t;!IDry t]ilillA: un I:"ent:lru.tl,~ 1"a!bri.z_~ !Ba~'i&ti hnd! Wll.il~l!t rut :;'!l suit :sb.~Ji~:l!.lh~ tJm~' ,MuhiMil1llJ1l2J.cl LIliI,-Kntil.ma~. l;:;pe~f~~ ~ iI.mCerll:.:tlI!L] 1";::0;]' ~~:dtj-JMd.jj] wl~~ '~¥~ a i[ioJI.:'EUrlatlJ't ®[ :[]~Jj1 I\JUWMl Tak.rlJdM., He is :L'e]}!Drt\l!rl! 10 lil1i.¥e :rus~ clu::' sh~ykb to mte-rt~ ~:or ~I1li'ii iJl iDe~lll].e~a]1fIig d~~e~ eID,eIXl:r'~ :irI11e~miCi11 in re~~~l;~g lirirl1il1 ~\et .~~Jn 00' (i]jIf: t'li1i!ef jlU¥~'~P Il)( 8Mraz_ Dn t1~ 1Wi:'a~~ ,~f tl1e ~h:3.y±rn/s, re~~iufi;d3',V n~ght 'fi;lminig' '~qth du; rHk~?l1Il ;;~ ~q~ .'Ic'il~~ [.'d:±!.~cl ~!l1i. :i'I;I~~ ~, m:al1:'Il£!:' 3E to ~how the ~N!~t1i'~~S 'fO!~!iia~l;H~~~ :Ln '~l~~ing ~,lJ. lM!'l ~u~t f:~r h~gh ,offfi_IJ;:tl!!_ 'Th!l!! :sh~, tGiI~, the DIdiaJ1!, tbat tibe 'man 1~~lpiljJjJtOO Ell, m~J:] ~e the ii~~ o:f 8. _ c,ar.pe~: fmM otIi!' ~r ill~' 'iii !II arters !D1l WI!:I!1, IJ :~'l:ir~n[~fnJ .. ~ Hi M ~ S,:; &~e wiJltiitoo ,'~~ 11~ jiJ.~OOE.p

" ~"" ~~ -', :. "~ TI . ]ill,l.r " ,;" ". ··'i. -v--I~ --II~.-ii a it!...- ". ~" ". ·nd Co • r i1I.l''I}'

'ovel:" lE':rljj: 'pr'O\i1lIn~~. ,I,e Ud.mlil. :iilII.ID~LII~t~. o\g_ ceo _)j) u,ue ,il"eq:~~tJ' ~"_ ~ _e. _u:

states that none of the '\l~~:~e[;s \wJ:nD me:rilita{i,lo,ed l~aydawi~'s lum :~~d reported any i]ue1k:ctwd Olf pl]jldi~hing activity [rom hjs, Shi:ra~ ·~~I.'U ether than the flj;ct ~at be had se:rved as !lIbe chief judge there, and tiUl'1t i~ WIlS ouj),'i/' aFtte:r m8 Firnal mov~ to Ta!briz iliafi he carne '!!;or have

?-'

a ~~:putadon u ,ai. w.rite~\ ~1 T'hlg: o'bs~l''1;ratwl~ bears \\\re:D_g]~:t ill 'O!!J(' our~ine ~f Eay,cbtwr~, l'tfe"

B0.~da,~ri is most famous -fIJIL his {)f)r[ilme!J1t~ry OJl. the Q~.e~~1j. ArJtoJar (Jl·'Z~i ,[tIa~hf,a]' a~:- Ttlwil. It ~, ,:3: 'E11nJ}'ro~ghgofung .r,~ ,m Z~ma'kh~ shari's commentary, (ll-,Ka.m$i1/ ~R J/arpli't{ al- Ta~t7:.!,i~ d,oiil,c in order 00 replace that ;~,uth.Q~.s Mu;;;~~z~Hte :hlre:rpre-~atiQ;M a:nd, til) pW(JVlld£' a more 'Ilcv,l(tely' 1j;L~~fu1 OllhD~lo~ !C~)JMIHnetlta:fy t,v.ili~h :[lmler ~[lnotgidoo'$L &.yda:~i fjlodic~;~:~oo it to IDJ!khan A(g)iuf) whose reign '~!M 683-'901 12B4--9 l, ]1:00 bably C"JOlliJpJeti!t1!g it drurin,g f:liLlM, '[leign. Suith a :ref~ftifice: 'Wo~k 'W()fi._~ld 'have ~j'\~end,Q[:lS ";l~llue to' tile DtJh@![I in gwenu1ng and. undlei::S'l:aild~ng a, populace V!.1[]lJ !iIJ, itnaj(llri.ty 'ar Ivhj~OOs, ['!l WO"u1Jd prom, ,vide 'O:P:PQrtuuiti.cs :00'1" ~:ts tl'lliI.thor '~U give PJ.iv~'!!:e ]t:i:SQ\u~ to mersbers of 1lhe court ~s 'WIe'U as ,iect.'L.u:€S, :fut the ge:l!ie[~ pubil.ilt. It lY,~:S the tb1il!lndl~:~o:n of his s~h{i!lar.ly 1!E'~p1J]llI:lljjfin aF.ld so w01JL~d have been the

,,", :;p:}f. ' .. 1l. f" - h~. It ~,1!..'i· I .. · W.:.'~th,·. 'ut : ~ .~ ,-~ Ii" 1J..1. '.-. . . 'k,. . ; ~lY' ~~, I: , ••

, .... e __ ~,!l.JOO,1!!; _O'Jr _~~$ ... ea,Q]i!J[ng-. LOt: an)" {l10ft)"!J, ne ~ __ eepnng l; .. iW}

~'£) his c~c:et. ~fi 'I,~bri'l; g.Dt tt[U~tc~aty"

[Ot~lt:r cr!ll'[St~:Il.ding wor.ks of BI~yda~ri,~ in addirion to i~e Aimrv,(U' ,ai~ l~i\1~i~, i~bud.e ,MiMtg' ,al-W~.JUl iM: ~b ~1~U:rul: and a ()Onifrn@ll!~ary w'

U\f:I, ~"~'i;h ~,!. '~lii'JI.Jl" ~:~r~.(q ~r. -:,~.{11. 1 .. , - ,il;' 11i;~,q~' -J-.i!!:o"",:-tf....;.;'" [?:f1 =: .11 A,i!:.,rt~'=""'f

eEl;'"" Wl~- ... '"~ .,;Jil!-llU! ili!.~ V\l1l'~ ,(U'J. m, ~~Uffl Jl .iI:.."lh!'~V!:<@ {f ~:.~: ',r J!tJl'~B~'I'!.

al;" ~V~t] ~ both the: p'KCll:dilig' tides DC:l.llg' otiL IiI~ooc l~.~;'~ then Mifl!(J/~ t"d~A~wt1h'~ as: '\~'!lU as the eompendium f;HM'~ tt,81m[t3J,tM t~) IEngiJish,~ TawlJ:t1;~' ~l-£·hr~r :ti\1i~ Ma/t.a~r- a~-A~,)lf, beth me pFe!lJeding hcir~' 01], ls]~mk $ch~~tic mJeQ]ogy~ and ",~am (J,l- T ~~ ,O\n ~r.:~d hi~ry. ~a

'~:Q ,~~, liin~ ord!1~" ";\.!ilwitl lhe sh~ykh 'tepottoo tTh ml1l,ydlawi just wh~.t 9i]; hail! tdL~ the :nkniln~ Ba,ytla~ ''w,~ ~o'I_k..m iilb1lck, and ~oe::t'M to ,liWlve bOL;" 't1"iUl¥ tiih~ ~aiiro :an Qbjcctlw {iO:IJJ1P~a'il~il~kiart of his r®:;,j ooo~h~hli,e~ ~IJ 'O(i{l;11.iuULii!ig to a..:wl~" :Lbx th~ i[J'Bl!::!l::_ Hor. d~J;l1, '!w¥iiru:lr.'!w :~Js, 2IP~~i::aI> 8["jd 'li1i!mmod 'M;:ll; dtl:: :ih::\ikih in orm[ '~:®

km:r~ tbi!i 'WaV of nny.:;liwism. "

'Hl~ SmJryi lS ,r<!Bto:t..rJi '~¥.itib: ~Ill~ht ¥an~liim~ un both t~le ~s~rnthotll$ from .L11-~t' Ul1(hve~ity~ and is i!if~.'t'lli'ill'~-ed iii) the k;jV)-t~~ &-}~ by Muh~ilm!t.lil:!!iJ B~qil' 8] .. Kbr¥an!'i:~ri [jl'~U ]-(t\J'J. hut. h ]~, :ffiAt~d i~m afr:i~ '~h@Q!!.j' ~r ~hfi; ,early dati~ otIf n.a.)N:I~!#;l."'~ dL~am. [!J~5/] ZiB6 .. Jaila!I ,od-,[)'iDi ~:AliDd! a!I-R2Ihml:liJ!i, [Cl,p_ d[" p., i:El~ d!tC::i '111:,-= iitJ.6f1IAi0~ En ~h;:: Jr;tM!if af;'.:.(!t:.!f.!m ~~f' KilUh Cd;.::'fuI~ t= H~.MI, KhidfillbJI ~nd Kh"'.crln~n·5 ,~~~, ,~~JY.Ul.iNf& Il!l1i ~lliI~' .:::!ffultt d~i:lll '&ycli:ll~i wrt:!!ll:' ~i1~~ arm~]J,tn!La'D)' On !l.h.e· QiJlr"iiJl(l[ , ... v.ll~Je '"~ :it1.~: ...mtllil, SliI.=tryk:h ~i~Kl1i:i1~~~~.

1 r J~.D_.,~ ai·,l.)UIiI! "AhOl, :Dl~L.FL"1ht'mjjXD~~ iCIp. dA,., PF" 15,:il\-'~ 50S.

Ul JafiDf::S, R~bruu~ ai:'l!icle ""'lli~!f:l,~,Y~21iWi.~ <'Ab:jj ~l~ ~JJ~ ·Um~F', ~Ll ETiJ"!Ii-:2, v, t,

In. ;~~ti,OlJ1L, h~ WMite' a llumbeF 'o:f 'OOI[ii'ffleDtaries '011 'the works. O'f ,mher ''iNrit:em in g;r~nma:r,~ J(l!glC~ and dllt~l{)g,..

lHoth. Jalcd al-Bin 'i;Albd ai.-,Raill:ilman and ~Mi al.~Q.3:rah :Daghi mention the names .q.,~' pupih, 'wil,o, sltl!ldied wid: ... Ra:yd1\~l. (,Abd alLRa.l);m_~l, names h~{o,= IS! Fa'kfu: am..'Din :rJJl.-d"allba'rfjw [= :aJ,..IChabJ;i~.r 'iSanij [664- 1'461 ] ~·Hi5-6-l3f:·5-6J j. a'f;1d Zayn ~l~Dm aJ~Haball:j I = aJ-Hanalri]~, W~lO 'was laser the reacher of ~Adljjd ,~I.,."D..n .81'~.~Ij~~ f:arIJJ0i13 Fo:r 'ms ,autho:r~iLip' of 111-:Ml1J/JfIfjiffi "11m t1l~K(lJiIm. Q;8J!l:1.i:h :Dagbi li~t~ tnOOE t:lii.ro'

. -I ,...,' ,' .:i:.. ," , _i},,~, '[.I-~ -" ,~i p' ~ 'iIf'1,.-, , .. j'!II; ,j1'" '1!I'i:." n"L t;:'.>II'!i! J' ~ 'il!.iI1 ~~

.~ us ,,,., ' 'li)'U!L'I1:irg~ namei n ,i'iLa,ffii:1l. ,2I1I.-lliI',11I!l i:llI,~,i!w.ar,a~u t,W'" ..... ":~oJil !I. ,':;'·'I'V'~iv.] ~

:ulid (.AaJdj a'~",R;a'hman lOll Allll1l1:i,d ~'I~I$'tm.kallA]~, 'father ~,dl reacher of

'iJi o1j"~'~1 _ , li "1..= '~')I;, 1l,...l1 ' B 'D ~'I-' -, '" ~'B I~"IT!' h .' i!"h -,.:1.\. ' f' "'"1..... - ,'_ ---

~'!f~mtYiC~ iliau ..r.t1<J'lll ,[b"'~ lul:tUl. ~ .. ,_'~a n'J1J1:!l '~_ e ,aUUlOI' 0 '!.clill.e eem-

'm~tary nil ~aym'!.J!i.~.:~;f:; Z'a~ool2:~ ,a/:-A:nu;'.lili!" that is trJliorlarled :helle oogdhe,r, '\ ... ~;ili [,~ ~il,l!bJect ~e~, Qatt"ih D~gld ]1'len·~ol~ that doubrless there were IThCU'e:2il

n $bolJNJd be '~u\!ted t'h~~ if t~e' early n~~e' [1. eo ~ 6~'5/1286] f~:r

PH, ;~o'lo~',' ~ ~j';, ,11""" f·:I., ,...'11....." 'IJ'~ ~~. -, ·iFI ..... '-'i· ... ,...~ ',c;,- 'r? ~,~ hl'~' F''t _,1 ~" t" 'T ,'~"", .v"::r U.mm,,... u ..... au.ll ;)JJLv.l]!lI, 1Ut: !I:"'!..'~hA.oU.1 "",[I!IJL 1l.II. S illLl!J..il:!lI. ~.JI.Lp ,'i..!' alU'l'JZ

,ih.(J!ll.lki be ~t iE~:tt 6el! l2~'2, then the sp'aJC'e of fQ1l,l:r, y~~ alkV!.'!JabJe 'W'O'o!d seem 'to rende :It r[,ui~i~e~' 'that he oo\Uld 1]3v-e p~l))dluoed so lfl:!JlltlL'y- boek ,t1iles," 0'[ earned (be :seJ]ula;r]y' r1..1:Jt~t~iliO'm that h,t:; :h~d~ 0.[" given ,~u1.OC]ll~~re time fOT t(lac.'hir.~ of aclw.l'IJJced. students, And there :is a.nO'~heil fiiliCOO~~ beari:ng mil, the PficSSilge eftime llfl 'mhris $Cho]a:r'~,s :~i£e 'i~'1I, ~rabriz:t 'fJl~:m~[Y'" the faet that the normal duratleu oil the eeurse

,i"i.,i.'" st.r",~V 'ff.'i" es ~ ..... ,4' iJ..,.~~ rl"bll~'If!j:ll.. m~'V wilt 1J.. '~~ir "",~~.'''''1'0'1;r.. ~~ '0'\0:0",1;:\0<'01"-;.""'..:11

v,~ s; !>Y!I]" It ...... \!; ,,,,, Il.l!. ,",.!l 1!;1!J!0l0 ~:'" 1l!lJt' IJt:j ~~ ~'n,.. __ ,~)~.Ill ~g_ "' .... i ~L~~.:r {,]"" 1,"""=~~'iJ'.!I.!I .. _4.J,

:kiL ye&JjH" ra~et' tha:n. ill 'quarters', 'semesters', '!ll'r' tno:r~!t~s.

A,_ 'U d"" r l)".. Jln ,~, ..lI _ .. ~ • "II:': ,',

1'1.n lI[iIJ, 'I.Ca'ltuJI,n O. D\i!liyrnl(""""l," ~ gra'GI!liHiI '[mproVeJ[lent m :umi.UDe l!:ii

~~ffin by th,e d~.8cOVIl::iFY ,o:f' ~. series of leliTters, w,riueill. by d1:e ''!.~~ilZ.]I~ under G]]_;a;z~n K!h;;;Jju snd ]J~ja.ym K~ I[relgn.'i:!;~g ~::e~ec:tively.~ 6:9·J- 70~112~5- J ~,04 and. 1'03'-1] 6/1304- ] 3] 6] ~ ]1~tITte:~ ~ 'the l1Jistolrtl.a]1

'n .~h·'..!1 ~ H'fi"ilr" ' '1If'_'I..,," ii.... t 'il_,", ,i!t ._":. 'CiIi, 11" "L" " .':Ik, '[~'!.I-" ' ~

.~a! . .i ,LiI,)J~ ~1,..Il-1L!I~1l ,!J:..i;:Ill)~!iJI;, ,Q .Il:~LS :SQ~:l:;. ~luII ,f,"UI::, Wul!) W,ai$ '~~:I,e ,~!IJ1:,d~U]S

~ve<t"n<J.f' in .B-agitmcl" These leuers are be[ievecl to have been, wri't~ ten abmlit 70Sl i '~OS Of' ptrh.ap:lo as 1:!11;h~' as 712/131 :2- i 3~, dill.:J![l]].~' or just after' Oft W;tU' between t'he' mJ;'kl:uu'Eid.s i8![1([ the :M::aJmll:.il,b :i]!L S~ycia. [Ii OJ.l!: of ,the r,ettcr,s, Rashid al-Din ~ves, a ~.i~'~ of cit~.z,c'm. honored :by a'e II!&:ha~t. W"j,iOIlg' whQID is, :m,e1i!:tioned .!Bayda~ as be~:f]:g dJe ~:i1!e ~~1QildrliJ ~lIe alone 111 the list. be]Dg so tUded] and as ha,'vtng :rocdvtd ,aillJ, inlrjeci~ ,giiJ~ tha~ ilMll!JJJed 2000 ,dirJan~ ,~ rsaJMe fU[":Il ~wJ

.iii.rilJ!'j "..i'.. '~m, 'L 1II1~' ~ ~o

U~;. [~L;;:I. r",[--';; ,00;~~,Q-~;;,

~i) if"fI, "',~, ~1F:, ;;:,~

v.p. ICI!t,~ pp, 'i..!~IX!~

a (T:tLi)'Uf'd. :Uld. $acic()e" 2B ]:'~ i~ PQ~'ible that Ba~aM. W3.;;";; not OFlJy .ho.n-· ored as. ~qarllP by n:adhion~ biL1It th~( he WM ~~O recognized by' dle' I1W~aJjf[~~ c.'OU:iilt, ~[I a :mf:W :[Q]~ of ~hief qadi of 'the Sh[(frite school of IslJali1.u~c ]iIlW. n

The ~r,~!iq(1Iill]l,ty of the. Iban empire ~\rars so ,!)Jn~y ,~[l. a ,r~lati'!Jf: sense, Gl1L~Zi~jJl Khan had become @ SUllil~OC:' Ml1~m M a formal step or itdlgious LOr..JJt~l. V,~riO'LlS W(n:1tiLS ~Il his admilililtniltio(jj, were begun, and the cmll~UUl,e[]Q!Il, of pub:lec bJ~.I.d.]o.gs :i~],~.iillsed. However, 'the hJ;cO:r.liC:hl~~ve' ~'r ,ag~nSlt the IV[a,rJjlk~l~~ and the 'thr\eat of ]:,[1,O:re WUF comi:ng from :SJ. thltajO{f ,divisjQ.~ of the ~'[ougo.]~ in the [li)]ridl ro:rced the Ilkhan '~D bla.i!Jd. ~,[Jl ]iL1S ,e:~~ite~ dere:r~5C$. }lt1JtbougllJ the IIk~hai[1 gave th~ S:h~,o!li~'f:; IT:l.'illiLoriry ad,V'.HlJt~r;~, ;8Jnd :[L1ial1;~y for th,e.Ur institntiiOJii:$ ZiJilliC] blJ.d~djllg :proJects (hey were :S<lil~ djs~li.stied ,\~th ~:ii:~S: :reH~ ~uu~ stance,

In aibO[JJt 705/1310.5 a ]~adli~lg' s.:h-i";Jtll· 8£hiiJ,bF l'i.f:iLO¥itd to "r~b:riz~ ll:a!:l'ifH:I.y ~ .J~n!Lal1, al-Din aJ.~Hasan. libn Yu:~~f Ibn al ... IVIu:tahfuar' ~~.~

H~l'i" I.~ ~~,t /!;. m 'I H~ '"]"[I':liJi [~iII 0\ i'i"1i'~1 ~ Q'" il1i l' '2'<11"'] I ~ IL

!lJ,d~ Il'iilMlOWn;as rwaHla l . ,'m . g i\i!"~t!i-,.::,'I;II iL 4;.,) v- !L oj.':;:;:) .• m tne ~[J.I[lI-,

lie d.i:s:CUS:Jc\DS and debates on matters ~f Islamic f~~d'IJ and] on the dJisP!lllO[;;' ibtn'i.''CeJfl Sh,itites and Sunni!t:t;s as to who ~huuld ha\re been the rightft.1l ~eade:r of Islam after.' the IJ,ffiplrj.'et MiLl.h.aulm~d~ 1b-.l11 illM'utabb~u" al-Hilli sooa became active as a Shi~ite~ 8';P~Jllan:!, '\cVhlle' ~:Abdanah ~d~,B~gytbf~. was an 01lu:st~r~dlir~;g OC:hO:~3;[ and speaker for the SUrIi]]!it:IE' :m~~![):rJjIy'~ .Doth w-ere hi.g1:UJy ]i.l~:enigent and. bolth keenly ~p[tiJ;'di;l:t€cl rhe~ loppor.nliniriE~ 'lor pre~f::n.tifng '~h~i]"' pog~:~i\fe re·;;HiOl'il.;S, a;nd m:~n:~_lal obje'Ct~ouSi and '~{,r COllSI!1J:luct]ng '~Tlfmeg]L;;; and Cflil!JJnter-~£lJiments (ha,~ could stand in the mhlidJ) of att~lruti1ve' bearers,

~'i\U~:l'~iL I-lim abridged. N~i.:r 31~:DiD Tusi's 'hatuIbook on :~lamic [\digiiO'U~ praetice, .A4'i~~~ (l/;-M~dfQfqjfol and o:ltganiz:erl ~.t into ten chaptars; Then he supp~:ied. his own. ()Jmpos~d[[n ~'!ihic~:l he ca[tfid~ al'-.l1ah (Jl~1:1'adi ~mrl.J.!"~ rTI~ ,ElfJf)!~~tJJ, Gl~J~,'!iJ; i[o:n~i[:ling (he 'tJeaih]ng ah!l)'IJJt' God ~nd His i\tt[;t)tl,1I.1ia\~, then P:[p~~hecy, d1t~ 'Chost.'"fi LelIide:u- r.Itn~m)

~I D 0 u .....,....... ' I' .. ' Ii <':111 -.-~ ~.JI 'I irI~ T It 'b'· [['L'~ '[ f!I fO ,~ . ..il 0']

;.' .. " .h ,iY"ln. lilli, ,:1lI5 ,1II!m'tL@J. .. E;;.~L:.l.rJitiJI 3i ,-UJ.iIJ, ., ;;:Il~n .• .al1I,I- ,-.~. '=/J',; 'tI<j .i?;, -f'T'"

~'UIl:S. tb~1!t (ibis. (iDl!LccmialllJ it)·[ l~'ui:r!'i is ;:';~u~.ernil.~)' [ltg.<Ji.Ii",tkd! a!i a :s.puriiou,.-;. (@ifnp:iilntLoo. ~h.x~s 00 illtc "IIJ':h'rllmm, period," J. ''j,\1)fl :w, Cl,p .. ciL; 'PF" ~o5-,2:6·7·'i mlf!n!!i!frtL@ IJlI;:: d(lub~g !i)f mh~:r :&ell!uti~n; M eo Aili!~' ~~jW[jW of Itr[~~ li:!~Iii®!t$.. lYl!I!t ;~'tCili:]\I~S a eeun'r,et'.llrgu:JiI~~f;j~ ~g~i!iU~ tH.e (l.~nhts o'Ifiil 'ig f~'!.?Ornbl¥ :iJldktl&] him-~f as ItO .Ul~ir hiMfi(l'.. leal vaillL!!e.

~ C'i' Ir.'" T ~ '~.....;;.ow .. I:;;' Po ., . .1 "J'.''1. (il'~ II.· '::i -oli .

. '~'- ~;.." "yan s :r1:lj\~!!!..I, ,!(;"'!Jl\'!J!' • ,I'.lI:1./" ~~ v" -cr. :P'P" .,H .... -.:;I'J"r", esp. ~l~ ::d '7 "

';!i!l "]ll"r2!l!Is'l~t~cl fMm ,mb:ic ~~cl iP"!J~li~oo by '\1V~m~~m M', :Mi[l.I!lT'j Lond(lo.TI: R(~:i1 .Al'ii::i~je E;odeql'j, I~~)c nistr.. ~ 9213 {L~IIii¢ 1'!}'5~"

.

:x.xx"V1.

'(If the patU~ll, and the H~['ea'~~1i'., lj,;,'Ii/ce ~!i,Qibi;;' that W~ ~Anan]a.h begitl~ 'by speaking abol]t I~he ,o-OJiga,tion. EW~li~,)] tb~t is divil.nely placed an believers ~n Idam to lk.n.ow attd. db~ God'J! the :N'e()e~-I;ja'[l' F..xisl,r,;;nt [w,aj ilb aI_'~ificlJ,~ :0111,4 other fiJilllll1dalJdQuruI, rei!!I.'(;h~:riJ;~S .of blam,.

'Gh8!~an K11all~~, ~,op~ '~b:r reo~aI1l1~tl.g' his empi:r..e~ ended \.fiihe:[IJ be died ~t' 'f'he ~g,e of 3] in 7o.3/130~. Hls hro~her [jla:yt~ succeeded

'L· • , .... " • 'I" b I",· ~ ~ H iL"--d 'I-,

[~[m~ 'l'lliL!l!t':Otlt!l.:ng ~fii 'COr.!ltl]l'ILlJe ms r.fiitlilet·'~ :pmii:l~. - e nae eecome ;~,

S[~1rtlni,tt: MJI]&lin'l aLoii'iJg ,'!.~th ,b~'S, brother and sQ.metinlB dh.lr.ing the :fUm yea~, of hJj~ ~'ei~ l!rLe had tigbi1:£!J].ed his ii,)(HJi.i.'~r(ll 'CJf the SunEte OQiro~~tiJ[Jj~I~ 'by OOnl!b:i~lling ~~, of dld~~ $d~oo~, Q,f Is'h;U':~li(: jaw it:U(!i ,o,ne for adB]\l,lf1iwdll~ puitpo~s.. H,m'i{a~~t~, in j i 011. s:~ 0 b~ W,13J5 won

~ " .

over. to the SJr:tiO::;tt ,~a1.!!s~'2'1j, w'h,en Ibn ~,-rublilahhar ~,-H'mB, issued a

f~t-wa '.ttl hri~ favll][' that ,~boi~s.hed. a ~]'ouble~~nTIe ,~i\'\o:rC'e;:2~

This 'm~jlo:r :sihift "n the ruler's :[cligiot.Us !oYfdty changed the baJr

f . 'I I'~ . 'd ooan~ S .

. I ~ _I, . I" . iiIJ'", ".. _I, 'jl- J ~ '~.'-~ ~~:, ""I' .,". ~,".~ ,JI'" ~".' .:.!"" I-'~"'- ':'J I ." "i _::'",

OO)[!E !lJi po.ve:[][I, t .Ie s ~m!IiC cmnmUlm,!!f~ an ':6F[&L . -- JiHut .1.iI.n11~.!t-e:il,

'DT~ the defen~'-fC',., F~D'r !tllruiE next s£.~r,a~ ytia"f8~ tensions increased 'wli(hiJf.L the ,Poi;~Ban populace and ~pedin.y between the t'!NQ Jarge :W's~~u:fj!k

"J,. "'. ';m. _:II "...l,~, 'I d-] iL.. - ,,:a~ ..J '~ • 11=

'll!I.'v'tilJ,'Ofliil. ,payu~,M \:~eft.y sense . t[~~ immew:~U!t ,~1i[.1{iL ui(!i~ ~ ~n~

. f iL..~:_ ~'L ',,",;Ii:- :h ,(;,,' iL. ., f 'II' a., •

~iliiJ1!Jj 0:: b~ rna~'. 'ir~:~,t' -' re~ere[lOe t'Ol tne Stj'clCt:S,$"J!Qn 0: J1!SmmlC

:Ie~.df.:r.ili:~p .r:.:lte,r thf' 'P,mpl'.tet ·h&uh~n.mad~ ];l~ wa.:"", {)[.ilniVilrIJlDed, that the Sru'~te [)o~iThio:i'"1 (imlLYavened the foct5 (!if h-" ~oo]y. ]]:m, b~£'i(, deli!,l'jaruCle in t]1;!t '~o.rJi(leptiQ:W, 'of hi~~orifCal .Il!ct he fdt W~~ also ,~, ~,emaJ of 'much 'D!f:nat Surmit.e l~brm st~, fill. VV:ith aIDiJ. oo)u~led ,~ndl cl1[[bu[~;:d sp~ut'1lil. .like Ibn ..d~,~-!lutt1hh •. ar ,~~.~Hilli~, he 'would. havc been 'P~c'a~ and stirn'kiIb.'~ed 'to co:n,t1[rlill~, dJi~c~]~iiD'n ~nrl cli:~te ow]" ~,~~e ~:n:;\'t~t"lr~" Ih.QJi 'fue pol~:~ool'reUgiolM~' a'~m,osJ']ibe~' WM ra lica]~y (:h~']115'"'t~1~ snd ,th~ r~~U1rt :llil:~mt:d, headed fot ~ll UJ~t~~tlka'blt: t~dy.

:Sbi~]tc citizens :~l~d been ~:nc[(;t}si[lg [IU :llJJumbcn :Un l:!'le~iaJl' and now' they were fa:ID_rOO IlJ'I,fe:r t'h~ SU!I1rl]tes, Ql'l ,~'very Q()cas:D!iJin; Ulj~ytu, was everl :per.slU~ded to emgr~¥e On 'his eoias :~~ Shi~tf' .s],vga:!i1,~ m:JUl is

,-'I!.., , , • ,-- --- r . 'f G' . '. ell ~~ m,-.- -\ 1[.':~ CI- ler -~,'II,,~ - ,c., If't'h - ~ 1- ",~ .0 -? -- -- f

t.ne VlCttO) ![J . -. >DU. mCUQJiIil, CliP'll er ,rClla,~:e'S. null, . .ex ~n '!l~, Sll.lin ey 0,,-

this, Ilrist:[!iry th~l'r rnj~~~;ytH pernU5Ctllt'U5d t:~,c S'ilii:nruteS '00' &t.ven:~y' dtat.

'.~, • , "'L i!< ....... ,. - 'I ----~ IlL, I JI t ... , '~'" I .~ k. . :" ~~~1

CI,'!;f;Ij srrue ,s,eC.J]],£O uOl.J![UJI. ILU urua., !!JUlI.!..

n(IJ!rI!I.'[g th]~ '~E'TIJ~E' p~ri,od, Uijayn.1 ,di,~d :~n '7 I 7/ 1317 ~ and: :h'i~ d~~tl'~k was ~:tulb1i,3:i!tecl til) poliooJiiJ~ng. S'hG1~dy ,~fie~,~d[ol. i[l f 18/1 3 ~ 8 under

."

,x:.'OI:."!l1 ~,

the '[!)ex:[~ IJJkJ~a'l'Il~ Ab~.!t Sa ~k] son ott" 'Ulja}"m~, ll1'le his[,ori~'[!J Rashid ,alDin Tabib, One of the t\v{) (lQ-w,Hzin;; of the empitrf' 1j.vhQ had been stifUlg;g.ling fo:r supremacy at the seceed echeloa ,of gO\~er,mnen4 \V,as ",',' - - '11 :L-.."" il..'k ,~ ~ -;'~ ~ ~ -- l'iI/,' ~ ,. - T,' ~ll_D~, ~ ("','Ii f ~ vi,-, , ~".]j;'ll!..11 ;;;l_.CcwH~u :uy 1m,!) o:ppoi!1,cn~~,." :r:l'loU" _ ,;:tJ 1!lIf ~iIl ,aJ_], o.~ _~a _ ~!tiI_g pc" 00 __ eo

nkh~Ul 'U~jayfru. A[!Ldl bt'ic~usit hD,S, {)D-'W,aZIT aeeuser Wa\$ tll!F[lprYfarily too stroillg'~ no adequate dP.;~~e ,(xH!illd "be made SD Rashid ~l~[)iJ1J. and h.l~ oon Ihr-a'Mm were executed and t:hP.~~? ~anTIly pH~'peiF1,y scllired by [.he governmeut .. B,ut history records a SQrt of vi~'i!d~c~tiorll some years EtM:tT Wbth Ob[y.~~th @J[-,Dm,~ anrOlliht."r 00;:[[ or It~sldcl: al-Tln T;;:JJbib, was made wazir, rh["; ,t':'mrpin.:: OCi![~g :s,till under :~,M!dlan AblN! S~ .. tid. 2~

In. clle ~a'~, ,af~~7:r ]"~ Ol] 31 a. wl!t~iJ] Shi ~i~nl .had 'b~lu;n to modify the internal setions and a~dllilld.es om tkie go'lj!erfJi~n~~t 't.oward its: nonShi~i:IDt d:bze[if3~ £:0,[ Rayda\li,<-] then: ¥.-"as, 1'1.0, JOiL'igC[" ,alllY' sat]sfac~O'n in lllfl .. d.)~i~ a'clivity • .As a Su[m~:!i:e s'pe~r :Slibtempdng; to address a c~;allgOO and 'p~:ed,Oi:J:J~~n~y hO$a~Le ,[?,lJJ!hlk ~ttno$phere~, do~bdfS-8 he ''!N('J:uJld no J~~~ hsve recelrved ehe etiJs~)l)ttia_f"y courteous and fair' :~earhlg by the' crowd of list'cn.t':FS in dl~ m~gi{)i!l1rs debates, and dj~cus:Slio:n$. H'is .fo:r,m.,er:~~l attentive sturne~1:LS: {m::c~.t;;ed. tH1.e'l'iJ!ig~~,'!J\i;:tS and dli$ail?'pear~d, f[\o:m. h~$ 'CQ~lI[)~[~,y" Calmll[)]¥ h1 private gi)S~j_[) 'easily' ({fl~ljk~ ha'v'e been $p'btshed O'V'e~' lJl~ te'piY~ati(ji!].

111 1! • d,ell ,. ~. '01 ]OC' f d' •

~U~]~ eanv u.etel",iiiJ';J;i]n:Ld,lllJIil to uve an aseeue ue [OJ' nleuH~tiLOf~,

, "

a.ru;;~ study '!WI(n~ld have prevailed in. hl~ daily plans, It was ,d.ea'r:~' bet-

ter fOi" lri'lm, to keep "a 1([W proJlle'-' aad ~,V(I-h:1 rtrou Me as much as :p@~rtle. This pFfuncip1\e he observed ~",dl UJiL'til he lv~~ overtasen by dt:aib in 716l1~ [6~, the da;!te gj:.;,reu h~f Hamd ATh~h M'Lllit:a'~fi :3IJ~ Qazv:iitIl.l! [d~ ;after li:O! 1,139-4tll" as '["6C;t)Td~ 'ill his TatriJih.-:i G~a. ~~

At) &¥dawij,~'$ :r;i}~~ne' -[-or lO:r!l_g bad aot been ]'Jeard eithee ,i~, g;osmp 0[" in nes ..... s rep(i(ir~~, ~t ha~ seemed eo h~!)ID".tt~rul ever since t@;tJlt (true~ha;tt his 1~3t d:a:~s are :&d.ed in '~hc distanee, This is a lapse of hist'QdQGrapl'ily~ ~~, ~ID' CQr.i~id'i;~~iol,[ has: be~1Jl give~l by ~1i.y hio~:mp,hi.~r. nor has specnlarion been made Rg~JrruLlg the relevant general facJt of an :r.I(~d ~:tud di,~I1.iO'u[.~ed PC[.W:El~~' dt:ttT];o:r~mg 'ph,~, a:md men~8il 'pO\W(i]'S arid haw ihi~g Kae~: '\,-VDuid bear U,P!Dl'lI. th~' iOO'.D!Ltinu~fic:e of :r(":gu,]~H- daily iGtlimmurn:Uca:fuloJl hetween the o1.u:8idle wor.ld :fOld ~ud~1 an

i!"1 1f"i, 0' M . . . iL" , ," II "Il',_ h .. ..iI _I DO> .~' 'L"iLI' [''_'', 1j r; .i:i A A a:fl

cilj, .', , citilill; in ~d!i -I:IIlf;:!IcLCI' ,r.\.:di,S, d~, M1~ EUIi ,~, iliu.ilu , ..... '~.Il-,.i'; v, uj pc TTJJ"

:iii 'Q}ro~ing' :~.eJtl.clrl Spirle:r ~;4irJhi.lg tbi:1 hidurl; "'[[t~ (a~mr.p!~, 'J'30/I3..~O) , , , ,0011'" [~~fIS a t~U\&fat~ry ;Dr 11'9::.'4itJl 'uifui)imtLa!JiM, aJhom, ~~~il." auth.tit".s tLtlt~ w,hidb ~s. lroi[ to [be fu~~id i2b:."wh'l".rt"--; ~J t.R'i:llt it ia ]1!Id.isp~~~sa;~~ ;;~ a OOUl'DL" far th~ ~h::i'" :iJiklui1llll ~~d • , ,,'" .8, Spukir, ol'rtiicl..e "H~,ln~ ,AI!1;:th •• , <w,~MIllIBi.CII'!Iil·fi 'i:IIl~':E>~z .... rjI.li" in 'IB~1"1~'~'~ v, g~ p, ~ 22.

il1dNvid!J1l!iJi. & to Biiyd~\'wi ~ ~l~l [0, (',,\f[ef);;Q:[lle~ grddiJJa~y merit did ,aun:te the time ofa parti~~' a](lillig the uaseen ,a!bsdssi-LJJJl line' between b;Qdy and :int~i.~[lj!i: mul :~n IDJ~]S Ca~fj of Qadi (;\bd ,M~r&!l B.a)'rliaM,~ a~ i:R1L

h " f 'IL." ~~~ d ., f t. ~

many 81, nO'~ew'O[t. y ease, NU~]111if¥.n}~, ij]' ms '!i¥Ci'lm an {~Oplies: 0': ,ulS

writinJ,gs continue to n.:iwaird, fi:~lld.y and ltD srtin'llJ1~ait£l' (jjJm~JiF.e.hen~on.,; Mth. :i!tii. ~c~:u]ll~:r.~'; ,ue]ls mJlo in, i1i:~,gh otfl(le~ of ,goo\'\fTJlJmenit"

A. Ih09lRAPHl[CAL NOTE, ON 1\.-f.A'I'il~flr<l) {[i;!N' !ii,AIm ALnR~N ALnISIFA1iA.ru

S:hal1fl:'lljj, aj,~,D,im, 1\fubWiLU1 :ubn "Abd, ,al~R~luilal], ,SIJI,~:m:sfl!!j~]R,[I~" .:tI:uWO[' of 1thi$ translated '!.Xul]'l1lJ."'n,ent~n"Y en Bayda:wi"s 1GllJ(1ii~' al-A~wm~, w~ 'born l[IJ 6741l2i'6 ~H Is~han. 29) 'J.~]'is ~mm{; w.a~ one where ~{;'hol~h~ Ln geu~l~ail. rel~,ga.(i!u$ g~~c~i~~ 'was hanored and. plilmu,ed by lds r~therj ~Abd al-Rahman ibm J.\Jl!m~rl aI,~m£f.mi' :~lahmil.~.d aptly and heartily fol]O''ilvt:.d thi.s example of metivation, A brief !I](!J1t1]D~ of tl1e l'i£-e' of I~~h~]]]} '~~awl"8 (;omm~nta:tor~, :is 8lUpp:li~d, by Ibn Haj~r. al- ~,Asq~~.!I1i L713,-{352/137'2~14\~'9J ~ WJ1(~' in h~ l»~gra;phOC3J dk'ti~llary (If nata, .. bles wliLQ died ]n the ;S~'h/!, 4th CemlJhH)"~, 6tl·D'JiJ:t[f,t ~l·,K(t~nitt-a/~ J. A)~,i'i1, _1 :Iii:r:;~,,~ ~ ~ • Lit ,;\.1'4- 'T",,~, ''liJiLr 'h "] if' 'III ",1' • -'I" d iI';!:;!;-!"'':[~- (lit?' ,!1~- ,I: ,flQJmJJi1'~~ en~,ry' ...,., ,~.J!,;;;;" ~r,-'e S, '::1.1 ~,OJ!. ow tms U!illli. inc :flLiL

$l],gg:eS1i: a paIltiiilliy 'fiilled in .P~c~:u~,',e .of his Hfe ~nd, contrill:n .. niQifl) where PD5iY:lible' o)fJJ:-eia'timg ~;bi~ with tbe 'time,;.fr,:iJ!me of .llayda\ci:t~~, career.

]vE~!rr[f:r~(r$ f~tcher ~ "Abd (aJ-:Rahm'~~t1I, ilbn Ahm~ llsf~h,f.ilI!li~ W!i:IlS one of :~Jfu.,t foul" ~,tiJjdlt:D'llts IOf B~,yda,wi Wllu\Sc names OO\~ been gathtted fl'!lJ1]1 'Vadgl]~ $!l)'U[\oes,.~J : ,:~,fj dlat~ tar :h:~~ course of study with BlR~{&.'wi has: been EOQu,~ but 'i,-\i'e; sbalt take h rto, :ha"ile been SOjnetime dJUrjug

'... ],~ 'L:-.. l.V ~1· - "T' 11-.'

WJ]a:~ we assume \'I!.1'(l'llU;it !IlC ,~;uB£ most pt'Ollli!Je'ttI,'!;;!\e }"ea.rs at . aenz,

~l:'!iN\e!tn ,rfiEU.I l:~U~m' ~~Jid On up to 1,1 0/13,] O~, '!IlIih~[Ij, the' :IJLcln~lII, P,\trsilan elup4re olfrciaUy became ~ Shi"'i're; 5 t:;IJJ1::t", Let us add 1:0 01;rr assumptlons (he fact tfuat "'Abd ~-R~m~rmfl 'iN(lclJikJ have moved h~iS' :[~ruj.y to "f.~aMrz; ''!ivlJile' he :sttlldiLed there, l'~:ila~ ]~oW€' 'Cli$hU'U ~~jpt1t~ dtty ~ p]ns

D!;;'i'\i....lI ~,~,.!'i,~.;o; '~l~i ii"ilg.' ,r,:g,_~ 02<0"11_":', ""!"'''lo,~, I;:;I.'~\O:,,;;O "'lia ~ifl'"i ~Ci, '~.) 1 ?:iJt,.rii ~""MVd;1 IJ "','liM>;

u.....,,~ ~ "',,11: i!! ~;ra-J. •. JI ![~11,1!! ... , oJoV'JiU, ..... Ij;, iJ:0'!O ""OW; [L_""'!!c~ !lJIO ~ I ~Q~~ ~'''vIiLu: _~,;;Ii _rv

had more aJt;trnotllo:n as a, sttl.:udy center than, Shlr"'.lZ \VOu]d have had ea:dier dlan 68,1! 1282~ even, thil)U~1i the ~~tte:r W,t3jS ,dQS<e1' roo tll!l;ir

~ Ill! .A~,~bk ~jlfo:: ,dt}'ji~ name H!i2i~, ~111 t~.h.iO:[la;l!I.y l'ipli~c;:o:d! '!';j,~lh c9, "b" ~n~~~ad ,of arI], ('f~] ib.1)!t ;1Ii :f'~n:ial1! it ~!'l ~~r'I'" 1I!~i$ ,c8'rr~~ m,l(!1l' lnto the U!:iaga: ''i.-Yit~ iP!P.I1'lOllhail 1!I.8.!i1Iiiff,:!'l ..

~~I Q,tIi.mh DilIJ'Jl~, '~.Ali .M:U~i.yi ,aJ)·nili'l!~ op, d~ .. ; pal" 6.'ii-68i" SC;:t: i!lJ::;o the Ii~t in itlre lJifi$Ii,~,plliroilJl iO(fI.,~' ~ Th1yd~!wi~ '~. ~' :jJi1~,'t:"

·

XXXIX,

:hcn:ne i~'[); &tl'hi;1ll!.'i,i,~ gl~' ,!!hl~~dawi eadif'~ ,,*,,~Q'~1I.1ld h.alve b~en less know.1!!: :ai.$ a scl~oJ~,.

Mah.iIDud. W'al~ld, have been 7 YCMs, of ag~ in 68 :11] '2n2,~ and 36 y-ears of ;ag~' ~,~]] 'JIO/IJ,Hl. l!btn H~j;~ ,~~S @nilly t'hi1llJt: he 'E~-ro~hd.~~ In bis, home [,(i!~n [l.e., 'e:idler as a,pp~emire in a ~!Idlkd 't_r,~e~1 QJ: M a 'pre-prolesslonal' $tucl,e[l,tt]~, be~~mi~ swnt':~ ~md ;jlIc_~ .... (trJjcing ][1 the

.. ! .~, - .'. . d .. . . "'. . ...:" ... a.. " L, . - .JI=d "J'" h·' ,l':- . L..,~ , ,. .;)1

v~nr)lrn arts .:IIJ] ;~CJeJ1Cleg , ~:]1I!.J1 !.LIIllSlt ,I,if':' sttn.i.U~:' iLiI.nC er ,'IS ramer ~IDiLJ!

:tUliOtlm.er shay\k.J]~ O~le J~:m,al al,·'Drh~ ibn .Aibi al .. ,Raja?

lrVlhieJ] "Abd al-Rahruan moved his r.~jJy to- ~J.",a!hr~ ,alncl began luili 'C01lJ!niJe' of ~t urliy '!l]odt.,"(i" B~,y(l:i!J~~ it rna'f' be th~.d ~{abmud wfilS sU.lill ]iv]og with his ,p~me[]its w,hiJJ~ bri'll,~~n,g in '~res [[;em 1!lltS ''I,i'{(.1(]l'lL To ~pecil,dr.li4,e~, ir 1\'l'a'b~nud accempanied his parents, he :m,iglu;~ ~e~an~bl'y' hsve 1)~n near' the age .of twenty ~ l",ea£lhl.l.1g this, age in 694/1294-,5, :By thlu ttime Batydawi\;; career at Tahriz ,o01dd have. Feach.edllt~ higb.est ~)r:Jj,~~ l'ij]s fa.r.ne ;~tu"ac~[]g Situcl-e.ll[·~, frlt):m (:]~ .in rnJ~~ di[\~[;bon.,

The ~tli1aclfjn the:~ "j,'!/iO'lllld h~\\'e been i~e~ f~r Ma:1'1m~\td, 10'0 at"l1ElIlc] ;a'b:mg' M.th hls rarther, ~u'il)d dU1S earn f(ti[" lliITJ1self a ~mbjt(Jt tt~lil'il1g ~'i£em.~" ~ij,rn.z;ah];. This p[',a01ice by' 3tud\JE,11I,~~ of hringirng ~, cli'i[d 0[' rCJlli1[hfJi]! :SOS:l along to hear t~ lech:!JIr-es: and th,u~ g~JriI. arcad!emic eredlit ~~ uO'W1'lJ to ha~~ become a ~~r"O'"~ti~lf'~ phenomeeon ~n Jsiam~,c educaelen by ttlle time Ibn .Ii~.ffi.ur a.I/,Asqa]flw 'was wri!tir~g in rhe midBdi.i.1 ] 4ul Ot;1liU.1lry,,':::l

Of course, th-es :~~ only slpBlCIi_~b:[jjoll. :reg:arding Uahnmd, as one ''Vi!Ol!il:~d e~p:ecl1 h:um ;i-1it :Ic~.,t to :m~r.u:i!lJin $lila~'h :Fli.I1 ~xpe~ie:Jru~' in his wci:tin~::. and ~f later he had become prohd~~T~ as. a scho'bu:- ~ t.he~ j~;i~ ~ " ,. I ka'~ . ~~: .' ,., 11,.- H' .•.• )' - ~"" :n··'iri r .. ,r v- ·--in·~'''''' ,,~ . '1',1 1L." Vi"" moga:.p 1l!J ~_"~ noace m en "aj:a[ s ,a~ Lffl. aJ ,(iU.Y.f!iIff!!i'l_:. ~+ 'If. Ot!lJ)[l nave

m£~lf~lo:ttJiCicl it ,Mm .. Bll1t, the lack ,of lrIJ[lY 5'!I.t~~ m£[IJ:~[l(n does ]'jjijJi demon-

, ,',' ~r m' . ie' d"il . ~ . b' f: 'h ; '~d S' yda "

!,-' ~,_., r ' '1 " I . ~ I "[' - . . I" I' ~ 'J I' f ' . I' ll . I ,. I - r . - (.., -~

strata Ul Use .. , . ar . .1. not ~t. Ull ms tat .er s s .a DW apt.. aJ., '!frIll s

lectures. ,Ait ~my raee, the refore, whed:cer as a, direct: 'Q[,' iudireot, hearer of the fafll.ous ~clil!olaJ:it~ M:ahmllJd, is, no mon ~irJan ;[,i)'J10C ce:nl'llO'Jlitd= f['om bi.m • .E~ecla][y SII1lC~ hi$ r~.h,e[~ W~.~ the jrn;wrll'U3dia~'~ ,M:ahj:nud'\~, hl~gJ1:~ :iu~o ,BaFda,wi~~ mind al]~l work was deepJy ;a!:ppred~ti,\'Ie ,~f that teacher.

To digress.. b:rie:f]y~, t~e :S~:HIDie 'once removed' degree of ~e.pa:r,~ti,Q(n ftQlffi '~ayda~i. rhe ttacllc:r' l'JiOWis ,il!.\ho 'iita tIhE'; ease o$. ~:Adud aI),~Din i. .. ~bd al-Rahman ibn ,AhmaC~ ~d~Ij~. ]]:~~ Intel!.'medlaJry b€in,g hls t!N.tO'F

~hayMlj Ol'1l.E; Zayn al-Ifin al-Hanaki [o['~, aJ.[1'abakiJ" HOViffi~r ~ :a~,-,lj;,';s summary' WO\r~, (JIm 1s1Ja:m..il~ 'I.ll00],OgY:Ii iJl~~Wrul)(lf;if.fl ~1hn {:d~Kidt1m~ is neither p:l:'!B'£e:n[ecl or known as a commenrary 0[1, Baydmw]'3 book of natural and revealed theuliD@Y', bimt rather as an m,ginru wot-k" It :is ~vid~~:}jt th.:all: 'n1!,edliev,a! b~a1l1k sll;;ho.lars, Qb:;Jje'f"'i,i'ed. ~me ,of '~he sa:me ge'nel~ pa;t.t't,~]jjl~, in du: Q~:a~tiO'~1 of tll~jlr tapjcs" '\V:e have made

1 • f ;1 f .. iI. ,," J' li"·" ~ L 'I ,. 'I

a, (ane" fi:fUuy {if' tne O~~liLllZ~Jt.](ln OJ, .~JiI"'~, iDV(l;M. a. tiir.g' '\¥.1ft}, a Clf..)m,-

parison Df it to tfu~ .B~iydawi tExt WI,t:f:[ its lsfa]~;an~: CO\l.i[)]1T:1i)G.:ll1l.'t~F!f".32

,"Vllen hi~ f~;mi1y ~'vefn,1,ll~ly returned t'Q l~faha.ll~ IvE~Jrtm,lJ!!d 'WIl)IJ~d have begun his t,cGJ£ih.iug career wln:hdl WO'~d h!l.dld up ,gradJ'!.'iaaiy as he' :mal1:u:rerl through, ihj~ l6J'!.~,~ I\t;;~,diog: and :I~~r,n:ing" H~~ fi1,.il.p:ils pF(~b-, ~b1y :~~:ndiJJldled, bQ'~ primary and seOO\n!dbry &'tlj,ldefi!t..~) as classea and a~ ijJ1dhdrlHaJ~~ and :from a~no:rJi,g rhem be' ceuld choose d]~e' w] 0 w~tt mort' adlvaKtoo(].

His was an U.n:1m_L'!tdJUK S1l1nll~t,e Muslin'i £aIltrily-, and ·~ ... hen nkba:oid P,el'$:~~ be.caroe ,a, .sW,iil~'~'e $t:r.:te i~ 110.1 ~.3 i,O '!llode:r Ukbao UUiayw, [iOI,3-l '7/:~ 304-l '1] ~ M~~.!:hmll~d ,I~fdalli w(;.uldl have felt rhe 3a1:Ea;e dis~~urag:i]'i]:g t:ff~';C1 urp!l:.Hl JU~Ji:, 8~holad.y' ejJ['thrmi~rrl ~t d~J;:' ,~ge of 3'6 that Baydawi was fee]ill,g "i!ery kee.[Jl~.y' as an leJd,eny man, In ,~dmtion. to (he ;[iligIDm1~ ~t~u~tiD~:1, d~e lljlh~ll Am1 Sa'i:jd, [i'l 7-3®/13H 1'-35] seemed both, weak and, u.n1~It\iVOrth"V. fl:t": had ,~1IJl0'wed the fa:mi(.lIIXE, 'wazili-

""

i!i:i! ·]l~er.:' is; __ , ·e;l\i)se siDIWJlt:ilty ~JI c~~liz __ llI,o:tJi he~,'i¥~ j'sf;;~~2I[j~''$ il:il~~mnet1itary ~iiJ.ten ~f.iige~lLu::~ 'IM[h B.Oiy(l'~wli':s £.w-cOOW· ti:i-Amoor and ni';'~ M~: l~.neu~ ~Ift()t'e the hw ~~Nf'..S. ~~: (':Q~...te~tl\: 'B.w~~h~,wt. ~Mi5. ~:~" :!J!OOIfi~ ?~!o'i3J~~~. I':!;'~~ ,~t~.t~~>d ·~Qi).k· '~~rnls: fur the IdivJaiU'JI~ ,[J~ :ms ~ m~m dB"'1'!i~100.J~~ iU~~1JlI!g if!! goorJ.l.Ilt'l~ metll,pt!!~r' oof "8't?ltJom '001 a R.o'U~\!1: !Of ~()'l\orngO'fL i~ 1'hool.Q~, Knowtedge~,.,

~U~A~ :m

r t.1 ]r!~_:roQ~~~iOll: S~iI;Irlk~ J g~' ~~_ :hk hi);~ of: ~Q,...Il~d~'

. I . ~, . I II '

~.Ifil ~;,w, l"!£asO:l:1!Ing'~ 81m l.l1!aN:lU1Er'

:iIlOOK 'I: R.e;a;I~j]e::i Po s:!dbk";:

Se.-cti.tlb""1 1: 'IlJ:i1iIL'I,.'ie'j'$I1'1s

I;:]'

[6.]

~(:~(I~ 2: J\ff;df,:n~A, Ch. 1. G~Il!!!r::J, Ch.. 2, QIJ.RJI!ti!tv Grn. 3~ ~~ty'

Scc!li0ml H~ S".a'i)stiliJiiDf!S m·OOK ~~ R~~t!ikis .:I[)j,Wirlfi ~:D~prutic tb.e:'ttl~ij'}

m·OOK 3:: lt~iies Pmvltede; «frop.J~~", 1~!)~iDMe. Pl',a ctiC3!~ '~hOQ~ om.". ~ DOIiY)'

,~4 S~riI: "~M1I.ttb2i'i

of ,~I1ie!rai r~f"E:!n;!l!Io~"

31fd' 9taNoo': iu:cidclD~~

ObGI:"]" , Pt.. ~: Geneirnl O'ot..'C'I'" ]!it.. ~~ QU:IIiIl:Ltj O'b!yI!;l"", l~t. g~ ~ndity

4tn Sllrtimt. SUbG~il1i'I t!l: a

Srj Stff~: Things'divl'tW {1J)ogifiiitic ~ot;jI)

tifh ~~jwr. Matte'!tS uf e~jJiiml

tlDb,;c-'irnL"'''''''~f ]""]S,'I ..... "".'"

... ~.!t~.f"'.-~Ip'II~~ 11 l.'!!..!!!~ - :_~~~ .. ~::1

:~J;;:tical thoo1G!g}!'. .

~ D"V)

histosian, R;ad1'id a!l~D;in ' a]hib" and his ,!;;']d~~~ SQn W 'b~ !~CJut'4;ld becsuse of a l'iv,@o'~':S spite in 71, at'] 3 i 8~ but ~m.A;,er :h,e had, mired tllte d~ad wazii[~~ 'yomijg,cr sam, G,~~th ,~,D]n~ 'to the ~nli€' po~~ his :fat"hCI" had :hcld· pe['haps as $o:m~ kind of ariJ ~;(Jlllogy to the f~r!i1:Uy"

The' next :rJJlt:t:!JtiQn 0:1" :1\~~.hmud Iyah~l~ij ,~Itl Ibn H~:M ~l- ~'~:;,JztI:ui,~~ brief oblruary notiee of him hi, th~u be 1!o"\i!i1lt 'O'J] 'the p~]grlrtmljgJjge [00 Ua'klb M: iCh~ e:ild. of' 7:24/1324. He W.~5 'then, 50 yea'['s, i)]f~. Thu~, wt realize that fO'Ufrtrt~[I, realm under iuc!ttasan_g Sh~,'~ite control over 'di~ COiJ..Il'i[[r.y;';S, :I~:njte'.rn~, r:::~,vi~]zatuon 1-S a ]oug time 'far him te :ha,V1E; endined '~he rCb~lge fi'OUiI, 'Deilng 'i~l a m~JJ(lir]ty SunJM]~e p&Silicio~:1l, to being of a second-class :mirtli],rity'.

[['h,e fQ]~AJImn,g 'month" ~t the 'blu~n of 'the, ye:m:lr' '725! 1 ,32,5 ~ it is, apparent ,ttha;~ he did not return to [~£aihan]. bur instead, he traveled '00 Jeni.ij,,1l;icnt~ as Ibm, I-:l~jat: jjil:t~n~(}:r.us. ]~Ii3 piilgrinmge to !\1'alka and his visit. 'to J c!r1l1SaL€lTI, as ·the :n~t most holy place of islanm. h6tJii~d, tn if~s~o:r-e hi~ !Le~$~.'mJs :pm:"sp®cri,ve and :~.vOO hiis ecnfidence in his prQ[~~sJQi~" 8eill;g, a ,s~XtllThte' :Mwilbn~ be '~~h an in~\~~, gQJIid2J.D(e It» emigrate permanendy from the Sbi~~le IfJlklla'llid reglon ,th~:t W,M his home to the tr.~[,r.~,tury' 'o:f the Nbl'i.f:duk c:tTIpire comp:[,!s[ng' Ec-pt, :hle~tiu,e and. S"yria. Tbjs 'e.mpiJ'e' was a :sit,IJ~llg S'J;.Ulllh~' :sIta:~~ so he W~.$ S!l}OI~ headed lOT Damascus, lU".if'[1/[:i1Lg there h1J S~JiM."~ the: second In(m:~h of the n~w 'yt:'a['~, his ,Sjge heing' ,5 l,

In the clft~{ at variOllJ1S- ]~ct~ne ~al]s'.... and esped,aUy lin the gfemt U,ma}ry'ad M:ooqiUlf!~ 'WllrJ.er't~'ti[" pt~,bli('. m~llS5io[ll, grrolUpa, met ]\f'gu.Lady,~ there M~;tmud ;aJ-Ida~banri, made ])imsclf at horne, prlXll.ici:pa'~irt~ 'v..fith all his old, end]jlt~i~m for th~n~, ii1td.i,{'vt~1JJ'~, a.nd religious, Ib[Q, ~j~r'

__ '~ <[', _., ," • _ .. 'IL, • 11 JI "' l;, ir it . .Ji~ ]=,i':

1I:U~' 'kqm~[[J] plch up a :oc::ml-J!D,v:OGLal1'" moment lin l¥.t.:ilirlm,liI!iJl S iULt:'~

when he quoties a ih~,rp~,y observam oid Sh,a!y,kl~, ibn r.r~y:mfruya:h, [66] ~ 728/l2631'"" 1 ,328] ~ the 'H~oo~'~le judge ~nd '~~eo]o~~~~ as oco1drog a 'it8Jlk8!JtlYl"C group, at ,S! public dISell]~itHij,) "Be quiet. !I:ilO1\o\f aU of y!Q'UI,~ 80 Ul,at we can hear what t]~i~, neble 'leilliow has to say. NQ' (line like ,h].m has ,eve,r come h,e~re;~ - lu~-:lJur~r {1i-,l'G1miJti,l~~ 196ij~ p'. Sh~,,]

T,hus, ii!:: was :uor seven hap,Pf' ye~f$ IV,l~hjnMd ~pen~ his ~I~l~ and evenings at lihe U,fjj1i2!J,Y'f'~, '~~que i[llt,en,rJry 'poring over Ws re;),djng Ot pa-ocn1i11y hdp:illLg groups of students ",-ritn. th~r diHfi.cuillt n:.':adjng assignmenrs. ""'hen i1: was lliis t'll1rIil '~Q lead a, puJb]ic dJiscmmlio:ll. people W0!11~d. be k;~i full f}f praise Jioir ~tim.

One day ~n LaJlie ~,pm,g<l in tile month Rabi,( U of ule yt~ .., 3~'/ ~ 33;2~ Ma~:nl1!].d being ,5,g yca~ o]d~ an. ]m~Q[t~l'Ilt ,I(lttc:]" of ]mr~tat±ij}n to mem'ti€:rsh~,]) 'L8ii:ne to hirn by post :fr(¥.l:!l:n, [t:llie (la;i:ro offi{)~ of Sh&~ikh

NbJd ,a[-Din. ~d·Aq.£a'f::alt~ ~l1iP~in,,~: sha.ykb, of th.e· f~u1!i.'!i.o'llil~' N~riyah ~h~ll<l1~l ,h:~ S:iry.~(l.~lS,- then a northern R~ideutiaJ Sl!lbrlJ.QxlJ) of Ct\'lFOI, B'u.iiJt !Iiiltd f~5'@e:red by ~(h;f~ :re~IillHg ~mlu! J:d[lg'~ ~[..,!&mi!Jlhk .8J1,~N~.sil' MU~lar:nm~d) tl.~s khmqafu [~r~, .ldla[n ... q~h] W,:iii an out~It:!lJ!i:iLdi[ilg exam'pre of the retreat ,::M1l.d ;5itudy centers :Un. C3,][D~ o.rigiulily lur. Su.fis ~[ld lat,eF ~aoopti:i!Lg :[\eligi(i.1lJ1S alLadle.mi.cs~ that. p"'(rIkid~d. a roO!!ll? ,Ilieah:~ 'IA!'(Jr5ihip ,~:~ '~'!.T~dy f~lillJiri.e~ and a. ii,)o:mmOFl, ,~]b.r,t3lryj; :1ft-WiJ~ 'rel1 .. dar ~..hQ~ .• , 4lt1lWpS 0;]" M~]Ji!e.n& fOir 'btuldJhtg or ,establiishOO. sehclars, 111t 'kJllaUq~!I.S, l.J:oouglllt hmlfJiJj" and pn:.","·iil~.gie ~'p!!]n their ibujj~:b:r,~;.'o tlliterr ~lJ.:l1}f""""[\~~llg ~hay:khs~. ~Dd aU who re-sid~i "M.th~~,.~~

Thert~ in sbort order, ~hntu.c~ ~bn ',Abd al-Rahman J:sra.~i g~ve hJ!$ ~e~rty ~nd obediLn~ :[~PDFiiSC to the sender of tfu~ letter by traveling toO Cruro~ aligbitlrll.g from. ~.i.jj! lli.tlOi!1]ifl! ar the ikhaJl!Lqah., and by ta'klltg' lIlp his :liOdgings; '~he~e [fa-l'ij:a7~aJa ~~ndahil1]. And ll.er.e 'he was g;mci;Qus].y welcomed by Shaylkh M'ajd :~-Din :~l-Aq~'~l and. seen imtrOOlilCled to the ttside'rlitilil rcll(i~ ,afltd the leading :p~trons uf the .kh~~h in a ,g:e'.nef..~ i[loll'!I(JquiQ[JJ~, dl~S' wi:lhm,lrt dQ1lJb[ ~CQm[ll.g a ~~ectu~e series' 'try general ,Mcb.1m ~~",~~,~[!JmJ)a ]U:ii.ll $i!JliJiaJ·11.

11\.!I.<t ,~h];ef :ru~teru~ patron uf the S:ityaqus Ikhrul("J,~ih was the 1kjl~~ M·Ma[j[k al·N2:l.sJJ[" M-uiba!Il)lTI~d ibn Q~[awU![Il,~ new a mature leader 'In hES th,][',d. and fE~:laUy secured '[\~~ign 1[709~4 'II '~ 30EII-40~ ,. ha'¥111,g heen 'i]J[j;!H;aU~d and rrem~d ·n~A;;e betQ!f'e [693-9'4:~ and G9B-7GB]" fQimmat,e!fy 'Wi:t"HlOlll( irnjiury".~~ ,He was ten year~ ya'~~l!l.g;ef' than lsialli i;lJrrd" and ehere is :f]i!l dOtDbt tltat dllis monsrch war[II;ly agreed "rith the ;5Ju:p~rvi:sing sha:yldtt. lilITl. :sIprp;Kc~:atiJi1g, the t);e"wt~t a:rnJV"cd schola'f)s gjfu. liSJtf'A1:i~ITtg t,~ :M~bmudJ IsfahanPs cxpQ:sitions of the qUl'·~aT!l. and 'to' .his, d]JS(;l1S00~S @f the te.~lhln~, aad sem~,-phillooop1mi~~d d.:e1)~l',tS of the' ,M'!I]t*M]im.mi.i.~ the ,kJin,g :fdt his ~,Il need for a 'beueF OOmp:re:h~il,~ ,~Qn of ~h~ l'eJ1giQ"~, rir.H~ndalloF! of l~a~mk: civ,['iz~OI}- 'hd~ha'l'~~ spoklf.: ((fren Qf a gfe~t S~IX~ni~e reacher, '"Abd ,AH]~hi. ibn. ~'U'mar' Bayd~w]" 'who h~ Jived l~ recent ye~~ h] the' IlkhanJdJ >e~]'1!,:piite: ~~hen j~ h~d been a SU[l;l__:_~jjte :~and. ,t\[-NbHk ,~[-N ~i9ir MOlb~Wfiri"ji~d. even could bYe: :po.5st&5-td i~ 'eO'py fjJ,f &iyda'wi\; 'lhcQlo~oi¥.lll :SU~·~, T~{d{ .al~A~w.aj'" mi~ M4fgJ~~ ~t-A1~~. Bu'l th{;;Il~, it 'wa'~ S'l~p and heavy [['tadtU[]g, ~'f~n

fow weU iBdti{:~led rot'ahy., .M ll~d. tJ1{': ea:r.1lier: 'rn][k~:tar.~s~ t~lli.s Mamluk king sensed dl~t be~ind the d~fficl)jI]t ~l1:lcno~~!' tl1UC W,8!S a. [lcli;gio1!lt:;, :sdlo~lar of :fo:rdiLrig]1Jt logietd dl~ly ,~Ui.dJ :Pifi~ti\i1~~ serious judgr£ttitt't, wi~~i ij~teJil.g)th, {)if w[lvicti'!J'll and bowl,O(~gc;_. 'qu~]~,tite50 d.lie llkh~]i!i ~j]d 'th"e:iF 'CQ!1mt~rp.:nts~ th,€' :&bml!Ul\i.~s", wanted lu ~ in 1t.1!il.€l[· ]eg[:l] con-

, ,It" .,.,.. j;\~~N··~ - 11Ii..ii" ' ~" . " . ,_ . ...l, .. , ~"h, . - -11th,,,,,,,!, -1"''''. ~- -" ~ 'r~f::'l •

.su aIb.~", _'!I;jJ, ~, . a.~r ,~,\·.IlJUfl_a~:1Imii:U.ll, ~w 'L, e-.s!l:!: qll.ll~~-,.!I!n l'!II.lal~.mlllu" ::sJ!ru'Tj1i[I!.I~

b~.Jit in a more :ft~~euit ~;r!ld, ,ge:r.d:~J ,stjt]e than ~[1, :Bayd~wi.

Therefere, ruf.,N~r' M[d~ii:nmad proposed eo ,~'~f:¥.lih_;an~_. and ]fult:edj C(1\1l[[m]~,iO:Ii£d him to writ\b oat a :flJil~, co:mmLiJ]t~irY on Ea).lidawi~~:

'T"' ~ '< jl.1I 1'[" L. ~ -I...J b ,;, b .. !i.. hi i -~:

,l m.i'Ja'~ a't-II~;r. ,_ ,~~m WO'!ll! Ill, "e ,as ~ servtce . O~ii. 1'(0 ,,11m. as ,lI'i.~Jl.~~

and t.il] aU readers of rcl~giQiiU;S, and srJ"(ti~a'riy _P'IU ~pose. A siz,e~Me re:w.~!trl. ~n cash, P12QP.'E-rty ~ otii.Qc~ or :rut O'f cliie8f:) was ahNaYs understOQd. 3i'5 [Jal'~ of a oonl~i,Q\U", and dl~S: also depended Ol,[ rbe kilJ.i~~~ s;1))~S§actio['i, 'vrith tb,e e~JC] :pr~dl!!ct

Residence a'~ the Siry~qu~ ~\"h~JiJLqah, ,of CO'IJ][:5e :p\ito¥£ded $dl 'ilie contiJrlilJ]llg .DC C tllii, of ,m ~clmo]aJill"" 'f.hcreftJre~ [!'jmh~ui.i sett to work (lin the ~O~:lUlle:ml:ta'fY tbat w,a.s {:mlun~ssio]1joo p-m:b~)!ly sometimf! ~,Oft ifi.!it~;g' after becoming a;!J(]l]a]u1t'ed ~tb al ... '~lal]k al .. N·~udt" Muhammad ill

'7;!J'1!)/"1 ~ ,,;:.,(') ~l"·i.. L' ",'I-' ·IL. ,c. ~ ~ '1!- • ~JI G' IL.~,~, 'I •

" ,,J.t. .... ,.j;:j.;,;;:. ,IL. ne llitti,g w,t}s men ][l, t.:r.1C rif:LtIill. 1t~1JilJ1. OJ! nilS .Last :rc~~,

be:Ull~ destined to live nine :rl1l.O'J[~ yeaT~, unci] 'J 41/134(t These n"'"o dates; m:ar:v the-n 'be' ret as 'tb~ extreme ]jr.nh;:s, fib.', ehe jj'lloss~'bl~ bezin-

_ _;to l.!! _. __ ~' • _ !!t" L!"'l _ • '. _. • _~ _I, _ . __ ~ .. It1 ~ __ . ,~ .. !"!.l_. I-~ • i~:i!" _ !"!J

ning sad ending of ~SJffiiMru's "'i,I\O'r~, on thhi, 'b(!!ilJ!k,

Otlnenl, of ·the leading ,~mku\: prinees ,~o ~d, :&Jund hlitb~;rui, eo be' an, ,~~~][l~ ~n.d DD:t1i.v-inciog 'reacher. Fe'~"i' if a'ny of them !C~me' from naitirt-~ EgyptilaJITi. £a'miti~s~ so d:u:lir ~ocial elass had ['[lO diifficl!J.Lty in ;i}ji"';i""""p~;niD' a fy..;~:iriZnill, ,1;' ... il1i.; .... ]a'lr'!l1 ("O"ii[1j"'ri~llJ1<'ci"!iIj'!I _;::~ Priuee O-awm:lilll ;aJ,_,

. ~[ ... ~ -~ " '''''''~''''''"\i5'"' ~"'" V\!'"~ '!l' "'~!!I"'!Ll!I ,"'''i!{V'~!II. """ ... ~. ~._

S~q,i, wJ]o had d1A! high omre O'f' royal 'cupbearer', ~ and kept this iti:rr-]e~ "'·M,..saqi~a,~ addi[1j~l it ro rus personal [iJ.aJm!?~ was able 'Ito cnnvinee S]u,~,ylh M~:udJ ,]~r~i'Tj,~] 'w ,ac-ee;p[ dli!t". h(!!~wr of bei_[jj__,g ~larn~d dle' s;upeM~ii~g shay..kh ([If a new khanqah that tll,-· prince was buillldln;g. The d.eal o:if'C~ '00 ~fa~i1tfii 'wntdd ha,~e included. a hi:g)b,c,t :s.tiptr~d.

.... .,,;,~I 1m I'"'''''''_' c m~(."r-Ii>,.,,-b~;f'!, -1 d~..:""'!IlI':§:, ,."t!, the "'l1fp"'~"" ':;,.,A"n~r' '01.'ILI"'fV1~h ,." ~....",·t.

~_.Il;l;1.Jl ..... iI,·1I.ol _. , ~,[l_,l',., ~_ .l~ ,1:5'1i1l,.~ ~~ Ll., ~ l.:IU _ ~., ~ .L_~l.lil".~ [~m:I,~:J'.I"1.., 'I UI J:j"'l,J ....

cl~s ,lib:!r'~Fl of n!l.l.nll)liI;scri,p~ ti:ij],Ii:".Ji, to he O!Jim:[Ijl]~~JnQd. from the' best: s:eribe&~ pl .. s t1~;e a~I-]mrO'I~tanl: f[:eedm:l1l of ~{:tJt~:[]g hi'~ n~'TI, s,cll,edule of hours J'O;r indi'iliidtud 'wnrk :t.!i[l!d r~r ,p'M,blic d ·~cM~~iH[l" He did not

refuse ~lllis itte u1ier.', bu,t ,coIJlJthu~·ed "i.'!lit1~out inJremJIpt£on in rus: Ow.o ro~:3iUy lOOJ1L'iJ~il:ri,~io:med task,

,BefD["e he ,emiln~ted m, EI:t'ffi1it Ma.hmud, .hfmMr:ii .h3d filrod111red his 0''lAJ.T:i. Wlj)'r,k,s o:r commeutaries, on the 'wom of ;Qtl~r. writers in thil:; fieid~ of ]~ren'['Y' {;riti,ejs.m,;. poetics, dialft!i~ticii d.l.eol~,~ ~ and ]Og2:C- ]:'0 emir!) ~llS wriurel~ produ,cdon :~[dma'~'dy tneluded ;m oornnte:n~ on Ibn a1,,,.sa'~atu~:s, ]['ficr,SlIj' wo:rr'k ai·&rdi!~ oonfne:ntai'U.t1i, en ~~I wu:r'k!i, of BaydJaVi.1i, the iOIJ;l{J.l1" al-Al~oom' :aJniclllhe; lW'i~' 'rJJl-~~i~ndjo and his T;qftir, an b~:~e[Jl!~~~t~u.iion Yif '~]]e 'Q!J:ran_

Co]Leta,gMC03 ~;nd. friends t,fiM of their' ~zed observations or him w:~~re lU Vir('.!~~ whetbe:r in Isfahillra~ [)~mascu~ O~ C~:h~_ .Ibn H"aja[ al~(&qa]mi relates ooe vignetre, thar he :a:voidJ~d ea;~u[l,g very much U'll th.e e¥e~jji]tg~, Ior dnU 'iA'O!J11d. ~u'ke, him. need to drlE1k ]iq't!lim~ sad

~,1L -.' ~"':II ~ L - 1!.. "m - - ed t- ...... ,iC; .... ;~ ... , n~,.-" ............. ,IT' --- .... "". Ii- J'~"'~] - L-"",~'""-,,"",,iNl mar '!!-~'"(ihU!Ll~ ]'[iI;i%K(;' ,far, 1 ,IJi.Oi;". , u n,I.II.1[I, ,,;1 ,r~ vcr: ''!;!!I)I.'''GI]lI. _IJiUl. w.ffiI...;r.._:.u,JiJl

00' 'relieve himese.[f~ and, 'ltll£[.e:fa[-e precious w,rilin_g tum~ wO'ILdd be lost 00' lrlLIliL. Frlends remembered h,ow firm lTI~ hMrijC~l'iting Wail and how qii]iekly his pc,'[1l :Hew along, ruLed ~.t iS~il:mii::d [il'JJa t aXil)' '~rfle some inttT~I'Ytciion came into 'tlhc woda"[JJg;s of hl8 m~P.lrl when 11.'('; was ~:[]fV(IilvOO ~im.er in lOO'.ncepl~aJl dl(!!t~gll'~ o:r in p~oblems of bow~edge l't W~~ De 3JJJ. ,~c~ijlJn t~ ,him. Ibn H_aj~u go~~ 0[[ eo quote the ,h~toria!ll. Khidj] ibn Ayb..~k; a[-Safiiliru [d. i 362] as sa~~ ~~,~ ~~,w hillm [uo,'~! 1'0] when he ''lAra~ 1I,~ri:!ting IDs CClIf.Il!i:T.UmtlilJ-lf!j ~[taf:5i!t] 0]] the QUI'~au] ~ he was '\¥!O,rk:i!i:!L~' dili[,ectiliy from fuis -rJ]~]'[J.d atld mitm!ll~ "rir!U,QiJI.t ,any revl'tw (of hl!) '~~OC;g '~t,erl~J; and people bmw; :forlmd fdljJ~ wQ'r.:k) W be g,n;~fdly'

'" - f" -'J ,~~ use "Il.lI_.

Isf~:h~urri's move ,~:wa)' :from. the Srryaqu$ khafiqah~ c~llil.,ed, the N~~ri,r,~~ ,ilit'e!F. 'dThf: ki~lg' w1h,1!) buih it .. :ro 3.1r:.i!Oithl!ir" 'whf.'[1f.; h~:,'! ,[sla.h::'fn!i,> was the &l1rpe~Dg :s~¥ildl and ,dJJief ~cho]a;rlIy' ornament, was ((inJly a sma][ inUbltio!i.1. to m~ 'kitll,g., Ltke\~:s~" 'Prince QarwsiilJn.~;s, :SUOQ~ '~]il ",l)iLri~j;g Sbayk1!l I~iaba:n!i ,arlifialY frum h~~. :firu:~ ~iOlWlilgS to newer ones '",! ... ~~['h a grfUJ:de:r title :lBlmOlll1liCed. 'teO northing !I.'[lO:Le dl;an 'lhe prince's 1;1 s[u a'] aoii"lk'1,ty in ~ OO'nr.[ f~ln of O'['her.~ Dik!e :hiE, cm13ta.nd.y J(j~t11r~~ rule] ochemj~g [or' :adval'!![,erne[llt fn p[\e!ii~ge':I' an acdvii.~y tJJ;it correspollded to t'ht bt]~ .. ~~i]lg ]:Iltibhub i[] ~ hijJJ~y marrket place, n(!!tldng 00 cause ',"frQ(['cry.

'Wben ,shaykJh Js!u~:u 'fiuaUy anneuneed that he bd. co!tTI"p~~ited his c-om,rJl'lie(jjt,~;ry en B'ity~law.i, 's Tt.ut.~lt ~~:-:ti~i!' m~~, ,M«id-': ,al-:-Ai!'itt;'Mj roydl and mlip,ous and scho.lrurly p!:ThCimn.agcS al[I, wffioom,~d and praised

t~ .. .", ".~ .... ,...ft. '~iI· ead i"l!il~i1'1-: '.v""..... ,~-·'Il..,;;;..·d~[I~ -d~ ·,I"Ii"'I"""i1:""I • .., .... ~'IiW~· .... """ri:uL ..... ' "' • .....,[1~ """"""rTI.'

,~.~~ ~~L.JI..,.I'j.,.I ,~"':::;!I.lJ."'~..L:~,_ ~-~!.L I.i:I :5\.:JJlL~;;.·. _re ? ,lJJ.!JjUJ .IL~~.L.!.L,~'II. ~rl IU~ 1I"~'JU ~ ~~~IJ, ~

n:d~~io'n'ecl, and '~b~ :klng presented the author a friendly and ~11i.i.E;:[-

.xlv

ous m'i1~_;,·d fOE me Im":!ig task now ·oomple~:ed. Of the pdaee of &,d~,\,~~;~~ ''l~St d-J)nwm" in the l~h~'F esteem, of Musl~~ .Jab:,], ~11~D.m ·~.A!bd al,~~!hm:a[]j~ in :hi.s U:rniV!~r.si~l ~f al-Azhar dn5ser~81tic!JiFl. ~D. mmydJru.wi~:r qUUIDL.S, Taj .~-Dan '~.Abj al- '¥ah~lI.&·1b al-Subhl [ct l3~H]].~ wbo W['O'I<~ In .his; ·biogra.pb.y of S~l.a[i(i notables, Taf.rrltjat: fll,-Sl~~1Ja!'t, m-Kuk4, ·~~[B~.y&.wi':s la.rooil aJ-Ar.lww]! ~;s d[(~ most O'[litst::8J!I'lillug' ,oo:mpend~ti!lm dut :h~s ever been '~ri'U€:n lin tfue science of [I~lamk] tbe;ologica] s~a:[,€:]l"u.,;~nt. ill' FH[~f.hiEl:rT!J](nLIfl, .J~\·~al :al~D~i!r!l, "Abd, ii}]·RahrmD.i. go!:'l~' 00 to ~ay that .of all the eemmentanes OR Haydawi~~ T qH:r~d2)t aI-A~~M' illj;f:' most hcl.pfl!l] af]~l lJ.tS:e!~u[ ,O[U~ is drnt by ~tle: great Docter, SM.:ykh

oC"l ~, ~ '11 D" n....f[ . L. ' di "b ~ A k 11 'I no i.,"" ] - ~ I', c.~ '11.., ," ::I!I

!i3 J~'[Iji]!i. a~-][il. L.h.IliJaumU.llJ, lull .n.JllI. a -.&.al.~man~ aJI-. SHIi.l!_canL

For- rv.[ahnliud .[sfi~];8Jni fru~ then ou no ·majiQir. o.fuar~ge~ w'~:r'C reporeed ] In, his location, his reputarion, or :his work He continued to, debate .aJild ~D dist."!J1ss :ifil:l!J~r~l;j~in.g ·phil.oOO'phic::d and in:li:gj)[]lllill.';;. U?rob~ .le-.m.$, ·W]I;.h. other :5dID[;a,~'~ ~d ·~th ~he p'~!!ib]ic:~ .~~d he c:on:niO!u.ed 'to rea,~h his ~tJj~~de:m~ and to write:, alrhough 'he had ((ll1i_$idtl'ilib1Jy slowed ri,,~[) in tbe Ja;~illef actDvity" His .friew1 the .w~ wed im 7.;1 I Il340.~ sad witS; ~U~[ictd.ed, by :00 less ;tt]U,aillil SIJ;:V~[l short-lived :n'!::igns in illa,e e]g~fu!tt yearn fGJ.IG """-l!n S". ,~,bn H':ajar.' al- (.Asq8iltani Sa:y:Si tha:i!: Is;1ithanl -di~rl in Dhl] .aI.~Q"a·~'dl\'h 74·'9/] 348y this· bei[Dg in W~ SeooJtd P,nlllld,em;~~ 'o:f th€ bl;lbo:nic .p:l~~e. 3a· Att the a~ ef 7.5 years, his successful career in schobfll_hip as 'both '[.tachet IlJ1iLd ·"vri:IDt:r .~~ b['OiUg~t tn· an end, O'ID.'e may imagiNle thait he fo-uud emlDel]t, $~tisf~(:tio\n III hfu HCe amon~ ~cjUeagues~ flie!n!d!) and :s,tJudents., And 'wi~hout clot!jbt~. he remains an

Ai·i:"j,.... ." f hi ~.1I..1I·· .:11.. .~

i))UlSIt:t.!,B'''-'lUI.'1I5 CIJrnzt:1rtL 0- rs 'WO:iflm t::.flitll alii ].fiii;:t:US"tiiLlg person l''!iIittl! 'W.Ji1:o:~n

to :study .8JfidJ rdfbct.

T-U' ~ ~,!Ij,. J!i.T~;LA' - ,'-,-'TIO, ,',IN'-'-,:

"'~ J..~~~ ... , ... ,.

Praise be to God~ F,(Yt. He h is alene

\Vho slingrua:rly lii'!.res ~n the ub~],gatiiIJn of .H'i~ presence ~rmj t~l!B fi'f:'qJe;tlJJ~.tY' of His 3hi:di~g~ ~

Wl~.'o stands :a~o~~' ]!J] 'P(rf:--vel1itioml Qf His nonexiatence and the lmjlQ,iJsihmty, of His passlng, l[)emorl~tr,~~~ng :f.~.~~ (:ri~trng pre&t:[t(1e

l-S m,{;' created ~a[d] and so,anng he,a:.'I{e[iJ.S1, \V:iU:l;CiC~ tll;[ll' '1\1"1. H' ",:, ~inO!lI~.ar' ·,-c .;"''"riri'fl'i -"-,li -:.r.I'''L~I'lli:I:V'

- ... ",~.~ ~!V ][']0'" o~ _,~ Uil~l!..i!J~:"Ql'g ~ •. ,

is, t~e ik1nish:m.'6Flt of cerruption :from, earth aFld ;5JH.'y" He surpasses far ~illy m~t,c.h.~ng to li~es. or peers.

Hc~ IS lIDD]Y~ hu,gl[

beyond '[emJJQr~ un,ginad'OinJ ,[if ,anaJ!fdcal &rvi.SlQrJij beyond ~,o,r.DUpoiilndln,g orr pa:r~;itio:m.

CQm,pn:r!l.erlided hy IH]Si b:lClwJ~dgc

is the careful cr~iJJg of a hl~lCl :aJnt O'f] ~'nas:ri,ve rock in glooms of ~'he .c1]~;Jt1k.

~ Th.tl:;, l!o.voc::u:i.oon. ~ ~~b8jUnabi.·~ [W",iitrrr.! ftiJI~lh al-!R~II1I'I;jn a1,-Ra.~rwm]. i-;, ~rI"l~9 here as 'p:[\(!d~1X" tu ~he' C'LI!~lm d.®wilil.e oo~~k i1:hi:llit. 'rrnl'O'!,'!J:i, [L!::'.,. Imth, te:~.i! and oot.r.l,,me.rliL1M}"f~ llOIi: 'boelug trep.BW~d ~~[ m1l~ bt~nliliilm: of :Ba~'!o'ff's, ~:ex~. ]n it ;'!!Ie :rcdJow Ke:on~h Crogg's tr.,~n~r:j'jjtil)f.L [We :3;ci\(jJ tl~e '~[,Llti~~1\d pi!l1'ase as ~ ~mp~i'f.jjt in '!iIIh ar!)i!"'i,'i!~' ml1i ~'X t ~Ii. ~ bas ~'f!:~ lis, 'is us sd ,,]

~ :fu[~ih.;;ml~ll 'md,pit: [aJ,.:~J~md!llJ liI-lAh aMadhJ. ~~~~a.da. IDIr-,\illllljiElh ;nll,'w~lI]d 'W'Z],&i!~ ruJ..b~i~~. These !llm::s ,00 prea-mbl:.=' clleai~)J ,00]].0 ]!;~r-OO'!i\~"S p:rC"'li.f.i!llill~~ 'Written ,irt~~lt .f!iud fretwnlik,_ Rt!~mli.ng' iI:b.i!: ph~. ['-'iiij[h ,~,-wuJ:udJ ~JT'i 1[;""W!jC11iJ a!I,~iidH ~ U'T tLbhre'iliiatet:l, w, ll~l'i!c'l!,ijlib]; i:1 anl'lft. iii CD:r.tlJ:Im'aJtOOI!I, i~ appiI:rc:rut. 'OOLwtil!l1i, '~'ihLIl': t!llO]liB.Cit of ·~I]trii£· ph:i.~05O,phtaW. m\3i5ltfru[,,~' :ond! ~bA;:: SG,Pi.')i:;=t [0£ ·~hi!:i>cet.J!tci~" ,I':":~~w;l :tI!U£iJ],tLtlfil. ~rl the ro]j~' oil '~~I~l]lITtI-c:;]l re:;lronl.r~. t~br.: '~TI.m!! M'iftf"'!::[" ,is lU~tl.m!I~tely &ifJ.aRtd

II, 'k -lj,,_ . oNe ,. '., I?~ •• ; .- ,> If' '~,L." N-""- . ,--'"no '~,,,,~,,, \'". I 0- "'I' - -~ •. ,". ii;)-,; , ~\(io rUl~ h.~~ L '. OC~:S~,H) ,l:aOUsb!!nr ~ 00 t r~n! ,il::;;';!:~[]J.'!f ,~~re.~IU . 1m!: ,I ~.il:"~ hu.M II:.!'l::'wg

"i,.Ib~ h: ~tee(~g:uy I~G 8U~t'ain tIi}1; R:;.:ist('!noo {if ~M 'p.h'ilooopl,,~r ;a!I'l{'j ti1i~, iij~i-...rerNe, T~lil;l~1~ God ,(r,l\,W~ 'be >l .. ~:m,'i~Ut!cl, ~.li, :~~jj~I~g. ~iI;:}~Emary ~~%im_'ru:c; but aI~>' ,noti\[]iIiI of [~1I!;!i t'l~ltIi~aIi God as "b r.ing lhHle~' ,olJlUg-lul.orl" ,; eNamssly :rt}e(!l.C~, ~ ia:l~~}j,¢I :aill!l bit ;tulJ':H;tgu,t'~.

'H!i"'.I'i,\'.L~~If. mi""'!i.q'1;@ fl~''!!'"'' .~- '" ~'""""'; , ..... 1" .... Il"--..r"'.~.. ., 'i'o". "i ..... "" ""lfhdl "''''ii"iii~':;''" .-..' 'i;.L~... . "''''.toli'!l''''''

~ ., -_!!."-" -'"0' ~ IIlIl'lO" L"!fl...d!.'" V" _ .,~IgI'U ... :s ~JJ'"ILOIIVLI"' ••• ~,'_"UI ...... -11-"" ~~ ...... 1l, ,JI~e iPJ.~-~""'"

of i~~ 'fl',:ur.s- ......... :1""'"""'r.i" ,0"- '" e.; ;n~~.i";v t.""..,,· .. j ';""",'" A~"'i''''1 .' ,....,..,..;,"!olll':l~~~.;il ,"';:' i,i· -" ~··r""""

_ . _> ".lI;!~" .. u.~ U! '''' "~ _ J'. "".In..,., J ... a~w[ ...... _y "~"""y_ i";!~ "' ..... cJ~ ~ ..............

.pr.abli obilll~tkm withln whi.e_h, '::II1l L1ither ~i~l~:lIts: stand 'ill;i. rcd1'-uuaL'l. it'D the Ol'i,~, T~ 1'1,i~ :aspei!:~, Qf ~i~ ~€~Jt)'I'J.aJI~itiimll ~1~ i;"1~W!ll,~ ~~J1!~'- N![I~' ·AlII~mll~h I~]iffi;~~

~ n., 11.,' " . ..iI. '~._ .li_ 'Co 'L~ I." ti 1', 'il

~o:~rnJllU: t~C~~lT[l;g :n~,lrtl:on!2t~ 'm 1:tW)~UIl,~"il,:~ 1lji'JQ.~,plJaf:ae "Ul.:fr~ ~E" .. X!I!:Kv.I!lI"

'GQd. has inrt.rrodil;.a,eed e,~e~ th~:~ b'Y :iij;'ii; aut:QnOID(1U~ p01l.li'el, ~

[power] eternal and I'efr,m'~ng' 'from. cea;srng:

Uneo Him I[ an dlir~ l~vt· t]lcit] re[\l!lr[n~, By Him. l[aU 1U1:ingi h8i.~ ~ci~] begi]llli'rJ(g:~

He nais made arr,~Jlgen:!iellil fo:r iM [i:h.i.[lgfll 'mat are !by IH:is p~rticuih.t:riz.l[lg co:mm:and~.

Thi.::3Jt 'ooUmw :lEii.s prim~'!jfru df1CIs;.on:5

Fa]lel'ii, down siluut of pefffdvi[!Ji H:is e,s~ence1 3J',e 'lite tThedl~~do\l1s of gf,eaJt ~gesJ'

Wa;fldiE.-riIi,g ]rnJt ii'J the ,~t 'y.,~d.et[U~S5 of Hi3 divinity are 'the lo,gtt.::a[ :reasoriLi[1~a; of mse :s,d!!LQJals.

;!l T&t-e: ~~~r of ,31!i1~,oJInO'mf.i~ :3Jl;tii~m1i strul aL'IJl5.atl:0;11I:"• ii:Ii, ~!(!IIi1.CC:p~ ''I!I'd~ :re:fbmml::!lm:ed by lLM. IFrmJili ~n, M~ B~!> QOO '"llNiJ.' iUtJiDr.lt~~

~, ~.,- .'1,-, , .. ..;,:;",.u'·-, <~~;.II 1j"iI·,.,_<,. ... '" ...... " 'L1: lL~ ~mR~~~' ~.( . .:II <~h'l\.iI'L\.~I\..,:<.,· L,. iIi_ ....... ~- .. :I.:L+ ...

..:l ... !:: ~JI.il: re. .... itl!2' :i.IlII"O'!!',I ... '....... ~ "'r ,L,.., 1'!i.111~~ ~!:TiLu .n ilill,!!Jl.I:'i ~ L!} ~ '!;.JIlIlJ.'I.U;; .. .!' Uil

~ru: iB~~1·2, fie: 1Mrea:' gg'1icle. ,c~re(~]iy dJstitn~res bel~l. LilixllilJ aM ~ltid~i(l"

!o [.,. "wriMmilti a1.I~.dhi Jill,W~. tiil~r li.l~.q ~t-qt:~r.l'. These ~1lJ ~leci"5l.o"s gJi' God

are Iir~ oogOOteJi irf'i~kidy if ~!)'~' in ,~a"r st~;temeu~. TheJr order of ~q,u!!ooe is

~~re.d hr;-re.. -

I'; [l'!}lfi];] i~ '~d :£0:("' iblbllih. ~te md! h~;lr~ 5~~tce pe:1iC:tfi~r. in .. A:rtein:[c, and tiT.FilS 'n"(" ~lie~ ~~. ~fliiiihllii" m2i:y be 'tHII1i!ila;ted! ,trI:;l ,~!::r'oe.ptioo ~11I b!4lth, !ti:ilSiij.~, 111(' ~rn1, :il.p:pn:{h.emki!l1l, Ih~ I!:i:IiI:11i::: 'b:~ mtrod.'ull;!:: ,i:II. -diistD.1iti.ingll llin-ge 'OiJ,T1:n,Ci~n~"!! oompp-, L'lt"fit ,of [il;<.at lilit,Q. 'lih~' EI,Ct ii!lf pe:Ii"(;;CptiQ Iii ~ in, ,!lUI j i\.iI alj;l1lil It iii t-

.:!' [~dli1iiit] essence, PiWur RiihmMl. poJl1I~s. C!U~. I~['FIJ, 1i,,1JllIrlim phl.~~'p:m.i!j." ttd~. t~rm, ~f..I1liitJ ~ '!JiEed m. s~r.i.d ~;:;:u~!Z; ~,) tElilmLg} ~ ~e11£, ,3-1 :tt1,!b~miJ1L(;;::; ~) cS:&emL'L~~ .. '" • 'mhl!: '~!i1I,Wd or ~;(m®ti!tillru"'e q~1!ll;~ !Of ~ ~!I~lg M a fflieti~beJ! of ~ ~,~,es, ' . " iBrUf.litrn.sb::d. ~;,;;j~ ·~trs ~()i;;~I.d ,~«r.i~~. l~ dci£ ~~~. '~t is ~~, ~,td~~!i)~t (llf' [mr~a~~[)'!I,luJ." ~·~~th th~~r;; !l:El.e:aml~ !lJIf [db.:ai~l a.!l r[':SS!l:iOO!:: :andi ~ulbstar~C(!:: !h!'1!1i1i\"t='I,'"er:i aft;': !Il(ulll!hilii~~. 3imid

_J""-(i . ,j! 'I'.-.~ .... ...l~~.~'" . .d 'L.'· in 11_, ... I"~ II? '1~'~iL._ 'I . .: I ~"[,..iI1!. -'.1'" ILJJJL'i:1J!I. loon ust=iJ.lJ, , .. " ""1 riJ e,:W!.lll~ 3iJ]!iJ. ,11~1:; H}JLti;~[S". _,I:rom. II: ~ .i1,u:l.!U!lII,lan II :aru)[. c .. !.;II~la.j·

:ulflJ ElJi"[~2.]

~'V.e ~'hi)] 'f(l;]auw ~b~ mar_w tf.ar~ati;Qn~ O'r [dMtl aad rm~:My.ih] whlch ,~ft: by ~.hi; terms ""~s:&e~l'l:t'" ~~ ·~'Ujddity~i'~ Ns:~iXtLII;.\UIV. The m~atl~l!I~ 0VerLa:~ ,~dI llIilil.ilS '~'.iJJI ~lritaf:i~e eo ~raite (:Q(]iifll,ilE.l\Q®" ~~pcclany 'for i5t~T:i~ b!!';gj~nh't,g in !)·MLo!)op~~y. A 'br.i~' ~'W' ,I)f: th~ l~ll f-or 'lM'~chl: (if ~iOO$® ~, (;{i(i:t.(lepts "'ii.>iUl, shew 8Jb~ cllose over- 1~.J;i' in ~~lT m~nill~~ ~1iI '~ ~ ... 'e ~mpi1agJ.:1l; ,of eaeh, ~·bl ihUill,gh ~!J;f, der~m ,~, ~~rnrp;.ijfged: [dh~] ~~ :=!nJ ~~!l;' ;i):.T ·~r~!ii ~aI e~~~iJi.i!!':e~ ,9J~1'(' l~H1~~J ls ,~f!i iC!S-.1ii?11i0i! ,in [t.~L'C ahstracr as. ;E~mstiIt!il~~ciI. ~.1I1l ~.ts. ~1a.tn~ hy ~It'i ]~I~!itit:nnr. .. Thts di~, thK:l1lo-1l :nnify hd~ ~:o ;;JNu:irl :snmc dJ.ffi Gl!I!l.t5JI::> " & tll:[mi~.ij)~' (kilt wt!. ]l1JPi::: WD1JM '~ ,C:Lanif:yirLFg we i)i'O~tle ~ne f~I,m<e lJJ_,i() of ·"¥ruf~ni."t' tL~f. [~lbiM]Ji ,.mil. •• "lU.id .. ~~f"

'[(loT;' [m~!bil~la1h].. .

!'J ["aJi.i~!!.!r]1 :plllrail of" ~iI1ar:a~]. & :a 1Il1!l1!f11li '!i!,'(: lcil!fl1lrmfy :~t, with !the <~uliW,w '~I:i!l:l'~~~~' (;,iti',dlliUy !Efn.e _and, we:~ ~.en~d, t~lii.IJ~ :i:s n~s~rr '~.o !bi!: ~iiO~ as CC::~~f~!lf lIxyoocl rne:Uit': ~tl1tt'l. 'l'lt!!: pr.etl.lDJrilincullA: :jJj[i!'J ~.u· ttl~ml use of IHu~ ~errn, j~'iI. !lJiljw ~ru['~~ti:tll1, ~will ~ct; as ~lo~ii,;~ :~~I)J1a.ng'"

. , lIlS.l).yd~~ p:r.eten,~"S oo~J~d l?,~e1.l~ ~~.mg as ~he I~I!QSt, t~~tli _~~~ lfl(liOSt ~~i.d iind of mtcl!OC"itw~ ~l;C~!~~, :!kwre ~~~!~, Qib~!1 by':3l fulll ~yi~,gJ_jrn, ,kJgi~ n::arom~g

lierJJ"e.(Ud.]on ~nd :peac:e be OM creation"'s best, M~hamm.ad:) 'Whom He sent ,(jut to ,ailll peoples o£ a W()lr]d ,c['!?,aut:ed:;; ~r[ojj'[~, He chose fOr qucl]im.g errnr

,~1rld :ro'F ,~ftwng up' a stallldJ:3Jm tiD ,~id{i Gne::~;5, 'Wa:~f:~ " .o whom He pI'om;1i!~d the p~~tce ,of ~nu~['!Oedin.rg.

011 tbe D'ay of S.OOw]~g' and Reeempenae;

,And al'm en his :rrun.]ly~ :rim'h~t'imJ)~ and !%:::r£w~~,

AJrud on .h~15. CQ:rnpan'imu~ ai] lnlible: and p~r}u~o

N~w' as t~ the $~bjec.~ matter dla,t fo]lom~

~1H!1te'rn of the .i!t1LreIl.ed, tiig£,ee '~oge~'ht':r~ ~l~d the wardens Qf IT,~di-

" , J. t • "l 'IL '11· ] • II.

bliliil gJi'!.ffi' their as!i"r~[)Jt~ 1'111 that tne wort ..• est matt~.c~T t·() winCH rnass

aedor may :ttm""!'; and the ,~~a'~S'~ th~~g for '!A~~~ ~.obi1.ity :uo manlcind m'afY compete :Us sy,s,tJem;lcic k_rtlfwLedl,ge:~ for i~ is :tUj~!lution to the heart, dlat' ,L:3 chief of Q'l[ur members, and. :i)t ,i$, ~on]'i,dIne~, 'to dle ]nt:e~lleC1!~ d:lll;t most :pGweirffi.)I] {If alII tbings"

Fer tb.is; reasoa God :Y,~t High roJ]][ru:::[~,dcdJ :&.-yslile.tMtk. k[jJ!Dlwl~ edge ,~lid :i~s lilJ[JJ~f:I. OO][~[iI'LUnJi1:y' in :m:i!Jny p~:a{:ES in th~ :Noh]~ QIJ.:lle"~i1, Ood. N~Q~lt Higfh. has said::.

"Those '\-"P'ilm advance SY~'!i'€!matiiC ,know,ledge God w.iU[ ,~dvanC€ by several ranks;" [Qu:r}an 5,a~ 11] and

~~'ms the balanee equal [between] tliD.O£e who do have knowledge and those 'who, do nCiit have ~]1iO'wl.edge?~~· [Q;,. 39~9] and

~~God hWl ~tiii:lfiJ!'[nt:d. 'ttn,j~!JJt ttlI:n:iT€: is [ij)(} diCilIf at ~n !I:"';..K:c~plt HimxLf~ wh~]~ ,an_geb a'l:!il the :fi',iends of kn(t!wledge do maintain juseice," [0.. s.~ [8]

The gr,ea.tcst ~lld rug;h,e;s~, kinds of k.~ow,!ledg!;;~ th.e romt perfeet and hCTil.eftc·]all allnOI1lg the tll!l'l'l:a~ [of experiential knoi'i,vledgte, a[\~ rhe divine S-C:UC[1ICCS of [our] revelation a[Tjd the partioWlb:riti.es of [[Gill!'] [:dJI?ii.an,

~ ~ II: '~t"

1\.1$ 4:a ~funee by' tb,cl'fl there ]~ ordered well-being fo.1~ :riliH 'who 'wm~

s'hip~ and ~heR 'is aw~[ded Ili.e· bO'!J]r]~ of :!i.aI.vatLali at the' Re.s~a[ati!))fi, ~

F "f ' .. ~'lilI'.1:.. • •• ~'I' • b "

nuts (I fiiTJ.:an'i .... U]lI.rC:.n.aeut'S m tl!l.CIT w]].cib.es are tnere U1 ,1,la]"l,!cst~ 'nrnaom

. ~

,1)ccel?i:S .h.t J?~R"eiv(id. d1L'r~ (II' :OOtlL .LtH!!J:LtLuu, ;iJinldl ttm::iOJi,I' all!i ';;1Jli~II!!I:r' is . .u'I'.If:Cki~lg 3.!I1Hm, ati)jllJt1i~!I1g 'b.3Ii:I:'l:. :tl.'lltdJ f®:fii!il, ~tc:m9!iing iht=!rwf!~n a} ~he ~~Mtl~ng "P:L~Jr:!".8 !!!it Cf!I:rJ)" oehdJll~f m~~i!lmJ.!IiI.~ and Ri;11it:f [~~ti:l¥a'l.'ifll!l1mrJ; :iliJEd Ib~ ilhll:: .a9re:o.t:l:ag juirlsrntIllt" to eaeh ~~e,~ iu the irfl~lrcrviflg HillS {If a C(l(i:1:c:tp~~otli of :K!-liri(:' ,e[ij~j!tV [itI~-t~dicg],

'9 Ir ~~.ffi!a~d1I ~,Iltnt:i~ I[,efm 1&-1" [the 0- - of ~SIl.iI"" ~ 'f - : - h ". ~~- 'fi;re....-..roo;-r~i\f ...

t -~ - · .... 11'···. ,IL - . - ,H'liy _ O"eCi ~on. ].5 _ _ . i!i ""- • ~~. ~ •

tao !I.-~i'- ..... """ aJ~ thhl;lp,~ -"'_II' , ... 11--,-; ~o7C' ... i"'w ,."-,,,; ;;''',''.A-' ---,' _ ....

. . ...,.~.-... ~ ~_. ~j ..,1!V'l:i... ... _ ..... .,JJI.IIJ .• '~ .......... ~~J~Jtn~~,

aJjndl rare thin~, of ,~ery :kjud are there to capt~,\~ak'- :Be who is adorned wlth these mel',elr¥ ~F~!1. ~e u!P~.n\('ic] arrow Jil~le;](J \,v]i1JJit:'!,o\er wi~hdraw!'; ft'(JJ:ifl th~~ [[]i'!;.1][}(1' :S~~!iIT:I!ces] mU. [~[[j,dood]l join the ' ...... ast ,a~mibl,.· Oill. Resurreetien D,at.y,~ hut, as il1l1.:S€eiug.

[fu drtis ,cii!]tego,ry (ill" Ute' dh1ne' scleaces t1'1e[\e ls one that has rug IPBer' :art ~u.J1,~ clm.e sysle:m~tic .knowlcd,ge of the fURdaime!llliJ 'P[,in{'_iplc3 ,(!1' [oiJ,lr] ~~g:ifin [Lb~'~ is ~peci(i~a[ly~, 'the ~'sci_,e!fice uf '~h,'~o.IQ,~caLI, stl'tt& r;aenCl, ~! Tms is the ~ndeM' [or d1ef~ ,aU 111 :s.ub'je~t" noblest '!:Jf them iiti elemenrs f\uldl c{liL'01!Jaf,ie~~ [iml~S~ of ilie'm jtn :[oundluwnal Sl]PPO'JlI.:$· ,~ttd m'os~ obw]QtlJS of ~.hem in :proof. ru both u ,edi'tee ab(!iu~ dle ril]8lH n£' the :r"pJi(gimJ3 llru.w and as a £'OUM1\'IJt];Ofl k'([' them, as ("Ju:il!:f :and fo~eroost among il~dJma~.,· of our ~ijgJj!lI~; and as OFe~eT of ~'he CliJJr~iu3l of ddvll1li'r:y ~ and give~ ,of aeeess to 'nile secrers of lord,sliiip, ['~'his '!2i-y.s~1'fiiatic !knm~itedge] 5.ef\td, 'lo dliV£dc bet\"!Ieei:~ th)l~ cl'!t~ sen r:igb(]!Ql]$ and the aJb~clmodl l~idred) and to (ftJiff.trr1l;4rtia'te' the ohtdeilliIJt" a populace ltvhooe: ~t!~'tlJny b d1vjile :forg1venes$ T:3 and good plt~su[.e;, Eronl [fie d.il:wb;tdje[~t~ ~. pqpulat:~ whose d~st]!tiy '~ ;e:['[<D'!' and terror;

\VritiNi.g ~r.iJ this Sill~jie!tl~ ,o~t$udn1ll.g- ~!J.].dlL{j[S of allli '~m£s and excel]e~;t scholars in iijl er.·aJ~ ,and pe1r]~ have p]"(t!d'l!lced noble v~I,'J;ui[les. and! pooi5herl CO\i:npe~!dju~ they have ~t:ri~!t<n ee de~hJ;e~~' ~,~tLt"f:!;a;te i[.'.IO\iioepilijj:l' $t~tott :fu([~i!ilme~lhtl] ,t[t~t~]. dooos.e unique tre~~utc~, and n-"CQrdi l!I.8Efi]~, Iessona, On behiHr of us ,al1~ may Ood. ['tw,a:[d '[hc:m abtmc]~u'tt]y".

Ho,,~e;,~1t ~ the beek {e;tltided] ~)',:i:' fJ/ Thlwnlig'hi Q~i~s~'~mi~ttt1~.a. "l'~ry learned 'wotk by' 'i'h~d: ~~ and ,~uftil ~,e~d~r~ chief uf C8!dj~ aJf.td

PI;! 1[ElI.za 1Iii-,illl.~[~ 3i.I-m!L{iililja~1 te •• '!;!I5Iil~ ~h!:: 'prl~~irl.1)" ~Iii :illl[~tmc:rulb'i~ pl:iL"e'Jllllilil!l::fliLr. :iJ[l, or.H.iIl!isi!l.j deii.'i!!Cd ITOJ1iI. till!:: iruiI.C~!::nm: Ar.3Jbim ~jjm!!: [m.aysirJ \'l,·hiZ:[il!' ehe ''icv.iJmc[ :g'ets. tit!! !'tE...enllh ;[!J: du,;; dMnung: iillrJi'!JcW.!'l. (Hru1::. "!.'V·!:';'hr~ . .iEJi£t_." ,oj .A{~ ~fntt~ Am~] 9'1 ,]iI1 ""Jew of the need fL:'F ZI! moR. ~!!Jcid ~::om.l~J?ti)oJJ '.~m::· :Il"oa.rrnv.iltg, is :I!'tfrW :!iug~' ~~cd 3.'Si a 'trili~~mon. :wJ: [.~I:m ~,-Jl:aI.iim] ~ <'ililJl!' ,oci.i2I~~!,;,;· tlf '~ri:([(~~,(ilI ~iI"ai:mj::=lir'. It

"L'I 1_ .!I • '!Le_ :i!:_, ., <1':'" t.~ _. 1 .. _ ]

'1Al1.l!Ji ue 1IJI:i!!WI '50 me 1il.1I1If'; 10; as ,U..cIrt'.I' ~ :til ~Cllu.; 2w~.I,;::· ,~IDJr ~u.!u:; :!i:rueinnt:Lc· 11'.'l.t'lJYii.~

m~ ;;1i! Hle :LiJT.tdill[l~n1k"liL pihtel];ioh::s (If our 'Ii\~~,!)~.'~ :$@e tIru: note .;:Ii~lMd ~1i'Lg' rLJIT1i~r i!lo][LlJ; ,I) of :&1iyda,wli'h d~uss1~il of tJn,c' ru'nctki[j~ (!(r '~hi~: sc:iitilJu'_

n:? :truu il:irt:lC'~ rr;a:~.~· aiI,-i!ln~r :miTI !liI'l~I!~~ a!,"'EIUI~ir]. the ~CiJ([1;d! ibIillf of :El\tJiyd .... ,'W,i.·s. llink beJiIII~ taken ,~S !ill1l.e fint .h~U' of (:H"L>e' CilImme!f!li;~'~, ~~ii.[e= The al'"l!l#~oe-(1 ~rn;laiJOctil rl)!" the ~·o ~jdeg illlmi~rnt~ d~e~~' dilffulro_1ii..:e i~1! pernf;l~cti""'TZ ~h;!:l;t I~.i~~s en ij~~' '~(tIrd (~Mt;Ji1:

,B-~yd~wi-~Q1J W l)QtlJ!J.i~ ~~(rt:4m,I!".g.from RAR flO:RJ<;rJ:NS ~f ~a" ~.ilWc

Ii" ~ I . ~::r -\f"oii'.~' .r"I1" .......... ' i:! ,I!' l.·~m'w..,~' iI') • ......~-- '(c'~ ,t· :~"~ .. , .... !';n'h. t$rl'lu:=!m-.!l:!,f,I;.;I'~Qi Jt~.::; ~~~ ... :! ~:~",,: ri~~J~j a iL.~!?,\Ii!WJ DR • .II~~~. ~ ,LY:t"'""".'ifi',l

G..i.~k1!.Il'JJf.I~ •. .I'.!

~iv.U pe:n]o~,~ an ~em'pllitJl~'Y mves:~g,a,toJ' ~ model of precision and fUle$t, [scholar] of modern di'fl1t5,f. Imam 00 illiLam and ~JlI ,Mu:sillums~ !ZAbd l\]hih a1~B~.yd.i!'wi~ God [Il~~ :t.ui~ spirit Vi'i[l'!tfa;ble :and h.i~ tJlJmb [".~~dU:iJj:ril.'t~[th.is tide] :st~ndl5 'iJi!Jl:~ from, amiIUJrg '~:he!ic [[other boob] for i!l3, incluaion of 'Uu,e fin~~t pr.OCUii:,.1)S !of reasen and. the ChO'll;e'St ~]®G'~ons of trad~:U'jO:[l.

~:·u hss l',t't<[ewed OUF reltig1i,o[l~I~ sources, Il dlliS'~ned :i~s Ol,ajiO'l' sections, &llirrrnliz:u:iz£d :iJt:s ~QV!~r.ning Im'!i!i.~" veriffied :i~ 10,gical d£mQnst[,~ti()t"~~ 'IlJ.lntang!ed hs problems and dar.j[j.ecl. its ewgulM. j\~Jtd, as [the author] ,hhrilEdf s:ar}'s~ rufl\(~g w'ith ]t£ ~ng concise ~11Ld ,easY' W remember, ~t embraces .ao:nlDepts tbat come f!l:um. :many {~is~::ipii[u;;s, ;a1~Dnlll;gll they stand. close ,together in '[i]a!l.'Il.y ,L.iil' their a:q"iet'_'tti" lt~ foundation prineiiples and :~iJil ropics ~,e well [[i;~' ked ,aJild i~ ~~~t'!l~:r,~d I[ sld]jeo~] ~u,p~ ings and, trartriSitiota.s are 'l""e:U a;rr,8,LIIgedj.

In l~g:ht uf th,ls~ (Ii, pCT80n whom I 'wolIl:~d not -wn:t'hsttand L 4- t:!il'1l.d

M!t}, WJ:IOlml, I ~a:~ (!!U~y a,g,re;e has requeseed me W wrllte .allen rtilr bim a commentary :~iS 4h that would not (jnJ~l d,eIi]1;t.att [the book's] mJtim:afr'ei meanings, state its, fundamental trufhs, cl:E5iClo'Se irs 'uu;iI1ilUie

~. ~-~

treaeures aad record i:m, -u~fru~ lessons, brWlt also w!l]Q.ld preseur s-y.Si--

'~e.m:alka]ly :~t~ general oorcocpt~,~ perlec t d~e ai:'tio!Jj~O:~:lI poin't8 w~~b~:~l '~f:t,em, epen up its problem areas and ~x[oliatte ibl enigmas. So m undertook t@ fulrulli tItc' :req'!uitt:[[lc[wts he' set me, aud J: :~Hi!ve k)O;,~.t:!tILed 'l!.!I.p the' ~U]tll.U}F;'8 'ri.ghtty [{,:i'd(.~d a.l'iJlb]$iU]lies of .~x.p:re~arion. and ha'lJ\f: e:nde:il!.vo:red beth 00 maJ,~~ dear- what ~:11~ m,e'!i!.llS to ~ruy and 'to pM'= ltiliclll~ri2e his [gener,fJjl~ fo]"m'U_illat~il)flrs. ill: have named this [book of :uil1i[I~~ ~ fl11,k ,[lis~'s d' bgiJCtll Roo'$(}.n~'~V;., a Ct)~l,j!~~ UpDtn, E~Ra.1S rI' ,lhWR!{;,ll~~' Oul:£ir~mi~ • .YJi.i' M'G~eQ'We[.'; I ~~;a',~ bJi~r£bed b ]n the name of oae 'Who is; 'p'~airuy' free ((if tdiLe [~itlan~,(ri,;\e ·~r..a.ces Qf bad baJoots and is .fWly endowed iDlJ '~'I]KJ,]fie: qlll~tie1i uf a :fiu,e chsracter, one who is a fIl()'lj,"'IDg spring of gen~r.(~it'i and good. deeds endorsed b;y the support of the Inel"ciful Lerd, a '[penon in '!,~rlllG:im:iI, [lJJfC centered ql!l2J~]tjIES, suitin~ the most ]'[loMe and, ~t:e~ lo:rd!lfy ,aJI1.d prince[y ~ grea,_t" s,pkudklJ and :mMrexf~L Thtis ,rniiiJn ]~ activdy' gu~~u of (he 'borden and ro~d][i'c3~ dh,ull.cl~' aided, and victorious, Cruef of the R~~e Fowes, and lJonm'!i~mer of the ~m Foooes., C~:r.ief {::rup'be~..r

rs 11..11:8 ~l Le., [iI;:i!i.n-J :r,clIj~(r!Iil~~ tiQ~!-'L

,Ioj; [Ma;~~ ~i1,-,A.!I1~§r; S~Jarr~L Tml,1'\ill~~ 'i:Ii~-.!~'!,mlL]

a:m,o(Ni.g .roy,al. c{)nqne[mr!'ll;.Il1 m~y God '(;e]ehr,a!JteU6 ~Tensth in, the stmg=· g]e for G!i)d ,mJmd i~ hM'd work,

'~'I,:: 1!; -,," b~t- fib. ,ll! .. hed ~L -~t~ ~ - -I"",dl 'I'i""i'i .... ~ rolence and 1,: ," ,;;;,r-;,~"b.fo;t,:_. t" 'U; Co • . 1:. !i!i .IIl!ilJS '!..o~, I:!I_ J.!h." , .... t.:I. Ju .... I.ell::'! ,8! u ill. u ...... l'!..o"\ 'U' ...... _~ ..... .,_,~ !IlbLiL Ie iP.~'!.HA .. ""'L~ !ulL'!...

'P~Q;P]~ of :rdili¢o:n and :[aiili. :~~~e :is OU!L Sultan 1\{oSl G!I."c:al1~whQ holds by dl,t· [leek :Jl fo:rcign lkifi__gs~ being l[hlm~]r] K][lg over aJ~. ~(igs, of ehe k~'bs and ehe li,On-&.',~j Bast, a f~ir mi~icl,ed master, a, hard. wcmrkins' guardian !!]f 'II)U!I." 'borden ,and ;[)oasl:.5~ tnumpuillt over

• cl" d- "" - '"b)]" - '"h rl-d-

'. - . I" : . ,-" 'i I' ' .'.". ' , .f ~., - I .' I" 'I '] •• I. . ." r " .'

e~e~ fJlll W;fi!. e V'l!ctDn.oU:5 -.' ,i1L'eave~:1I~~ ill. (."C1NLque[lc)~ 1:J![j. l, e 'iI!oO.. .

d " '~.; , S"] f' T ~il~~ ..:I I~ M r " f "

an . ]ii1 i()'!UI[' rtll.l\gJl.o:n~. '. u~'t-:M;l '0:' ~~;jj an![~ au n msums, ·f.,~ve~' iUi' J us-

" . I] ...JI 1l.-. f" ,~ ,,:~ .d'

bee· lin..il!J 'iM]~:"~,f':lii1'~' gua;[,ij!j!Jj.IDit Q' eq.llity Jiot 'wwe O]~prtss-e.u. 'Vt:['SiruS

'\'}J.YQrl~cns~ a P.Jl'CCt::lPffiTt of :~itjh. for' the pious, a l'1!egoilit3Jtm"' ,o;r ~~. menr ;~m(ii[lg belf~!fs--Abu ~d-lVfa:.~aI] M'u~a:mmad}"l d1l€' sen of our Lord aad S'ld[;a~ ~·fos~ Grefltt ;~d-'ii\·i'dk ~~l4~~'!I~I,.ilrr. S.~yf at~DjJm. Abu ,all.FaA!il. IQ~[:awiUn"iJ)

:~f'!,{ God ex.tc!IJ1Ld this :mJan.",s Soojf;:[{~~mty OVti ttilC 'iI'loI":Dm]~ <fir the

",/ e _ ~ -'--"Jr"

rbl.amk] ~~mllTmlity' r~[;" a prohe~ting s'hade. May Gocl expand their '~omml]iI1Jity by th~ lli)]ad.e ,of hitffi. !:!.\\outd and ~ the eharm !i:~f h]~ per-

I'~ [ . - <~I- ,- . J ~.'I:.,::- ~~ ..• -] 'I Ai 0'.'1' iL!I',' - ';.,n... ,·'-'11 ,,,.

,- '!I!J:J.W~Uiil W-.li~'11 ;.'I -mausa olII"JJ~m , ... ~Il" ~,; ~"ILlf5' ''=~Jn:::i'Slm~~ - ~~II ,i:GJ,~s~qt ,~

:~ ((in!!:: .. [~ . dt~ .. fl.- DliIll:r;illry,. t~rl,e~ .g]ve.n. . t,o. :Su. Q[·.:;::ssfid 'F n. 'lIif~.. L Ala" aitJ1!.- •. '.~JiI.ym:olJl'o. ~.'~ ifrt~.J

~ltruuJies ru.e~~ sU!J~~tI 'U~ ~l!iS ~r'!f~im~1. t~ .Ik ,~. 1{/ JJJ~~i1t. M~~. :1# ,Mi'~

:£I",.., ••• ~. !I . .r~. - .·oF"." '+!' ~.t;,;;;: r,~r: -a, u..", ~~'''' Ji,..t.·d_~ ~~ Jli\I.'I']'!!I'" ~""'T'ii" ......... -'oAt". 'I" _..I~~ll'''''''J;,_;li

,~,! .14N.~ '~".II~;r~. I,;.',rl.,. Po I!.IO"-!' ~.n ... ~~~ ~ J~~~ ;:n-.I'J' _.......... ~~!!&. _' .... 1!, .... ,I;A'='!..L ........ J~,

rJiU't as s~~-ted 'b'~ &ji.. Kh~.~,. i!O"-~ p, H~~ {~r, "'" e- ~, :~" :u U 6}, ,tt:!! MialliLk ~~$~r I~~,

K:i.l.ID.~II!Ii1!~ b~J¢ t,,Q, ~ill;t Sjllll.tan~~ r~:I)V01!:cii.f.ie: Am~li 3.'m.d Sipa.'hs:a:lar,. Kal!J~l1r1! ,:d,,&ILcl,. who .'!tt~ :It,~~~ by rum to! the !f.3![I!l::. [of "i/illh!rQY', N~.~:~b 3!]-Sa!I]aniLh .. - .",

H'1t\I~. w~ 'b~'WIl;'!F(' ~.~ ru~IJ.~~ :J.re-~d!;rug !lJlf ]'!Jf2lharu:':~ t;:::Jd 1I!1. MatiJji' ~·A!'!'~:ru" ai;:

Il.· • - " TIL 1_. -·~..:II ,,'_ . " .. ;1._ ;:,on l ~..,

'~U~I~ :romE ]!I. rIIot c.~~rnr.c~_ ,~,~~I! ;gl.l.i!i~;:u c~~[nlJlliC"lllt [Gn ~J~ une, y;!lVJ.!NlJ!n:31 ~f:i:l~1 , q~

ql!l'Qtcd i3l1h0¥C) d.nr::!i not :iu.~JjK!r.t ,til. cihla;]J~,e of (lbofiGi:lIil~m ,mil' hm 'lhool il:lTt[}m. ~L1ntilin alN:a:iir M:l1libfllli'liiiifi:ll<lrlt iM> :~\-1Ii1> d'rlt,f p~11i1lJcri~ to. till!;.':' ".I\m.~t 'Qawsuifi~. 'iWb.u· ,;:lI]w, i:IikLdle: ~1ini~ ~f if:s~h1)i~~":s p.ll~j[x;in. M;O'fe..!1J!;ro:r. if ~ ~.aJFd 't!il ,th~I1Ii~' Ith~¢ !H~~ :Khalf'lllh. 'ii.m~!r,dl na'!.<"f!· so int:t:rp~~;(d W·gl_i1Ih:;ir::i;.'.s AraJbk e~~'I.®gy (!If dli,i: !S1;Ih:arIllJ..

Hl ''li'"l.. "" if,,", 'I _ . ..:1 ,ro:~ . .iII' G-.;·..Ii· 'IL I. r;..'L - .:IL..iI ,!j:Ill'1L ] [' 'r ..:I

,. .II. J ~!l".l' ~".,.~ :til in I1i e (1:: e 5) .L'~.II8. Y [ "!l!!i.!I ;S<1]"'f1iIg1i~. Erli " _.. l i!I;I J aU'i./1 n TWa ~ u ,. _ a, ". ' -, •• ;. an",.

:~[S G8fiCt~. '9.B~HiIi ,n=m. l[m.a!),}u.8. A:hh •. -J.

i~ :K.rrn~ii!i!.iIJi :as: aJ.-Nifir M~~lttL:llliili.d~ he '!,'L\i:l.'i SWtt.iitu 00 '~7~t ru~.d S~~D&:L ;[Th.ilri~~g

,';1..." "_" -"..:1'.._ 1"I;i""i~ 'l"1l1"1-i ]'I\1~~gl_~'lJilj1inl '" .,11 , ";l,j""j;-'II(]'.,~ ~ 'gg~" 'i::I!. Co • -] '. "'.,-"<",'1).,,=. W':'-

!IlI~rn~ pt'rtdiUll~ L~.:r- '::""T~, ,,;;';;J ~ .... 1llI"', .!rlilrl il.,jI '!J .U .J!'T1l. JlU" , ... ~;aJiI"IT 21..- hiZlqrn:..:.!lI KI. __ .1ll!1..'-eS

:~n m!:l' crJ,:-Drrmr 6_~-:'~ii6J.t r~l~,Fill}" 'i~m f~·'i5'2:l ib1ii~. MahmiLPdJ :tlI·h(~i:lfj]j. C"Li1te !i.Jm, C:-iI.<llU10 :frurn niIJm~~[;!B> in ~1~'.I.e )"~i:llir ~.~" ~ 'pre.:o!dT.lii~hly n~l ~ 352, d'l.uln~ till£: t.bd:ri! 'P~riOO. of .ili~N;;.:tiiir Muhamm..aiW,s rult::~ i:lrnd in the' .56~]. yM~ Il).f hfilllil.:ti];'u·s I fife. Ilbn W~;it [!JSr) fi~)([irt.8 ~li.u l'daha'IJ1 ' ...... &1 ~~i.iw~1Bd 'I~ tn'l!: i\mJ!t Q.~,'!,V-S1:iJii 1!.'!!·h~) 'bitiilll~ a ~~i!Jlq~bi ,~ rn~~t al~ ~11!~l~l~d 'him as itt ~ha~~l,. F~fhl\1l'S this \'!l:3.s ~~~r !i:liw; .rMt'l~uw:

Q._'RI!,'¥G!lIn. lbllI;])t~ Si5l !:l'n!J<'\'lln III ~.e, :rnl!lip ~nd Hi'S-t iD:f molliumen~:s w~~'h J a, Jo:l:'E11i-eI':s. al"ti,;tJ\e <I~rn'" ~ ~n i!i1U1: • .].~',. '~w~~~n w~.S', !ilu ~.dt~.Jl',~ oo~"'fft!":lli'll·w ,~1iii1l;1 l~deE !(If ~he :KI)'&", ,o~f~j (i!i!fi 'I)f' two p~"C'J' if"~jCltLQe~ :(l:et~¥e ~~ '~he 1~: ~1i'5: oli :aJ.-N~J!" :l'i"f~lil~,t]lJ'm21ill~~ re~- Ec[, P"~l, I']'Qh, ~r:iI;" ~M~l.ltl!luk;' '[~ ~L~]:"'2'-] ]~(2IhaJll,·.!'l eommim:i!Ol1! ~;Q \vri~· thi!i. oo«.tlTIfJ.e'nt~ry 'WiJlJM have 1:M!e:a, ~veJI! ~om;l'!Dil.lI1iIf-! d.l!lrir~! (~"{]'.i!::: ![~[I)~ )'f.:2i!rn, 1.3,:12-134 L

11;1 al-.MiI£ru~,o!r: QlJa'!,'!,f!lJIii ml\OO. as. Stilh:'JiIl. uf :I~pt. ,~.l!Icl S:j'rl~ fnocm ~ 2"'9' to ~ 2::10~

9

$(liDa~ity :OO(lt :~, ;safe~~[id and vicarious [dtl,v.i.i(1c] regen:e}f'. M'ay He :m~ke' ,~e~rly ~, place ,[0[' die eseabllshmem of his uoble eesidence anfl,(l\ng' '~he ~bod.es of t]u~ S~[':3~ tOn~ t:o "he compk:reiy adorned ~th an hap-

• ~ ,~ ,." ~. " 'iii:!..Jj

pi nes s. M~,y God peruon out de~'p~r,atiliO:.rJJ" " ~itld g:r:ne.rou:l ttiteH:neot

amorag [I.h,e ,kin,S;;s] enemies and] his friends [iPtspecti,veQy]-----a~ lOj~ as ';'~lh~ n~s'ht 'blC!t~ 0'1i1,:~ and the day shines f(1irth;] [1Q..U!f'~',a1:1 92~ ],-,21-

as recil]mp'em~ fo:r. some of [the' ~~f:ij (~'n1l ~!nrl ho~pi~~ll, and for a W~:::i]'MI of }ilj~ gtDOdnciSG ~;ild grace.

The I"vgJu~st hlilm;b.ly brought liow i..'<i tliat ()ut of tlli!Le a;buti~tU excelience (JoE his [roy.~[] natnre [the 'klJ!1:~g] '~U, giv~ [Il.~ wci'~~i!;'n W'O[,k, of ,mine] a, :[avo:r.~b1e rt()eption il':JJ hls 'fllagnOO'iL'im~~' arlid g~n€'rollilty" ~ 5,8.

T3

Praise be tn Him

\VhQ~ '~s:te11l.ce ,and ri.)ondnljl.!lIlilPil: are a iIl,Cct:ssa:ry confirmation, A~1d \J\il1ooe nOWi~~t~nce and p~~l'ij~ ,at'lNa:y are thus g~~£~fiiT£"

~I 'ventedL"'

Demm:l~t;mt~iilg' Hjs exl;uii-llg presence ate: the' earth, [~is ilo[l£~

and the ~k'f; H~~, aJ)O'oe"

W,i~sing to IHls ~tl£(\!m,PQf~ble' s~ngJU'~~rh:y' is '~Jie ;C8Jrt:fe.:ll fm.ln.d.ai:ion. of th.e universe, and. i~'S, va.~~ supe ~~ru{u:n"~~,

He is -me Omniscient 'ODe who~ ~rledge (!lJm1'Jre'he.Jiil~, ,~e:ry'~hb\g

rh;~t lies beYO;]l!:el liErrit$ of '~'he fm~Ire' i'!i:Jl Jmmbe:r and measore.

IHle is the O'm.1Jl'iflotf:'F!I.'tt 'Doe' whose, power of aUJtOJ,](Ul10'tIl$ a~ti,o~

JI '"I • ..l _..11' ~

{]O!G8 not eease urpO!l1 :reaching a ueSIlJ'tiu go~~~

U[i.iJ.D' Him [all such [m~] ~:[S return, By Him [[all. such ha:.~] i'V...'I;j, bif,~n!l].ing.

He ,giv~s Q~'r '~O eVIeryt'hillg ~n heaven and earth

]:r~. rhe sequeuce of Hi$ :par1ic~J!~~1;;o:jllg OOli.t1l:r:l~~Jid 'UpOlJU the clWS100nl~:\r'](' 'ru~t:, of His; dedsion pmn,t.."'ii~l

'II "".iII" ~ "'1!J[" L 'L'I _] 11",,]"' 'i

" .ilJ\-~ maJcS!tJiC :ILl' liS J,~.II]S Pl'l'"'iNC[ ~ J:~)!Ji''''!f ~U:::S:~-Cti are ,II.-:U~, I!llUIJICS,

M~a.g[JIiifi~e!l]t are Hi3 q]ual~cies~ and universal .H:~8 beuefit~ 'W'alliJder.ing a~d 'iO~l ][n the great v.q]de~:1e~s of Hls dlv;nuty

are the u[teDtio:ns and, opinions of [man's] intcUect; ,H'opimg :for ibu:t ,affordilllg' '110 pe;roepitIO[l ~f Him,

~t"e the ~l~Jn'i.i'ays of [[]~JJrI'fiJ~1iJ d1oiUg'hil:, and all IJt$ 'byw,~}"£.

I pr~,he Him, yet praise -Qf Him l~ beyo:ud, [:ne~iJ.trj.l1g. I thank :H'i!lll> y.t:t dlal1k!ftu~ne5S ]@i ~srO :Ol.s gift"

I JJray ]OIL~ b~,€-$sj!l~' '!J,Ji1 His ,Mil8u:n~r~,

whose ~J and tlj)'i~ made supreme tb~ g~jdafj)oe [of G~'dJ~ .I!!J[~d who~i!: courage ~]];d ~b1ili!fy quelled error [in 'ma:mikiii~d]: 'J\lay God send 'bleSt~ng 'lli1ip!iJD 'h~m, and. b15 :faN:ili!ly ~

as Dong as the b~ight fuJi m(tion sends oa£k ~fms. ~oft beams.

[B.'er16]1 in [[Bayda,'W'i,'~~J p:re~mllb1~~ a're ,hitoluded most ,of the ,eSlScnt1al topiCs; 'i~l t.1m~ ,p!ltinc:i,pl~ ,of Om" :rt"Jigji~D" ,runolifg 'tt'~,C8C ii$, Ol)I[ al!.IL~'hQ!l'~S

'~'i ', . ..fI .,.. ~.r;:'- '. ',':,." 'F Iti'o;- , D;' " ,i'tjl~T~ sd 1:1-< ?";,~.~o.;"Ih' it· ~.~.~il

assurea eennrmanon 0 me ., ~\Jl ne 1')0", aser af.ll ~~ .r. m~, ,,,,,,,,,,,,-I!'!I,llJ!u~e$~ ,;;t!,N

his admi:r]~1g ~clamatio:rui, at Godfs b~autHld gr~nd,e~[' as he makes me__rntiOf!l ,o-f GoQd~s n~.t:~~~ ,e-xii~it;.'{;[ij.ce' ,~'ijjd His :p~nnar:J..ent {jrI!lr.t'~~!Il:~,B anee, <of t!)ll~ ~rrJipossibiliry of His ]]l)i:Le::ri&l:e;w.oe and ~~ing away~ of Uis. 1Ji.b~oi~J~e Si[~g'l.diiJ:i'ily and Hia l!ti:~o"'iv~,edge~,2~ of Hls [)ow,er O,f autonomous .adlO'liL ~I1d S-fjJ~:mg~ w[[l!!i'"(lil, of H~f) :prim~vH] dCici!ii(Hl and 'partiou.LaJHzing comfiutl!ld, of D'ils n::sto[,atioJi and :ioollgMmtio:h [of ,aU thi[],gs,J) and of [H~, ]91sl:iw,tii:UILru a pJ:iopheth,ood, ~bill[: ~:lfl :itseJf]] is; God's abJjli~' eo he~--atd a new 'o,f('le;r"

No!itv ~ [~'he tefili1J] '~Pral~:~ its holll for eulugizin_,g, ~uwd .fort. proclaiming dl~v:UiJ],~' r~,\ur in ~i['id§IL~s tina oth,cr good thhlg$; as ene ~:fIj,}~~ ~~I praised, 'mis man f~~~ hi~ gracious deeds, ana I p]"'..i'i~ed l1i:um for '[jj$ good q,g8:~ti,es ~;itd 'hi~ CQU~~~",

~ :fur~'h!!all' {lOOfl~~i:2!~' 'IJ!P(IO 'ht~~:~'~ ~,~:.i!" begirn h~~, :!iJlt-.o"iJlli~ '!Ii: ~ec~jO:I1! b~l section.

2J True ~i);ri~~ (If 'I~ h'tliJil 'Om~tkd ,thn~ '~~rt1!ll"'

f""';~.A 'b ... ~,~"fj' ~,ik ... 'iID' .. ~1 ';:;'m,~1 '1-', """ '0/ "i'i,';:;' I'G'I-' "~'" '''';[; ~""H'~I "'.IIicf'ti:,~, 'H";.ul"}

~, lU~u";E., me .lIit ........ 'd] ",~J!U, rue " 1.Ii'!...9 . ,on'!.Ji~ !l)Ullio;,._, ,.I.~,Ill"'ml'" "\5':1'

a." ]s that ,OIIiJE; who is described in ,tilttri,rbu'~es ,of' m~icmty;, a M'astc!f whose ~liJ.,aalitUe~ ane all] pe:rfection., a:nd tJ1:llierefQf~~

b. He is the 'One 'W!Orrth.y of plraiSie' and 'Ve:If:),eraJtiC'J\l1_ 1V[D)i,',e:~[~t,

c. to ch~'aiC~:e.:lri:ze t]~.'1~ ~1!))Slt ffigl~ in terms of H~, necessary e~ist~ ence [~ild ]lJt[].c~ every crt:a:tu['~;:s ,[)h]~ga,tk~l!i to H'im] 1~ [tiD :mstJe.;J the :rrUl!1da111,elnaJ, statement t{;$i!i__fY;l1iir dual He is iJldeecl,ch~terized

.' -0

by attributes @'f div1inb;y. Therefore,

d. praise [of 'tlle dlhitlie] bclo.n~ ~,peeifi(;dy to tha:t Essence '\,Vlw is ch3:[~I.'ct'Br..lzed, by the nec~-sgh.y .of rHi~J ~ns!t:eli1lc'€';, .t3!11cl that neces~.ry exi$ll)en[:t has ({i![t['Qmi,r\aut~

i n [he nc~t:$S~.ly of [H';~]] '[pennalltI'i:IT COtlil1iiU~\,fiCt': ,Sl::il wen as

'2. 'nl:ll(~ il]],~~bi~:ity of [F is] nonexistenee and :pa~si~]g' awary, In ,the. :.:UjJthar~,~ pneamblE:' ~:'D,~'~ '~he thitrd, h~jFO'p~tior~:] i:;;, (OWl sildJef !9d, as 'reb:~, to ,the 'nfi~:~ ~:rIfd the :Iast M, :Ii\~'~ated to tile seeend, 00' he (1)111- plemenred the 001[" p[ro:p~):Jtion 'Vi,riJth tJ:ue second, .aJnd (~m:pLer[te;][ted these two \!Iwf"ith. the [h~:rd m:ad £ourt~t,

Then [llayda,"i11 :poh'iJittd out oollllethLn..g that de!~l.o~~gtr.at'e.'l' the Moot Hlgh 's ,e.xlJstt::t!Cf:; '~Y' the :FifH~thod GJif d'te Nllj]tak:al~jjmlLin,~'~" [n~ttr.~tily ,] by ilie ,e'Videtl!0e '" 4 fCllf Hlis mns!!ic]lcc in Hi~ WIJi.rkfj.~ th",~ most eviciteD)! ,of His '\/ilol1ks. demm:~str.,aJJtin,g Hi~ ,rros.tt[i,i!C€' 'tteilJi,S; the earth and ,th~ heavens, G,od ,~.fCJst High ~itil.:

~ndJeed~ if you sheuld ask Ithem" ~\'\i1lo created ~he hea\i~ens and dle [e~D.tit?! .. " Jililust ~ii..lt\::'1Y' they ,,<\!iU :say, G'od,:~' [[QiJlt'\~i1 2~t6 'I] 1\13'0 He saiJd"~ '~C~1JlJ them he am.¥, doubt abeut God~ Cm~t~Jf of dl~ lil{!3'V~ ens and, th€' earth?" {ret ] 4~ ]{}1

[Bardaw1~'s St'd't'e'H]Iili;!ntJ §11\li'~~essing' to Ifjs iJllL;oIlm,~rdble :siQg;u]a~ ity is ~ht CBlreful £'i])ll,:uodati,on of 'tilt universe and :i!iS vast Supe:rst]iLl(.., rure" ~ ,Iogllcaillliy ['eqlll[[f~ [in itJLu'[a,] the deurnl that 1here ]~ a pJurathy of gpds~ 'ffir that '\N()'UI]d, 'be a si,w~don Me--ces~i1y ["e~ld~ ~n 't~e disinte~';]:iitiml of beth the heavens and 'the earth, C'Cl'd ,s~jdj;

"lf dllere ~hO'~1d be In d~her of them [i.e., 1J~lI\~m, OT ,e~uth] (leid~ other ~'h9IJn Gij)clJ~ then 'both, '[h,'L-r.'l'WlT!l3 and, et3Jcth] \;;Jou.ld. b~ d~h~;QYtd, ~~ [0.. 21=22]

[A4 a, gr~un_n]q,uicaJJ ]'j,0't,e' here.] dle lie~-'J ""cardid tb(IJ.~A.ati)))I1~~' [:r~f] "<id~ the '~lt_.ieS'Ct;[1i~ le~/t.ID"' L.ft ~~'[~~] ~" is a v~rbal noun, as (line

m :MiS~: T.Hj( ooj~g to :j;\~~, fjj-!Jfi.i t'~te t~jt [ill~<~iiiJ] to ihe e_ill~ [il;I,~<~Uahl. "Fh~ ~'M~t~!:)~m~m" :RH! t~OOil:i ''iillho ~;!\J:'Oi;ctl're ~tt1!.,;; oc.ielilCe Qf thoo~~l ~t~ent~i.!'!t·"

~~y.s]; "The work of set~ing' Ir~Ftru] the srojje~ inro 'ilie btuildling I p'~rF~rrr.w£d ~a:refld])y ee give ~t ~. ;s'~8Jb:i~j:l:y [a'q,11l'flllfli :r,~~fan] 'by pu.tting each one of them together tug;hdy.,~;

Th~n I[B8.\yd:a:'!.~] 'made i~ ~]~.n d'lL~,t O~d. is "omnisd,enf by w~y of His ~kQow:ledg'e~ j; :not 'omm~~e!)C by w~y of H~, 'essence',

a, :HJ8i :ktioiw]edge irs; a 'uni~~ and co;mp[,{':~:i,e:nds evei)'th~Dg IkDO'W'~ ab],t that ]i~ b!tl:fO,nd tb.e ,[iIrit: of rou:t!L'tting- ,0'.1' :rnBam[',irng. MS 5b b, m~deed,. ~ 'lis k~01!.'~;Ledge is a 'Ulnity d]a:[ ~ iink.ed '00 each and CVC]l rm~.ve.nia1 ,:'l!J['iLd partieular, 'both those ~h~u: cam 'be sensed ::!iJM those that can. be cOrIluivcd" God. said:

~~He' ,bas 1kn!l:n~~,€1d\ge of al~. thi]l~'~,~ [Q 6~ ~. Ol j, etc.} and.

!!N!(lt a :~eaJ faFl:~ but H,e :knQ''WS of 'it~ ~::LO:l' 'is there' a seed ,in tile darknesses of rhe soil, ~o]" ~aly place OlE mni:sttuie· or of dryness but till is w'ri.'tmn dmm. ~D a Boo.k of Plain .ltiUoo.rd ~,.!t,,~ the Qt[Ii'~'an r; ~ [Q 6~59] ,~mj

!!God is, One :fro~:iJ1. whom [:mrcl~]n,g may be hidden, wherher O'.nl fHUtJ1 'Oit :1m he~'!IC1ITI.~~, [Q 3~5J and,

~~Thoug:h you may ;a!l]JiIOlJm~ ~!l]methiT~~ ]l'm'bil~ly .. fi[iid :kno~f$ what ls LQ secret and wnr.U, is, ,s[iU mO're ~jd(l,en." [Q 20:1]

:Nex~ [,~~ydift1i.vi] ~e~ fl:JrtttJJ the 'lac~ th~u: G,ad b OmD.1rpoterit by' w,ffiy

of :aJ. pO·1Nt1t of ~u'ro\ThOmO~ll aetion

a, ma.! ilj iI1iocctsm::;liry t:1bTiJlI11;gh His OWiJ], C3!M.::.nce~

'b. t:h.at 'IS 'CiulItir!l.1l:nJl15. W:r"O'l1lgih His. 0"!Al1l1 continuance, and

e. tl'!l,a;t is nuked to ,aU the possiible realities. The [po,\W!1f] t1l.lill!t ~f:Ee5, some of ehese po~~ble ;rea'~i~ktl· '00 become real i~ro~('JnJ pheillOJmif:FM •. 1:t otrt..un, m.Om,e:nts ,!J)f time acts dji[(Jli,~~ the' li:nkligt of H~; di,,~~ will 'to eaeb nne, Thus, H:~~ pil1r\.ve r. of alJ.nQ[ij,{)ll1I~US· action does I]~t cease 'upon a:,c'iIl.ie'-if.ig H~~, desired, g.~a1l~ f(!ir it is p.ro,pei~y His, right 'tio restore 8lgain seme ~~] to be desired 'by His wjU~, just as :i:~' ~ fOLrever His 'rig~'~ to begin [WD·]'1k~ng for] it CTOd :~1,o~t f.~~gh. ~rud:

H~ 'N:e imtr,ij);dju('''-ed. the f.i.nl't cfta1(!d thi.ng~ :5.0 liVe' shall restore it.·~ [Q. 2 :~, ~ IO~~JI~

Po; n~ 'bcpllin,~" and. -nh.e' ~re;'bDT~tion' '!lL'5-'Llm.!lr,-' c-e[;:::C's :a) 00· llii.e' 'O:~f:.il.l~;~ ~l':e8!ti~1'iI of :!i~rhDng: ,;]otl its irtSWiatWn in Id)e R'l"lruiTf}(;tion. Or ~ ii miiv ~.cr b) to it :;'hil1in;:::=: uem~ g~~" t'h;;;llt ·'.·il:lM ~t '1$ a{:hi~'i!ti~ .~lfj' ',~~~r" etf God. ,&s J:iiOt fr~~~t1 by ~la'!,f· ~~lig '~oo'llim~r :Il1;[][If' i'{.i' ''iIIr"OJ1k oo.w.l!I.m. ,ancil '~h~ aJJ!Dth~iI' ~aIl i~ ~!l';:~: and li:h":;:;Fe l~ ,2;, be.gh'\'l!l'un~l' ,agili~n whiil:l1I. ~.s a I7!::stij:rtlJtliJ(1] ,Ell d~.e ~'enre of <,~e«!mm!I:l!ic'!!mi::[ut.· ~n il!h~;!; plaee

_I: .;L . 'I'. .. 'Il t_-~ 11:' .••.. - .:L .<: _., "':!lJII' <,:-: .Irl~ '.. '1:'- I ~~ 'Il..-w 'D II, _.[1 .~

IUj, 'ill te WI;JE',..... a:!n~ IIl'l! t:1..II. ..:)i;:t U.~.c!, ZLH.Llt.::J.e -- ill' J21 d'uI 111 LoU - - L, "" i ,l .... L i'i;Jil'ilZlll~.J"~O!;.

1.3

on [D~._..A... "J '11·' .... .:11... ;r;...l M H··;i'!o"1 ~'I-

. len. .D.lIi:r~'W'1l. ~J)aju},e!;J. 'ma,t [iUfOll.i· ost ngn raases arrange-

l'if.1l.f.'IIlt for everything dli;8Ji. i~ c['e~u:ed. f[\O\m the ~E.ar'i/f.EL'[jiS to thil' ela:iih ~.. H~~~ '''~:r[k:- -~ ar-l' -i'~a" comm ~U1Tl.c]' 1[!I"iI~.~] ''lo",lh ~chi:rrn tu]".m!. follo1.'io'S

""'7 . -' l~' - . i!J , -- ~~-'."'4::!' ,~ "'~ '~.Ii' ~ _,]I - _._Jl~. - ~ -

along the cU~~'Qm(i_ry rule of His (prim:e:vliI~ deeisicn ~ [qa~1" Gi.')f] ~ood::

~~,E, .... -erylhiD1g th~it We 'have ~liC~.dc-cl hitS hGt~Jl th'(uUig'J;i .~ pZllrtk!l;l~~'ri~irug ,oo:mIil:lIaml·~, [Q:5 4~49] s "There 'Is not one tbiUfi:g of ~~hiel!L \;Ve do not have a ;s't(li[l~'hm_l~' fiJllt, ,an~l 'Vile ''!r'i.1iU net deliver :lit [to ma-rikind] exeept by our well k:Ii1iO"i.-"n pf,fruJCul(td~~'~ ~om]1l~]1cll- ]~. [Q ~. 5~'2' ~ J

So, llis '~primeval deci:ricnj~ irs. an exlPreiS~io:(U [U1f d1LC oJiiltilry elcisu:~ e:tU.Cie' o! aU created bdn~ withbll the &AWL qf P/lJm Recwd :a'r.Jld. me -Seifd) F1'tsuqaJ hJJtt~,~'~' ~~ of ~J~JJe:rill j'JJ~V]~:1g been bfU't.gbt tllJi,gc~heJ" and

~'~I ~ ~~ , .~M· i' •• 1 . A ,~ __ .] iDIi' ~ •

t~·h:Ullt;!l . .iI. u:p ]I] ]'":"(;aU~.:nec~s 1101" an Q[']gIfUIJ CfoGii.'-lltIDfiI., dII.JJU, .II. .wi'S: p-arUC1J-

[.arizi~g 'CiOllfl'iJJ)lIland: i~. aI1I, expression :filr' their existence ~ haJ.\;Jrog· been fJ,]a'~ed down, 'wkh.i ~ dle' i odi,vidual ~q~.ddJjli~ie's ~v an(\;;!1.~ ,tb,GY have Qb~jnoo IbThte:ir various cOl]Jlir~g,em ]~C!llO:fS that ~ecifka]~y, di{~re,~tiate' vi!Le~n otu: h,' one, The ~'ou.5tQm~TY p!rd(:lliii(:C~ I[L~" by '1~'iillLkh His. :P;!Ilir-' tir.:!llhu:izi[~g command fD-lrnows [i~ s· primeval decision] is the ~·cllll:iWm.~ a11' '~ayY ~ as it :Us :s;;:~.l~l that a C{!I't:l~D :pel':BQ[l h4L<;j ·pe,ui~ted. in one ~ci,.!!~:wma'ry W;;1!,l'""

Haw gjOriOU3. i50 'His power of autonomous aC'1tDQ,['I9 IllmoipDt:entt over all 'tba:ngs~ .aIW not ,cea.s~l1g 'U!pOD the achievement uf Hi.~ desired gDiilil~ How bJle:s-~ed. are His ~me$; that is, ~~~ His names 'be esalred and '~.na:gninoo. i{n'\-re}" a:ny de5.crr~pl~ons of created be[n.gs~ God 8a:Ud,: ~"~le~SlGd is the ~rnn~e ,of 'r-~ l.oTdJ, 'ut'iJ(O 'l,Vhom. 'foe ~,Il}':y and h,ooCi\f', J(~ [Q. 50:: 78]1

H,Qw gttat j;s. Hi~ f.a'l ..... or ,that I·Ie fuas :s~:ttH.wcred UiP('l[)j 1Jl!l both @l]t~, ''l,Ji,r~:f.\dJ.y ~'!Ild i'I1i\¥i.r;ird.ly; Ho-w' il;miveil'~ are ,~]~ 'be:D~f]t~ ~t ir.tclud~ all created beings, O!)]d. said: HH:e has, sJloc'i,v'tl'ed His favo:rs iWpQi[l you, both O'!J.]tw~:rdl~y and ~:m"r •. i'[{~]ly'~~ ~ (Q 3,]1 ~20]1 aJTIl,_~1 ~eJf yen!! should count up ,every fa.'!iSOT of 'GQd.~ yO'o could not re~.H~JL '~'h,ei:1' total." ~'Q. ]4~34i, Q 16~Ull

'[No/l;il,'~ note &'~itawi:~s e~·q:mes$i(Li~], '~wan~lering and lost", th;aiJI is "bewildeeed 'iltl {he vast wi~def.n~&_il, L f of His ,dh;rijnh;y are the rtneitti!lr~ uf .[:n'il,.8j~l~~] intellect" ~ that is, observance ifJIF God by O[i,t':s, mental vision, and by critical op:tin;,Ciil1:S ab·Oll[ ,H'lrn,

'~,4

,Observance ~n the l["u:cliller:t by mental ~iOjj'l~ when ~ethim;g nee~~:ilriily cannot be p~F'Cei,ved dl]"ectJ.y,~ is ;0-111'1 a 'Pi"OlLfj~, of cl.dlFltil'ii!g a'~d dk~~~jJbin.g> :B'll~, 'th~ Cr'ealo:r ,Almightry h3!~ no CQ[TI~,ll!Onzd~.fi.y with ~11lything else ,all an, 1r'Yil:1Lct:'Eler iflll the iCiIl:!i:egcry of g,enu8 ow ~pecicf:!~ so. He ·~aty :r.i,\O't be s~p~:r.ated d['s;tin~tIy [[lam a!llythr~]]lg else throug:t~ dee e~tegorf of ei't11el:' ~ped:1k dur~,re:tl!c:e or ;f.!..c,dde;1[L'I~. q.mil~:ty; ~~a:ther., He is ,rep:3!rn:t\idy clffi~rjllct in His essence. Therefore, there is no ,dJe:limiIt,~ ,ing; [de.f.iiLjtjj~~!iJin :for Hlis ei~£n'O~~ ~inc~ n,~i.tJh.!tt gitlllUS 111:~[' iliffirr-rnce app]y' to U1m. And because He is separately ruSd~l(( in His essence :f['Chm. 1'I.uytt'hirlg e~~', H,~ has no Idbvicus {.'D:nCOJiiL]t~n[~s the CCEF.I!Ge])~ d(.;H!i. of which ~~~_)u'id (:lo'l1Vll!Y the iDtellei[~t '10 H~s- :[~.,~;~][y. Nm" ]~ there a desrdpdve' de:11..:..nitj.o,11 ,oef J~J1m that wmlld c.CJ~\iley [l'he intdk:cl;] W th~ ob,se",~tice ;f)if Him, For ~l: U'~~~:Ii d~~e rt:fkc~~o il,lj, of the 'iu!reaIect ha'YI~ guile ~nder:itr:lg ,mJ!J]d ~.ost; ,tha:[ is, cbservance fir Him [fai~s] ~ 'tOOJi1l1, which i()JI[i1ccptrOD ~.r [Him 8] a mental ob}ec.ll: ~JfiIilJd be]ITLcl1t~ and aliso (,:[;'iti~ OJ?hli:m]~ about H:u~:n [fai] foom ',"',ihkh j'Ud~lle:nrtal assent ,;!Iibout Him would benefit,

(Tlft~~ i~ ~.Qj because j~dgl'rn£lJj:tt3Jl assent in. lQglc 'I'e.S1Dl~tS only from, a !S,y]l~~$!Jc !nre:rel~ce f['~lm I) the cause 00 'me e'itfee~~ ((I( frol)] 2} (he ,dI-ect ti!]· the cause, Now, th,t:, ([[ill [a]tem~d~ve] w!J).uid he jmp[!i~ib]!t in His ease, fUF He :i~ the :Ant C~.use'~ the E:x:hte-nila] Caase of alfl. 'C[~iit~:d tb]n~} from 'Who((]~ 'DOt about 'tV~hO]lfi~ t:e~~~mll)ny ils; :m~:q'liI.e~~ibd. The second [a.dt,ernati.ve J sometimes does not. p:rodJ!uue ccrtaun.ty. 30 the irru~diectt becomes oorj!f~~~ed '" God ha~ sllidl.

U"~N e will. $h~w them 'Our &ij~, both in remote regions ;;3Jl0. w:i~l1itl '~h~mselve.s~ ,$0 tUi.H it :nJility be: ,C:~t~r to ttJ!ill:::til:i11 '~;at. dti;s i:s t1lt:: trud1" Or are y(t!u not $f.uisfied !t1111~1t yo!U:Jt IAllrd. ~ a 'tr.l,1Silwo:r~bry wituesSl ~Il ," ''''''n.t .... b.,~TiI,~:';i·" [Q' 'I 4'1·~,~TI

ev "-" ~ .I !ill!IJ .. ..g. '.. ." JI ,;;J ~

[About. this lUi'Ct'liL'taJinty B~ydar"...~. s:3ik~l, ~~Vi(}le:nrtly sbakirnt~ t i~h:!!lt.

is~ ''!.q,ith a oo:mplct.c and inc,omp,FCb'E:ru:i'hlc 'bllot:kaJg'e~ ·~~u .. t, the high-

£ n." ] ~., -.. d . ~~ ,-, ,..:Ii '~~ h a - ..j(" •

way~ .ail: LE,~umaJ!J. tHul1i[k]ng ,:}]1'1I." its :im:l€:uiJJOOS: ~ tr at rs, the !OTGffiit':O,DtH's

:i~: rakes ..

~be~ ha,w recewecl theillt id~,(}~ltif:yifllg (j.~~U~rjc:t, '"1LhC}" m~.y be '~I:J~u.gh~ of exi~'tiu:g mcut,~ll~' ,!'.)'JjJv~ (tijj' ~~rn.lj~~'[l~A'1lUy ~[f~ ,e::rp:tc.rro~1 re1a~~ty.

:!fI btah:t!;llY~ ;;;J.:~~~n~, ~lf~:rn~dktl.Q~ '~~~ ~. n;:til~,V(:d aa fu.llm~~: thart. Qod In.w.~r h~ iootr,a:ctty' ~m1~~tf:d :!i'!l tJ~· N~c~1i)' and Obll.g8mnj3; fus~rnJe ['W,ij~b a1.~'WllJljmJ;, and tbiil!~, ithilli. .1ffiITIl!llltion ~11!ir1. iilu.C!· ![)bvir)~ toru::omhnn1.t [err ;\iiCil.:C::;@iLy iD:f It;ontlirlTl':l'ru::e'' ,tri.iild the ~Im~j.u~ullity ,u.:f i~u:tl~lC'ri.f:oe' :iJJ~d p.;a~n~ :iltW'~y" is an ~bmitllCI1 U1'C'[" 11rbih .J1bs't,~. '~(;i: is ~eJ)~m~u:e!f di_~tin(:i. ~rom ~1~€' rel~I)'I.UI' f'fLCt ~:W[ ibl H~s ~n,(l~ God dQet'l blOt :lh;.ww ,iI!pY 'iJb-¥i£i!iJ!'l c~mr;Of[jjJ~'~m.t~;.

15

VOl] ~~O'uld. il1rIhd~rn:tand. tb~.H '·thiriki.ng~ ~ as wiH be phin when the topic Il::Qme,$ 1il.P.~ 'i~ the m~~n(;nt or '~hf: [[En'i~on~:o.g] ;sol!il]~ 2[l1IJi.QliI:_g the i:l]t,tmgjbLe~~ 2BJ 'bt:~ii:'iLn:i!E1g from a '",d,esilred. premise' ;~nd clldhtg ~t it as Th~ 'cenclusion de5ir.'~d~'.,~· "T~]S [[m,O\f€lu'!:1J1t 'Of tJtougJfuj~] resemMes~'1 spa'~.:u:1] movement that I~equ~:re..s an ,opB:1l iSltU:!:td:ll. of some msranee in 'wIDell movement mAy take place, and [I~;at [i.Q~ellet";tI!!!Ilil,] open. stretch 1$ ca.llled tbe ~~.y~lo~tic w~y~, or.- me tho d.

Si"E1tt: tllC m.CJrllCLi:I.:1.'L:1lJt bll.'\~,'0$ fro:m: [tl~,e dt::sired p:rernlJ!i.\e] and the movement enrl.\s, with [the d~.."JirOO C([lJ:tdm.'slo:nJ,.;. J:IJl'Iirl as eaCh of them 1$ ,c~l\ed [in ]l);gi,c: a :poopo~do~~)!;I] ]jjl~Jr.ke r IJ(Y.lintj ~ [[.Bayda:wiJ there-

Ii! rli:J A 1"" • '~~:. "1-,] .:~ II.... ",,",h • 11...." h . ]

'[ore _,l.J;~neU mese '!L'[l'te~1(g[u,!,Cs to 'Ute m~&lJ.lV0i.~ m W:!iU!IL:_~ spana meve ....

-rni2i.fit: i~k~ pl8Jc~~ and. .he ,~]~n£d t~£· desired pntl!l1.i.isl! fmm wh~C:h the [1r.h.lQught] movemeut began and the [desired i()((fIi,cltllsiliO'b]] at wllic'h it tlfllckd ro ]]'ll~rkeU' poinrs, so tile cruledi '~,he!ie l~~l by 'm.ost names, ~

Mhcr [JBa.ydillw~] .h~ made it plain th~t p:ra~e ibclmW :~J.). a :Be~' who· 'v!'!"Qu~d be cfulr.act®rized by attrihutns of gr.,~nd¢ut and 'l-"lm.ik:1] 'he a giver of ,1'h.v(H'S to others, and t]rw,t Gocl Mog~ HigJ~ is 'H~, that One wiliu.o is charaeterized by ~.U!fribiUlre8i ('If grandeur and who is '~]]e ,Lord of ,faVO[!)~ he ihegam, '[.0 praise [Gmi.~ :1J!!Ld s.aid~ ~'~I p:r-:,rise Hint, )?'t'it. p~a-uoo of Him ]~ b~ycmci1. mea~,1]ri~JJ~:'~~ Here h'€ was .~r:rrr[lJlilt]iI]g' th~ le~ar~l1p:l~ or the Mastee of me~sengers:; iGod.~'£ b]e~h-;l(gs be upon him, \~beFein the Propb.et. had s:!!Jid~ <Ili'] C1l[ttlO'~ measure praise d)iLle u.tU,cJ;

y; ., h Y" L ,h .... :!' 'II~~W on lin tr lil;j same measure th~:tt ". ![JiU have bro:uguil:. ]t. '!i.1$m:oi'O'lrF[;5;'Cl'u:. '.

[Bay&t~.] also ~~d~, ~~l dlanl H'i[1."i~ yet ·~;ankfUlm~~~. :is al~(!I ~fS 6b Hl~ ~ give_n [l'hi~, ,i~] because 'the ;t:iJC~ of b.1;lif@all b~h:l(gs ~['e ereated a11:d be[o~' t~o God, ,ltJifl[i.ksgi,vi~1ig 'bciug ,am(mg dle a0lS of ]uunan bd[1~:. III e Indeed, [[tharorsg]wng] consists ]0 ~ ,el]~gy '!dpM one's 'to:ll1igue~. act~I'.!:r.!1. talla:!f[lj wiJth ~] m.le~~, :rnJigjJB:ti and convierion '%vi!Lllin one's

~ '1?il:P.i! ,~, ~Jtdlm~L~i.RI!'D)!· IDl.:lfiiI)l.i;:,p~: ©'f ~WiI;::' ·,re.agOOin~ ::i0'1!Id." ~ likl.rV't: '!Bif,~a'J,,,,E·~ lil!!rr,~"1iii ·S(i!~jJ.\ ~Ui.t i~jilkiilD~i.s ~ an '"IDi\f})J~Ctt\ t~e: ~i!!lCUOCii: 'be~: ti:lt~ distil"l~hi.![.g com- 1D~tl:em of il:11e hv~~~n seul. Miil ~C.ti"J1;e.Ji.b!U.~~ ~r. ~ (It: c.a~Lol;id s~mply •• he ~~~i~¢\ ~I!! ,&~h ill.'1';~ tbe [m~~l'l)h:ll-

::'1 'L, reads; ~i.oJmbhl;. T~ [tu~bJb:ih] 91,ppBlr'C'9~lr .,.M"5tJTi. "'m,iD''''l='.m!!I1I~''· ~.!.'I .... 'crh :5.1.il.bJ!!ct~ ['!rue MS: [yt]shbi~] :jjjpp'i!!~en~.ly '~'Jil)th <"fu!JiLI~hii:''' as ",,~:h ~U~>I..'d: and a igl(l~~ ~Iitm.e rPtt:dic-i.!!~e Q'f ~~L,[LIU"~r.

~2 [j~&t~:;lhJ.

'!I'L MS g(: Le., th~ "CLf~~U~~b~~' [ali"m1i'"(j,i:I~!tJ aT~d th:1i; '<fM'l;r~ n"!i.2!r~: ]?Q5i1i!ii:' [_w'lltl!dlif!r p:re:m'1-t! or II; Ii1 nd!l.1l!~ ion]1 [2i ~ -rl1,a1!iU1i.1.

jq '1';";!Ol' ,..II '~' u, ;:Il.~ ... 'b I ['_1 .... 1 . ..iI h I I\. . I r ~ "~ _LJ

.L¥.IIL"' t;~: ,l.';;:·_. tne ~:!o!iY"~"!''!,''aY.i .~"'r.UlJ,'U"1.I ,a~i.l! t .~ m~rr,l!;J:!r ,l\l!IJl!l1l.t L:3.!!-J~~l;;l.lJ,.

:i!I. ~2i, ut.i¥' Iniil![lii/,illn 'ililao/b, ,lIIl!iihl ~ii,-'mi, s.dmifybl: ~S~:a'" 'Cl!31f:dlJ.a1= 8i h:iid,hh ~nd~j~XI ~U lj,~V.!niH:ii;[u.;k·!a ,M.!Ijanl: .A,{faf[ tTl~l-I,'rMIt.fJ, ,at: N,"rii)nu;n, as bf~llg ~ilil, nfL(]l'i~: or ,iIIII] .air i:lhf.!' ·I.ni[jor h adi WJ, (la!ll~c;tboT.l.s_ 'r~u[:ld In .&..m.'~ ~f::Il.rn·m. ~'lah #'·2Q:!t

16

heart. $Ifi T·~l~le~ :~U w.glethe[~, T 5 [th~ks;giv]ng} ~s· to devote one's S~iLlil~ OlliLeS 'batly members, and one's :PG~T,jJ' both Oi(j:~w.8Jmly .and lJo.\"jri8,ndl.y, ~1t1.) tl;a.tt: fO'[ 'wihkh they were created' ~ 3:i' and thus ~1!.ha~1_b~ m.vlfl]iw~ Is the mifi: of God.

~ ~ ~o;

Then, since all hap(p'im;:ss.... wheth~~~ bea:ve:nly or. e~rtM.y s Wlle)~heJ:'

'etm:pora.] or e1:e.nj~·~ ~ i$ so:rneth.'ing tba:t enmes to u~ '~hrougliL die ~l:tm~t~ G,od :5lRid [Lt. ~ to .him] ~

~"'Ve have ~~ITrl 'you strictlly :!iL"5. ,a!ri.i. act of l'U,el"qr ·to the w'Q!r]d'~· hlh~b-· i~~rr!l~~ :fj [Q:2 ~ .:.1 07~ GQd has commanded U$ 'UO ~&: h]e~hl:.g [l_[)Gn ~jJm~ :9~,y~tg~

"Indeed, !God and 'f-lis :aJngeis .a~lk hle~iugs. up~n t~e 'Prophe't; 0 y()ll~, who bdk1!tel, ad~ 'bie8Silrllgs 'for lli,'um and greet ~~~fl1l aJbll.u~dajl~ly ~th 'peaoe.?' [Q 3-3,:.5H'j So I[B.a.yda~"l] beg;~ to p~r$}-!" f~r b~e$~ngs ~u be upon hlilti:'ill.~ ~lhdl .!iaid~ ~ I,]]' pr.tiy ll. bl~~klg' to be ti.PO\t.It His lMksse.n.ger 'Wh~ has 'made supJfCnu~' ·ttkc glUil,d;8J[lCC [~r God] .. ." such that itt ]b~~ reached to the ~.itSterJf'.l [pms (1(' ~h~' earth and to '~:he western,

[Notes on :B~ydawr~, :5yn~'ru{ here.] The lef1WJJ~ '~lOO~l' r:~j;1::t1 iiS, spelled ·''II,..]tb an "a' ~nd is the verbal nOurn of r.aniryaL ~cRed ·wuth. ~i[} "i' ~ aDd in the im[pe:rfect tense ·~th i1['(!l 'a', as [ya'~naJI" He quelled errcr, 1!J~t i~, hls WI)lf~Il~I;::,~ or, his ~'ITen:gth 'DO~1qUtud [it], ~]1Ii.:~ 'hi~ ability" [gl\8i]1[i.:iuhu] ~ spelled wi:t~iL an \~.:Io :~!l "his ~dva]]t~gt~. '~S]jihiiLg our'

[']~\J';::;'~ m """","'''' 'IL_"';'.rlll.~''''''.L'''''· '0· '·,"""1' "'", ~ ~ ~!I!Th· ',,",' ]1· ~j!'L it ..... fi· ~'~""" fire made .,.

~.'J ..... J ' ,._.. ..... :IJ.~.. ILR[ ,.& !I .. u .... _, " lI,"'"" '.f •• ~ .. , ".., 'QI~!L "", 'L'I;~".....Ii! .u, ')1.,.,...· ....

bfig]rl'l!1!]!l:i~s~'.; [~~~.~a·l~ w~:fu e~:thel.' [QI.a"l,\la[l] OF I[ q;iya~'.iUJl], .and t~:u~ wm:d [aq:~~?:2IJtJ is Hk~ h- It ~O'rn,.etimes occurs as u"ansitiVc~ [mn.;a,'taddliyan]; one may ~~y.~ "The 'fire brig[uenOOJ it:l\~ The word [~~j,).~~ here is

,. ,. 11..' lb.'. r:..J\:: '=-'h] I rL.

t:iJ1U1i8J!tive~ :i!t~ .ai£t[ve !i\.~ll(.y uitL]cl;g :i!!Ni. :S~.~:i!iimg 0111i~ Lyiya '!Ll! "U ~, .aJ!tm.;( tne

pr'(tlnQUFl C~u] ,aJtJtZ1A~hed, to ~:tt refers to 'the :rv(~SserIi~'1Z;[, [~ anrreoeclent] ~ The ~·br.ig·h~ fuU moo~' ~ its. o.hj!',;:c( in the accusative C~S!l;~ ~urt h can

~ Nit3iT Ms 1:Qmrni!tnmtlij'~$ ib.::~nlri;~~ ],~f:!llh8n; places i1'h~l1I, i'l~Rte.m,¢'l,lt :m, tri2l.dbt: :rll)~'nl b~.E!XI! rul:1! !!ihll::' 'dliy,rIld~ ®:f ~£:si:D1i--'-;31rl;,i'n~j~lrt:irl]. ~I!:::re focw.;;er11 !l'm (Ih.c ooal~)r:pL ~lf praise ~ H'~i.IIlthgi ... <i~~!f. Near iJ:'I:t-e C!nill~~ of ]lIj~ ~il.:iDnmll,enQ.L'ryf jll ,[E!;ook ~~ ~!J..L"Ctkm 2', .j',opJf: ~~ bfam-I~I~, dl1ilrlW~ m111s same I~Ti~d q~ i'QiOO on Uue ~(((~l oJ ·'fiI~tlfj,," M '~l~ 'ir[ is [I~s~ in .~t!!6: ,!)w~kle, ''''''['~~_-L .~'iilieJ~i:',g aDd ~1l1It1d1t[iQ!i1I~ ~'r t'h~ .~ct ;(If

f: .-,,_.~ L_,_ '~' • .... ..JI ..... r; "'L - 'IT:'. iIi!i]l "Jo • I"!h("''_ ~ II "'1"1

'_l:i~1!rl ", IJY ,14f000JS '''J.a~~L. lldi il~ ,,~.:Tii-l-.~. ¥" .,:!i, PP'_ ~ '_ l'!..hlJr- ~ c. ;;i •.

~ ThE f:(:irr::gp5ng clauS(: Il:lCI:t£i!f~ !lihc sa;:·ootd :par~'t of ;31, qu®'ta~iJJjj, !ili5'l',:S by ~bil!: ~e~ but rm~ ~ttribu.tOO ~:u !h~m as 1~6' ,o:lrigi1l.1!iIiti!!i,f~ ~11. f~~'lll ~_[ :i.s.: «E'!l(:1.}~r!lr.: ~ ~~ii}" ::UinCiIiIs!bk ~]II (nOlI]: -[0'1" 'wni'cJh ~~t::i WiltS c.Dl'1l~[,ed:' J!Ja~m uses thlS (uu.outiiou In hl~ ~:r.b'll.iJI:'IIt('''Iit in, !Book 3~ ~twu '2~, 'f~c .~. ,t\s O'L i~adj~ :~~, is ,ttsted ~.r~, &!i'to!fj;J: A~~. l'){jrM~ Klitll'!b all-.

SUliit~~ .. h~ it:4 ':!l09, ~

sa 'TII~f: MS adds h!t:~e liIfii2' dillij~~ " , " "'\'V.h(lse ~~ aad .:ollr',. ~=> :in .[ili~~fd~,wi::1i: ~I" but br~h~~ ~Jbfid!i'es the .~~SS:'ll~·~ ~~ il 'irs om~tiJ~d by L ~r.i~ 1[' ,~n~] 'il;,(s Gar.retn 9.8~H~_

17

also he iri.'t[:~ttd'tir'!fe ~~~ilrna'D].~ and in thart C~ "the 'brigilt f~.U moo~~~; W(Jill~ be t1te RJi)t1ive ~illCY of ,[ a~Si,~,a]], [(Illiyi ~'~u] being in a:ppo$]-' ti<el1TIL '!to it.

Ttl, proceed f~r~

,a" ~'!i.;E: great€~ of:aU onr seiences 'IE ~ioo~ :m~ttcF,~ the :lirme:S1J; of the~:1il in, principles '~ldl c"Oro~]t.I:ri~~? ~l'e s'~~''On:gest of them in evid!ence ,iijJ[ld, P[tClO~, and the cl,t':~rest~!1 {If ttl .. em in ~;rll'il'llmt:[~:tt :;i'[I;d method,

~I""'" •

]~ t~at Sd~~:liLe [of Thee lii]gl eal Starement] w:hicb, is d~£

l. G:~J~\djan jn 'ml1Ji.kh~g ma~d~Sit. the slJibliilne mysterie~ of ,divinity hidden by the Cll.:lJrt~i.r.lJS !1''J;f [dvi.ne] 'o:[(rnnip:)'L"e]1fJe,~ rhe

2", ObsL:["'I,i\-e~' of c¥~r-ything present in the sr.J"ife[lcitn. ,domain as l¥(;[], as evely't}'rll'Itg 1;,l!n~~-e;n :in '~~e. dli\>-]iIlJ::1' ]:rlng~m~ the

3., ITD,~st~~~ljishe:r 'between ~ooe ehosea 'to bear ,a:, me~age and '~O guide

~_]1dl, 't~:mSiB disposed !by nature for' ,~rronr and ~.i~.; the: 4., U'Il\~lle~r. of 'the states {)if the b]e.."ls~dl and the ,I:ruise.rable

in thci~" ~ixla] abode, '!i):n, the n\ay o(Ju.."i(jce and Doc~ioIl;i' and the 5" SoL1d, PbiJtfioiflll :[Br 'l~1e :R:eliginus Law~s [pmla~r] ~~; md it 1$, I[the l.alt.,!.ts], :1.cr!ll.nda:lrlon~ as 1fviH. m, lxing 'me dud ~i1d :h~driliilmt o.f the di$nlllgu.ishin,g sig;n'~ of our. 're:~~.g1Aj!l:u..'~

w '1'1!t~ fIA!'® ~mm!l',jcil;2IID!:lI)" ]Jo,~~ing: :lI:~j:(j!l:mi~~~. tiUpU'I:'.Ia-tN.f9 l@lfmsd ~HIi '!.'!l!:'!3ik;liItm 'Vte't;b roo Iii, [nq'l,iilHl"----ajla'''j.; a.Fe ~mmp1~!3 !Dr lJ(~~bkm!:i ,F'::ii:Ed by th'C' ['r,3inltlilil iIilllitlrmr :iiS \Vi'.::U as by the OttI1'JIl.il!lil! '5'[5r:Lb~5 and edltors of thia '~.rk in l\rnhit: iip!:n~iiI~. t.:; [il~w~li~.]jj~.al~ "[' (ecl~boo in C~uoj~ [aqw~hi-~jl~hiii]; MS GiM.L-ett ,~831li,~ [ag)!M1J2l {n--~jl2nl.'ii] t MS GtL.T..~t 009'.Hb: [~~w1i1iI~:~'JLjlihii], :fuliIJ'.~~ul~ ~t::;N[ iil1l, 't, il:i [.mlwi'HuiilJ whi~ in 'f it ls L~_lj'!,\\ab1i,]~ MI he !C~oQoSes 1::\~~-buiM.~ 3.;~. ,~, ~ViflO!ll~m, of: r~jl~l~] :i:l!nd th3i~: 'prnr.bl(Loe~ mis.R!il:dilD.g rtlit~ larter" ':U [~~al~ahll" p~rhap1'l a O'1!f!(E";e rnmmon !temil in h!lJild2ltnry ~;t':N:~~"

~ ~~)'d2l,\'I,4 :i1!~8t. de.~I~ d~~ ritm ~~I;rt]lJ] by' ~l~~ litst, ~r h~, fu~c~~~ ~~d k~ (_']!f~rumEmato[' ]!'Ifa.D~a'Ell .!'!t:31it8 flUij, by gI!!illJng ,;:t gr-m::nc d~~IIi~i:liI1Jil, {;Dr rt [that S~r!.!l!fi tE~ d.e::iIig;n~J:c tnr;: ,Iargcr hody of kno ... ~k~ge :m:Ofiij wh~!:ih '~ih~ l"Urm. ~Gli:m~ bf'd!llchml! om. M~t1detli sdmb'['~h~p 21il:so ""fl"!L"~~:i in b'II!rnlMi!!11I f~r :c!: !!HeHilfi~tii{m o.f tII~JS iin;:;:w]y gllOWlii:lig ~l~lt.i·n'llch ,011 'rl1illlgi'~~~ :~Di~dge', F]\!)'.Lie~1)f' ~-J!)u~ G~!i"(~ 'h~s ''JIfrl.i:~'erl! (i!n ~h~

, n, II':' 'I'" '[ 11...' • 1_ . ·.~~d %>" - •• 'L - _.lL" ~_IL. " f

matter il.!U IH"~' I~n-, ,-:,:;', 'n ~jil.!'l a~i;1:CI!l; []~ . "',11.'I..~8Dil, '. m~ !lJ~trngulS:l1l.i~ QUI" t~£ rrom

(.i~ih~ir '~lJgcs ib,)' d~fiLl1iiriltJ l.l1m :3.~,-].mnfllm] as "icl!?£emrl,'I,!'\'\:' '1!II.1Jil~~d:i.iNi"'; @~ "'the ~;Jt=Il!~ ;i1~' d.i.oc~~ (00 GOOJ-"

In hfu. ~r,:LcaB tiilOO, LI ~,UJlL aiI~kal~m'~, ht.: ~~ 'Ily :ia~ii11[ LO§!tl::i It;tf11 is u~~~,Dy d'P3!nsJa;r.oo" as aa ,j]I?''prcrxilOl.~te' renderif.l~l~ <~lI,eo.~~,"'XI 'I1ic11 he <I!!.!'Q~'{!S, tw(!, ,~u~l@r1~ ti~t'L The '~ilfl!i!I~<iDpher ' :i'i,'!rn'b] :s:~b1~ tJruM it W~ .'~ ,sci.enoe: \Wh1W. enabl~ ~ rna~~ '~i) procure the 'i{,hct)Ot:ll ~f t~~.e dll'btr~~s and ~Cili;oJjs ,l\a[d dfr~¥[l by the J...egiitatar' of the

a. 01]]1' a;ulthQ['s lllt~FL'~ is 'ttO point out. the ,iitc~ t.hi;aLt il:b~ JiLohle~1: of aU brancht:s of ,know,kd~ is '~hc [body ,of] sys[{;:m~jtiic ,mow:ledge of die fiJ!I'!I~en(al 'Pi~nc~e~ ,!!)'f our reJigion [d}a'~ is, 'tbe science of i~"eologi~. Ma:reITle:lJlt~] ~ in order ~!)) ~:ruj!tiv,~te ~tuden'irS ~xtI, desire a.nd. seek i,t.

NGiIj,\f~~\~h~m~:n m,~ gr~~neffSl ~.L1.dJ ,ii.!i(ribi~ity of ~:ny s(ien:C'e rest UPei)];TJ, 'the :g~"eartnes.s, tiLOO [wb~llty of :i~~ ~'Ilnbje~~ 'm~t1ert ~mj L 9 upon the i~ess ,@f its principles, namely ~ irs hllruve:r5.;8]l fljJllOdatiDns~ as ilLn£ :faot that th.e fMos~ High is a free :agtnr_:; 3i1.1d i~"): eorollaries, iJ]~.'fITil,eJy? q"~(i([I)S; th;a,t b~\'uJch Q'nt .Im~. the IUgw.:r.s~] InUi]TIda.1llio,[i;~~ ~I!.tcl~~ as 'rr}le ,(/wnou;isai;r)(nim1.g of pmp]iLeti,e nu~ssengern ,amd tbe :t~ijJrrootiun of hnman b~d~.c5~, ~;nd UpOIl 'thiL :.'m'c[ljgt~1 of 'itE c1i!idc!Ilcc' and prolti\f:' allIId t:l1JB ch¥nt;' of ~:fili:. :alll,l1JJme!lltatioll and ln~thod'i--t·~en~. to that ,~n~ e~ry seience 'm]i. have ]had :lil~ subj~~rt: matt~1"~ become greaJ.:eI~ and nobler, its prjitld]Jl~s and corollaries fi[,.l:ne~6~ b:s, evidence and proof ~tto;nge·:r..~ and. its ~rgtlfrJi[j.'e:llitadij}n and m~dt;(Jrl clearer. 1'[H~!'5ed~ that ~cience' [[of tll'iieolo,gTI,cal St~~'f~'~men~:~ ''I,'Yiilll be ~,ate]r and :DQble-f.; (i'!l]~ lli>eifl,~ the !re~:tesrt of all O'Ullir sclenees 'i!ll1L 81QbjecI :~P.I;~ttelo~, Frr.:m,est 'o:f the.tn ~L1. priild~)!1e!i and (:-ofolru.a:ries, strengest of them 1]']] evidence and 'prQof~ rU1Ld deafornit: (If: them in a'['~mcnt.3!ciO:Ii. l\{S fa and 'm~thodi, th~s i~ ~e ;8C~.eJi1r.;e c;alled [tJl'le '~~I(:1e:Dce .o:ij theo~Dgic~l statement",

'~. [B~rd:atwjj dle_!~!(.:Fjbei."i· thg~, ~~'~e~c.£.· ,of tbf!lo]!l)~[:a~ statemem' first] M "the 'Grl1a!r'{[arl,~ in [J\re~ent~ dearly and p(h~Jl)(l;idy ehe a'tlfitJi-, utes of the .MOlSi H~gh'~s essence, [a task that is clt.]fir:] '~hrol1J~h [~['ll.dy.' ingJ th~ auribut.es of [God?sJ aets [I,a.yclt.},mts use IOf tlmle" temlJ ~to

~lii~'-i' 14lIJi,I. to :!:'(i'-fi.:!~ :!'lim iI),~iL'li(ln~ ,0000llt~~d1~iI.:i,!JIl-S :th~m.'; f~~,nhelf~ froWi [jr~ .M~:ti'i'#! ·':I~I2im is '~!l:: ~d~wg ·w'~m.~h is eoacem 'r! ~!ti~[1J ~hmU~ ~stablli%.~ing J,d~"lJ,.1: be1tLcl~ 'b~ a~dm:IDg porne6 liIJ!Jd '~~ln ~u'll1ri~ing dm.~~I~!!i (p- 7 in cur ~d~tc~~- LAf.w:r t'bi't G2!ro.(jit :gives. a fl;ll~ ~isl'®ry (If ~J;e d\cveki.pm~~t Q[ ~;h~ :5l!:~~Rce. ~iI:!'I~ a1R11!,J'I];g' ~he M;1l.<t:az.ii1alrn. '~FIi d;:felii.dlimlg W8ttL ag,rJdim M2il!ld:a~,LlII :aiOO Chriia!!ii .. n, 2i.pdl.o!;i~ns. il:hoo. :nlliU:r. ru;m.ons: 'lac A.&blil~i.:r-dh ~ ... mlJl ''IIf!tlC:. IW!YJ.'1: in t,~le 1~liWl:su:e~un ,00 l~.~ dWr~ and

.... ~~ ... ., '!l! ,h;~ '~1;-, <ia~! a ~~ ~";;,~i A....-l' f~lii;,i,o,,;r. """nd «~iIi, <~., i~_i'i:1 W"''', = .... - .... ~ " .... ~,;~.,..~1 t,',,,".:..:i

F" . r''''''r _ \!it! ". ~, .• 1!_ '" ... ""'" ott;l· e- .... ,... l'''-'liU " ~. . OBI h •• ;u.,"" 'i.""'~I'.I,"'iU "~"'!

~l!icl mMt ,of 1~E; p~thLf.JillJns Uilli :r"Ciigicr1l:]' ll·tc:r~~IJIT] "Il'i<'CJoC dt:l'i~yl[:~t'~ m'1Jrhc djoo~· !!:lry of tru~r.· Woo;Ks [(~,~ •• oI:A,R~d ,3l~~'8!'bba11~ .. M~i] ;I~ rJll;!' 1tr.ml'!9 L~ '3illia!t.HUl!t:' 'f!IIHJ,lJf

,~~8~ un~~~~' _d~~It=n~" ~f~ '~~r., ~t;R! ~_ll~~ _ce:~~~ ~~~~lo~ J~~~~,~ t~}.,'t~c ~nFrln:oce of tt~!! :r.thool. OOfilmilUi!:~ ~.Ui be [d~. ~r~ .OOJil-&:~!iI1Im. mJilieuli {ED.-l ~ v, 3,. p, ~.I '!:4i1.~,

Gil[\'.l~t lists ~v. $, p, :~ 1'4-5~ ;1llrfV!Jllij ~,~n.e: "'1ru:.e.I!" Mtlil1lil~ji1tI1LtUi."· of .he As·~li:Ii·.ir .. ~~, s 'Ijt(l(il,~ Gf~aZil~U,~ St.~jnl®taiI~~ Fakl:'iiD' :1L~D~~l RffiZ~ ("'1l11~ ef dl~ 'mOO! U~"a11 t1:11!f.I,~-S ,!'if ~hb s[;]ruoU"1 lilIm dci:~ llQ WMli_u~.I' [j~" j'iJ.uj" il~l~ and. Da'W,~c~j" P~jJil?f> .lkl)'&,'IIiii. wil.'5. slii.pl~..;d ~~:'t:' 'b6e:tJ;mS'e' lUi: b (lr):fitw'l::ret1l 00' '~t= iD1LOft {iiI a j~~yt HlruJ. 0'1, z;.,fltl1l.'k.drLm.

"i/I,\i,e believe ih.M '~he t:f~aji~~. "the @.C~I'l(~ ,or HleI)J{jgi.~~ :!in.'i~reme"~.·~ 'will ~e[\!'(l ~ ~, ~.~1~ aJf:1d (j~ ~'Irn~!V~ClIlli"

:maJ[il]fe;sf :iIi[iLCaJDS ~W pirerent ,dea:rly and p1lJJhlicJ.y ~ the ~stllb[]m~ :mYJteries of divJjl]~.ly_'· are the anrjbtU~~ of [!G!l)~'$]1 essence, 'the ~.mIiJ]t~/~ beirag [[IGoer's] essence, and tle; ~'clJ:rn~jm· of ruv-i.ne cmaipetence' are ~l~~ .attribut~s; @f the I div] ne] acts; th;lU!S~ the .~:!r~ribr1J1·R:'eJi, of [G@~.r~] £iSS~Il()~ .~.rn. bdlind 'IL~'!!i IYjrVler ,of the ~furihl!.ljl;.'e's of [Hi~ ,dlivi~:·d=··] acts.

2. [ill:Jard~w:P:s] eapression, "the Observer", is a second de$cd.~ '!,;1r'!,.'l:: [ur- (hat ~[:~r&ae [of thiOO~~Qgata] ~[at~mttiit~ j~Jl its 'iia'ltful[.al. O.J'1[l~ prchc]1siou] of the observable .a~!Cts of the 'world lUUI1£ly', 1e\'\L,'T~itthi!J]g perc~\P'niiMe to the senses, as ~l!I ,as the uneevealed aspeets of th~ dIvine :ki~gd:Q-m,~ n~UllclYJ' '~he ·'L1td.1iN~bl.es th~;t are ,~bsent t,u the _p\hy5F-

'" .~I F' ..JI ,":1 .Jb r_ ~,~~ -' "~~ .. ~ .'1,...= - rIi;;"" ~~ ]1 :tC!::lJl senses, .~ ar i!ll'lreeU~ i!_ijmO'llg 'W.1!i: re~illl~ '[pOSWIUiJ.t rnat LJ!iI.G¥t eecome

tJci.s.tll::tliS ~tu.eH~ are dlwif:: that are :ptjJC~ivil:d by' pbysical ;s{i~,;ge~ tie~ng caned the ~o,bs~[vablc evidence', clru.e ~$([fIi,feTd.~, dOlna1n'" and. ~tllu,c ere .. · atio~'~; and there are ~10S'e that sre pe.r1cd.'ifed. not. 'b;y :p'hy;ska~ sense but r".ttttll.cr bf me tnttellect, these Ibcing' cdf:d ~t1h,e unseen", 'me ~,div.i:tiLc· ,kJjngdJO\m~, and th.ii:;l' ~mover,p~:n__g alQti:hQci't"t,. Gnd h;h"';;, :r€',re:rred 'tQ boti1i. these Ic~t;e~'Oir:iie.$ when Hre' s~id~

"He is !!r-veilll, ~1Ji¥arre o,f 'Ellie unseen and what can be ,Ij}.'bservecl'f.li, [Q 6~1:31

"Do not all creation and, am gQvcrn;ng t:iJ]ftlIlOl~Jty be&oill.g to IlhlJlr; [Q J~54)

"Blessed be He W. whose l.ootd ,~~ ~he sovereign domain", [!~ 5i~]] and,

·~P·r""~""" 'IL,"" .." 'ij [fl'''n ~~n whose ik":;M."d i I;l, it he ,,:IU:. ';',,;;;i:I ... ~I,," .o'"L'tm' ... =i] ,..iL]';'n"" .~

" ...... ....._ 1Ll!.... 1), ,iI"iI .• , '..!., '!''!', V"}'" ,DiI:;;:~iU ' .;;; !!. - .... y!.lh",.,. ...... ' ~-i!.P".' .;,..~W ,!;:U 'L!U ,a,-.

ret 3€d3S]

~. [:BaydaW,i~'s] le:xpreS81ilY11", "the Dfs'~inguj'dle:e~ ~ is. ,~ 't]]i.m. d\e~c_ripdve of dl.8ilt: science [of tli.eolugical ~tatemeii1tJ~ that :is~, [:it: ~~] the agellCY' disting;UM:~n! b$n~'e(m thiO~ cll~n to, 'b~i1l.'r a. divjill£i: massage and 1tO ,W:dde ;a)[I.'1Id clitQ$e Idis])ooed by nature ;for error and. ,rJj,]!.irri.~ l'!J;!1Lmely ~ those creased W]~h, a. ,d~spo;'Sidol1L Jor these t]iLir~;gs, §l~b.tim' means ~dleiStru,Cltio:[U~ ~ .ii[1lil is ,th~ 'Verba] noun of ~'perisll!fld..·~

4·~ [Bayda\~,';~] ~~[\e~~,Q11~ ~~dle' Unvcilei\ is ,~ f'Orlttlil d~ii;;ri,P' li\ll~ (fir tn,a;lt science [of 'the~l(jgkaJ s!tat,emeit'u:J~ th~'t is, [1f ~s] the 'Un~tiie':r '0'1' the S'ti!Jtes of those in ~)!llll51S or ill mi~eFY in the H,ereafiteT1 tli!ese: b:eing their [respective :1~1~l;"efi] of rm~l i!Jbod.e: url the L1@~' of

J~£ti;C.e' arJid Doo !)jj un,

5. [Eil.yd~,wi~:s] tl\!p:[~~iUIil). "the Solid Platfonn ~or the [pilhit]] bases '0,[ the :ReEgious Law" :US' a :fifi;h d£s!J;r:Uptive [of the ~ence of '['he!liio,grl.ai. ~1i:at'ernent]. m'~ 'fo'Jf.I@'~J~'-S ~n orde1t"~,y fa£'Luon upc1]l wh0iJt l:m~ preceded, fiffiJmdy ~ d~lt the l[[p1illiar] h:!i!SCS {[if the' R.enigEO'l;Iis :La,w and me d~cimguigil}g ,M,gm of our reLi~on an !~uooed ~PQ;n (he Book

,r.iin ~,Vl

.8,und 't1iil,e :rro,phr:it?:s, CUSUlITl ... and the [pf"iC!oCe:i~ of] iurert.,'TIG~ ,dm.l"m from both of 'ili~"!.'iB depm:lll,h upon ii:te' :fi.t(;[ (!f having ,~.uIl'bJi:shfid t~~at G,oo L]O is Ose Who speaks, l-'\f~1,o sends mesrer!\ge:r.s~ and '\-Yh,o gli\-"e$ revelations to d'uierniL. These :mrm;ttt::ts are imO''!N[1, only :from t11e '~ID~eD'ce !iJif t'b£oLo!p£aru stt3lJttEL'TJ.fKfl!e" Therefore, I[d'll!s science ,of thecl:\o:giCi'J sta;IDp.;'rNi,enl] i~ 'llie SO:~~d f'latfofm, fi1)l" th~ Irpil1a[;J ha'S~, of ~~ ,~Jjgi,o,us :law and :is its F(jiijndJ~io(fl~ as ~~eU as :belng me ,cbief ,@lttd ];lJ:~dmQst uF: the dis(~:ngiJJ~~~illg' ::iigl']S; or u'ul' ,rcligiO[l" Th:L!lS~ [he dtstifi\gu]~!L'iIig ~13 of our :relligion art ':i!t~, ue~(r dlf ~e 8cien(~e of 'lth~(Jllo,~GsJI, 8!I:.a'[1~ _e'.nt~ w]liil,~ the ~thiBi[)ologic;rd s;ltat,ement" ]~ ]10'[ ~irt need' ![If them ..

The scie'na: ,cha'r.,~te[md 'by these a:lttr.]blJ_'.i1)6~ :tis the ~"{l~fn!~t 011:"' ,M.! our sdenees in its ~ubject martl!ei§., fu.'m(",Sttt'~ ()if them, iii] priillldple~ ad ooFdlJJari!$~ :sl['O[I~}~t of 'me:m in. c.videu,ce and P[W~, MS. ib and dellili'eS't of theta'), LQ ~~menuu]~n ,8111ilrl :mcth.,od~ cory 'beeause :~!I:S sub .. jeet matter £R the essence of God ~f.:~~ High" and the' es...~~~:u:e of ,~J created thfullgs. [1:t: ls so] because in tllis ",yay irt in"/eslig~tes the :t'JJtuib .. '!l:!Jt'!;$ of Good, ,ud the various conrlitinns of all creaeed tlti~ wherein m~: [:aoooW$ Tl.v1[] lead to OO~~Q]1i. IQ ~;ihaJt ~ho~dd be 'b~lie\!\ed~

Lei J'JJ~) one $!.'1:y tb"at iJt ls iiladllljss.ib]e ee ~k_,e the essence ef GOO ®J :9[1ibj'oct [fot :study] in the ~·citiiru~' of ~J!I.'t'ioh .. gicaJ :9tat:em.e~t" because ,tt'lil~ sH~Dec1t of ~V.€Ty sci~~ne~ :is mn~c1:~b.ling dJJiltt is :gr'iiIHii:id. [~~ ,a ¥J[~ ~uppo\Si:t3iQ'f!l] fu, '~h~l: ~den.ce~ ei'~h~r. be~r:i~ d~::a.d.y evide:NLt 'in ,~~e'lf or made e.\flde~u: '1ii:iJ. some Q·'t.he:r oci{~ru)e- Fb.mxnlt1iQre:~ the essence ,@'f God is :i1ti~')!t[' ~::'lilNe~hh~ deady ,~,demt in i~-df~ because it is a mutJter of 10'gic:aJ, n::asun[[I,g~ 'ncr ~:s it made ,t.-vid-c"nt in ~iDmrt other science, heeause the Fest of T 6 'lLfu,e; sciences of the '[\di~{)IUS ,~aw seek help it] rtfl:1s matte[: LltI'O~g_~ ~th~:4)I]o.gi!Ca'l .sltJ~:re1ll~[lt\ As, a par'[tc(oor' e~1Jmp~e~ the ce!J1n(!ljfi~Y that there is a G~eat!)}r is nlO:t due to what pi;;Ople ~ay~ !i.UJill.dy ~ that H.~, essence is 'made clear through [?lrii~-o:phy~ and, is ~'~·;;rr.i.'lOO as a ~(r€S[(PpoS'~Jti'iIi\n in lheQ,lo.g'/;i' berc;8:l]js~ rl~t~JL; wuu1ld not be :5-'OWX:~ i\e~janhlg'. How could ~,'tt be ~~J}lj~~bTe tba~ 'ilie [main] s(]b~oott in the !hl:g)iJ.at, of the religious seienees woukll be made dear ''Widnn. :some (l!~~r ~dmce fotcign 'to the sciences of the :rdigiQUS ,hn~i? :l.a;thc!li'~ 's.1.n,iUiL what: 'Would! 'be made dea:r by' proof is '~~e ~exisrelil.cel of;F.\:b1i ess;miiCe~,~ this [~,CJds.t~nil~' bcin~ $dm~fui:D1lg "',ad.ru:ti!i)llaJ~ 00 the essence ~~']f]J dhttLi:' ]~.:; '~Ol [i:ts] existence :iJJ1i. ahooi'lLlrt.e

~~ L ml~r~kc:r~ly lreiLill:lj ~i:I~,w,;·I~.a] :~[I.!t~iJ:dl oi [;iliLfi,y-.illm~],

,~~ "ir11le Mf5, arrn~e' p;:Jtelllahe~iilt~Uy hfl.SI::~' :hei-c:' Ctw~: d.Lt: i2~,(.ie 'uf Hlm, ~he :[i!.l]:oot :HJgh~

2l

terms, :i!t ""\f()"!N~Id, be thi:~refbr"C, one of 'tth.e ,StiI!h:s of iti][t; essence. N;f.)'w'~ ,~il.'il ]nvesciga:non--,o,f 'th;e S't~te~ of a [~Vi~IJj] :su~iell;;t: of a C€rtrul'il. scienee+-that would be carried Ot'Q 1io~,tbi!il, [d]::lt ~me] sde!lnu::e~ 'AfOl;iI.ld net e~tdude: ~[I]e [gh·!tg $l~.bje(:.e~] essesce H.lQ(m beoCom~:r1g the :$ii,.d:~jfiU [of mV\es.tiga'tioTh]"

Thus, :if ]Jt iS~:1lo1]lld be o~~,eclt~d tJiJ;at tFiLe cf.:["ta]!J];ty of a [given.] g'I!JI,ib;. jeer's 'existence' ~!Ulcl, not be' ~tabJished. ~i1h:][l the [same] science, biUlt rather ill:l sOme ,O'th~r [~:die:nQe]:~ and :if its 'exiseence' should nor be ,e:zyident [\>Vilthill:l its ,own SC~,€11I.C\E] ~ ,i3litiLd :if its. ;l:E::Kistc!til;C.e ]0. :reJit:!Jtrom toO [:its ~'lAq-]] essence' ~h!l)l1ild not, ~ ,~vi.d~nt. [~J]thil]J ]t~ O,\';'\'iI1 science], so rhalt :~~. WQ~.t~d need 'to be demonstrated, ith~:n dl.'~ answer [to the Cd)je.oti'Ob"ll] 'W1D!ul~ll. be dj~:t :if 'the :i;n"'l'e;)~~gad!i]n should 'be ,~Jb(H~:[ '~lte ~staJtes~ ~ these bt~Hlg [a subj'!';;ict] {]i~:h~[ than tEi!t ;f.exi~;tt:]i(:;t:'~ ~ ditD. the existence of this subject ~ollJ'~d be ,~OJtl;d and it wm,];~d ll1; made clesr ~rJ seme utheif science, Bo!llt ,if the ]D.y~tiga'~io.n !S'llould 'be ~hou~ the '~'ex.i~I:e:nc:e~ Iof ,the main. gubjt:ct. in the science] ~ then thar would lIi,O!t be made ,dear in some other scien IDe , but rarhee ~ 'Vi.~tbin that [same] ~e!l:lce. Wn '.:h~;t case [the ~exi$"~'eoce" of rhe ~uttieC"t] wO'uld be" O~' of tbe problems of [rhat certain] ecience, This ls provided. that [th.e· d~!:i<PllltSJ1"1'CiJ 3taIJl:cmcTII:t-'that d:u~ t::riBtence of t1~e ,!;j,u~j~(:t w[;liIJlcl be made d:t:2U' neverthele . sa, in another ~ciJ!:.::[iLct:'~--=:~:s not '~O he '~ke(m in ~:I!};, ~'tbsoltr[{~ sense. Rad'.i.'e'r~ w:h~t. is meant hy [t::~,~]f' gr~JtEmen1!] is t:h.i;~t t~e S"~~hje(Jt: I[of l~ti!) science, ie;~ C,'me!O~k~.g1~gd statemeue'], 'be"'ng more specific dlEilu the subjlr;.c:tt uf :some othct 3ci!E:jfJ.ec~ ''!r'!,AlJiulld ru.9:VC' ](5- existence made cl{!\iu~ in '~he {)1):ner sciem~e Qn~y if it should mOl!: be 1L1iBar [[IIi i~ Q''iJIJiL'il. science of ~ib_bO:bgl(~'~ .~'ta~emel,lit'1",

So" iii: is ap'pa~rru ~~t '~'t~e gte~t'es:t ~f the sciences ,I Vi. ~iJ:i.l~j~(t. :rt1J;a)~,~ ({'!r L] 1 ls [~tl!'e sdenee of] 'the{)'ktigicaJ statement, All_~Q, wirh regard [,0 rbe f~t 'mart the science of thi,0Ci1logica11 :stait:tfiiLdlit bi, the fi:riin,c'St of the scitillt~s jiLl lit'S rrin~~p]e~ and ~o:[Q]lal':i.cs, compared 'Ii{Il the [other] sciences of our ;reHg~!inli,-, d];l,t i~· true becaose :k is a k!Lluwledge of conviedon, whi~e ill t]iLe l'le~~ {lif them ,it is iUOJ1Jje.cb!J:tt·al. lJ«iLowledge]"

IComp~'[i®d t.o th.; ,ttt)pi~~ ill dh!i~:~rI~ly tn rt:..bil; systt:m!!:Dr MS,:Sa th~ Yhy&~(i~'i.n •. fil1]1il)~ph,er' [Ibn rS~'[J;@] ~ [~h~~ ~;]en{e of ,theQ'I(!ig;bc~l state-

"I . . . ,4~

,ffie:~'1!~:J rests upon:

:aJ} divine i'[lJs(p:h~'a:t~Qn w:hkh prov,.des the '[ruth of ~om!ktiQil:l.

])" [li;)nillJir:ecl fOlf comoleteness 'nf 'wh~t i£ knQw.ablfl,~ an,t1, is

"'1 r L

2) :~::ree, :BXIll'!f:l the defect of fa,flijb!l€; c~rtima,t1a[]]; and all that

ls in contrast t!)] (be 'OOpililDS, in dili'iil]l:ity ln the ~t'ern ,ot the Ph'Ysidan~ Philo5.(J(pher. IFlis [S"f$~tII.] :is bSlSedl iJJpO:iJiL i~he i'il~eJ],ect bJ wbidl trLe: faUiWe eSbl1L'aati,o:tl raises ii.)1:ti~!Gti,ol:Tl~. Tlrus, if the fu,ndaTI1,e~r.Jfta[ p\l.i:nei. ples sho~d. be such, then the ~~ bIDd]i;lry 'v!hn\o]laries: would be' lik~~se.

'\\"irn r,eg:t.l'rd, to [the science of th~@l(t!gljc;ll .s;t3;teme[ll~] being tJiare. strongest of [~b,c td~(luf: :9limiDei] in evidence and l~'roo~ this :is true because its evideL'lLOB 'proi!J:id~~, :aJ, deci~o;m d,eiL1iD':iTi.s!t:it'a'tio:n~ ,~ntd i~ is clearest In ~fnenm'tlon. ~nd methcd beca!u~e it is the methed ,C,(f the iPro,IP]-u~ts." [Tlrl.Si selence of dloe@k~,gk;~~, statern,ent] i:s' We Str,~igQlt:

PBi!th~ tn'B P.!!IJth of Gcd, "to Whom belongs aJil '~rWJt irs in ,~'h,c beav-

d .. ~ 'h~ ~ I[n i:J .11];["': f; ~~I~:i.4 i"-]

ens aWl on me earl ,~~ . -x ~ "";;".).J.',~ ;!!,!tJI;.rj! >p',I:("_;"~

l .. 1.:1 ~ T ij

l'b~s [thel1, :is the [w.<-;amMe] ,', Ollll' book iGl'IF.lploys the '"",q~3t i[l'~,ene'{';-, tual .f~im$ and the mrnest trad~do:naJ ~de.'Otio!n~ in 'El'Il(',: Oil:1g'O'lng ta* of C'x:ii:nnniog [ou.r theruogy,':s] futaciam .. eneal rorindpJes and bri~g' out h.:l 'dlistilJ1l.:guisftring r~ctnil.'8~ ]11 su.rnililarirz:ing' ~,~ b~."vs and v-eri~ng ~:DS de£ru:lQntSlra'Ei.om3~ in t'tiS6J:V]Il,~ it~ prob]i!i:ms ,a,LfJIj,d] cll!Jlri:fY]["!lg its 1i!:!tI~g. mas, Even 'ooge'~1er. lath ~l$ 'btrev]ty OiF e~..[J~iO~1, and ,~~i~1g ease of m!c-1i1I1,c!il:iza:l!ion,~ it ~i1d:!lId(~s topical :id(t~s lmi!ij~lg ,ma:r.ny h[,a:nlch~s whose ~);f)'Mnda:ry ~ideEi :a![\ir; dofli!::' IlIiiglB'lther'~ :ao,d, these are '[~nifm:ml.y. iic]el'lrtifiabl~e in "their fl!.:!ind~n'nal, l(x'j<lllQep~ and lin1,.i[:oduittar.y ~t'~,p~l. ~1!1id. sl)iJ]ndJ~' (O"~C~ in 'the~r s.1!J.hli:~:~(!es J][!Jd their p:russ::i~~S of t.I:'a:nsh:iQn,14!,

I named Je, R(;{l~ ~f Dt2~lig{d '~isIFtamit~~L~J1; JJt1f ,flwplU fI/,L:JgiMf lt~t1qnitw~ .!\i1id, [rojJitnJ God~, '~I) Him be praise, ~' ~k

t hat I:J or:; "i":~~ "",if';;'1l'n ~:a,...."..1 'irnif<o iC:oo''''''i' '.;;'n"v~''If-'=rnift '!j'i;ri"i![~,'1! .. 'I ... ~ and ;j)'m~ld~ "m' ~,

,.rIlL"- :--1 ..... "f!~.II_l11 ~-I:'Jl!l.~.:::::il.....,...l'U .Ll~:.a,.~,... ,IJ,·" W.Li~, ~'_Li ',_." UJjJ_ ... ~ .• ~l ....... ~ 'L_~JJJ~~l -E",.'.iLI.I,.,"_ IEll~'~ IW,. ~,

on a ~u~:uiy pa'~h~

that He ,~ fo,rgjj~"t my sins on Judgmemt D~y and, bring me to dl!e' h'iiilLest hLeru,VClITs,~

~~w,gethe'l.· \.;,,~,tlm. the plfOph;e:l\s, i:1!iI:1Ld pCliJP:~~ ,o-f truth, the m~frtyBl and ~niPJe oQIf 'v]r.tu"' .•• ' I[Q~.ln:~'.nn, 4J~9]

'!I+ [:m~,;,rw2lm::iit a1,-:rn~b§.dj ''''YiBi~l,..m2lp.H~ muqii1'!,i1fi~b'imi:lt tL!I-,r.~'l<'iia;1!ii '!!lIR-~-m~tq~~.IJ. :Ba},,<lli!''!<\r.I. apilJ!l::~ [,D' f9. .... "or Hl I!llreh;~ll::c~l!ImJ ml!'l~.pl1loU= [tnn~d~~a.[Ij~ t:lIltf'j ~OIiim'.Ji;r~ '~lO"EDi::f 3i.ft~ I iine:;, ~~ r d !!fIlCL1!tJ.,oEl. '~~Ea ni:llu i r' ~'iI!.!U ses U.re eeder t.1r ~ In Il': fii ru t 1,'ll!,'!J; uo u na I' p'f:lfua.ps, 'fil'llt!ri~ug C1. W<P!lbi1';~plai~'~ ttlbt~~'~~oo-; ImIrrof1'ri.ct'O~:y d~l!I1~ng a.11;]N,O~h, ~~~{U iDl!lt. phltfo:r.m f!WW!nootiOO1J is!J1h2imhy o,f: '!:lwl,(;eptllJ~i ~~~j)eeq:~ ~:n~s~ges h'li~C~~~l,g ,~~ h~!n®c"'.f'.

2S

T6

:J;

MS 8a

[B~)'rlawi~',s, ex.preg~lO'n::- §1!hlis~ Uhe'rIi~ means) '~lri}~ has ~D. :d'i.i.€i p,re~ :xmble~:i' er, ~acLept '~lii.'i~ [~ ~.rJJlTlod'iU{ti_D~]. ~ His· ,e;_~pu%iomj! ~l'i{i$'~it :initd~ ~«~IW,SJ~, maxi[m~ e~q,~·)ilL hei~ the pl~.uru. of Laqn~l1L means 'the be,sJt ~~ ,h is the preeious pa:rt ,of ,aJOY thing¢ that is, :it: includes 'me ebolcest ~-ne:Uec·~~I. stajt:e\tuen~ and the best l'[',i,itrutimw $~iWdieIS-~$ (line ~aJy~\!o "The dmiu.:::st Clf his cO'mp~li'l]o[IS came to, me" ~ that is, tliLe best of themru,--1II,41fi~€" continuing to. examine ]t~ pr,ind.pltis and d,ediuce ~:fus, di£tin~i:;;hiTlg factor,~,.

So :indfed~ ,the p:r,i[l(~.pJf:~ mennoned in it. are i\eviBWed~ and ~, (li~dl~g;ui~~!Ling [M;[:ot$ noted ill it Kilt extracted [snd ]isred l0f ~mdyJ,

A '" . 'II. . _ ,. "~ _ _ .[ _ _ _. '~ _ iL ' _ _" '1_ __ ,

,.r~l,;:!! tnt: temr, to UV]CW ~ means to mm ~ t![[tC :m.,e,aL[1]l"Ii_g ]~ tmtt ]ts

fno{brm'eD_ta] pr1iillc~p;~e~ are Fe'Vie'Jt\rea. ~d tnmnij.,ed .oj' ,aJ~]1 cl.':i.3lt ]S extraneous, Irs cli5'!tingtt~ihhfjg fac~ have been ,d~ar]y fo:tm1~J~ted, and ,enr:alI::t,oo to rest 'Upon tfil,e~ bases of the :faill1~ and the [le'~~:w,oUlS Jaws hav'e bees ~l~]f['1IJif~;mrizedj that is, da~ified and ezplained, ~'~.u;wlnla![~iz~ ~ng'~ rrlear~~r~g '~-cJa:rif~'~ and ~;~)li!l~'n~.

The '''IDiE)fj~ 'diiJ1fku.h~ .[~lsu]] nU.':~.U1Ji \U(Lb:~gtlJ~JUS'~. Ot~ie ina'If :Sl4y~ L l 2 "The lEo;;Jittc't became mmcWlt'~~~ dl~Jt lS,", ambiguoaa, O[},e 'may :S;tl~'~J "The affi:t:ur bect.ulTIu.~ :p['Ohl.emlatTe~ ~J th~1I lm~ ~1~rd and. ineomprehe ns ilJlt': , ~nd "·,aJ, pF(~b~.enThati~~ matter ,d~e~ not :leadJ S'1t1"1i'~ghit ahead," A.iI~o~, ~\:.brifica[iQ.mtn means ~"exp'b~ .. ta;t~i)Jin' ~ 0.!S one Sa:Y:Sl' ~~l da'rifi!ed ~f".J. ~ thar is, HI ex])lained, it ~~.

T~].E ·1l1~frIY d'i,,,,1i~io:ns~ ~ [ie~~ ~;p-ed~ny of peoples], [:~ih.l!~<ij,bl 'being 'the plural of [sh~Jb] wi~h au ~a~ ~fte:it t"lM:: ~ [ishm]"~, are ,~rMt. have been. ruvi·dled im~ ,iritany branches, 0'] t[.ib~s am.o:rng ute .. o\rabs;,-c 'The I~etm, "sides", [j'u.Dub] bemg' 'mri pIrH"a~ of tiiid,e:'; I[j~ilb] ~' [as ln] 'dlcir 1b00U1.-r~da'ry' sides are dose t:(jgct~nr\ 'mat is, tht:y ,t'[IJ~' near to cam O'tt'ner. Th-e ~xpttS$io:lf.IJ, \J1nifo.mi~y idmTI.,tifiabJ~~ [lrut€T;al1Y'~ <d\e.signl~i.'[,od by a mark' [B'[I!USa'Vi.1ljN',all'H~b]; ~~I:l~ rome~'hiD(g: k[JC«W]l (by :its lillar:k]. A stasement of the 1\Iiru!t_ High [u(~r,5 to angcllis] , "having ,~ '1l]J[li[onn, ~riI.s.ignia.;' [mU5:ill.~]rtliri] '" [Q ,~~: 1 :2.~1 ,that i~ :n!i.a.rb: by wn:ilI::h they ~rn :re,ad~lf k~!U~~.. t\1ls{1!j the word 'of '~e M,Of1~ High is, "stamped day bricks", I[Q 5,1 : 33] 'that is, ,th~:f ba~e the seal ~.tll1ptiinr~. for ,[jf[:ol.~n:~raolJiJ.re]l

-iI~ ~(Iil.'i!irl. ZLl'OCl ]!ti1l1!ilCU ib.b~~ii !lis{" iimly iDIte set ,of' the nmm::i' :fiio:f[~ l:li.e ItIJiJ,t (s~j,,·...()l ~ ~~;a,rn~®.I.y" [sh~.·lJ-rshu~uhll" Mw ~l,([1n~y' ,mejl~l1l~i~ ·people",. Howe'i"-~j', .ftJoe OO.nti:Kt indi~oo:s rllt\o']i. th~ii' ~lffiij;nxd~li@' fits ~:motihef ~r~ ~~3!m'L"ly I)thlil"lJah=---illm"a.ib], :Elil>e~.D'i:.i[ng' b~,uc_h 00i' (~ivi~~a!1,

Ma:li1TiIl~HJd. 'Q'[l d'u~:m.. &'1j,{~l miL term, "made COI'I"'CC~.~ [mlUq:a('!,-;y"!;'vamaia J ... means, ~p:_rQa)erly comet:'. 'One ~y.s~ .~ [nadle the d1J~.ng to be, cert~ [qaW'lflfii:lml.'tu ].~ 51) it h souad [qiLw['m] ~~ ~ I~t i~~ properly cerreet (musHtqinll] .

O'I!J.'[ .liI)Uib1l,(H' meant Uv' the pbH~'~ "the :ilifltmclu~lLnF'f ~~:£ps .:i!J[1Jd fim-

...J1.:;;milliliilo·j;.o:r.:l ..., . .n.,'i'II" "",*",'~ ('1'1;;;1; It\o"';:''''~ C·ri' OMi '~~"'(rFc~ ~ ~''''''''~oli"i,~'I1i'fJl' o!iI,~-.,:II i ~'" n{~!'ii'iI"'"

'U1i'J~ __ ,! ... .!I! "';:.& '!.r'!.l'l!.~'! •• ·~ I:"'~,., :t ' ,1& l,v'IL""'; 'OJ' ' '.!l1L ILv~·!;IJ_ _ .... ~ !J!L~ !I)I,_ Ii.)!, ~~ I:"T.II~I",",~-

p]if.:S'!' and on the ~['eaili1ies pos~~blf~·.~ a:UJd b¥ the phrnse~ 'Il(lfue :SUlb6mi~e8 and. their pBl~a;gc~ 0'£ tr.a[1Js;ti!lJ\[)~·:~ ~u:.': meant 'd!;c:; 1iQpic~ on tr1;'3iI~:ric:;s d~\f]i![[Le~ and 'realities P[\op~u~:'t~c" and on the ~sup(lfem;e .Im;ude:rsh,ip" ~ which :al'~ {libvk~~j;S;;.

SiIil.t~e th~ chief reason f\[l(f m(JJ[1pt)S~Iilg th~, ,,"V)]ulne b:acs been 'to I8st~fb." ~]s'H:~ fiirnlly beth, d-~ie f~ctt of the en:t'iJl:ur and His .attributes and of ·tlru; Pro,pJnet~oQd \l!.'-]U1 ~l:s. linked topics, alii by uS;II1g ilil,telecrua] demonstrsdons set iL~p frOB. [~re:rD1~~S drawn from, [~l~ the realities :pO'SSibite by ~~.c~d rea.scruing about jhem, {JUI.r ~u'ui.o,r· arranged the volume into ~Il. rnuoducti(!!~:l a:r.td d1i.\ee :6[!!~el~iQ'r bO!1)b~ TI'Ii,e In1l:r'lod1!Jlccion is uJ1l .8l'ijjdi~es l~l Logical .Reasol1i~j< :BoOok I on RealLitie;s B\i)ss~b]e, Book

I"'iI D· ~,_-.A·· D·' .d 10; '1. Q 'm .- .. 1"· D 'I· "'U ~ "

:" O\i:} ~iI]lt(H5;CVtlle~ ~Ou .ii6i~(ii,&li; .,j (iilll 1:\,_(;'aJl~es :[~roJl\litetl£] '''-''lltrl: tneir

II ,_ ;j.;o:io,..!i - '''"''' ,it6

IT: !La .. : ..... iDI. mia;t!l.,efS. .

,1.5. l~~wugb ~le ocru~ ~f these . iect~~~~, readers ~n '!;lQie the. ~M]n~~e .00: gJe~n

:<0' •• ;1.. ........... ,.. - ~.f' .~h:' 'IW"""" (i':'Iij inJ; .... ,,! .. ;.J~.... "1!1'i1"" J -(IJLJk,.,~ ;t"' .... 11.1~. a ...... """"ofi' •• :1.-", 1i;.iI·lf~·t~",w I~ 1.. • ..,..,,~I ~1i1:W.J~!I!~~' Ql .. LI~}.W Jf'~~ -au m!:-llJ.,.Jit~-",I. .i ~.-r"'" . ~..;-IJlIJ~!o ~ ~~I!~LU!~~ •• -!iL!i:I~J'!.i::I lLfj;~ Jljf~lt:-. 1:!~--Ibl_l"'~!J!I! IIc.!.JAl

al,..,t,\~i.·~J:'~ o1.mmll:I ~he &lu~l":lnAiJb 8'U[1Ifj~~ are !l!f0mh'lie:t1it .~mom;g. bih .. , esteersed gtddes. H~~ Ith-wgh't WM '!m~J-m!!.ld ~ ~'h;e: 'dfflIlk of n~t1l Billa i9 1fWJoo.o]~ho/ ~rr!.d scienee ~nd 'F'ia.l:rhr 31J,,])hl! :Rai121. 'rill! ihnl1D!rJrl(}J!l il:.b,Cl[j~iJID~ _ G_c.. AIlll!"I;;tl!t;f~ !1IU"'-Il1' of: !R~~.'c!': 1L·f~,uUw~l ~Iii the r.·FIl-·]-~ (und.::u 1i?aMr: ,i'II~ll}illJJ :~JJ :I]i!:'!,I--e'iiJh hID'" ,Ewyd~!.·ld. hi1l.:1 :liI1IiI;~le lhl~ contri~ hlju~c(t'ii ~ifl foD'U1~ :iJiud CliIlm:ent ~n.e:f"'a'Uy r01~O-Wlflig ~ti?lZ~. This is: in line ''i.o;,ilth IIibe [~ r ... ~~l Il;:U!;l~~1Ilil! f'Q:I:' tNOOl~1i.a.l ~~~ :and ",,'riilli!~ [0, bulildi 'Wait '~hrryr 11a¥~ te ~ on (I~ · ... 'l:'UTk (,If 1~.ilJilkr 8!Ui1:htlrlDe~,. I~ilill '\\-\~ l-:m:l1ev~' '~h:ilJt ~1iI 21. ,oompaJr1fiOn '",'!!i!th 'R2I~~ the TlI'l.Il!MI~ !!Jb:Ai'.I~ffl2f J .... lm jlld,gfuJ;!""" ,lii!·il!,UO;:.i'ill ,~f Ela)\-dl;:li!.wi. i::. a fuleUN model ~jj. k IDl!JJtJlioii~l~ and !1!l.:",]Jbe:ml!llil of topic:> :i.I!liu:1! ~I!Tp[]!lC~L1ti. :Bi:4.)~I~.wl·:!i: p.!:,[m~.IIll:n~· I~~ftll "'~~rk. in ~hi~ ~r[m .~ f'lil.lli)" .a.ppn-.ci~AliXl! ib].f !iC:'~IOJih.ts: iru bu~h me.t1iC'!;.'iill .tIirtdl iIlfI.uden~ uii"iiles" :!t '!I!ii:: ha'!,\\~ d~r:!JUn-ented ;I~ ulh~ p.rer~.

AUTHlOilS~ I~rl.il:.O])UC110N

,L 12~ T 6

'THE INJRODUC1['~:ON:

STUn~ES IN WG:ICAL REASO'N,~NG. I

MS 8b

'T.HE INTRon'Ur.J[I:ON:

STUDIES IN LOQICAL ,R~AS.ONINO

,An, :ijfl~rOOUiC~illlr~, is ,mt'e,il]'dedl to support '~he to'piml m~~eria'i fb1:~o""!\..' :mg. Sm("c tile ~'.Opics uf. the three interiot books ,aJ,re based Ow, r~Jt,., ters tha:t are ,~]nked 'tog'e~~e,r by Iogi(~~ ~~n[[iJg~ ,om" author Etas set fO:[l~l ws; stludiUl in ,1~gi~Clid reii.L:SQril~g ~ 'the ]llJtrodJu()~to\[il T f llJ dl,c' t~itt':e books. ,trndJ since logica.~ 'rt"..asO'.iling is the process of IIJrtt'a&l\g-' ing fac l's. I:h.a't a r~ :~no'\"i.rriI,-;;.~.heth f:!r' the $B be [pre~~l1!~]1.I]J ry] >DOn tie:p~ nons Q~ [itlotlo:[Ils], accepted by OO:~-~Us-'hl :~ w~y ~'htl!Jt: leads to Jt:~H]i:nu.g ~Ql'[l:1tth.iIi.l:g dm:D: is ]iO] alre~.dy' :kn,([Iwn~ '~m:u:dies [in tile process ,of ahcr.na.dl1g] ~h!U,eI~A;'C1)l,Jtal ooncepttion'· and judJgunil:m~Ii.:l assent' ~Ja'vti ,co:me 'to be th,e beg;J:I:IJ!I:llIJi,g' steps riQ1I ~']OgjlCaI, !Lta:sm1~:n,g~.

IDf these tlrg:anized F~d(:i]"S lead eo ~Ul j~1ij~;e!e~Ul~ conception, they' ;~tt, iL:~Jed, ~, 'dlellitll~:Mon~ or am e~p~~tol;'f :s;~temeuIC;.. and :if they l~ad re mil. ru:&inr~ng jud.lgnle:lit 'they HIre ,c,,1.llcd. a ·co:nvincin;g '~Iglllnu::mt~ or an ~inr~["f::n.tiiaJ plcQod;o" d"iEmorh'~~r:l.tioiIJ]J_ 'ThiEnrefQ["~~ since ~Qgicil ]"C~. wm~g comptises these two facIDfs ILe.~ lLlileU;ecma1 oo;~tiQ.n, ~nd ju~~'cnt~.'d, as~nt' ~ it :rnas [lJmpQ:rr;;t[rtt] dUit.inguJlming :p'ropt:rt~,cs.

II Ad:~tlfllt~!!:~ ,~~~I SinRi' ~und :r~Jk1"i!J' ml-D;ill ,MIltDa~l1m~!d R;l~.i, :in ti~.t.ii.i!:' hi~l)'ll'i~~ OOqu!';::~IOeo" an~ m:ike 21 :orudy i[lf ill~{: :&~ltll !f:pitt'e.lruJl~· t'ht: gclfl~l and i1iittrodljJct'O!:j" ~ fO'l' eobls.iiI~nio~l ,of oeher tpil.r~~OlU;M' SC.iie:L1UOS. W!I].zing (\Or .Jie ~)gllJ~r.iit[(lJ:t jl~,gt ]JII~{.!r l~iJ ¥!ia,¥d~~'. :r.t.a:i\li h~g.."i.'Il. his tJ~ tll~~ Aj1o:rr ~-,M~rl'2~.tirni~ rJ"f.!-,d-M!.!t,.i',~· arft)f. ., . _ (CB-ij_tfU)~ rIf ll.!ll1':~ #,,fCim~' ami m.Y.l) [p::wir.,o" '&f_BD.rULf~ of 13:z3 .A.H. ed., ~'- ~ ~5{f], with .~~J~' ~P~4'Upp()~i~imlS' [m~q,arld~mlt]l= '~- th~, pa~r. ~ [h'b'teUcc~)1JIa1J1 f~t100'fJ.tkin· :3iNldl ~'l!!dI@I"Jfi~~nt3;~ ~Wftem!i';nt' [ta.~~r":a¥lNt:~" !n:: ~"!Iri!m3iry f'f.!S!tlll["Jl!S, air h'l'DWiibl.g. wMch. :1b-~~wLi:tg 'HJ!'lll S:bJa. b1. (.~tcd as ]nnb;:d 'but not ;::tS :ruJ1.c.d~mim:g:

IL\og:ctber ~~ iilillli 8jil".Cm.aid~ pm~, :re;spon"lh~fi: til) the mt8, OI pe:r:{ep~(lI.n; 2. ~t.he illli~ ItLrtg~~~ ~~~e~~s iJ(r:I!o~.!l::i'lJ ~~ni~~g" [~.~.i;iilIiI1 ,_,~lbl1l:1L~m:~J' 'WIfI~eJl [l~,~"cl;,"t'l,v.iI pm at Ithiii 'i1!.tdi ()ti' tiltl~ ~~md~iotOOf!!~ 3.. mf~r'~l!!t1i.d [p(f'(iOf [[:.J!l-cbld].

Ia hi~ I[~trod,liId~O'n it~,ti: auill!LG1\1f set ~)!J]l :fi)!J.iII[' Ch~,p'tt'li:::[~ I.. :Pnncip~e:s, i[}§ [Ep:is['~(J~~O'.gy]~, L 13 '2", Eztp1ani?4;IDOIry S~t:ements, 3,_ Argum,e]il,'bt~lC}nJ ~t Di~dril;gu~8il:nlfng '~peTil:.1es of m,;o~Ir:a1 Rea'6((!ning.

a" C~~~ fllm~~re:gardi~ (1.ma~ is ~'rtg ~:c&iti8d

lb. }.«Jgram~t aISf..!'~t----m- dlss&nt l~ feB,fM.'feS fJ/ W cJiJ'ncepi: lJeiN~; fo~ c, lJ:(Jch' pi_e.' ",;hfJr ~ i~~tiioo ,rn' ~ r~tifJ!~i aCf~'ii(jJJ; qt' h.l().ft).k~

(a.~ U liLdcrstand tllli:~ tlri[I.~.rlg' ~;I}O'~t :su[t1eth1ng by ~tscl~ '!Io~ii,mtmU ~t3J~silJJg an'1l j~dw.n~irIi,t Oil. :~t 'whether' of d,~llia! O[~ a.~el'tio\p~, i~, cal;9d rlllJttlJectual] conception';

(b.) lI3urt. -wifih a judgment: passed Cln lit either 'w'ay~ [th:U8 act uf tfui.r!Lkin,gJ :is ,e~ed, :j'udgmeotai ass~[ilf [OF dissent, tiD the Il::ollce[pl bEing' rQ']"m)!~.dl]"

(c") E~t~h of '~ere [Ph~ of kOQ~Ar.in~d Js divi~~b~~ i~l00

1. iilllil~gritiOiWiitd [kf]~Jwi i~g] ~ 'lb~x does not depend ~pO'I:JJ Logk~ rtt\~i[Jlcirlg and ;bhl(~iIci!i]g h~ oFd\e.1r to mke pLIDot~ as fQHU~rjg a OOtllD~pt of extllStt-]i1,C'e OiL nonexistenee, and juiclgi.FiII th~;t cl:e:n1(ia:l :ancl :af6m1),atiOilll may fJot 'be hd!d l;qge;~Jlter ,[ill C';On~jd~r~.tioo as botnl uue] no~' remeved bJg,Etmet [:from, censideraticn as both untrue] ~~: and

,;2'. acquisitional [k[i,ow][l,g]~ tlu;:!iJt does; !b.arve Dried [for reason~:[JJg and 6in~ng] ~ :li!~ fO:m!i][l~I a oo:noept of a[l~1~ rt]!Jd Qf deraons, and ,w::.qmnl!1!g '~ow~~dge of the 'l1;empom ,o:ri~n:;.'l'bOn G'jf tim lJ!,"'o]"]d and of dte 'eter.u~ty' of '~he ,Cl\eat:or.

NQw~ :if ~{S '9,~ these m'~t:Je!CtUJ~l coW1eqltku~ and judgmLem~l ~8t:DtS ~!t('!:uld 'be ,~dt'Qgcthrt ~r~tle:te[1Jt~y 'nf:(;es~ry [a.s inMtio1:ts] {J[ [if -.::h.(lY s'hQ'I~iW. b{;~ 'by aoqui:!riciiD'Iiij ~cn w~ WQuld. nor lo~e a'llfycli]ng nor W(!liLdd we ~~n ,~~nymhltg [ln the: 'w~,y of bo~vledge], be{:,'""tust k:rJKl'wLedJgt by ]ogie~~'[ rc~~m'~il'!lg '~ :J!OC]uiIed o:uUfy from other llii:ng$

:;0 T!hj~' ,~b!!::' (Ilf ];. 'l'l'I!ildvutt:ndy '~i.1rotc: a, "'llI:m" '~eJ:'!C: a "!a~ ~ 'Wc3JEl raeann LV-f'~f~~-D].

91'],

~,~i

t:~.aJt 'were p:revio;JJs'ty :kn~'!I,. if t11i.i~e· [CloTL£)e})tioJ]s and j11l.dgrrmnts]] should be ;i;:!ll.tog:e~'her tJ,y' aCG!u:ijjti(in.~ then the implkaJtlO-Jl ~oli.1illd he clTrnt each QE(;'; would be :JJ1:istitH:F unon SOJF!J.ethi]1lt)'" cl~. rithff an sub-

--~ r-·""· .u"

joct~S'l!1hw'"a't,t..S l~a ving Ilmirasiens O:L~ on thD~ F[crtt 1ilSl,v]ng l]mi.tatio'm,"

aud t1hJs wO!~ld ifiI1.:r1~l e~ilief a CiFCubaf. ;liIFgUmi;fnt. or ~[iJ, ]nfilliID~ series, rhese both be'~illg' hl1[)ombL~,.

L 1,3~ l' 1~, 'MS 9a

a, Fiinnation oj a (',(}llC~~ 'teg11.rdi~ 'lJJfl1t' ,is fMing ~'C~

h. .fllt1rJf!tliat 'f:l.f~~l (fl' ~~:f,·r.~t trJ ,fra,~J ~I f~g' ~'f);rwJIt 'f!l ,bei~l£' .fo'f1J1-m

c. Er1()l: jmtMt eit~ ~! iMtdtim O.r ~ mti.:mti~· M.quisi$i~· 'r! klttlWleJ$f;

(a.} Ur~d,tl1rntC:llJ!.'ij;dl thii-ftt ~th]nk][lg'~ aiJOOlJ,il:tt a thing oo:ntS-'~.t~~!'[;~ the pti~~· ,(:~pdJotn. ,~f ~,:~. [as 'bchllg] absrraceed :frO:fll. the extraneous qu~lullk~' and InaJt:e'ri~l :~n~'perties ,~~~.t ~ts. quid~t~{ dees ~lot: require, by reason o:r i'~ bdiilg' a1 quiddi,ty.~ 'This rtJhjjollcin.gl is one species of perception, ~PerceptLifii1~I' :ptoviciit.'8 a repJ.'t3~tiJtati'On '!; of ~:he rcaill. narare of the· thiuLff' to the ~rciipient_ I) 'I'ha'~ [Sipi;cie;s. of p~r'c~pciQl'1L in the rn~Qit1lrnG soul] that is 'ohsa~rvi~ll_g: (thlli~ real Iilai~;JiJtre of tH:..e. t'hio,;g] it.8elf is, diLe fi~JJnc-, dorrl~~g' hiism~~t by "i~hte:h [the, ~bjtlg'$ resl nature] is :p~rc'e~ved.?

;!; liS ~: J;sf~h<l:lln~~-;, ii:!~.I)n::!'L";.f.ifil. ~"by !,(!'2IflQ]:lJ oDf h~ b.:::t~ ·iIi, Q1!liddh)'.'i:! rain iDil:9iM-, ':f.i!tti~]~.] ~ arurnlii},.:i~IJ:],v m;::ru1:i "·f~.rn:rl'~ wh.h tiro L ~n;::i!L!IJJ~~g rn: a CiJ,~:i .• ni"'!l::' '~~I~~~t~O:[[I, ["'[~~" reason of i~~ [OC .... ilg a {(Jrll1d~!I}i"], This ""f(liUl~d [be 00 ~he ~h~we In '[I:1~ s.~~t:.e\rrL'erL'{ rir .~~ ~aij~ H~h, '~~~ (rQ1.~ 1'l'Cit '~m. foom caprice", EQ., -~3~!] t{L~t ~!'l. 'by ~~1!1 ®'If' H'I::S! !l;:3fi[l(l~'"

'1· :i\ots a:!:,!,iIl .iL, ,I ~ ~: This :i~ :1i1.Ql a Itr~Je ~firuh~O:I1 !Of ~pe'Ii~D ", ~~ng se fiu'

fro:rtL :iw;:l ~~ It wQ'1)l!Lrl be F!';;lne'~v~d ~ 9!. duu.Iia.r' ,d\ronitiOIll.l fui~c;a~ the '!ill~-' ;5ttnnlu[Ii,S' CJf dll!:: ]X"H:;,fb~·.wt .r.kpeliids ILII.pOIl. hiilii ·mw, '!lI~t~t.i:lJl!lcii~, RailIDe:r. H!lil~. is i:U~ ·uriit,erpt'tt~)ti.{ln ;anil ~1 d~Sliil1.P'ilS.hliJ]!g @f ~~~ 'm1!.airlln,g frcmru, .~m.ong .a111 ot'h;.er ltit-eULgiblc 'mooni~'I' ~~ tlf;~~ !t as ~~, r ~ing .callie.:! '~~ rtf't:w lti.lfine~ and :Lw!i: OC!Jn£~llmltg ek [fIDDm [b.i] rul..,l»11].mMLmi' al·,Hllh's ~cme~ on N~~[ al-Din l1Ll~~'S j~~rMrJ .

. ,. MS, .... 1· [.e.. ~i'S, '1fiJ)j~-- roe ,~S h'Jfi :"t:!'1:]~~1 - M!)J] "i' l-;aj-hl'l.~i!1i~~h-l-

~ ,5". - -, . . ~ . ,_ .. !J ., .. ~ ,. l!!~ ~. ,'~ ~ ""'iI.. -~_

;m. MiS .~~ This 'b~.~lg ~'b~1' [re~OOJl!illllg] ~Ol;it [[N .. ib-: d~e hlroll~ct, '~ ~;h~ dO:Diliin3fl:lit part of tllK: ·F..ell.rol]~.!Iii.g ~Ol.JtJ

~ btithahiW)ll~~i rna ibi.hi yur.dh:;a'k] The MS :and T: [YIlJ[iu,Lilll; :L:' [oclJifl.ru1,;].

'~1fII ~U

.And this [ftti!l.lDtiuj']ing iiil51tr!l;Ul1·e:IJj~ operates] 00, £'0'0[' ,~.e·¥l&ls: 1" sensai[iO'EIl, 2. llmagil'iiaOiDtll.; 3. estimation, and +. 'Wi.nki:!iitg.8

L '" ~S~n:!].;~;ti~u." is. perception of ~_he fhLng as being enclosed by aeddental qu;;d~tieS! and m~ueda] ]lIf(Jp.er.t.ies ;aJong \viJt:fu the presence of l~naJi.Ur~'9 ~((!I.d a spec~'i relatio~~1ipw bet~u:ll [Ul;(,: rr]~:i!,tei:] and tfr"if::

Pil:rup.iC[11~.

:2" 'ltilag:H!I:Ilati,Qll' i:s. ,per"C'ep!tion, of Idle' min,g)1 ,aJS endGsed '[by ;;.,cddenW quali~ ies aud material properties, b~n there is no ~Iipu]~ ..

• _£' .. 11.. •• d . '".,.1]" l!..,= [ .i..'1!..~

ttil.om U~: 'ilJ!~~ p[['~~C!t; (tl: matter at!L~ its SlFchu :r\~ a;il1O:lls~:lllp ,to lUre

p~H~ipie!l.l,t]'"

3" ~&t~d.(.ln~ is p~rctptiiO'I:ll of a particular ,meani.ng'I'1 HI:]~ed to wl~t has been sensed,

~t Sur:L1'(': sC:holm make '~je.FCCptj;oj]· 5pecifiC8JlJJy :Illl!e:aJ!i], ·s~IlSI!JJ.·' ti.on~, bliJll then c~eady it 'wmJld be disti!l.'1I!r.1. from, ·thi~i.kil:lg.'· And 'knowjn..gJ' [or, ~l',:ognitiOLQ'~ l:l semerlmea is ~al'er:!J 100 mean 'pereeption' ~ll. its :fJ.n~ Stose;'I.j, ~-~ ,the!:.,"" each oae+sensedon, :iirala.ghl!iiltiO'!:u~ ,estJrJJJ~ci(),U'lJ~. and ,th~:r.JJkilig--w!JJ!!!lld. be [a :spccits <of] "~know,il.1g)"

(b.) 'furd1I.cr·, some scholars ."'est'riot. ~k:rllrn."'ledg~~ [i.e., as aceumulatio:hli] to 'behig a, :mr:l'L:.n!taill. entity, LlI· 'lin that case, [o'kmow]edg,e1 ck:arly '~",,'Oul~ be elljS-billLet: from ·p'cra:pt~.i,i]D.;· ~riDg die .me"!!Ju]OiS '"sem.t5a~icn· ~ 81fil-d in abselute 1ttri11.S it. ·~1.dd be: mc[1ti spec~§ic th81!J.'i.i. ~p.€1'Ce[ptb::u:t ]iLl the first mca~Dg ,[Qf '·S£lri)satiol'l'~", Now~, by ~!L)' i~nerp[<etatiou~ "thln'k-· j~t is m,ore specifie dl;fll1 ~k..r:L'O"i. .... ledge' ,i]'[ ;~b~oJu~e terms, B,'U'~ somedme$, IL 14 [the term] ~k~(i~ledge' is kP~1ii.ed to mesn ~. 'ln~.e.nrtM ;$'Ul~rne ~ 'whilc' somenmes it. i~ ~pp'J:icd. to mean a jud'g:r.Dlenta[ slIat~· ment of OO;LIlviction,·, .. !1 ~

~ ~~~~], [lakht~~~; [tili'f!fillwililJm], [t:a~aq,~,ld~;,

!;! 'r;.~[" ,..:Il ~~'I!. ", (" "J - . .1. '-. " . l '.' ~" ".' -

l'lllrol! ~.; Ji.u8.il: is, 11'18 0',,"';;1]. l.i.!.I.enltittr. 'n9ime:~y~ ~t~m.ru. i!:ggte:nc·~"

I[! iMS ~~ [l~·_]; of (;omp;illru.([lo or iPib~ii~.®:i1I .~I1id. .of iiili!Brnt~ or distanee.

!'I :t;l\[' ,,11, .,~.~ '",", <~ .:.1"' of' Z • ....4'1 ' 'IL, <iI':" ".:1 'IL.;"' a' ... ~"""

, ~1i'W ~~, .no;, me .u.ootl!J~.ty o~ ,i!l.j..... er iI:~l-e 9~]~iI1Ij;J:illilp;ti~ hl.m.~ .•

i:i! [<illm]-H" W:eh~s il DftlfWita!!}, ft/ ",~(;dfrn. Jidf.iTltm. Amhit ~~S "kmI~e,%~'''' bid :!f!,1TIiOU.ynu. ~D.d re.j"J.rls tllf. '~l ~5 ,til. SiJ),f1' .;:ocf ·itU~cllJlia1 .&etililRiU.~~llilj(il'~, as !!h!t: n~~' ~tnlP:: d,d~~.i~([\f&; "[b~ :ree~nd ~'Jp mE" ~dlnlt~. ~.ru] :r-t iltS.~,OII, :Plr!X~,~'~: ,cognt... U~11 .~m~ID,e'l~.tlQI!i,;; ~rti:~pm~n. ~~~1(!d.~·- [!li.I~~d~ k_1ifOWl'ncg' RM been l)'ftiJ!fIj[erJ f'rom th~ hst 'H1! il"iIToOf',

1:Ii MS g~; N'iIlllidiY", n:pn::;cnl!.lng 'lime' IT.aJ '1.b-l'~Un.: 'ilf:<li d1h\i tD (~ pcrclpiii!ut_ H ME g']: ].e,.!' s~['fJJe['huJ;ig diOMt is niM ,[ill .cifui'!.qotiiJ 'plr::ts~C1!l ':!i~~~on,

I~ M::8 :g;I~ ]..e,~. ~ ~p.!llef: t~!in ~~. ii::m1'ilillil:r.;.e~ <:ijld ~rt..~~~ a.ru:] 1I:;b~~' ;r,I~:nree~~y ,<'!J,ppl~ W tl!J£ ~ctlll~1 fu~;

llN~ S~,~S ~i of kn(]~!tJit,l1

I'.helli, the Sha,kh [ie.,,~ "'[,aJ,-;Sbay:kh a.I,-~,~.is~~ Abu, '~,j,U Ib'il!J. .s~:iil~]~ in, his book, Ci~:-ljfw:fJ..~, had m'liu,ded [,~knil)1i.¢Jng\ as n1;earrl~lg' 'perceptien'] ~1'lJ the f~D:l sense i It iUJlw

$!J, F,l~Jin '{;O[~£~,pt[(JiJ]\ rt]1~: i~~ frlte frum any ~udhr!!Utle.ntal ~~~nf I[~o :~t:]~ and

h. conception ,with. ~iJjt1.g:int;[lit.al, assent' [to ili}[~ ,o.o:t.H: .. ctness ~'f the' ~OIno~,ptio:r~Jl.., AJJcl [aJ~J hl his b~~k aJ-SIJ,if::it b,e' d:irvided [~kt1'~iL'llig;] :hiJ:to 'conception' OJ:dy, and 'e!i1ltceptiJOlJl with judg-m,euital assent',

'[It wr)'~d be] ,8JS when If.!!e ~f ~ ~·M~ 'wh..lteru;ss is an accidental !Ijill.nlity.·,i [UI!lde[~'fitood] in! ,th;s ~:Y'~

(~".) the 'coneepeion' infeems )"iLm d'lat io tlle mind t~er,e has been created MS 'SIlo boU1 the 'L.fUFfrrr.t 'Wlf ,;j, [pM~~:cul~['l ,erY$JJii,~i'~on and 'What it: is eomposed ,or; as, ]t;s, wh:ite~J.e.S$ and iis qllil~lir~ as an a€id· deQ!tl- whilJe

0].) '~'ne ~]11K~il'IJe~uaJ ,~$~nf (;Q~lSij~t~ in the f~rt, ~~t, ill ,the mlnd d:!it :rebti'onmlp of t!bits ',fa.t:m~ 'tto' 'llie e[lIJt]t~,cs 't'b.e.ill.Sldi"!ft5; t~ Mt5 place, :In t~a;t the O'1"J.e p[a~f}~r.lr l1],orulches. the other,

'SO'me of 'lbe s~hQlal's whQ dlvide ~k~];O\vi~~~ 'into !C!O'[!;C!eptio.n and jlUd~nentaJ asseet ['to (lIte ,eonoclltion being ,fib'n-~letiJ mean by 'conception' a Mrrip~e pcrCepI±O:[i\~ 'that is, perception in 'Wiihic~ jt]dgmer.u lS HOt. a '~O~l.'ty, and [tbey ~11e.aU] by judg11\'eIVtam a!~~ll'e 2L '~ ,cept~o.rIl ill winch judgment ~s, ~, property. 'Other '-SiC.hola.rSl~ { m~clJe ~~Jdgme1!l'I;:;-')J ~3$e~i ~ (or, a ~ju(lgtnf.:~Jt~J ~t~:~men't~) an e'~,press.i:cm f~~" the tota.[ of perceprion and jurlgrne:r.Jit [ttlgem.eI'].

B~wi~j ~'eraJ tI~~y ~f ~mm'ng :L 14·;]0 The 3;OJtllor [lIa,r·diiiJ,~~, r\QnQ.lw~llg n,,~ Sin..1!i] has ru.viciled ~~~iL~flibjng'- i~lJtu '~,wo di.\-1~D.D$;

a. thi[lJkj~]g aOO;I!.!I,:~ a du]llg 'whfn[iJ, ~_thfJLlI.g1h.t] avoids ~m~l judgment abnut it, '\dlet~r e:rol'u(lhlg some JattAIi from I[lthte ~hjnru or aJi__rm]~lg th~"U fa<:t(u' of it~, ~u~rl

w r> I .' 'I'; 'Ii!:'! r'" t';flf1o'r.l' Th"' . _.ii' . [1'...J7: 'L. .~ 1 ~ ~ ..,u - '

.... :I\'OS'<; m L'I!""'''''' '!..~~rrett ~KI~I::Ia.:; ,,' .IS: H~, ao.(X1n~lng ro ,~.liiill.I2iD1 ~j fi[2i.li!l~~ -'il:UJ~MMI!lJg

rgill,~ o£,i1m']l :~ S Uo:i'JIt'.!!timl:s m~~9 tao irrl.e.lJi~ <:p!=: ttl"Pti'CJiI' :II!IJ ~tt 'fwmt, sense,"

I ~ OiOHe~: I, The :MS:' That :~J u ·'ool~Depti;o'J'l I!lmt :~5 been j udg'J:: d·,; 2" IE. ,! 4: niLis ls ~.~~,e ~d~ooi il::if the "In:ta:[mll', [~rt,.,Himi.4t.:~ t!bi:;;, is iF.'[I!" 'i[t.UiI~ ,ah,hilliugi1 11lt;;::- ,::;Jj[D(!! [LiitLe is also ~W1led tn :~bn, S~n~l. It:l,,i'ri, M~.m);' [pp. ~,9='2U1,. Oa~ro [(!,prim of iL~'li~ ] 9,23 ed:~ ~~{Lr~ to cerreberate ~1~1s 'by' :~,ek~w~.in,~ tire ottlnce]1'tLmi il:ill' aUI~f:' pee-

D~,I?'~~o.J'1 00' ?j. m~no.r 1!;!z;'I~re, .

b. d:WJkuli,g about a W[lg' ~mo~ "wi,th m~Wng' &~, j [tdg:u1[iLenl as ~() one of these two a~te1r]j;ati.~s" He ,eBLI[ed the' ifflnt ofthese I[d'lvismons l[IJt:eUOC~1!llaJ]1 ;,(:Ij)nceptl.on~ and dle ~H~{:Jn\t].d 1ud_gl:m;:~TtaJ 21iS~ ~f; H~ spedli'ed ~tJtg][lJ.cif:lg'~~, out of ,a~~! '~f:.lle other $pedes, of pet~pdotl;, as ~il't,g' il] two m.\~""iio-ns only beeause ,ITill8l(ilJe'~ fJ.~'tt aloe mO\Vl1J and d1te ~rrang'~ merl;l of w:bjcl~ h: done by dlOught and k~gkaJ reasonifl(g are ~i[u.elI]gjJbl,t:~~:.'i mdJ Hot matters O'f sensation, !!J[" ~niL~ru:uio[~.~ ,or ,~stl[nilriU)n" Thl,~ i~ M~O'lI'<dill1i.g to ,~~h~l't yeu ~n 'be kaTIiLii!J]~', ,th8lt LthinkJjn~t is me milJVel'ifJ~]]ji! T of the ["e;f,tSO~11rJJg ~(ilU~] ~mO~1!g the ~lnteUigibJe.Jj;" _

"I.his dif:vitsion of ~'~:h'in.lci[tg" into t-wo ,dlivj:rio(l~ and ru~mii'JJg O]i,e of ~1~1 ~,in~ruie(.tyal conlO~,~:uiop~ and the other Judgn'iielll(a] ,aJ~€1l:~~ does ll!CJ!t imply ~~t there wm.:dd be no' ,di~ision of 'the O'mer spedes of ,pe'OC,:f,p~~)!lI~ hUt) t\.'ifO dh,.rffiiUi:1S and na:~r~iLlg one oK them ~;(:(Jijjlct,[JI~Jo'[~.' and the: other ~j!i.l~em.a] fJis:J;eff.IJe ~ lliOF [does :~t bttp:ly]1 'rd'.JJ~:t one [diviSiDIilJ of them, would t:H)[ be named ~'!D(ulQeptio;I1l~ Gl1lly 0[' ~I?bin con(;e,p:uo:~~ ') and, the 'o:th~1f' ~{:o!l1.Cep;tio:n w;ii\1'n. j!U!rtgm.e'¥li~aI, i[lcssenClI tb~'t i15} 'a j~11enf.

[:Bi1yd~,wi~s T ex[Y.Ij't~sjO[I~ "b,y 'it3e1r~ ~ ]S a CljtUl~tiom of the objcr;~ ~[rj.tlJty (1!Jnder. whidrn, it :i~ i~1ib.d[&It!Jj:rull.y ,oonce;,'Ij,~rilld]" Alm~ h:us 'exp:re5,~

~,. ,r"'wi'''1'.. t, (' _'~', . ii'iI' "".1, If' ,"~ ~, .' [~'h lh.~iI'l1, '11 -'Il.. ',- , f

$l©i!]:t ... ~IjJIJ)O'IJ1 l),(lI~u1g an y J t:!JugfJ;L:r.!,~ ~.~,po([!] 'I._ re -r[I!IIjJt(~j w __ etner @_

de~~ioo or ,~~.el1iOln~~ )~t1tat is) wi'tihntfl~ a j'l1.dgnre~1t: for ,e~:~her' One ,o:f these 'beh~g a p:rope:rty [of ttiLt:: ttl.O'!N,ght]~-cl~a:r]y ~~aios his ,e.~p:[o~", sion, '·~by ]tself~~

'Vh~:~ ils. mealITi.'t by thl~ ~ th?!:~ no> []JaJ]j'~iC'!l,:l:la:rJ judsm~nt: wO!I,Jlcl be made (it property of r~'!ie lhol~g~tJ ~ M'l~ that a JaCk of judgi]ttnt 1l.-'!,1\ould 'be' ~l prnpltFt:y of i'~. :J udg:r.utene' ~o[]:i.iiMj [e.i~he:[ [pooiti.vdy.l ~n the (pro~ jrBctluri' [].e.; !Upon the c~m:::i£!,ptia.n.] of ,<1 J'da,tJio.n,mip of certainty fIr

[negatiiVel.y] in ,thr.: "'r~mO:'l!ar of :il "1 ~~e ~:p~'ojectiQIJl' :I~ hdcll VlJ he either an i]np~itiO:il ,~r ne:Ce£~ty or an ,adlrmadtln of ,ee[tru.uty ~ snd the ~IT:nlOjV-ar [is h,elld, to be] [t'::id'n.e~ ~ :neg-i[ttIH[i (lit. fJJ 'rejcatiom. Tile

• ~'II ' ~'I· L '1 i'!, f "~ . "

~rC:Jat1{}tli~tlP . l ~JI '0:, c~[lh.unily :rnmy com!Ult m

a) ~, afiu1fI]atlOlJ1 ([if (me thiug T 8, ,alhout another by wfilY of jde,~tity!l as the affi[ru']a.tiio:n of be;i~g' an a.c.ddiar.!lt, is, (0[' 'wh:u~_;.e~J,ess me our .s1t:a;teJfiellt], ~r\Vbtre:JJleS;9 is an, acci(l~~l-'~; or, il: ]$ in

b) tJlie ~:ffir.n"1~)tio:n of one ~h[n1{g ~Q~dl{"'...r 'Mth, another by ''!i!.ray of ,~coo.n1ip:;~dJ1i]m~iI1t~ as. is d:u3: C'e'.J"'taiaTity' ]iIl (FLU 5'ludemfimt, "The S:~Jn lh;;;:Il$ [~~e[l"\ t.\CIgeth~~" Mdil '0'11[" s~~temfiiL!rt,~ "'~h~ day h;a~ come", when we :say", "lf the :5~iil:iL 1\1::5 lOa, Jm:as risen ~fu,ef:1J the day has eome"; or, it tu 1l)e itt

c) the affirma't±o:n or ,aJ, distintti,on between (}],M~ thing O;lJud

i1IlrlO'~ber by 'way ef diff~OC'e!nce~ M i\s d1!e d~:tkr.ence fui:"1lWeen CJ-U1'r. ~1l.'a'~'e· mene, "Tbis nUflflbe.'f is even", ,~ndl our ~~:tu:emr~etd~, ~~ll1nis n~mbtr ~~ odd~~ ~ a1ler ~ sa'yj ~~'I'.bis, '[l~~~b>e'J' !is either odd Q[~ ,~n,,~''lg:

fa,) So~, (nl t.h:hs, basis, I 9 than~flg abeue a tllling w.i~1:li()1, ... e a.ny jud;_~· lneuit be:itttg made as an ~tc~~m,pa:myjng ]~u:,O'pel'I~· (of the ~_h01Nl~J'['tJ:!l 1&

... ~.n,""'d ~"",.,~N.~ ... ,!I; -,~'~ ~ - - -- -~"'II~~' -'r'i,t

i""t.!IU'V "llLll'!l'G.LU:;;"':'I.ilIru COReeif.'" uO',L~ .~

(bl.) w.hil~ ~J!ti[ijki~lIg a'bout a ~.h]Dg, with :.1. judgrfle:mrt. being :D!I:U)~le ,aJlb;QlilI:~ ~iI: ~ ,an ~.:(omp~'l1iyipg' prO'peny [[of ilie tb.ought]) is 'cailllJIDd. 'judgj]iientaJ assent' [Lf'''9 .aiseiJ!t '00 the conception being fonned], !Bttl;W!t'it;[JJ iI:llu.cst: t\¥O [mcntitl ~e(]o[lsJ d]t':~ is a real Idiffe.n."::n'fie~ in the S(l11S.e tlruat itJ]]fY .may not be ;tdinnerl (rogmh~iF as, bQ;t!b. true], nor '[\en1;ol,red [~(kge(:lhef' as botl untrue] 'fro~ me dlilMdd:bi.ig pooc,es.."J"

There Is no imp.[iea,tion 'rn~~: a conceprion, fua,t ~ul!d 'be formed ~b(Iiut each ,0&:" these ,['II-W' terms, M would ~x~Jt from [1l;lm.'e category of] '~ir[ltd]!ectJUlI;ai ~mu,~!'i;ipriQn) 1'1ll'i.i.d il;iT.IJte!l.~ [dliit(, ~,r~ 'Judgmenrtal, assent',

'~""'l1'o::Ilm 1<:1"" ,ij'i. ... ,,.,.;Ij"it.,,I!'-,Pnti ..... fI'" .tn""n""~ .,. i~.~~ .• 1i' ;;:;.r:;,,";L. ~'t~";i:><:1"" ·h •. ~.n, 'i!-''''''''ffi;1:!' "''''''.1 ~I'lid ~~ •• i;l!Jlw!I!!~~ ~Ii]~ ~~II, .. ~_.,~.'b!J~.I.~ JJv~,~" _~t"'l ~4Lf1J·~it ... ~~~E,~ v~~ ~~,II~~~ ~.~~ ~~_ ••• ,~ ~~~I,;"W~.

be [sllni.ply] a tl'].'{)~t about [tth~t] term by :utsclf; t~l~!t is, ~J) judgment wOIlnJd ;aoaampaJl'ij.y [the thO'u,gliftt] ~ so .;iI! would. be oUl.t8id~ [the ca,te,g1Qiry of] jUdgTf:!I~Qt~ ~~enf' Hd stiU ~(hir~ [lb~:t of] ~hn~.eU~o· 'UJa1 C(li1«'1Plt0I1'~. N or ~s there dilly [mplkilltioliii d"~M a 000'[«p~1!l]" Ith:a:t

a. -, I J.I; 1'..~. ii7> --- -- K·..]I -11,;., . .'L. - ". Ibj' ':. '" . - [. f'·- ;;: y ,", ~-- -. ,,] t'- -,--,il- -,,-- -- ~,lh ,!,I'

wou lUI! :1lJ'C .1.'IJiT.BJTitQ.J! ,alUvutt me ~lU, eC'!! o a sentenee Ogt:~~,u;,r ~ E.~l us

pr-odica'De~ W01l1M [ther.r;f)l]!ri!:i] become a Jiud!Jl!llC:Ji1.'I!a~, ,t3!S!'ClITj,1!~, 'bo[;3!.use '~'hris ~.il!1.t€i~.leotJiJ:d oQ(Ii1~~im:il.'~ of the 8uibj~~£~ I lWO\Jlilld have :t1,O jj!UdgmE'nlt aJo~.l(m'!l.]la!J:l,yilil.S' 'it,~

[~·'r;:tIi,m,II-- -"., ~~"l" 'ii{~=. - :'-";0<" ~ l--~,~"" .-.;.d .'--- _'-:'~c-.i.;" vR .uup;aWJ s .:... .. ~'I.'\!J ~. Ar.~~twnlg Uw mbl,u·~wR ~~,u m;.q~lI;I>I.i'!1

[B~yd!am"'sJ 8!l:a'[,~m,ellt-tha:t each of the pair", Jlam,d.y, C01ITj~plJjou]' ~nd ejud~ll'le~1t~J assem', b divided into

:15~12: ~ ~nt-dlectl!.la·g

1;.2, 1".~1It~~ tilEC W.<Iy~. of' ~1;;]ti.~g G~tt.JiLrn,ty ~fIi~J~" b~ t!tl:l.tnv.i&!: &M;tiilxd ~ ~~iL1t'["r&e.if~t£; th.,.~ ~re~ .1lJ c1Megc.;f'iq:a~ IPru~ooI~([t1:;t b} e~'i'itl,lj[r1il.-.;j,¥e h,:(TJ1)tl1e(j;~ ~) rusj;!.iI~\tC~.h~ h'fP'O""

tb.et@t - -

L* MS .~: Tht: :l'B;, m~ d.[; Ib.aii.::i, of [H.ifydi:l!"iO'i:'t>] divifiirm. of ·tI.i~~k.i![~.;.

2Q' ~' Ii... ."" ~.IL. - ,. "

" .~.,Il!',; rne CO 111 c''4P'ti: on lUlu '!JlJ~il: ·,i:I!ii5CJit 00 ·ut.. _

2! L .~ .. -~. . -. d ,'. ". <"t - .1,;." . - . ..:1:. . .~, [ -. <', ~:I ",":1_--]

. ~hl~~e CU, S~:O; 'm£ .m!>'l..':I't-s,t. . _'i,'l~u lt5. iP'TCwCi:IJ!!t' ,mi'll ~ ..:!l.L~""l!.W'.I.m .. "

22 1. :~ 5 ~I: Whb ff.~(;~';;H~()e tID 1M~ t;~sill..o[!l, ... ·w(J.'i,d)d 00'i.'6 no jrudgmlllfm :ji,.t;CoDm~ pSllJ~!liig iJt •• .": ~~~C(: dl~r'(: 'j;], iI1i'l::! dOO,lbt ilI:ta't j;Udgril:1iel1it. m~s ~(l()i,JiIT;1~~D.y ~m ~'h!C: tll'li\e4:: [~nCE,p~.s ~_I::_. ;sl!.lil~oot. pr'faair.2I!Ili! 21i1i1d il:hr.ir jhIDd~ip!Iii!l![ljt::lil 'rd2i,tro'n:~ibdfi' [all,mii'li~,~.m ~:a!la'Yh:i.-3;t-m~ikrI!iililil, bibJ-----.liI,-n~bah aiI..:lttlil:mry,2ih] ~ ~Jf" oniIy '~,'ih.oo, all diif:' Idruroe: awe tB;~En t~i!t'&Ii!=r]. ih1.ilt it 'wlJ'l,d~ l'\i),t aiXfiimr'_'~ny muely OI1l!: 'O:L' tl/!fO of ~h-eDili. [Cfl!ded t.Jm;~~J~; p:rE!'ll!J!malbily :[llIffli1rJi 1~~E;ha:rif 2lI~'l!.IirjaJilT~:i g'~OO!'lfl!'l [RB.. .... l.!~al.!] on I~::Ii~~:il.n~~.s ~lWIilJ]'IJImt~ry.]

1. ultui)1lll)na[ I[b:DO'!!tving] t"ha.t: does. not depend npon logical reasO'ning and .·hDught far its ~IHtta:U[)men4 aru:H:

2. acq'llJJi~tJ,Qini~ [k1]!l)~~ (h;:a.·f does depend 1l~JP'On IQgi~~ reasnning ar.~d. rtll!o'u~gln.il-h~ the '~ea~1ru_~ Itll~ some porrlon of each 'I ~r 'me ,P(!jiit 'io1fowrl, be tiU1il~~io[la] ~W'Wir.gJ fiJd some portion of each "'iKJ.!!liI,'1d 'be [[.~i1:io:U]a[] aQ~uisidon~ l[klJlI.QOlriFilg].

(~,.) ,A.n 'e~:an1ple of ~i~it'W!iti,ve Lin,re]le~tuatrJ cOlJu::eption~ '~!JjJd be the coaceptlon of e~isrt;euce and of .t1iJ:]ne~lst'~i'iee], "vblle ~U1. e~~pLe of '~iT!ltlJ.,"tiitii"fe jurlgme[~tru assent'; wO'ruld 'be 'mrc jt]dgn1;E;tU 'rr'hfj:tt dem'rl~d and ~a:ffi •. ',mL~tkm. l'iJ:l~l!y not be JiQ,jll~d oogeth.er rill a ;sltate:m.ellt. as oijJJth true] nor may '~:llf'c~l 'be reraoved lJOge!IJl;tr [from a sta,D;erJiiLeru as both u[U.tct!Ult] 'U

(2:.) An, ,e}UJJm_p[e of a "rati(n]~Uy' acq'![uired i[._ur.iLceptli;cm~ wO'I1]kl, be the' (lml!D6Jlti([ln of an ang,tJ] o:r a demon, 'wm~,e- an axample of a 'ra[iomliy' ,~u~qi!Ji red jlJdgrnentaJ ~ss;emf would be kM1~vh~dge o'f the ternpetal o:rigir.ati.on of tht ur.t.ivetse ,at of the ,e~i:~]t)l of the CrtJiJtor,

lfoweve,T~ [0 the master of defin]D,g inrtui,1).lfVC' jurltgmental .a~l'i1:t as net depenmng UpO~1 ]o,g±~l reasoning and '~hough~~ an obse r".-'a'tio 11, is req.l:Jlred .. ::ror i'~]d.etd~ in'lil!.llil:iv<"C judl~e.ltal assent sometimes docs depE;][dl fm' :rultS, attainment upon, logical :J:1ea3oning a!l]d th,G!lJg:ht~ in thzu beth ef its t16T1'i.1JiS, ~ OF (!If1if. of 'lihe:m~ wOiu.]d. be acquired ,kl'1L<O'\\"]B' ~ds'e. 'f'heF(!fo![\e~ it. w01l.ll1d. b~ p:[\~;~EnMe to say !l."c,~.[\d~]l1J,g ]Dtulti'vC j'~d~1i:U;:lll'tai. ;ru~ent~ trhat the OOlllv:notlOln Q:f ,the ~llJteilh;;c~ :i~ not d£jpeiD1id·· enr, .ritb.jn the ~·eb\donship ~]~J~ hoklli between i'~'S. two terms [of sLtibjcc~ ,and. iP'TI'di(";are] after a OOTI{lept of them. both. ~, 'been. fD:rmed~~Ipc!]il :IOW~lAI, :re;as'{iHlIi[!ig a:I!1Ol i:houg.hto In ,thris ~I]J~'~ ,inmi,ltio:naJ [ku.JJO'wlng] deals wt~h observable f~(.'tts. of evidence, and rt:::h'e8e are the phenomena from wtrlih, kiliotJ!jfLttigt he:riLef.iJ~)5\, 'The-y come driller frem

a} extemal IL, :16 sensarien, these bcJJng called "sensate phe:n,o.llu;:na:>~ as 'O'U!!L jilluJig[m~![ij:~ 1!iha.t the S!lJrn is uP:il 0]"'

b) ff;om interna] sensation, these beira~ M S ] db !(:a]led ~jmpwess'iimJi8de phe]1CJme;[!liil~t~· as our judglJ]etlt, that 'we are fearJld atljd ang;rry.

S;Om.c' ~hO:la1iS ]!ruLt'Ilt: 10te£]l['ctcd '~n!iiUitiivt:, jud1Pmor[['~ assent [[[~ctt;1.y]

~,~ +,il.;."'I)t· ... ;0 r'I, 1· .r'~~ ,..,1"..", ]i .... _.,,~I1 ....... ;i. 'm.'i~·[ 'IL,,",. rr.; l',o.1L1""n ']"it ~"'"'I'T"''' eonoept " .... ,.,,'" ef

~~I ~~Ul _. ijl-Ii .[~. ~~,:I, ~.l~,II"., ,.,.JVC1ll_E~~1I. "~.::I 1-~t.Ii.~... tll~"E ~~ ",,", I-~.L 11,11,11.;::1 ~~, '1_'-.-.1, • _ fU\.l,~~ u

~ts; t")i,;\F(l; ter1l:ns: [Sili.ibject and] predk~:te!] 'Wlth~ut. 'any Q.tJ1:'U;~r aid, The fil~s"~

term [:i"e', ~ th~ S!1,iI;1:ti~LtJ~j; '~$, <called ~]ifl~;lI(:'rent~y ne(e~a'~li~, So by tfl:1tis: hlttrpreta~ml,~ ii]m~,~io[1Ld [kil!Ui\~'Ilg:] would be' mO,iL"t speclfic [l.e, ~ in irt~ 'r~re:~e'noe] than ~n~~~f;iS.ity~ :h~, an ~O]M,1ie sense [['WQ1lll1d be]" 'whlk'= by d'liA; 'in;l:erp:n~ta:tio:n that '!Ji!a~ ,mer.uJ!oi1Jed ~r.Jie~fi' it w.o!11i1ld be synaIJ!Y·' mnus ~ -'t'b [neQess~,'!.y 'ijn, an abselute sense] :11' 1 rhls diviS~.Q~,1:~' lDwi,tive jiUidg_~~iiji assent must mean ~~utething s~norty,m'ow, ,;,dtb irjLherelt'u :t!Lea:"S~ity'~ ~ otherwise, the j udgmel1:taJ.~ assent WQ!lJild 1'1'0:&; be co:r.llf:irled,

·it~·" I [th 'I~'" " . a, "', ,,{'TI i"L, '", .. rO'''';,'' ,~Li ,,-l ""il", " :"Ii" 'I ' . h ~

\.\1] .~ un ~ Ii- ie cal._..,.gUr:JI~,..s C!. ~ II,U.t;! l[lj~~ll ~,Lo:ni4L ,auJ:l{!!. tne ~qILJ1''5l!~~O!lnl.U.

NQ"'\I':I' since Pll.ury ~'[Ii".re~tigoc' fig seJ1Jo]a,:ttS, had treated ~Jn)liJ~le;ml'ts;1 assent' ,~S ~f lJt were merely] judl,g;ment: [iii, ;gen.em1~ ~ ~ ''!I-v'hie [&ydwwi]

, ,-", ,', ':'::' ,,", " ! .;," ,..:J,~ -I -"" I~ : ", "", 'i..:, 'd'\l:, ""i, 1 ,~[", f' .,'IL.,.:.: ",'I[-~I ~', ,- f

~ tr~a~:nijS J1].u;.~neil:1tam, assent m .u~.~ LIVl'-.1!Q!Il, I n tne pm.as~s: 0:,

m~~~g] as ~W[lkitlg [OJ\li1cep~!a~U.y] about sO'.t11Lething j{l~lwr ,'Wi~h Z1J, j~dgm;t:iiIt passed ii],PO[1 [tfue 'iLlO'j];ceptio(jj]J, hting for.m,oo~I:~ either in den~1!lI, ur ,:i~ffitmtdjJO:Ii~, lae gave :~n ~'xamp[e of ~illtJUi'ltR'!I€ judgFIl~t8J1 ~se[if~ Di.a:md)"~, ['O]1re~s] jucl.:gDl(';iI1.t ,tthat denia~ and :~rf'r.rn;a,tion ,(101l1~d. not be

joined t~geth,er [:1]:11, one ~Ir;~;(:emeillt as (i;Q'1Jri true] ~ :oo:u could they be removed [fjigt:~~e!r' from [~, ~Q;ii!i!ttmt=!il1.: as both ilU~,'tr!ne] '" And 'he rod

',16"'- ,"II "'7.J,·, ,- ':-!I~,~,,' , ',t,· ,-,~>, - .'iI- ,il': i tha ~', d~,: - - _ I"' I~ ',', ,-,'J uns .1[11, iO\~ut r to w;a,~ ar eOil],!Jilil, to tne ,~it'liGt t .. It J U ,.rp1ili".IDd3!!L assent

[~.eo :foHOM:tJ:l,g a :state'li11ie]]t. (lIt' !C('J,n.cep1l.ion] was; [bei~,g handled s'~m-

P~,'IiJ ,;;JJ:;:;] ~].~ d1I!"fii':il!l:;;n~ [~,n (Wne;r.aill] ,- am [):if"lIQ' eae ,-: -0-' ',-, or sebelars,"

, ;' ,'" 't:it"~' , ~, O'ji~ ~ ,~- ~:t ,~J!, ""~b" gr Ul]l ,- , -~ ~ e er ,

,]:;ttD'"llLlcr,- in his di,vis~ui1 I[ of 'Il:]'l~ pMSe.s, of :kf:1,Cii!i~ungl... [Ba~dat"'1] set :livrth [!this] "Jllldgtneliltal, assent' as:':::il "tluo!k:ung' ,~b(Il1..Qjt ~om~thhlg ,~r

:n. M:.~ g~: Le., '~I!!~' l.ii,ttai~"unewt' (!If wbich, does not de~uil ml .l~gic~il rtH1J.lo.riiliL1g and th(rl;!~hl_

~t. ME ~'I (O:I:li a! :H~i'IIn~an:y di'!lm8~ p~g~~ TI:'!th is wh~re '~~Ei' Coo:1'!,i'i~tJtl~ of'tllt(; :Uur.¢lktl~ t'I.~~Mn tl~-e reli'}~joD'l~]P li:nlil: ,~oIds 'bC:lv,,1Xlfl :i~ m'(ji 'tJl'jm:i~ [!:lldtd~t ancil, ~,"-"'fit!!] :<liner ,iii, 'iJIJIJ~.te'p~iO:IJJ trf '~:h;::m 'Ibmh has 'b~L1 ftlrm~d. do~s l1.0,! -d;:P!!n.iI! :l.]pa.:1ili ~.oJfeall :te:.Il'OOa1I!ng; ~!I'l.il!l ~1~it:;tJ;g~u~

~ L I,{l ,~~ [,!l",~ ttrJ.'l::' '1][U;[~tu:r'I:s, dM~m~ ,ofjljJcilpen~~l ~~nt: ~11i~D ~J~,;:;:' inu.I.ibot.J:.<IJ1! :aiiKI ~ru.e ~u~siiti~m~].

~!; l.. ,fj ~~ '1L~,M~ b<:i.~~g ~he ~n4 '~h,e ~Ijii~ifit 'of ,!tl!!~urih Qklif~ ~nMt de~ef~ 4)J~ reg", ieal n.:8RQ:Fhi[J;g ""'[lid ~M1!!.ght:,

1!.i L 16, ~:: [~'fif:>ih::'i!Ti'i·iJ ~:ateilJil.f!J1iE ~h~1: h: wm,dd 1fiI(!!~, ~ .c:QUfiTWd b, 'lJor.au~ j~mJ,w'~ ~~fil ~Im!i ,15 ~ffilhe~lJId,)' nJ~Qe';s~mFY wOI1M, be, in lihat il.!ase, :um. ~m;othc:r crutegp.rr" ::J~ 1n ~iut: :l\'iiS ,~f., ,I !llIb:,5) ~I~ t:rlI:1J[, b~~ ~1Lt!' :!i~:rib~ ~tiJilg 0fiI, il:h'C :U!~Jil"'i~ired J~ 'ti([Dlrul:5 ~1~1i]j eerrect ''i.'llIros i~ ... ,~li1Ifmil ~ft~l" !i.'io'Thiiill!: 'irm!'(:~' cx~tiJ.'ifLc;ti!ltS iIfi,MM:r.

III k~ his bo®kt. ~l!ie .A ~~~l [pp.. 21D~4i.]t. Cairo ,r~prirm.t or [,:1:32 ie-d..)t. F.D, RMjJ d~IDU~!,}E<: joot_gmcn:~.8~ 3!~l1itl' r~~clf{]]. :BUf; be wr.J~s 00 j~§n.ewt 'i:IJl ,~t"rnl~ r~~J:ter (h.':'ifl it'liti=' ps['tI:cJln.l:u juclgnn'C'nt :rc5fiGindlng' II!! thE n(:~ to '~ry ~hil::' CJ;llI':I!".j!urt. S'I:3~' .of uoc' ·:ilfL'til.l~tl!l!a11 ~JlJn[I..,':tpihm' lihliilt ~.!'> 'llEU lib.t:, '~{]!l:~ il;r11 ftlnnatl@'!L TbE:' ,tw.ro"P'lia::;e' ],mD'W-iii,~ rJlii!;t~!!'S ['~a!iii!l.\vwlLljJ"/tii¢itllil '~ m, OJiIgmlilig oall'te:r.nailil(KD. ~~i~",i"¢~l ~h~' 'tIw"O pha:oca, in i1ioodlii~' the dBla >Dr ]liJ::li\Ception-

:::1 T[I~,C' :1\18 ,ii~l~ :~l.C':re [by ]j[I!:~;k.I;!~ aB it ,ilplJlii:iilrn c~itJr a [~~I,!' Hirnil:s hd.ll1lWl"

~I, a WIi' f'· -- ';'rr ..... [."I~-='b '. -"J I' TMI""''''''' -. 'i"I.ar<'F'R' - J. -. r -. J'L.=~A,

as __ '., ,_.:f i& e~J~~"~ I!!O'~J <'!.tL :an:, 'n Ji" ,;j !;.JI~l'rRt~: ,uoll)";,', I;(JJ 'I U~' :[<:Llililt· [JiliU..I= 'W';l~

in~r:t~ J1!~ b~~~ 13!te1~ w.a.s $'CI'~:KOO;Ii out

c c :J,'r. . co, I ":1 . I . ,c ,~. ,c,' 'd-' c r' .' . .', f' tIL, , 'fic'· ..... , r:~:k, c'"1 ." ,,' . : ,~ , ;~I.~"!' .. ]

~:;Wl a J1 !JXup:tell~ passe ij). one er 'I.U,e IL"'~'!.!I 1L-il!J.I.!lle:i!WJJ~hi"ife5~ i.e., aenia

ow ~JfITnliifti~[1',]'-l!fPQn [:~.he thO'lli,g;b1J: ro far !PO'IJICE1i,\~I. And h~ did] d)j~ in order 00 [d~a~ a:~reflldoll t:Q taw [act 'lh~u :in hl~ j~Jdgme]j)~: ~'t ~',ZiJS ])['erle'r,ooJe 100' set f)lJ!Uh ~'j~~n~~ assent'" ~:~ a t4;~ FQ!L ~thill[k~ i~ I[ o)nc:e,p(!)u~lly] abeur oom.elt'h1!1.lg ~fiWr ,~ a judgm.el]t passed

[iL.. • " we' J~

1l1pon. ~If]it: !DGilOept m sts process {)ill :1:Oi".tt['latiGii:!L",·

ldtr;.~~;'."i' fJl~. - .... I."~":'·~·· .

. !!!!!'oilt,,~!1- ~ ""', ~ ",r1f;l)l{ , , .

. ~'

AJl we []£~ill~lli] have sald is rhat (1i1'ly ,ijjJ p:o:rD±on of each of these

N:Q pha:ses [of k~Q'I,MngJi... n8JI'il'iLc[ry'~, OO'rlloepti!oiHl ;l1l[ld jrudgm.e:nitaA assent, ~$ intt.d,li(flnaJ ~jrl a ~?o:mo~] o£ each of' d:l,e:m, ~ a~q,rj,ds:Yri,Qn,M, This is becsase, if iJ1~ were JaO~ $O~ then ~e' acrs 01$ eoneeptien ami of jiudg'"

, I'. i~~ ,&,.:..c""'ii'f"'" :":,,,i;t'~""'" menll.!1II!i "'~=!!.",J.iL~, "-rJI !J]",,::r

3.. would be aJ]1 :lnl!fiIe:r,mdy :ii;e(1e£S[~!ty [a;s an in!tuiitiv]i1.L or

b, they would be al rratio:ndy aJflq,uiood) and. each, of dll.{;i$e aljre~ n,~~hte5 Is ~m:P(iHi.fjiib]e.

(;:ID,} l;Y,e ~ay ,~s of tlne first 'O'pt~{tiiil.~, ~UJse if aU of! the concepts and jn;[~g:mE],u:aill. assents should b~ iInherel'ii,rly' [leceSlSa:ry !}by :int~~t.io~!l.J ~ then we 'W'(!illld no~, ~a1Ve '~Q!)~ a:myd1irlJ,g [i,e, oj' 'k..fiiiJwl1edge] t~o:tn,ei'd1er one; thas ~I ;ljH of them would CUi1ile a'bom:t fur' Us ~"iditOiJtt [oa..iJlt giv~ ~ng them] arny ~ogica] '[leaJsO'ning 0:[ tlil.OlllgJ:'n:" :!BljjJt t~,e {;oittcblllsioJl1J is jhl~e'~ beeausc a STcartt 1l1:1any COiJ])c:.C.ptiO!l18 ~;l1id jU,cl),glO)L1ii'I;SJ, assents dQ filO1 come ;al~Q'I)t. wr us 'wlit'bout ~ogic~, l"€~(Hi1J.][~;g' and 'ihrn),gpt,

iIl'-.') And we :say' it also. of the' secoad o rvM,on , because :if alII con-

~u, of ,I~

" L rl " d " ru "h Id 'b 'b " "aJ n " •

"~~IJ -,-- - u .-- - . -, -, '<, -_[ -:. I i' I" -r(-f '-. ,'- I - I _, _' '-,,- - ',"

~tlons JUiI, JU gm:~nt assents SJi OiJj, . e 'J ra!I:!!Of) ,:1Jif:q,uUi1b.o:n:~

then we ~~d net '1.1Zf'!lB ohta:i[Tj~dl ,any of them, [by acqr:IJl~~ititn!j.JI", B;lJ.,l!t Ihis eo:mdu~m;} ii~ [aJoo] f~':\i ooca'llclJSe ~;j]'n'te'times there are :~!LiI.y

," ~~I ='11 • ...11 " . ..i L I ~'I ,i'

m!l:.cJitctmu t{rillL,ce;p~or.~s ,~illlu J~Jillgme:fil.tfJ assenrs t }~J: we un ,~!Lq,m.l,\e.

An explaliLation, ,~f the ~Ggi:c here is tI.ila't maners ,of logicru ,rea$()mr~g ~["e aoqutitred ocrnity from <o,m!;!.l' and 'P'R'vltQoudy h.cLd ,items of knrn.w]cd,ge, So~ :if an ]nteKfi;tua~, OOl1lCqtlOIlS md jl!l,~tnml, assents should be b-~ acquisbj~t:!l dl~] ~, :i~npii~~tio:[] would be that aU ,o:f them 'w~Hrulcl b~ rdying ~J'pon OOiJlln.errdng else, either in ~u.ibje.ct-11ub3t]'ates 14';5] ~ a l;mlited, in eXIDeJlt, and, then a circular ~,rgufne~lt 'wol~d be innpEcit from the inherent Ilr~ssity that whatever was :i!lJcq,ui'[\oo then, would r,et~ro '00, it" sup'po]'t~.ng base, L~, i' or h] slIlbjeot-8uootra:n;es. rLJn~im,,"",."d, ,~""i' ",,,,,f"C'j"""~:. ,;:;',IrI;.dI then ~:n ~·I?i~li'1ii''".i:j Sl;';;:',..j.:;~ '~ili'orM'm~'[ '''','V('I~~11,(11 ~~, 'imif'l,H~i~-; 11l.1L "IJLiL "-"A!oI!..,U"'~ 'I."'!Oulil I[b ... ~ I!. flb~ l!JI.!lJ]I.~JL!.\'I... ;;:t!I~.L ~~ ~'Q;~ II",,!!!!'.. " v __ ,!,'Jj -Flo- ~~ _,~:,,~""_'!.."

And both. CLTCU]ai1r and infi.mte :s.e.Tia aFgU[[)jetit~ ir[jfp~y 'ID~.t; '~~, would 'be :IIU!?05~bk [0[" us to acquire b~' rational :m~Slm~ .rUIl' [bu]iwFod.bre]

'I' ~ ';;:'lQ ~i'" '1lIi'2~

d ~ V~,~ Jt U~·._J

37

~t ~lii eithe:r f(\((~ hU;el]]ecm~l conceptlons or [rQ\ITI j~dgnlmt6!l1 ~~VLm-

A Ch'l[i!.W!.f 0.rgun])E:]it ~illd so :impi'll because m that c~~e~ '0'0[" ~aquiriDg some 'paT~]c!lJJ.lar thing (a} [by I\ea2o]]i.I1I;g] \1\'Cu]d d,ep-r:nd on [our a'c-qlH~ri[ljg] sllJr:ne oth,e-;l"' th.irrng {b} [by reasonin,g]~, [and] ~;lh;at [In tum] would depend OM [our ,aJ:re~dy L,),vjjug] rhe :flrs:t thtj.ng (~)~ thus,

'" 1 .. ,', ,IJ:" [ 'I] 11.-.:' __ lU ..:II d

our ['an.O:I1J~ acqt1!~sljtJon O'JI: ~ny _'p~rlJJ:cU!:ar I t.[i!i.'og: 'wo:wloi aepe:O.: , t:~'p!Cin

[out :ratiJjJj,.al acquisition ,of] that very iho.n.g. This is, 'bOCSJlIJfH;i th:uog' (;JJJ-lmi.Fil;g dL]lBndm:l,t upon th~lThg (b) '~~ [~i~ ru,I'J1J] is d~e:ndent: IlIpon the [o['igi~J (hhl,g (a}--'w((IiI;dd itseLf 'be' ~:te[)e~dl~'g U,P!l]«l that 1[~~l1f~,e orlgi'bTi.aiJl] tlJli~],g (a); ~md, somed:w.i:lli,g [not .kr.IJown] 'IJ]~d' dcpcFtJ.dls upon. i~df [i,e, ~ iTOt' rational, moc!.t.~uu] ''!rV([Iuk~ be' impo~i'ble 'iiG acquire 'by

,

reasom ng, .

A1J], ]of.11it]t,e eeeies argumene ~J~'1) "",w'Ildd 00 :impiy [ie"J' d1e hrll[;)~i'J~ @ihliity of ~cquiilii1g M.ow"[ed\ge] because in ~t 'c~se~

a, 1(JfJj]' Oli()[j_Ur.i:rition of ~[].y rlnowlet:ige] either by illibe~e~:ltl]al con[)~PciDFJS' Q~ judJ_gIll~nli~ as'ae!tlli:s, would depend i[Hfij, our ha.vil:lg acquired. vviithitlL oUU' intellect SQ;riLl£th~ltug' ~:lIavin;g: :00 n~dt~. T 9 and such ~D acqU]~tioo. wid .. 1.:. rhe [nu;teUect ef ~ui1u~:thinng having no ]U[~(S wo~Jd be a:m jmpfjssib.ility

b. beeause lit is impossible for' thiG :rnjjnd '[0 ~ncompass "i....lfIThin iil:s eomprehensioa sO'melhri~g that has no '~im.il~; ;a~ld anyth]~g d\e]~n'" ,dent Upoinl an ~m.poffi:ribility wal~ld be' ,~:ii1J ]~n:pQ.ss~bilirf. Therefore, Ol~r ,obtaillinl,g [by' :r~6nnal ~,tqThris.iliQ'nJ ,any [b1iowkdgc]~ either by wa:y uf ]~jtt:~t'id:UaJl ,aono~t;o:titS 01- by jli.]dgrrJen~aJl as&!s'1!1!m~ ~'ffl;l;dd, be an :U~:npm~l.b;~ity "

~. _ An Ilibjectiort bad been 'm~de~~ ag'ain~~ ~~,nt~'lk'Ctu~ C(ll:lCl:p'" 'tion~t [as a ph~&e (iiI knO\;r.r];rl\g] .~S :f~l[\()\v,~';,

a} If w:hat: ,is meant would be the eoneeption of all. '~iiltity 'in its ['C ~lliJt~h • ihe:n ''!I!,re [ tih,e: Qhj e emr] WOlt~lld p refe[.' that aJ{] [kn owloo_,ge] be 'acquired rnti(\!~~ail[y',; &:vy im,pliicati;Q',f.!] that d:te' :rU'g:IJme m "!<'!,1\otilld be ~ircw~r 0]' an :irMt.e series in rltat caJi£' WIDUI..Id, be ruled Gut. sinee it would be a,dm;s~ble dl~:~ dle (oil1(ept'b:;nll [of all entity "in :~bil !I.'~a~:iilY~ '!i!I(,JI!;!.Jd he [ool'L~h]d~d w,ut!h the aeqJll.d~dJOn cf the c.m~celPll.iO'I] ~;iL'i.i. rome aspect.' It could iI10~ be S:i!lW (Ilf this tba:t the :ilJfip~e~.

:3!1! ,M'S .gi~ [[~e", rurr-ll S1li1im~ ru~Din td-Sruil1;aIl",¥.~ull.u l~,!!::',~ .Abu ~J-l.a'Yth N::uw ibm.

M~~.~TiflTiJ'J,M ,~I.;s.j)i'llI11D't1",~lIitii. c~ieta, ~1m:I.'JII, :i.l!l-Htldli:L~ d, ibt't"''JI'Cit::II. ,3:i3l003-~1:- atLcl :39!j{ ~ O©2-:3J _ ,§Q~ep:~l Sthactn"s O'!:rtiClle itt En~J:~:l (", ",'\!b~ll ~~ffj:h al..:s:am~~nw'l menrnf'..n~ :B!im ,8~ a H;ji~l~J1 8(:~ftll' ;g.ijld lim lti~ ikruJ..WDl iOO~,

38

[;.ltts!G·]f) ''!,1'!!(l:ul.M. 1ha\~~ [so:m.'B of tJm.~ (::n.titY~;SlJ. 'ff_,;~ill:ity~ as [t.hG' aspeu] ''IJ'ifOuJd be (IiI_e' of [~:he t;[[i;tit1f,.:it~] aoddeQJt,s and the' a.tc.ici1ent '~uld have i't;s O'wtn reality, The. a~llmpt'io:~1J. wO'u'ld ~ 'mfit ~(;{H'i{)!~p~io:iJl. of the [:~llt.JjJ1y;S] rea]ity; w'Gwd. be [wm'b'lihin.g] acq.llcil-ed.~ and this '~""G1iL1kll :im~ly a ciJrcul~u' qr ~:nr6Di~~ series ar~m£I'f~_ Our JKlisJjti.on [aJ~ o!t'!j'e©torSi] !f5. th11lJj: the cireular o:r ]1l-fi~Jti~'e series ~rgumeuJt would be inJlplled ol1~Y ~r ac;q'clSit.iOfll Q§ 1fhe 'conception of an elQ.tky in i~; re~~ty!1l-2' ,ilh;cu;nld depend lliptlif.iJ 'tll,e eencepdon of dl,e FC,a].~J1f of wh~eve']" '~~~.ned

• ~ '10' '~ • __ :II..JI b ' _ . ..:11 • • Illd b ...:I," ~IL il Co

,iLt.' lJj!l.llt t~l!IS W<Ii'wU.~e ruled our smce 1'[ ''!,,\I'{nj~" ',' if!' I3ili:nrruS~1J!lJle 'i1fu8lt.

the '~'O~J1o!;;:plio\tl Qf the '~.]]jt~w in it,S' :rea.li'ILy~ \!ifQlj..lilid b~ a.cquired :~ronl, rhe ~'[conoeptinlll (!If ~O'tthe:l' ,entity· in some ;fl!$pe!l;t. ,.

b) But: if what is meant is the 'ClO'm}t~pti,o]l of the thing ~il] m:lfJ:l£' ,aspll.'ict,;' tllu~:n we [the dbj{lct'O\r~ ~'Uu~rl 'p']rcf~=[' clbat :all [k~:1I,Qwl-. 'edge] be '~;lihe~elldy ne!Oe~ary) [aJ!.id thuS' ]I"Mtil,:a:lfbveliy kil:1l101W'll], Sii~lce ,eve;l)rt:h!~ng 00' wJgjd~, the i!!:ltelileu' turns 'W'Ou~,(~! 'be ,;;a C(i!~cef)1,i;oll ":in some aspect, ~

2" There [)O!!Ulld be a:ill;at'tuC( objeotion rnist!d!it: tha't the 'iiJJl'tend~d :meani~JJ~ ,of ~;,ool1oe;pti{)n'" '\~~TIJ~,d be ifdither

a..] wmethlifij_g mere general '~ba&l. ~il] lrs reality~ or "'in. seme ,~Ptitt~ ~ 0[" 'ilii!llit the «leaning w(!!wd be

b) ,wm,ei!iriii1g :m].lioo in thar 'pa:r~ WQ!111kl, be "in some ,0008:pocl" and part 'in l~~ ~I~ty. ~

(an. The answe'[" to w$ [:reCiJJ-11d Qibj~~tfj.r}'s]] iEarrsl ~:lte:l'n~.ti';le· {a) '~"t.O~lW be reJlll)3iJJt the ~gelle:r~.]" ~!UW be i~ ItM' same (~;~g:ory' as, lhti: ~spt:d]C, ~ at~d we 111!J!"l!!t ~oo~ '~he f~~ty OIK tba'l .a!i:'gMmenl~, :a;nd (b)-a_ '[he aiJ]S'I.~e[' to hl~ second alternative 'V{(IIuk~ be illll.:..'1J.t then ''INe [i,e.1 presu~'h~.y Jg~haniJ wO'IJ,:lild ,pTefel~ th:~:~ all [.~1~dge1 be 'inh~~'\e:[~tly necessary' [as "nt'L~itivt],

~. -a. Now'~ t[1,C aii:ls~-'t!t [to Abu ,~d~Litytih iid-Swtlittq~.tr.L[d~'~$. reaOO\l:1S, fo·r objecd!O\n ~ above] is that 'try ~;a]i the colncewtions' we mean e'Ver~rtrul],g [:bALl. has been Judigmenl!;aJ.y assented t((j, ,~S being ~, mort geneml, ,eo:r]~e.ptioo 'd~;iijn ~ i~!i ii:"t~l]!y~ 'Of ~]n some ,~S'pect~'~ ill such a w,~y as -ri'O :iRdl[~de tveiy I\18 1 lb itildh!jihJm C~1le of a eonocptiOl1l. L 18 "in mmlE' upect'" and every imdi,\,]d[utl cast of a rumception in 'its reil~ty\ And IDi!l) ir1[fer..e]lLi)i,';; nlla~nr t'his, out to be f.e can be drawg fr(Wn, the f~t dl~'~ e~h. of 'lhe~' two d~.\\1~iGn_~ I[Le" ~

~~ ME; g~: As :a :m.ruttL:aiDiJ Itx::~n,s;, f~r irum.~'.

m 1M1B ~'~:' "l1!i.~ ibdn!J ',iI. nltI.o U nil, ,i:Ullm:Stt~· lielng}

li:i M5 g]: & ~f Mil '~~p1y eo ~il"re; m£1~~ ,t]lt~eet~o.TIt here.

,., _.~ JI (." I"~] h 'It • __ 11.="J1~ 'b '1_

!lD'".L some ~ot amu. 1111. lIb~ :reil lty sas neen !I.Iir\Fd.IliLt.~a1t~u, 'W.I!J.'!t1l t~J:!Jen

by :iJt:ie]f ~~pa.~t from the other, Thus, if ,t'iver:Y~i[~' iJmQW,!I]] in tbis sense" should be ~lJjhea:en~y IN,e~(l;~:rr [as lnjl;JJJit~on] ~ (he~l ~I ih'~ ]Qdi~ ''ilidu~ cases OIF !t(ti_t~~e_ptruo:t:1-jfithld1li]g ·ev'l:lry iodlvidJualll case 'elf co(n~ eeptien 'in some .a&P~·~ and ,e'l1e1)" iDdviidJl]~[ case of rofi)Oeprrio.n. 'in irs F€;al~.1!y '~W([lil,ddJ be, ~nl]]el''{i[iJ-nlJy :ni.')~i5~aJl'Y [:a~ in tuiti 0 0] ~ so not: one biil; of kI;i,'O"Wieclge '~f!.,~ld be LOlin~ f['0011 my ~r th~lTI~ And ]if '~lyrJ!Lll'lg ~Dwn] in th~ [same] sense should be lyy [[ m'~o,(].al] ~(q.l.~~tkulJ' the:NI. ei!h,'t'::ir a ci!l.\::u~r· ,0..[ an itdi![l]t,e ;SCrIDr;3 nguiiIt~Dit 'w(y~d be hnlP]iJ::i~,.

,:l And again at1i. objeccinn. lTHl'Si ~~n ·r.,8Ji~H:~d. to thLs: [l~:t'I!:G.r poi~lJt] :a$ welill,~3B dut'~ 'on the a'Ssmnpdm tbalt a] I, [kXiQI!W']ed~eJ[ ~wd be b/f rZ!idOi]t~i i.!;cq.u~il]lliU then []le [[ ve:t't] reasoas m.e~IDJjmled (:L!) ]iIJ'V~~±da1i:~

, 'IL. d'" " • [£ 'Ii. ~.Ji'~ ~.Ji IL.. J.....,. ... ~ ~ ~ " "t" _ --

mg ituu~ '~,\?lSI.Q;IiI. or .~nO'~r~,€luge..!l ''!jNQUILU IUe L<lj ·[.8!!LlI.o]])w, .acqm5,l ",{iiI1L~ ~ij)

it 'l,;VQ!U!]d ~,('Jt he possible eo arJgiue tltta Ith~Sl [~l"id(lin W,~ ·i~1.~mill:ud. TIuJs is beeause ItJa~n every reaSCli1 set fnr~h ~o' 1nvaldate t~~: divii.si~~ "NO:u.nl-c] be 1~l!:Self knowledge] by rati,(jillru ~cq,uisliti!iiii1 a0.d. thus wou'~~. be ruled OlJlt~ ,a.nd] th~iIl. t~u-e' wtliuild b~' !I.!IiGi:d fol." ,a.noth~r [reason] illiDd. i'ill"cbpl~.e~ ]dy [he :re@iro:b1li~' 1N()it~d be cireular er in an lIlfiuJ:r'e ~ries~ ~Q ittl'r.i.E; argument w(!qjkil ]ltifer be ~~mplelte&,

3.1. The answer. [to tb~ oibjtt'iliun] rn t'h~t: dte tc~~i5(!1i'I~ men-

., ~ . ..JI ' ~~'::d" ,lL!: di .," [r" 1 __ . ledge] [~,lla ...t,.] ·I.~

'~01l1ou as :i!ii'!,iI<.W',atulg t.l!!ulS: '. _~O]l a .rtll:1.ow e'!.)~e ,aFe i!:Uli."ea".;~,:r.: AlILOWlil

'1):0 be :un the same docum~~nce~ so '~f they ~:F\e aire'.3)rly knQwr~j ,~nd. 'me a1ss,trm.ptiBn !being dJia:E everything l):w.a~v"ll] is 'b;y rarional ~.loCJ~i~ ~i:t.rQn~, t~H..~n [the n:asOD;]llg o:r.] the ~;r.gumt."11I:[ ~ltiould, !be wm.pleLlt $lind.

Co __ :Ii ... JI C " 'il":I" O~'L " ... 'IL '" f .. 1...=

salLf'ibl'1l1all !i.J.\~Il.i rrom ~[LTIpO sm l.iIl~ty".. ' u~e:mn:J.S1l! s U!:L€ :[~ ec 0.0 no ttas ~~W:IiP' ~

. - ~... "

tion ~~l]Jlild be ]mpi'~~d:i' because it 'W'Ouhl requiee the COIllJtF"'d'ry' {]iE wh2llt

[alre~ly] exlsts 'In the sa'~e decumsranee, 39'

4·" So 'tbeu~. if an o'bjcCIliGiu should be Ftti~d]'i~ not gt~!J~j.'~illg 'Illia;t if [~~me faD~] ;sH'liGuM rwt. he sO.1i1fitetl~n.g a['[f;,':ady lul,O'!Nifi then the iitt~p~!L~:t'!t~.oil'ii wOldd be that this assurnprion [B .• e .. ~ that all 1knm~OOgc is b,y acq~isiciO'ril] ~wuld be denied,

iU MIS. ~~ [,e,~ til !I:'!h:eo :f':::nse -of 'h~lii1@ wrt: :~"ern],,"

ru. T.lw: ~~ ~OO ;t;.iS 'Gfilr~e~ 900Ha ln~ii't ~ej;'le "to tlui~ 'poilmll' ~Jlayhi:J-

'L ~;j'!I "...'1 'I1' L," , ',J! _.l Ii " " • '" " no.

. ~.!l,r!!!<!~. Jlfl mjJ~g ]~, wf.!i.i£¢r:="" 9n.!!y 00 '~~~I~ljtJ.O~, n~~: to ~L'Eictlil.il1i.l.'OCIi, ar

Ii., I~ ... ~ I' ... ).'1 •

seems tiD RJt: iIIppiwt:U. ~l~ )U!l!l~[]t:~U5J!1. ~'ir.:rlt 0

:n MS 1St ."hldi !!:vJ::ry~lI~g ~iliI.~t iI:l!quia-,~ [h~ runtrnry iWf _'!;!,.-hat ~.:> _c.:vidt:~~~. in lih..e' sam.e ~ir.etinwtil"c:e .L~ [.0 'lJ)e de:[ric~ Mil this ,a>&tuirI-I:Hil'©.1I! "i¥lCiu]}tI [;)e deulild; ~-,ntll 00 .il:te @OJI. (If ~h,e lo,~c iii ,~jiAjibills.t.e;d~ .Il.alrnidt, tv 'd®.my miH ~\ro'Y~hlng l[koo~'~J wOl:hld. l~

b~' ae~iiil5l~]ii,~I, .

,j<) ,R;MtPi~it ~~h. T~ ... vh~eh ,~ddl; <"So, .IF, .." [(a~in qtlh]'

40

4_ -a_~, [:Ba,tydawl?s ] statement [,tU]S\weFJ:U,S iSJ1;U;h an Ultd ~~~~on] is ['dhru t:ne ,~_!j,ltmp~)i]n would be den~ed~] "beeause l't requires the contr;aqf ifif "",r.halt is :i~]. mA;: 58!111,c eireumstanee, ~~ :i9~iI: 0i!lJ![' (tsfaha:rni~i5] pQSicl~1l does: ~'i.L{'jil; g.r~nlJt that [tlfu,~ assumption] '~Jrol!lkl, :1!~q:UJiI'oi;' til,1;' ClOllitlfary of 'What ~~ in itl'te' same d['CI,1~n~taJnce" That 'W(\!uW be reqruli,led 'OD~.y iff ,Si~ eJ!tchmi,o,fi of Ihl!iJ~~ ,~denoe should be a 'OOJl~o.~itafit of '~his, aSSi!.lm~~tiOJ]~, but d]~;~ WO'~d. be ruled out"

4l_---ao2 T1he answer [t.bat ~, :proper :rotr t.h~s po.,sibh" objt'-:ctliO:El] its: '~b:il:t thes~ f'e@""'iQ.OS are ~I], to be ]!11 dle S~tm!le' ,d~"!l:Qm~blCe" Thas, Of dli:s ~~3~Jlm,[~d(m. ~b!l]uld be true and ,~riv'" in the same drei..JJ[nS'ta!n.ce~ ,th~n ~t 'wDtild 'be 'IJiLU~ and active ~il.oIilg 'wiJth. the :Fiu::t ~pf 'thiL :[I~~(~s,] being ,kiL1iQWD~ bECt:IJUSC what,i'ti'l,i""~]f '\VQ'tdd b;e t!l."!I ... e a.nd aetive 1:',1i'I; the same ,"";i""'f'nm""'li2&,:ml~:lC;i:'i ''I.¥(!!UI.,;i ~~ !lru.e and """"'~'~"ll'" ;ml~.o:":tTI'~' M'rrtu

~-~J' __ ~~ ,.~I, 'I. =~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~-!!!~~~"'~~.l.'!'-" _ _ . __ =Q llJ~ _ "_ ~ (:"~I[II .. !rF~ll:I!J _ -~ ~31""",~ . _ ~ 1,). __

all the maners true and ~'c1'1'We ~,n ~he' s~.'m,e dr(;ums~;ance'", Therefore, [th.c :re8JWD[Lr]!_g of] 'mne HrgumM't w'O'u.lIld be .c:o:rnpllct:cd, ,~~ :~f:~arded from in]f'po.~~b]lityo ]f :~t should be otherwise, then itt WGllld imr~,Y' [th,e eoerectness oJ] ti1,e' ,g,oiI ;£)f O'Uf' lL)gic:~ lfl~Ul)eLy'~ the denj':a:,1 t~u~;t e:\te:rytlling 1[lI:nij]~'ti1] w'Ot~rl, be by [ratklinal] acq~~tiCJi]l in the same ci'f(:1ll!m&tan ee,

,4.-a, 3 ,~:t 1$ :pmlsibl£ 'ID(} ,aJi1.S\,ilel' this objcil::ti.oD :from anOithe:r '~l'PL-:;c~ tM~ hdng t'he ,objec~orjs poo~do[l1 '~b,a;~ ~f e-'ve~~ytbjrtlg' (k_jlo~~<mJ were [~y raticnal a.oqtui.s~r1~n], then I~l~e ressoes mentioned eo in'ij,l'~lli~13;~~ ~1li~ ~~:t.iOD, .also] 'W'Oili~d be 'by :ra!tio:n~~~, :!t!l:iOlu~sitto;n,~ if 'by [h.~s po\5ittitltl] h<!i~ U:U::~U]t. that [dn~ U~:iMSU[IJ~J :shoumclJ be h'jf ]"i.itiona~ ilcqU;;sj;ti;on in itJu:· S$m,e' d~1;um~uce" Tb;s; [[neom.]ng' of 'tt'~e PQei!tiiiJin] would be nded out, becsnse the ,a~srll,tm.ptiGn that e'Ve~M:t1lg [k_nl,O\vn] would be ~ raticnal ~cq,lJj]5oltiofl does not. '.'!ilJP:ly' ~ha.'~ ,~'!l(j''lfthing l[lWfJWii1] '\',roubcll be by' :mJO,cnrual ,aCqmJis.itiDi'fL in, the ~itune cit'l.1itr!J.5Jtlllla~, and '~hiJJS d~,e ~[f,~ment lwl\tO'~Jd be cO'mplete. And; '~1;:[l if [tbe oiject(uj ShOil.ddJ me~n by [his :poMtion] that [all. ttdngs] would be [known] by rariofi~l ~cq'[uis.i!iion ~ 1 '2a ,aC(:O 001 ill g' tQ '~e assumption, 'IDC[]l 'Yf"e WDldd. ~OllIil d'lliaJt~, but the ~u:gJJ.]jm~[Jt wQ'ullil depend 0[1 wneilic[' al[ cirJ)I:SC' tMllgcS, 'were kno\-wble, in the :same [;:~rtlimS'[;ance:~ net 0:0 their nott bci~1!g' by' r~;~oni~, ,a(qU!]~lii.~Tl a'L(m~]ng '1iO d1]S :a,~s~:II]]ptkm~

5. M, ~ec'wr L 1'9 mlgbt hold '~ lit :d:tO"ll.tttCl Thot be gr.anllOC] thiM 'tl.e ~;nfil]~,tt: s.eries; ~:tgvjn1e(lt!: '!fViQ1UJd be :hYl[JQ~5diblt: FiJI" ,~]'ui5 fo:r.m [O'§ the ,aJl'gu.m€"Jll<tj. ill ,I Y eur po.sition [i.e., a diispu~~fit aclld'rt~g :hfa1'il.~;ulli]

'~I M8 ~:: ~~~'''' '~hc;: f\Qm:I, [of !<t9i1~mol!riU:J ~Iii '!;!.rhkh t!'¥'t."lI)\I:'hing [kn1lil''#J:'lJI] '~;""QuM 'k hy fiCil.ilUlsitbcl1l.

i:.~ that i~ W01Jlld :umply that tbe m'indl :dJ;l;JuiM CQ:mpn::,]u,e.:nd 'whaJt: iIS, ''!.''li'tt'ho'Ut Umit;: :and it:lfj;alt is til:l,e h:~lpOO~U,]hl.hy.

0'·, , i[I:,,~ l~" ,,~'\1 ',' ." to ... ' '".] .. ,~ =,!!", q • ['<I,'. ,:~i. . . it'''' m] '" an 'J.:...y .. ur ,~iS.!l.:i:1!Ji!]:tU1J sJ POOli sen ~ ulab il] )U!Ll t ~e (1~8''plbh-r.l..~1 me .. -. ~"J

th~t~, dl~t ~t iilllp1lia the :Dtrilid~s; ()I)] nprt]l,eri(jiQtIJ fjif 'W]~t has ~]Q IiIl1irt by ''iNii)'' of an, endless 8I]iD~Bim]::o then ~'n th~ ca~ the iiJ1il1111kati.ol1. [ie." ;(j;f ~IT.!J~o&S~b:nity] hi gr;~n:'D;red~ bur the ~rn.pooS']b~lajty of:it lSi nJjl~d out, ii~ But if vou 'in1U~'ail Ibv ,it 'tba't dl~ I[li'[ll~e:s, (;mn~j,refu.ensdJ(lifj (ilf W:hi;l!t

~;I" ~

'I 1"· I..!II '1:... '~'III rL. ~. "~'··l· r··

ras no UilLit' WOf] d Oit 0i.1JI., ,act· ![il'1ite~~ t!ctLeD tne lm~SiDJ '.:tty '0, U' :IS

g;rrIitntid~ but a,my SThldt :impiica,tLO:Il is ruled out, I'od£t:d ~ ,aU the th~ng;l:l, ,th~:t. :h,mvc been ,liCa.rn~d eZfr:~i£:r ~a('!.f"(i been pocpaF'1'L'tufY- to '[hG~ that!: :f0i]~·O'W","1$ T.~,e['e if'; no nec:e$~ty :Rll~' i):rep~ra:~o:r~f causes to CQ['j:iL~n;l.iIJE:' together Vi.q'l]l due:iJt tC5Wilrs~ b::C~.\,IlXS:e ill p:rlep"~H'aIDO'rl cause passes :~,~y '~1trn -th~ caused result is present.

:tet I1Q one ~y~, ~~W:e can demo[lstl'Z!Jte by another means dl~;tt :it, is ir£irf!i~ilb]~ for' the m:EiI]d to encompass what has. no ]uIilIt. ~~ Tb~ {Jttltt';!r means li.-\\ould be that the' (ik.l'low,ledgie. amv"fid at 8] the eondUslOl'1l.'I-1- 'WOlil:~d d~ellld l]QOJ:!l the M:l.ovemell!t of d]ou~lut" and tJiu.,c

.... 'y ,I~·· ~

:m{}Vement, of 't,h{),~Jgl'rt wolLl.ld ~ot 't~ke' [Jili~c,e 'eJi::cep'~ ~,.]th~n ~ time-

du~tiQn. Thus, if the i:rniJfid shuuld "i1lCOi11iPMS oo(tne1tlling ihoilv1ug ~:la lit1.rit~ ,it llitl'O'liJild, dlc:pewl 'upon the t£:]"]'lt1!]mJ;oon of ~ lli[[ut:J!e~, iium'ber

"'~ M:S ~lr, 1!lif!G1JtlS~~ .tl~m~lig IrtlJ(ijl ~'~Ii=' W!J~, ~~ 'f:rt:l'ilai; ,it ,~s ~d«~~ib'lt th~r. ~~: wO'wlIrl ~'~ini (;:(II~~~tl of mioitHet:i t1IL<1Jt' ha'!;j\~ :no. IEm~ by f@lH~lfl.~ ~~UJ:::m lip sneces-

s.i'l!~~~~h.J"Or.~tl '~rocl.!l~s~. hi'I'Lt: ;tb.n:·ari~ iufL I~h~ p~Jit. " , . ~. . •

,u The MS alene ,00: sources ~.s-OOJ reads, [~l,.mmq~dduTI~}l <ikllai?~q]. I1QllMIWe~, thJ~ ~~, {iDe '¥I! t!I~ :r~]!'~~~,"'d ::wid ~~:'D,~~~, ~~i)!ii)M 9f tf~~ :i'J."1$,, ~';,'~ 1-24\ Qf 'l;h~ MS :§I1.II.R:t=n=ciI d.aFnl'lge ro ih.e !text :pDIitIl:II11 at t'hc' '~mTjr.:1' :rn~nii"

,A,j-SLI/)'}ritl ,iil-SllIiLrif ;tI;I:~Jmjani~ m, !rn~:s TI'il'r,~·:~ d:t:f1Il1i·~s <~:iI,~roi)' ["ffillnlf,ge~ilt::~~t:sl" [~i!'.i!U,·-a~r] M '''';;'I, ~i=rrn ror ~Ji~ l1pu~l whiclfi. .~:i1fLCthirfl~ ~,ep~~:ri' Ir is. a ge!iler~1

....,,1i', ·j'J''''i<il''J' .tl''',''~ ,~ ~~'" "~" ~ .. ~~ ;f j ., ' .'~-'I -. i 11 ,.":I\~, rf·'Iit'oi' "",~."", ,jCI:1 ,"'rIi 3!1:'i'M.'"","","" t., , Ii' '~b'"

",,,,,,~'Vo,,,,, .. , •. ""u "", •• L'i.C ~,}'M;;"~H', "'il'JjU,'V~", "", "",,1 ~n ,~~~ 1I:'~~~ILL""'::; ,,,-,,. VI.. ":;.,I~.~,,,,~~ V'.. , ...

[P({Il't5rtn dever~;'!limi'i": of:i: g:eil~~"<'!!] or ,aif1kubt ~de~ tl"i!ll8; '!I!l01J.~1 s.1lJ!,P,~Ol·t la~er a~a~o~ ~~ b!Q .... -wd~· It- 'WQ1Jd ~b1.ll) b~ ~,~ip:[bl~t. pff.lp~1 ro:r. s,~ii(: ~~,vliti~~,.

"'I, L UI' gI. 3.. [AI ... ~ayyirll ,:'!II·SIh:rurirll ~JmjaJ1ili, ]~tll';jr :I'~p~at~rI a:ru:I! .j]:[1;I~ry.d illIJ(U~ 'tll1-Ls ~cl!f8. ~f1i, ihib ~l\;,"'aFgln:i!1 G:l\os~~~ [H\ilf'~] 'u.~~1!i ]s-r2lhalElr~~ CQJII!I'[l('J.1!I:3I.rr.1: !Ii'Hle; t®ltcll~!'Iiu'Ji!, depends 'Up(m h'!i~~ib1~gijbJr, p'!!'oOtJosii]®rn: de:1:ii'!rod [by. rartL'C!(I1ia!l, ~qti!is:itimll]. and itheio!i': :hw'W: :n'll 'limit. :~.ru:.1ii i.l:rJ£ (~f ~]:te.'i!J.! 'i:D;tiiL!li,gibl~ ~'~roplJSimti[}:]ls~ tho are ratlon~rll>.~ ~J.t."G~~Rld 'i:m~d" ~UiM J~:r.[]c!t!::dI ''/.-'P'lih!oot lumit ;C>Q:JiIj.e:i m,lJUt '!llrdy' t~ir01llg:~ tlu~.~w[l!'

["'~"['~'r] N""~!.· '.~u·"'_."";r...·, ......"" "".,." .~"..... ...." l·~ ,i;";l ... """'" , .... ~~n ~" ... !i'L-.;;"" .... ,;. ........ "' • ..J •• """'_

.1:1 ,1,_"" , ~ .... " ,'.1' .J ... ~.!I'iJi.~~, J.:!j, ,111,~"'" IIll ... I!"h, ... ~...... ."<!.!"&~ I:'d........... ,-"UL!J.. ' •• iII!.1lll!1.J, '.. !JI""U'" "" ..........

~im~; thus,; ca.r:h m~f; 'C!ir' th~ ~~l1J~I[I;g1ible: fl'QPO$l.'ions 'I:'3tiill)'l:lIaIll1 ;Roq[I.~;II1!!li and rT!l~ceed~ng ''P¥it~~01ilt IlmJt wai~il.d be' '!,ii~!h~ilI a tL1iUI.e-!Ell,iIll'i:lltl;r.:;n, Tb.-C'ii\eIf~J' ehe am,duslo,fL [iJ1~ ~he [prooess] wOL:dd, d!::,~!!:nd '!ll'potiI t'lie; 't~[mi.~lliiiiJn '!J-f an ~nllit~ illu.nliibet ;f;Il WtriI.e .. !tlAA~'aJ~.on.s~ wJ~cidl 'Ilil{!-:tillta D!!i ~rnpoo:sible si~~ n~e ti~ne"'l.f1.llil.1ati!}Jl fr00f1 U'~e t~egi[lltlfu1g ~r the ~tlh, eKii.s~lIM::e i~ a linnl~' iJ :til 'llfJ!r,

N'~w, ~ an {J;tfjil::C~iQ!;1! ~~CHI~d iI).e ~'~sed---'~Qi the e'H!I!-Iz:t ~) .'b~t the time-du L'.;;I!i;O]'!, from t~~ 'begi~tli,l:l!g ,of ~hii; ~o~d's ,e:::-=!S'tl!ii1'Ce ~'Q\lld be ~~liblit400 by ~,~1plleat~OOl ~:mk) ... ilf

r" ..J. 'Ii· IL. ~d 1· ~L~ iI. •. _~. ..1." JI

0': tlm{.i~~,UI~:~Iil;;lll:lS, 'W,L'1I.U:::~:~, ''ViC!U~:.· ae !I.m.poosIIC;IJ,C 1!.Ji!X au SlC' IQTC time-aura-

't.KHIl, f!f(J1ll the OO~.nD~:n.g of the SOl!llPS existence 'is ,~ :U;:w.i'Uted, faet,f.$[. l~l ~1!;~clt a case our pOO~,tjQi;l w@u]d be ~ha;~ [~b~M ar~f:t~e]~t] ""VQ'~~d depend upon a. deal!'" explatn.\'~Oi:Jl of dl,t ful.sity iQif m.ett:m[psy(brj~ij and of the s(,mrS te~p~](fa[ nature, and t]U.lS lJt 'wlJJ!lJJld entail an explanation of OO\!:ll~thhMg dearly 1~[J(t"'ehen~ble bcillg 'based iCI\n [~ain espla .. UIUJOfl of] ,s_{~rr~eth.if]g dimcu~t [00 comprehend,

!L-a. In uftutu1g iWUfi. w"Iisioo [of ~he :a.r,g)LI.Fnemt] ~ j~: if; prefer,abiit 00, argue t'h~~) if i!-C'{'jIi.LClfpti.ons~ and jud&i!if.IJTI,enta[ assents' :in tihC:'~'I." Irntlnty T] ij ~hauM be by i~,at~'onaill. acqlU.ilS'iiILIO:n~ then nat one dli~iJ]g w)j)u~d have come (0. us from I~~e W;rQ P'fQCfSSeS eseept by ~o:gka] '[\taJsui'JJing and ith0111ght" Rut. this condusion ~s; f~lst, (o:r ml®[u.y 'tb~J'1~' do {lame to us .from 'concepaons' and 'judgmeural assents' '\i\i'~hout

'I' ~ , d·:~·-li.·~

,ogtC~u" H';a~'D.IiI.][lg fI![1! 'uiUW[iLg.

iii '~ I~)o T 'I n

,lIt, .. , I,;j~ U

,[Lo_gi,cm1, '[(.'";asoning is dlJi: ,pmiDeEE of ar.nll1igln,g'tJ entities th81;t are ,bIlOIW.fl1

, •. ,'. '~'., ·'IL I' '~. _ _j ,j .... 'Ii. "', r',' .- ·-:h·,- .. 'b-~" '., " "., I~' ,:-'I. ~'~ . I

m a "",ay tml!Jt. ~ii;,;3!Jl,:m !DO ,~f.ianung somet .mg: mar ,IS not a~,r-p_.;al[]y !i'1i:nO'wn"

~' d]ese e'~t~ties so' org~;fd~ed ~hill)lj.lld 'be a) cond.1!lcirve 'mo 'tn~rJj[j~lg a,

(the ~QlJ~JI ~h~'!lillij ~: ~ tI~J:lJ:J!(Ifli!!l p!l~w.!!!)~.lQn, but ib) th~l this !mpJk~ti;!J!~ W011M Il~ !!'l;d~d Q1U because I) g(: 'h~' :;W~.;~hiIJA,y tLM~ ~'h~' 9Ifll!I ~l{~ ~~ ~ocm;;J, 3!!1id '2j' tlbat '1I)l1o:r to '!!hI.S hodv ~t 'I/il!DllIld, 118.1,,11:= ~J<::en. l~nllD!!cI tID aJlO'thE!"' bod.,..; :aJnd ~ ®n

,II Jo: /.

~lihuJul eLiU 'un ~~~, ut:liUilDf=1" of mt;t)r:Iiii~1»'!{il:Di!:i~-th~.il 't~n.=; ITP'~y wo-mlGl be t'hilll :h

:ba.!5. been ,~~tEldb~lfit>hi!dl, lJ}f demllo:l1w;<lj~:€:dI rruo-f A} l:h~Lt It.h~ !5®'!ilil Ws ill. tmip®rEII] plie~JfiifJil!; .lI!uldi l!;.) '!j.b~ :~tnp!ivt'~l~:s. iIs <t fi!lil.st"liooll1.

. QUi" lt~~hO:i1: ~.A!'j ~'h~d vf ~.sb~tif ~]~1L[~'2llt-i.J ,i£ .t[l\[~~: iMJ t.Mt IC.a&e :bQ '~"?f!ti~u_ l~~ ~nfI.piDmlJlIlty ,f)-f il:veil:);it'lrui:~ iktID' ..... tL roe~' b¥ ~l'Lilil]l~tL(!~ W1Di.!ililll, deptlfiolliJpii,UIi m2ikitlt ~i (Ie~r ,;:iI) t'ni1li 'i!]tc' :OOt:1.~ :l~i ,~, !!i:mpu:ua~ P~fi,e.tlI;OO1rL(;I~U,~~ :;:i!~ IJ) iflrui.li~: 'meirem(p~ri~~ is ~ f~~hood~ Ai~tI ItHr~ lliiiu~f _,W{ii ~pOOL~m af,!3 d'll6ctlJt ~ e~m~p(l~tt(]], whn~ [(I; e~pbbt1l IL~~i: ~mf.i~lh~iy of ~ii;b)1~iiil1i,g ~_!Il~, I::li:i!la_g by a.r.!:l,tJii:s.i~!ll!rIJ ~~, a Cj!i,!iii'J"ly '. !J;1ll$i";r.e]~J1i11i" :slbJ-e poirJ.t. ]"I:l'l':Idbrt", t~ ~mrp:u;;:ii1ti.omJ, ~!:i, ~~~.fiit 00 d'ef:r:i£JmI!Hrnte- 1ill1I,il: :fal:Ut~¥ ,of !K1-lT.l.ed~~J"~' -:.;'i'=ZL'm" O'LItdl oJbvitri!Jjj!:i 'wtn:rild n:q"LlJF!!! ~[n::: 'lire {l\f ;su.:m!::'l~~m~g v;::~:y di.~c;td~ eo comprehend,

-'!!i :t 19 g1. 5,: '1'h'i$ 3ill:'tf.rulll~mr.n~· lOOIililP~~ [Ari!;i~~~'~~·t3,] fDiuf. C~I;.Iiscs.. These ,9iI"~~ [till! c:fFec\;i'l,i\lj: [cause] lil-:fi,~~J] I' tJh~ ma1ll!'lI"ilSit [~-~d\dlii'IiII] i' !l:1Ul: flJ'.!rnlSiI [i1ll-~ii~21h] •. i3iUlidl [Lilt!! fil.nal, [a.n.ghlyah]., SlOO!! the ~21['riLl.men!l:· irldl:cnt~~ an ·::!irra'¥r~. ~JUl.lt ~i!i t'lili!':: ~'dTA!ij~tti"l!;' [GlIUti~ ~ the kn!D'lllfiIJ Ill::n~hi!!s ~)f W,~L~~:~1. :the :jJJrTMtlgt!m~!iIiIl: l!'i JU;il:uil1t~. 'nr~ad!::: '!I!~:e t~ ~ma.ti!ft~~· 1['Cause]:: the .arua:J]igJL'1iIlCfJt :itsclf' is ,,:'lite ~ffb:r.liliI!a;~· LC3iU~!!~! ::!ina. tlhlr: pl'l[]~C l'i:B Q:f' !'loekins.l' [ls-tii ~,Ii l1i~] w:rua:t:i:i:.niH :&n O'!.\' n ~5 the ~lfullil;~' [0 11:'. ~'iP\l irp o.d'l,."(!J! 'C'il UJSJ:] •

~cmlCif,:,pt1:O:r:1t~ d~lel] "tt'f:te)" w'O'uld 'be called a '~d~jti;o~i~' '01' a "sratement of explJ~~doi!1n, and if [they sbould be b) o]ndrox,~ to judgmental ,~15~e tia,efi dley would, 'bi2 crulod an ·~rl[':g;ujjt!Lrnle~ nt',~ "proof dcmDns~r.liliil:±O'n. ;;.;;.

[Source is rniljt~d :!iimil~Y .5'.!7g)~.. This is ~h'ly liID be JUljo.lTli":5 gm,®:~:i OIU. h.fM1i.'ti1'fii·;5 eo mm em~ ry .

A mild.E;m ~bollWlf !lii0'tes:, "'F~r Aristll'i1e) till .mow is Ito. :k.now by msans !Dl eauses, :a'lldi it ii, d1!l'l~.1' ~[hal[ tru.. fW1!.Ii1f Ari.stMIi:':li:)[1 oe~1Jg_~s :lIire ~~eoemiil!f d~mr,jn.t!'l ~!Iii I'MUligJ'l. whit;h miluit hi:: [kIlOW,fU .rut' 'Lli:ttdt:nrooo if.fUdl lua,l.d'l:fil~!J.(:ljil1ig i!'l !tQ; 'Ih~ J;'("A'C'li.c:d, iiLtb.cx tlL:W~~ c<'l!W!s.if~ in t'~ :i1DDa1!:rn .seDGil:_ '"

h~lJ.IJl iE}1li'i'f21l~ l:~. ,i~'~ CJJiil:[ 'lh. 1"& ~rJ.:;f?£dM 'if J!Ili{{}sofJlJ)~- (N~~ ''i{:ork~ :~rr.dn:.J!~~:, 1'91!3·'ijJ s ...... "Arist®tle"~ ~-I' G.!B. 'K.etlrertL

~. his btm~~ creJw~~n, .. :1 ~i; '~'. l, rED- 8~ I 'i)~ Ibn, Sjn~. :spem Q:f "JQ1gH:;' tlliJ'll'j.ti.'~q~: ·~l'\lt't!J: Is ,file.Lilnt hy .1J.~,c" g~ '~JUM a iPcn;1j:tJ. l~~ n'l,i',tJji~i1'Ijbll! an :E~tru[D1I,(:m ro:r [l~ne.a1i. t~.J] l~.;ill.aMf~ ilht, use '00 wJfi.le:ll ~IL prtiiitiJiIt ;gulill~' ~cmT,ily in un~'·s· ~lbin~~lI@:'. :e~ ·~dnJllili here ] mean WNJI, fu; ~'wjilil;wl~ rut lP~Ui!lte :un ~kiQrl~[lI.tIX" N.D.. T~. m£ti :irr:lI 'h_Lj (:(ii\!l.r:!~!l';!liItal11' Clill Ibn Sb~~ .h(i t'hrt'OO 'ki~d:5 of Chimi~r&g. as 'nl).'iji~d i~c,,~ :po:r;ar[.ej] ~9 ~·sf2!h:art.lll.·!'l fnUO"fflng e'Qmme~t~ 0011 tl'ris ~agol];]-·\.!,t!!lr.1li tl~oi;: is ~ ~'L"'" ,:iiti'on froOm. :mEliu'>ef5 mi?Lit are ]?IN:::se[JiI: in m5[b[~ (~. Jl~h'l:'J.' ,319 iii "oDn';::!:,pliirm.' (iC~W!I,·i','i.!\!I[J 'Cot' ow ~ <judgml!nvt .of w,r,d''U.:rui(iI~,' [~l. wb~!:'l1 :~I:.liclf ,~ni:li.y be by ikmowlctlge· or [I'r' ~n~Jj;iQn or ~ ~n""tii1ltje!i:a ~iIliLt :..--oceptMIiCo:::') L'Q illlll.!U'e'UcG dliliu are iJRI~, :[_'r>~~M In [[mifl4il- This t~JU~i~iQ[!; ~~~'irer ~:;t_~ pt\aOe ~·ocoov.t ~:ib~R' 'bei'Fi_g' Rb~rn1 a ~ iilvlllogi~~k ::i['J'.arngr-~n~. {lif' il)h'P:: ~nfO'I:11lil3!~il\!lrli ]1'1ii 'h~!:!~ ..'lInd ~, ~ogi~d(',. sttJae'~ilj~" 1'b~t ~iy~.ki~m, ~1I1t.m. :it5: ~1:n,Ji,1t1!~r.e !Jiiila~' be ~il:t I;I:P' oor~l);tl~' or It fJ~~i'! be ~e~ ~1iP hl'OO rue dr- M~n:y l~me!'l t~ ~nOi,)I:,~CQt 'JA'S.y ..,~illl r'e~'[Et!bl~ 'I,;,rb~ ls ii;Qmlet, (i i~ 'mfiy [i);!:JJy] ~C~I+I! tg; ,mre,rn.'lilc= wh:u h, CQ:rr,r-or.:L. Losi~~' ~JhJi~I; ~!'l a [b(!i{L'y 'j),f:] ik]w'iiI\ledge ~!Il whiiEh ,o:rnc 1~8ITI[1 llii~' va.rirnllfl [n;L(:~ib.CIids ~q [I1'i!J]GiIlDi¢I:l! fmm i~~m~ [o:f ~~~dg;z] ~~t ~ ~~~ab~~ in. ,9, :p~U'5(]U~;!'l :onJlIJ.d 00, [[~tb.1;I.] ~~~l1fila. [Y'r.~] b)::!. b~' (!!blia!i~~~.'~

r.n. h.ii., =.9. 'hils it1i1.l"lU"8ml (1)3.gL"ll, 4(1 and 4~. ~;,[{!;3,t:£ "~(!i~rnl II:e&t£'l.miog:'· and, ':.~ tena a .ti.c th~[~]u~Lg" 'LmJ~r tI~!:::· hl!':;;rdin!' ~d.h!1ti:lJgEI.m:;M~18 propr.nkli. of :k!~iU~ :~!!i:l!"~ill'l~I~~"; 'boJt rtl!~~ lrLwtL.r-Ad d~nnMi!!l~~~ ~fJ ~he ~b~~rlh]g3 ~Q!:,' ~01d.!11 ~~~t~~ (l) "Jl.~gie~J r~~ :9tI,I~I![rg' (it!I.-:UIli:I!~r] 100 SYEoc made 'm ;llilUill~r [:aiI-6k .... l}-,t8 ~h~· ,2lrrail.l~~]l(,'1Jt of j u dgm~ ITI"~, ~i.'i~~:eritUjm.s. [r~1I~d.iiqfu[J 00· as W alm,'I,rc:=' ~ ilb.c..iffi. [yarta.,,'!i'~~ bilTl~]1 ::il ·o,t!ie:t· Jl.iliil.~.tn~ l[ld S1:1l00i"rn.ems.. '"

-!I~ nli?: ~mme:~~-awy O~ ]h;1l S:~n<l':~, ,1M'~~' .wtil,-,i>i"m~iJi~~ HIJl~ .Nac£~r· aJ.·.![)i~ TllnL [.l2iIU- ~ 214] WblGW ar.!cl ~loclL Rilll flJ~lJ:iJIJl ,~f-:l~~' ,i$ !llr@~1:d [~~]y .... erba1~f;i~ Il"j'

], . O:rie [m.tHming] is t.Mt ['ulIinlti.~1 is a moveraent of th,c· [reaSOIntimru ;soul by means of the lPo"",r~""· w]].,rn:.e .ms1:Fi11m€J!!l.'r'lfl is tfH?'; anteltiOf loo~VQ]~Jt±o;n ]inside the bT.'~li!.~·----'!,;'!!b)l!J:,.evi~r movement lit iL!r.lay be+as ~~g af.i d.a·~ rfl.(fi,iIerne:n;l j:;;; ·amJOJIlg' ilA'te' jnte:]ligi~')]es;;1 bl.rt :if ~l s;hovild be ru1f!L(1m\~ tbe p,h¥~cal seri5iaitiO'ns~ then h w,orrud be called 'irrt~~llitioFL~" This. ~i'iM!;;r is Sil'ii~-,; but 'With l"efe:r1B'.ooe t{!! clI¢ :Ii.!l"$;tt r cl8J8s., ~.;:e~~ me ~'~~~t""·i~;il!r;ll~·I"'~]. ! t ;j,co. ",,::aill.i\ed]·. ';;lh~'''''i·ldn~··. and 'i~.1j'l1- itf.i'!t:~~~·"'nf~e to the seeead

,I:L.IJI::'~_ ~';I.~~ ~ Jl ~ ~-_ ._~ r ~ - !.:~_:.!lh!:_,; -~"5 ~ . -~. _. ~j~ ~ '''h~'!I:'_ ~_ ~.. .-~ ~~_~ ~"'v...,~

(~·I ' h l\.."", .• ~.~ ']., ~ 111 .,,(1 ~. '. , s '11···

. eiass, t.e., me piJlJi:r$j£;~ !Se~atli,((i[l~.:lo U LiS, eauen lm~!M!ll.)n" . nL:1$

r:~ .(1 =1] 'lL 1 . 'L..~, )1 f· ~"

I:li:ilite eC{~llim_ m'f)VcITlt[l~~ tHl'iIes ·Pl ace ~']tujD, tJfle ~a"t'eg®ry 0: qnalL]ty.,

5.0'.1' jus~ ~5 ~ movement :i!L'lli [tLu~ '~l?JlcgQ(r.~r ofjJ ,quality· takes pJa~· a1n(l~ the ph~[y sensate q1J.lalicle~ M.s l ~2b ~m likewise tales place alnoog I~}[.e ,psydudogJit.a[ "[a:ton-:reIJs;ate] C[!iJaJ.hies. '0;( tl1e [reasnni:Mg] sOliJ]]~. in d1Jrtit a. ttpr~eEtaticD. L :~O is m.ade ''l,ievithir.JJ t.~I,e soul of the ~rMwa~dl silJl)'r~oiI~ it;em. by irID~m \\'j,41:eOf-VfT .8i)tte~t!03'l i~ giw.n t!O 'tb~m. And there is no d01llot that the [reasoJlh1J,g] soul 5pt3CWa.-

• 'I • - 'I! • ,. 'Ii.. " _-1" ... ~ -l .. I.-

t1iV'~:y 'CiOiJiSi.df:!FS ttI!Jl::;C: entl1IT~s 'W,l!iLOO U'£ ath::-:!tltlij)"[11 is {;I1:r-t'Ot:i;Q tnere.

This, :mov-emeillit [:Ilimoog '~ilTltcll~~hJl';S'JI C:O:llstltJu:l"cS '~s:y!&t;c:m;atic think'~:nt ~ ","",}}:UI.e- tile ~BC11l;u.i1'!le oon~1de[3Jt~O'n OOf1Stit!iJit,es ~]ogjrctiJl reasoning'. Becsase of dlleir '[~ifUU:~-i[ r-oncOOD1'~ll(-e· ~)O each O'thiert50 rhe name of the one is app[£ed to ehe O'[~e:r, J!J-~d d'iLe:r both seree :HiLl a ~ynGnj'".IITILQ;lJIiS. fimction,

,2'. SonlettmJe~· the te~rn '~thinkilL'll.g" is 1I.41ed. in a s~oQind sense, mere !p~,(.-m.]~F thall ilifJJt jiU.8it mentioned, 'bt:~.r~g a movement ~r the [r,t3]itionai :soul a.mO'lJlg the ]nte['~~gi.bIl~~

~ .-

a) be,gJlDn1n,s; :f:iro[)] the '·,oom:<1iulMUlll' 1[J,.e.,. the Logical ~al~:,~

b) s,eal\c'hi.ng, nut: and :re;v:I.ewing the quiddli.'~e'~~~ ·that: ;i:J;r.,~ pre·, sent ,~rOn~ [the i:n:te]Jigib]es]i

~) .:td aifn.~ [ahead] ·1l;()!!,Nard premises thaJt "A~I] lead on to [:~'ht': iUom~:1!l11.si,onJ ~ until

d) ·~.,e [r.aJ!oo:nal StHll[] :lind~ the· need.ed [q_'!LIti.ddlUtit::5] ~ w'h~JtJ]_ itt

o reeums Fwul them b~:u:k ~\f) '~he ~am:lu:~i([i[!L~ [I:he 1ogic;ld goa]],

~Syst,ematilI: thiruk~ng:> ][l tjhds [pl,~llPooi,ve 8ylk~gjtstk] sense is the :f0Tmat u"J~on wh .. ich, an the radlO:r!ia1~,y aoqu~,red sciences are. a~:raJiJ.:ged.!(2 .~ 'he ~gpecul~tjve ,cO[]rrid~ralJml:~ (!if '~ll!.ddd~des; that are present when searched out for review :it!L tihe ''!Nay mendoned is called ·tlo~"Cl~, '['e9J'" $oi:~ing'~" 'MfJ IT: 0 YeT ~ sometimes OiTI,C' term lS used :ro[" '~'he other [:,i, e., t~ystrl!]fLt:Ii:t'ic t][ink]]f'j,,g'; ZiJ1id] ~.Logica'~ }'i(';t:L'5(:H]j~.Dg']. Thus, lit is as iPtJ [Ba~da,wi] observed and pointed (nn:·iiiI' the diiie:re[u.irlfl~n between t~1!e t1..~·O ifr~,eiL~jiillg£~, :f1'ud. then joined them togptMm;"

3. A[,'411:in> s.affilj1~tiim,~, '~thi'nikj~~g'; [in the sense of ~1!'$teID~1ic 'th.il'iJ.k.. ing1 is applied [ol'd~] 00 the [~J;ttl!leuJUaJ] !I:lwveme!n~ fr'©lm the ~((tla.!I," d.'I,~~ia[J/ [;)$ the kvgical goa11 ~D t]le premises, but 'w1Jd]~ut IJlcluding hJJ [the: il'r\oll{e:me.[1Jt] thfi return f[O:r:ITII, [the premises] back to [t:~if': eendlUii[]lg guall]"

,Now} si~' d1£' :radona'~ly acquieed sciences a'fe: dependent 'tilpOif.n ~tl11irtlli1i'ig' ~J1J '[he second sense [,:Rb«:'l/e] ~ ar.~cl th~ sy.llogl&[[I] as ;:,\ITa:~1Wd 'iiril. ,~:1htoe special manner i~ t'l!lrij, ObVlORS, il;:oill(:Q:mi,tan~, of [this ,~y.stcm..'itic. thCiUgh~]~ :Bay&~, d,eocri])t~ve!l,y de~~'iThed [~n\3tiG ~1~kj'Jig] ~n, '~~rm~, of [th;e s.yno~~r.mi].;. The' ,$,y]I(ri,g:i$~ GO:~'@.i~IliS, :hl Sle;~d[tg up a p['IUi',aH:~lY 'of enrtitie:5 'i~:Il, :s;u.ch a w.~.y (h~:t the name ef one 'm~.y be applied to [~ ,groujp of] them, and between t:adl o,f ·the~ things a'(~.d each one {)i§: the ot'hern m,cf1~ is. a [;el~:tiQiIJi~hip of f.i{n~o;cllenoe ().]" ~'ljJih~eq~e:noe ]1], their pb,Cem~[if~ ranki ng wjit'hin ~h~ :~H:t'en~u:. i5 SQ'", die S'Y,llo,si~d( a!T'~[tlgeme~:1J:~ is more s;pecd;aljj",ij_'icl'lil.:'ln ~U1 [o,rdii1Ja;ry] con~po~i'ti(tltl~ becsnse in ,~in, ortd.j]Il~;['!t 'OO'liLiI,pos.l.D:~C!in thL~ :rel!3Jt;\O~ plaocrn,ent f~J.i111d:rig w(mM, nor be ·reg-.:rrdoo.

tJT~ I1qyii~wi~s rlejinitWn fJj ,~(J~ai Tim'L1~

By his; t,e:rm, ~e'i1titit:~~', lBa)"da'"!',yjj means two or more entitie», His phrase ~[e[uith::5] d'tat ate kn:10W~II1\--ti:lirnt is, ~int,~i~,{,cttllttl1Y' rn'F1~ved~

.:it T. ]I~ 'EtT!JJIl'~ [;i'I;lh,m:-l,~h"ii1'iill :;:I!lbh2biy~hl, L &. true M:5 bi!U.~u~'t! I'Iill al .. .k~S'tliiya.l~],

.:;~ iR~:±!diitlg '~rith dl~ M'Si." ~ [Gm~,e:t~, 9B~iEia. ~l M3 [O;Jir,ilet~:-.-'Yf-~hHda ..:1496: l[k~.= ~11Jm]" L 2illlcl T .L"e1l;d~ ~l~ ~j.ftIiIll!I~~IfiiGi!l,

~ I, .on a repaired !!Ina :~'ooopioo page :pa:rtkm I~c:r,e the MS :n,:;adk: [~b.arsJ~ 'I,W;kL.&: T &. [\il'S G~rt{i\U 009:Ha C"er"d rrlkl.r,[;il.iE',llIl

ss Reg~rdjtl~ d1i~ (l!:fiIDliltl'mi 'ur liIre ~il]~~~~~ .r~j~r.r"s. Trl:Fifm. [.ntJJe~~1 ,ed,. l-t.."4!p~~~ :HJ4 S. 'I:' 1.~;p:ri:l1itiX~" iP'- 51, t B ~ '17 .] [pT.{lv5 (~; oil J;W3!t' v.e rf-. ill~!i1I~, g,~~ I] te ~ j)'.oobably !by Jm:]alli [I ~:$<Il(l-l1-l3] ftem, ~:rn:,a;lrulni [~2.7 5-'~ 34~ i' as the la'l~lf;r ]pli'ei~d~ (JT. bath wrlit~rS 'i:'iii.clJiy ~m,'!,1'f: ;tg!l.illJ'b!Xli from some older SIJ'1J1UC_

ill ';ilU:1gnU:::o;tl.illy .IiII~ti!iITL'l-e<:l to~ ~s B1. jmdgmrnt of wl"llv,ictU.o1ii (j(r ether'!iM-ise~,-[ls '!lJ.iS(idJ in 'O\[lder b1 de,~l 'Md:u the iotgica1 :m;3so:rniirlg ,:3j.cvlJaily ,tl~Jci:l],g place [IbQdl] in conception fQ :-m~~Jjj·o~ and if] rhe judg~ne~lta] ;~~e:t[~ '!lhart. LDl~'ludes cOT1Jvktion~, :r(il!f"m~l be']k~. ~[.ld $l!i.p'p(\!~iJ!kt~.

Hili espression, "in a \y,ay' th~:~ leads to lle~fruug' ;sOme[hi'ilg not ~i.u~dy ,biL()~'iI,n ~ ~ ., ]5 us tid. to :nfl~ke: t blti dtifl[l] ti01tfJG ~ll]ll.y ~.P ec ;tfi{; illy [iOOtb] '[(Ii ~ogica] 'r.e'd~:rnil~g· and 'r,o ~'YS'~\i;lm]i~tiC' thil]iking; :i.11. the ~iII1cl sense [i,e., capable af arr,~~e.IDef1J( hl ~. SJUo~~m]" Thls dertmdo([j .

. kes ] 'd ," [ru'"' lJ ~] ~ [[ki' "'~m f][ . - -- .

I .' ... . 'I' . O"J [,' f 1 1" ,'. • [ • I ' :' ',' '. ' 'j " ,.- ~. -~ [',' r:·'".- l' _f 1_

m es 1IIFIJm OOtl]M:" eranen .nsteue S OlU" ,[II. 0 '. c~.u .. m.r,s. mater

ll:dj [o.r.,m~} eAi::otJUm;l< :aJni,d :fin;;tl [n d£t1:rning tin£: fOlU" Ca'!J.]BeS d:~,er€' ]S no i.ntencio:n. to make the rou~:' causes 'lbem~elvE~ imo defu;rit~.i(ll1!:Sj' for 'meire ',,v(Jiu]d be Di!i v~tiid. :uiooe.ssi.ty ~1S [Sa to ~p"pl1" a deilrutioliL ,to' 5Ol'!I:!Lt";l!hing a]!t"ead~' defined. when. the causes 'would not 'be true of [wha'~ 'W21.... ;alme"~'y deinedJ. - ,H!L!!:~ ,r'~lth'e:r) '~he :inJ[;e!nJiQll is d1~U ~be delh:1Jl'!rloil ihioiJJJld. be: made [of [~]rl~l~] ~pi~m~'ble of tile Wd~lg' to be d~fifil;d Willk takjrng tlu~se C~ilISCS into ,ooiUs~.(]trntion, Sil) t1h;c[I ~ ~ defh]idon. ~~ld def1!rii1;; a C~l:n:poul1Jd. e[iJ:~1ty Mith ,r.egarcl to ,in ,eN.l&t ..

.:;Mi ..... e .~~ 1. !ill I 1.;."" .... 'lJI~ ~"'f: an :':;!j,"iili"m~v d1,;!;J" ij... n t tf ...... 'i'!I'l~'V!Ir. md "'~:.-!In.ry.t ~~;i'O'

!I .. ~·J:h!l~.r';;r~ l='-,_ U~v~~~;r" H!, ~r-'=I1=~~~'i .- ~!. _~ ~_ ...:! ~ ~"-'+'~~-a;~ . ._::1~,"~ ~ 'I:r !ll!l~~V," l~~

..... rii!I ... ~! ,,,,, . ..!I ,']0<[;' 'I.\..~,. ,! i'ii;jll" 'm" ... iI' ... ~ I ~, .... ~ 1lf"~'~~ C;;;;i'~"""'il "'i1~,..J1 "'i; rt'rir.,,,,,",,,;;y1:;:;'~""""""iI"

C""'IIo~,,,,-·eJiV.,_,II..!I . .,;w, J!iIA'!.\V1i .... E; ~.M''1.,.JI.~,j;] 'liliLdJl. c!foi.h ,."illirlil. .. ",,'!.'l~"""') ,~iLlIo'l~ ,~ I!.I!iV!"L~"~:' ... .JIiI. ..

entity cannot be concd;'I,.'cd as h(\'",hlg' eKe(;~hte and fhu.a·~ (3)!J~:H:::$ •. T~:U~:IDci'OIT", the d.~niri~oD. 1i<'!,OIQiuld. 'be a dl~Kriptive one, because 'mi~ p:rOOi(~.ted of th,e ,eoci:tty ~.th I'e~oot: ro -mh.>e causes \."wlild. be p[led;.~ eated '~v,id1t ~gaJro ee '~lli!tlg~ that are exeernal 'W the· le~u~:ty:> and '~hing'S p:mdi,e:;.t'I!lr:d. ;"ri.tb reg.~rd to ~Ktcr.ttl~I. matters would not concern ~me ~Se'fii~e;, th1i1~. tflJ),t,: de£tn'iJtrC1TI won~d be d,€-scriptive".

[:Ea.}r,dl~,wj~s] expressioa, I"~the process '!)]' al'lra;~g enures that are:

L,= .." • J!: " '~ '1 ,. "':11 ,. .;1 C • , L· ~

WIiOW,Iii'·~. :ilS a S]K.{jilrytng ]:U]r..:3!~ ,t J:l1Jt ]5 'lIit':.tii,'VCU. ,Iron} a 'matena ,.' tGiI[IlSt:].

as wd~ as from ili,05~~ thatt ::!!JI'"t:] ~fo[.It~;al'~ ,~:Fild ~drecti"'{t:" ~ Of ilt~JESC~ O]!Le OiY '~h "m, the frlal~riil. I[ cause] ,. is rluentionod. as b~ing dJin:cdy ap'p1ic:ahle'~ 'Whi~f.· the !i)·d1f~r. two w~:mlrl be [a]lplicabl.c] ~cx](J.rd'u!l]g to -tll:!ij!~.iil.i ~~merrat p .e., ]111 'the 'm:f.Ijttle~J. 513;

.f\.m.d again, [B~,yd~W'Jl~';sl ezpresslon, ~A in ,r. w~y tlla~ leads to learn-

,', bi ~'IL'" - 'II ..J ~-, ~~' "r:= " 'IL

]n~' somet m.ns: 'rna:~ 15 110'tt ,.u[\e~)[Jiy ,t{tl'ij!!Jown ~ ll5 :l1!. spcul.yn1L:g. p.nr:~.s!L'

deilived. from a. ~~lntd~ cause,

~ :MS g.t Le., 1.JiJ{!' ddlTutllD&1I ,of ~~:ri:CiJ;1 ttal[lrrb:1;l;';' .iu1id ~il.tic U(tn~l:!it; :i~ :MiS gJ.~ [,e., :it:> ~L~~~ ~il rh.t: fnur,~cl ['i!!i'L~iildiJi~~i.JJ ~1-dbi.lIJ:(jll,

::It L 21. !d~ His ~~~OJ'" "the {Joth~r Imii\'Q ~mldd be [~'Wa~bLe] ~cooroing, to {~r ,e.rtgil.~~~!i1~ [i"'t:,,~ ,in d-w; mi'Mi!.~~r·: 's1[1!lX; e';,i'~:;[f ~00'it ('iF' 3!~"_gi,!;m~t :l'IfJ:I;lt:1~ h~~ aIIi a"~~~n~~ 1)g.!N;!t,. mln~.e~y" a_~ ~l1I.dJi~ltt [JJ;l)~il!l';r. as ~ caF.j)CJl~N ls to a ~f:Lk~ [saill1r~ ..

[OCl\tIIJmrttiug' from B~~i(law1] 'IOlIf these ei1ritif'~' :So organized :J1ould be a, eonducive to· rm"[1J]~:ng ,lli ;Q[hr:IIi.)E'.pu[O:I]~ then .:hey '\¥(DuM be called a ~defi:L~itio~'~ or' an ~eNpJa!!:1l_at(tiry $~~tern,etlC ~ 3'1i1!d if they ~h@!!Jk] 'be

h." fJLlffH'li1ic.ive eo judgmental asse D:U~ th~']l d:!ley w,(')u]M be called an '~argum~ne or a 'demonstranon'." TIle flO[]i'J],{";f [L(I!'.:~ [Qfmi[[)g' a CQn~

. .] ~cl 'b 'Il·L [. ,'Ih ~ ..JI • .i!:::, •.• "]: ,~~ ~". L..' . 16. . ~_~~~

iCll-1)btliirl ''WOli~;. ac ,rlltl;.le ~t.li!l)t; 1!..J:~~.I!J!nrJt~.'DilliIJ a ~~.1',i'1l~ ut:~.n.g tual ~pe.aJ~ :l'

'~:h~)t 'wuuld 'iead tc £onl1f;ng a c~ru:~t~!O\n of ~m;ank:Und'~. The second Lt~.,~ judgmental a~Tl't]l would 'he ]~e when we say, "The '!NOdd :1$

"I),.;lll • "._,= . .JI L· ,,'I!..' "I-_I· 1...,_ ••

a [~UJie e:ntl!l'~ ~ t·\t!erytumg 'ltnffiit is a :pOSS1[[1l~' eutl'~t nas a eause" ~

[~ ~yi~r].;g] th;u: leads to' :it jUdgtne:J:I~'~ assent to [:~he correemess of1

'11' ~". . ~,"-,ll ..• ,,:L~ iL". ..,- n_~'

or~ ga}f]irig~, [~lIe '\'!j.'QiJ, IILl iLh~S ,i3l, 'C~,1!!Ilte "

The "1J11I~JlQT [Ib::yda,,-vi] put ""exp~ru1'ilttUry s!tatc:miEilluf bcfon 'the ;;';I,'I.'[g)U,~ itUC1iL'e 'iil1l. the set61Jl,g of his 'e:Kp'C.!-S~mjiCHlr-heCr·;U.l~ O'f its na1bllm~. p1:'€te., denee to the ,aJrgumr;m.l~i[)j order to, have '~Jt OOT,IJ"eSpm1f~. with the n~tu~, order. _ N amral precedence (of.A to l1a1 is; ss when one enl~ily~ A. l~ such ~:'h,~~1I: anerher ~~ijr~ity~lB~' dep'~~,()l.s upon A~. 'b!ll~ A has f.J;O deFect 'IHE-n.m ]3; .. Far example, one ]lH.:.'l!":Ode.s t:'vi.rQ'~ and iiJ],d~d~ -;"lwo~ d£p;e:Jr.t[h~ iUflD.\11 d:iJe;re bell1lg a 'one', 'out the 'one' has ~:ILQ effect U:Po[l [tile ~t\'I,!\o1.

The ~'cxpbna:itDJy Si1~;tEll,[L'le[1f[~ ~ Jn :r-e.~a:~on t:Q 'argument ~ is ~~milaJr heni'tt~' tbif".' ~,e.NJp.1aiL'il;atory s~atemenf would. be a }~ule ~~a:r1'ie:r d1an the \:(:n~p~i(lin~ ~ whiLI~ the ~aI'gumeJ1f w01l!l~~d be a ]1'~~e earlier tlMtl the jgdgTfient~ assent'.

iM'[.oreQ¥l:r~. 'intellectuel COfi))ccp!l:um,t precedes ~.judg,mCllrb~l assent' mitu[,:3J~]~r. Thi~. is li:~cans~ e~ry' T]] jll1d,gIiJU;l1ta~, assenr depl!1uds upon (1-2:) the oon(~plio~~ of [judgrn~~~:!i:I~~d ~~!!le~~f~] t'lN"O '~er~ and lupon, (3) ~11Je' conception of the OOiJ1'.I]bilina.:~~nl O'f the' o~ro, as It is inhereudy ~jf~p'o!S~bLe 'to :~nn, a ilJ.II.d~itllt whae bdn,g igJ.rl~'mnt of aIliy'

, .,_ ~

ant: of these three [SiIlb.Ordl'[)Ja_·V;re OO'F.iiC,eiPli~~1S]. BilJ.!u. these [~iI.l!.l)o.,mi~~:lit'e

p[ielimiinaryJ oonOBp'iti~'I[1S do no~ }1,a;:ve any drectu~] !C~rll_sa!l.jty U]>D:n the jILil,d),gmerlital, assent.

st 1~11!:. ~:e21-cl-i.~~g ~I~ ]~ is ,not ,ooln,pl!e,te:~ T= OO~~i:liyiJi; [I~f: :MS and 'MS Ga.nrtt 'oomfa: [gh~}'~-lI.rm] .

o:l!I :M'S ~~ le" ~} ol):l!1~~pdl[iitl! (If i~~ ~bjoot :~~d '~) 'OOIWe.l:lit~oo ~r irs puruc~uc ..

A.n ~!CXpLana'iiDry dtifrn.]tiClI1l,~ of same tJj[Llll.g' is ,[a sta:~\ffiTI,mIQ ~ tItLe- undersita:ndinrg 'Cil[ 'which n~ot:;.Sst3J]ri~y bri:n,:gs ~[,011ll:t an l!I:nclern~nd]jng of that thi:nhg", ·rhu~~ a kOQw,le(Dge of [[1ill:1Le' exp111natQl'Y' i(]e[in'i~jon] would precede the ,kl1o~]edle o§ [t'l~e ~)l~gJ ~lefi[}edL

'fbu!)~, a 'd:l!ing '(~l!i:iri],@t be defe~~.

a, by '!Nay of [a dWllJiJtiDn] equal 00' ir :in. diffrity 'IO:[ obslI:l]citr~-as has been 'said .. '~~,!,w, ,eveu number is not au odd Ii.ilL!nLij,ber·~;-;Il,Q'r [can .e 'k. ....I f '~="]

U lilt': oeunee

b,. 'by '\l!miy of :itself,.-as 'Whf1D [;som'~ disputant] ~~, e ... ·UOYe1J'i:ieut

l. '2:2 ~s· ~ tra:w_~~.itl"Qnn or ~"M~ n is; a h" '~;t.!llLl Hvm~ 'bell·'''''~,·-rliO' [can

, ~ - --, , - ,~ ~ ,- ,~. ,. - - - . Ill_ ~ ~ - -'"b ' -[JiEj..~ -- [ ,_:Ii

ift 'be de~inecl]

c. by 'Way of [a rlE"Jim.ttUl1] more ob~U're 'ltbaITII. itstJf~ [This La:U$["' ;staJt~m.en:t bl, O"1,1e:~ oqu~lly whether

'1" ikJrw'ii."i1eds:e -of the en~i!ty depends ·!jJn [,a d;efiniliO(!.1L removed] ~n [!ioly one d\egree~.-----as, ~ n the deJ1n:i[J,o&il 0,[ rhe SIUlI] as "a stsr [!if 'me dayd~.l)t~~~, and h:u the deJ1~]fhio:n 'o:f ~he (l\a.l1Inlt ,~S "the th~)e period when ttll.Jt 5un ~'s .• [iu. the ~ky] ~~";'"""-(lit wJi!,e~bet

II LJ,l, L1n~' ~'Ir-..o~ (~f D®finitiQ\Iii!'li~ [.Ri!td aJ- T.dI~i'2~) ~" • AJi ~bn Muh~mmadi. 2I'[:..~~:'i1i'i;rl iIJ·I:.-S~ri~ ilIll-:Jlujnrtl. ~ ~ 3g,~-14 ]13] [flI~Je~'l!.!~ ed., 'fe.print of :Leilp~jg. '1 {345~i fl~nJit. M~1.m·!fJ~~ LiI.J!tiir:llm~ .~ 91$J are the Ij'b'llow~n.g' dtciJnl~ICir~;

(rt!Xll~.!l'1'-If]: ''"'Th~~ (ocm~'em~m']1 d'te (iO:11JX!IPtioo of 1I-1Mch iileoe:wm.ri~~f briIDgs about the ~ub:itioo:t ~n EOO1~~J T_lf114~ncl~jJ~g -of a OO!lt~~~c.n {tf ~I'!ie ubjlOC't e!1!t11"1~ IXJth in M~ cere namre ~L1.iIl in ~ dit'lu!rn(:~hI'!!.!IIII~:~ from ~l~ ~~~. il:hl)~ thl';' (~~~hio:il eemprises bot'lru '(furnnitk~n 1J'j' IIC:E'" ~H~~'!!!J ~'~dI;lJL~ de:lirni~tioorn!' [al-~!::!dd a~-JIl~q~] ~!1!~ ~d~!'}r:dp-tio !IlL ~.~

~~.'rifl HA !te'rm fh~- ~ !'J~~lit ~'b-oot il!i~ '~Jl1'ticr~ "!!"Iid !:he l:I'fl.d~~.In:d.l.iI1g (\If dl~ ~~,~wnt !lIiill~2!rily bri~ :ilJbQl;lt ~o IIl!!ILcli!~'!:Idil!lg -[]of :;l![!1l;flll~1I ICiTIi!ritr [tifi.o.e ~e 6ffi~- >.!

In lhf: 'f0'lIlrrti!1i ·rlt....nl!iirion" [JIl.1J.~:aJi.u:hf'] the:l'ol': is am ;Emp,hasi!1 mO'r~ on tal! dy.UI!!I!.IlIlIi!l;:5. ®f m.o;'l']!l'id;g~ f@nnatDooiJ ,;:..~d itr.i'lill!ifil:=ir EIS :rL '~'occ;ss"; whill~ in th~ 'I .. rter ~he

.,.] 5.- ;.~;. • Ii" • -n ' - - l'-n-.dI, h."":; - - "~ "1,,, 'b,",~ -'ll -" -...:i ..!I -.l ' -

!!.Jil:uif!l:!'LlilJli a:t;.:ii rh.~ seems {;_oC~hl!LeU ~:v ~~.~ om]! .~ _<lL!'iL"II u ~a. It .IT'<!IA.I. a~~WI iUiI1i.we .....

~oood, [n dfi~S ,d~.~t~r w« 'Will il;ry rt\i) be oc~Mis~ .~t 'ill ~i":!,!'~I:mrilg rurm·~rfiif] ,~S an ~(:~ailiiat-o:E"j irle:fl::l11l1,(jail" ~}Il' as -!'rl!l"Jiil:11!r~,- or 1'L1l ',de:ffii~ilIi~ ;3i,~n~~~. The: tcJTm [:t?:l,ofllif] wiD. be ·~iI1'I!11.:J2IEtcii. ·cldiiJl~IDD.in·,

t'i; [;i-'IL .• , 'II __ .• .• .!; dl - _1[ . .1 de -e .... l1 no;;; - . .1 .c:=~ .• _ ..... "" - - - _~.lI] "FI,

.""'" _ILJ!llS .tITiOW.lLe ~ WOillQ, ", ..... ,plLiUl. V.I!IL a ,i[h w:u!!J.l."_';,IL~ rerneven l!1.I!

several degree£,Ii-----a8 when ~~,:I' is defined as the ,Ii ,6uTi even ~~Junl" '~er'~:lo aJi[dJ then ~'~:VCD number' is defmied as ;[[,ffIl number ruvi:MJ'b]e' il1~O lWilJ! equal prts~'~; and then '~[WO fiq~alJ p~;rt53 :is ck:fin~d ,M ~t;.,,'!,tD thi~.~ :m:irrhfl!L of w.hich is more t-}ij;;;IfI:l, -the otffiiLEe~~, .lmcll then [fiFl!~ny] the ,00eJJinll'g]on of them both as '~~'F~, 0'[' wffiliGlt]u,~r

S- I,thiSi :kno'wled_g-e] is nOi~ depr.:odentt :alt @.]I~,--aSj w:l:u::n ~fife'~ :i~ defined as, "a. basic priod.ple '[,e['Cmb]i~~ the .wmll1'

[bi ,~n c:xpt8i!tIIat,Q:[)<,' d,efi~l]~io{llJ pttCt::d,CII,CC 3hDiL:i~d be gi'l.ren t;(} a l,~r:m rlru;t.l[ ]~ mo.r.e g;ene'ra] becalJl~' '0:(' its fal!i.L1;iili~[iliy and, its charity", Further, unusual and metaphorical e'X,p\re$sIDOnS; as wcll as re,petlitions ;sho1J1M, 00 avoided, +-as '~u~"n mm,cone- :rntigllt say ~ .A'A, number is, a ]llu;ril~,ty of 'U1~frillll brought together' j ow,. ''''!¥Ian is a :Iiving being who ,us corpeeeal and ,&~~ ]'atioMUy.~~ [This lNCIrUlld be rtrllole~:f. ~.nil[es:s) of

" 'I

" • -~..__"... . f ' ',. -

course, C]t lei!

~ "I " "iJ. " .• :lld ire ] . ..!ll~~_~' • ..'Il.~,_ ]1

~~ an U'll lE::feilli :trl,fi.(j~M!I!y :ti,.J,iUti!!!· reqmtt: uQJ:.I!!llnlO'll, ,111, 'uw, w"a,' ~,

as when defining ,two :mutmaUy adjl[IJll.CbVe~ entiti,e8~--fm-' ,~xamp[e~ '~A f~uhe~~ i~ a livhJig b~~ hX)ln whQ~' seed anotber i!l:1lilividuai or the Sa:F.Dle species ~"gt~,er.ated.~~'~-w,b~'rem [necessary :fepe~iJliun] VIOuk] be tfue case; or

b) some other need. [should require lifl; as w:hell. people ;say, ";0 A fla~~eljJvd. .f.IJO~C is a hriQ[,I;)w.;ed (!iut nose", t~~t ki.~cl of ~ho][j~~iI~g oue', being dane >iJinly on '~11; :i1l'OM:.

1~ CiL ~'l Rd· {-:i.... ... 1!.._ .a, Ji;. J ",~'€",,"': ~ ,".:I.·.ib.I.

11 'Il!apter.-:;..: . ay ,aM set :~'(lrt~l,u~<H.e.- tOPICS,: Jr~,b;"}.!L :l!i1J

]. The condidens t[h,fj.'~ govern a. definitien; 2. Tile' classes of del1ruti(!l[b!l~, .3" R(':.~Hti~s ,dle:liua'We end def]rn~tiNe.

a- Aril explai aJt;Qry definid,i)][l (if some ijJi:_ri~g is a statement the un-

.;a~~~'''''n!,.:I;'I'II·g ;i"1;f ''I/.."1..,-,,,J1.. -." ... .,..Jio[,~~,,_,,.:]1 ' 1..""';:'1fii>Cffl: m;b.oi"iiti1ro' ~n ~,.It'!I·~"'ifLio"l~"lo~,..J\::i'ii(l!' "",I:' ,~1-. 'l'i,~' 'UiC~~~-_ ~1i.,IlU;! ,,' v~ . _lI..UUl [1.I:..-~:XU.Jillf UJJ l!:..IJ~ I~" uU!J,; 1f::C!._::.jL:,l l'-IIJl!,~u.,.~!J'IJI!._~~t,JlII._~l ~1 .... Jj ~t~ ...

thir~~ TIle ,e.xpr~Qn::- 'an l;IJDdt["~tlm;dit:l!g of. m~t t:hi.n..~),~ 'btu is mt:a.tLt ('0 'be an u~d)e[rs.m(;]JruDig that ,1.8 more ~)eDe['1l~-ifu;an either ehe nuder,s,1!andb~g Qbta~[led f[,O'm a deJli_[n~.tirig deifiitioilt or the urJ~£nt~jj]d.ing'

obmmed fl'om a de'iolplive; ,def'.nitio:~],_2'-irll (!![~~h~L~ ilhj@t th]$ [s~ng[e ;f;"Xp]jjJ]l.at:ory] d\einittiO:IJl :sh.oui,~ deal ~th both ,@If these [pBriliclJih.t[ :ki]iJd:sl of '[JJ[]dcEStalUdi]]);W.

~iDf!i.Ye'!/C".,.r ~ according to this e~p.I.anali(J;n [of what co,]1,'StitJlj:~es a d\f"JiniJci[[nl~r:I' tl.¢ l!rn_plic~:riQn :is tih.a~ an GbS®c~ defu'u~rl ~~thC!l' lbr ~d~linl,itatlon~ ,!))[' by '~de~cri.pt1i!));f.i.~ \'!I!lJuid [1tg~lf] serve' as a;rn ~'e~'pLaI]~oowy oc11rnit]illl'1~ for beth '~he' (dclit~"JJ.i'~~l'lg d!e:B~]liu([(D~ aad the ~d~t~ri,]}ti,ve clrnnitiJ!lIl]~' [[i~~pt;ctIWe~.y]. TIlls is beeause ir would b~ valid 'ito saj?'of ~n .obje!r.t ~:d~1U['1~d by' !('l~]i~J,rnlft8!!tiol1 ~ or ;d~fined. by d~s;cri,ptioa4'-'tt:hat a.[1i u[idernt:3indl~[lJg ([if [if:iacih, ,oJ] '~h~ aspec es :neces£arily wouLd ]'~il]lg ab(J~'[ ~'il 'l;I)~d(::rsil;anding of 'wha.~, (jcnl~tiJtuJtem ei,t!h~[ a ~d~~]mitiug de:6Ilith)n~' or a 'desciipd,,~ deflniD]~JIJ' ~ respect~"'el)i'"

[This w~,u~d be IQyuell' ~il!l1&~~;I' of coersc, il' by [d1e phrase] 'aec!GiSsaruy '1NG,u[d] 'b,ri~ ~ho1il.f~, '~he.[e :U~ tttC'aoit: ehe kind. of ~it~3~lJ-ry ]~:lflHeli1Ce~' tihaJt a cause has i)j,pOitIJ its fdlect~ but not 'tt.bf: [\ev'~rse;. H'owever~ ~at reqrl~Lre~er;u of ]o~c-al, ne~e5-$ijly~ is ~Q'metbing more gener .. ~;1 t'hrUl ~'rlle necessary infiu~']1(:!t of a cause iWp~n it!) ,eJf-ece, Qj5, weD a~ the :r.'CV'Crsc'" !\ncl fU!l.1Jh,c:r.~ a ~'gcm:nility~ ,dh:)~, not 11H",lt: the lo~etd ~pacit}' t(!! give d.emon_gu~a,tir,;;e proof fot', a ~pa:rti,cularit},.il.

It ]i.~rs been said '~;h~ ~ all, ~e:tpbmto.ty deflllJiti(liU~ o:1l' seme thing 'w(}'!J.,lild. be a statement the' understanding iIjIf whid wotdd he thE' Eog~ k~l cause for the '~.Illd.eTSt:!U'ndimg of 'that thing" Bm:t this [de:finittiOlll] ]$ ~~eg~roed as souMl Qnjy by (line ~rhQ ~Arlmils the ,lc~'~inUiCY (if def1ilii~ion by a :s;1fJlg]e :fucmor'~'oil' "i.i\~)ne far ally'OiNie Wlil!l) w'@ulcl nO'~ ,~d~:nit '~!k lc~:~rnacy of dt:filrit~,oril. 'by a :siJ-~~e faet,@[' this {_lefIDition w!)]l:dcl

~ U~timitiIllll ~kf. [[~.k,~,~lff a.!I,..'tkill[~rl]] 1,~cr:ip.ti'Ve o:t:[ [ilill-ta'<nT i!J.!l-,r,cIj~[I!Ii~[ •

.[! I. '22~ ~ 4:: No, on!:':' aEriO'wlcll, say ~1Tim.t "lJ.I1,(lt;:rntal]dlni1l: ,m Ij1ibji(!)i;1: d!!Eined Iby ,~J~nL'i~9itiiJ![Ii· does :not ,!!Xi~t. !J.muil, :ute:u ~lJlndt':J:St11iLclln!il: t'lit~ ,!E]jliili.inr d~liflutbm r~lr] '~, M C!liu!'~, tl~e Qbjec~; '!!iI,O'liIlId 1f10t be iilli] "Ql~J~~ d:cfmed 'b~' de'~Jjfi~t:i!ti~jji'~ so ,~i.'Ii '~hM C~~ tlj~' 'tl~ldtr;st~;ndiug (If ~~e ~'~i~ibed rll~,zcl! 'WW1Jl.1~ ,~~1: b'rin_g: a'lt~J~t dn~ "~I,!i![Tjd~r'-

_.Ii' _,(." th . .1 I~ ~. .J!_';:::'. 'i- L • [.!L .n, __.l' f II .J." " ,JI

~t)l;I.u:tg 'I,~: e 'L.~LiI~~tmg ~.1 •. m1;.IOll IU;:::C3!IIL-"'E!: ' IUU.c 1I.l(]].ut:ir.ii.o:1!l.LU~iIlS C! ' ti ~ 'l,J£1[11I1Ut!!'u

i[j~~=:.rj:] ~ '!I.'I.\[)'llil.d bf, knrnJlffi ,iIi.~IT.8.dy 'Im:=fon:: • [dlb,e 1IIIool!=n<t~na~lIilg 'of ~.Iu.e cldim1tirlg:

dcfi.lif~I~o:ml'" _

0(11[' [l;{i5~tirnfl, is tlin Koo' ·I!:nti~ti,· eo '~qtl~~, ~.ifLigieiillly ~hc: ~I:l@nre 6f ~ t'lfilL't-';bi' it is :not noctssaly u1I~ftr: [~Lhe: l[iillL~i:rs~car:OClli1~~ ~f iL~UJJr)'.~,] sh(!!u~d, rust 'l;!i.r1oor. ~ r1:be uiJ],dt:nI!l2L'ruiliijg of !!!'.Mit!f~·] ~ '~mlt tM~Ie.u' h is :;]~in~hk tb~t ["ltM oL~~rtdijijg {i,f (.'1j!liit.y-1.iJ"~ ,~ti;Q.UM !!lie dep~rld!!i1i![ UpG'ru rthiI: Und!!~ilwng ~r ~nrity-b'J. ~Qr esam.r~ - , -me· ·-l'!JiI~~~J!j IIIdh'l.:t' {!if ~ Whole ,e-ni;it.,/ ;~ cl el'llMil'd\2nt - rLlli1!i'iJil '~r ~b,~ UL'lL"li!L':i.i:andLll,>tl"

~:" ~~ , !J£ ,-, -, -- -. ~ , ,- .- " -- -i' ,[,,·V." __ 8 -,F-~ 1:.. --, ._- _.- . ca;

iOn e¥E:i)" one of i~ ~n:s'~ ;II1;Jil m1l:l.!!~~ .~ ~ll1d~~m"jilQg Qf [the ftirrni.~1' W):j.Q . - ~nl!l~y.]" lq)~,;;;ajly y,~~~ '1;~e Ilntd~fA~01'Ftdh1!g Qf the Iart:t~[' Il;:ntutr"5 ~VJ:=ry' p3!.!,~~, [Wiman :<Ii ~J.lfuO' (shat,ry]" pl"l2!'lltlmal:ily th~1: of i?!I,·S1fi.aru ill.JI!I!~i:u!iU upon '<A.d~.ciI, ~,-nhlil! lJ~,":!i .d! • .ltJ~ff ji ~i.!m ,af~lmJl,J

~, t" gl: i\.1: wb~n ~ ~av .nlat 'm~~' ~s' '~ ~augJM~ bcl(:i,~'" [:d.il1i~ln ,a.I.~~J~kl-

51

nQ't be va]id!i ,L ,2';Jl he!f.:al:uS-e' it ]ack~ al1i¥ eornmou and ]"'e~]a:r aJ.$aJ~e- H~¥eve'f~ h. "'H)tdd be valid h deed fo~ [~lefi~jl1gJ a sp~tiJJIC' COllOOllnim'ilt pWPtM¥~, :i1JUU:: 1Llri[~g C::1eact ~'ild simpic~ the t~il(b::t~wlitlic~ of wbichj, woa]d, be ,8" 1o,gleai cause f~,r und!i.';;'rstandin,g an CJ.!ltity hav~n.g th;~l't, property.

The truth of tlte IT:);~uer b; djJ~lt a dtrl!fiiticD wO'uk~, IDO'~ be valid 'by ''I/~ay of a ~il]g1e fiitot:ot~, lb~c~~JJlrte an ellil:~:!t~l the conception o§ w,Wcfu is b~~:ng: ~H!II;gbt by [ogi~a] .r-.el'I,SQnillg l:rtl,uil be cn~c~'iv~d by a:r.lly means ''Ii'!.1lat5~e'Ve[~, otherwise, the search for it would be b~[):o~b:~,e" is(\! llieM)e 'w~u~d have tu be some I[p[climil.n~:rry] w[],ceptlao t1l:u~t WljiiLddl be use:fu.], in lO.JiTiIl]l1l,g a ~g,oal concept", HU'~ dUlit ~'ral L'UniL0tpe 'wQu]d 'b~ rol"["u:~rllE!I]g (llhl£[ ~an the [prelin":dn:a:ry] ~l:(}l1leepdon by anY' means wharscever'. 'IHJowever-~ d~e [preJiiromf.iJry] 'conception by ,~!ny meaas ''!<~"t:llit5.0tYCT~ has ,~ [ole leading ][[t:o the ~gorul, [)(~n:u::~pe'" Thttd()re~~ a [nc:it:L'tal] rea:l.ization of both. Ihe~ CCHrtC!i;[pitiO:r.!l2 is Q,ect:8Sar~l in fa[:rnrlillla:itUng the gnal c(mu:ept, So the ~a1! eoecept ,act!lJ!aU,y wou~rl not b~ :fQ:rrn,'Ulj~Jtedl 'by Vi~ng ~. ~ngbe f~.c~or:Ji beeaase tht ag'~p-~ aC"~.ailil.y r([lw..m.u]M~ilg t1"iLe goal concept \'!r~ouJd, 'be- a romp;()G_i1le.,

Therefore, an ,e:xpja]]~.to.iLY d~finiti:o:n. Clf so;me thiQg :~, an CX'pb!il~ tarj ;st~t~me[j}t the ~:O'l'iioeplhJtd undm.'~taJ~:ltt~[lg· ('Jf w]l:ui(.h pmvides 'wh . at is 'U:sefu~ in 'IC~J'n;~JJJ1;;1lJtiing a conception of I~;le d1i:ing [[il:seltll, And 80 .lrQ·m :[thi~ le}(p]wr.Li!lJtor~{ dt'Jiflll~ti~li] th.e~""C [LSi ded~;u;;ed the ~\rid£[lct: [fur' th,e; goal DL)'fKlept of tli'te ~'hi:t1l:g].

1_ .Alii! ObjEiLt.iOIl. has been raised ·tJhJ~t'~, '~f ~~e [] Sit] ~'dcl1nee ,s.nou.ldJ :n~d a [2ncl~ dJl:!fineii.~, d1ien itllr.iie ~rgu mern ~¥((iuld 'be all hirllIDni't:e f;eriJl~" ]But I!JUS; c()iJi1clu~i[!!~ w,ouilld he mlse" An ,t~laud,on (!if the' ifJi~le:rem.t ~,o:gic here :~s th.at if d'te [1 st] dedin,$[' should have '!I],(i(:d. for a [:~i'!Ld] cle:fi,J1c['~ it!l:l,e;n 'this, [2~[lJdl dc6ntE~ (!If ~he [1:sf] defh~el' 'wol!.lLd [in W1J:m] need anorher [3rd,] definer) iiJt~d the :It[·,g:1.une.nr~ 'wO'lild be an ~'[l&;_d;re series, ]rU[dltT,In.i)i.'e.~ 1f '[he [1 Sir.] d~e.[ sfucn.l~d fual,ve a [:2nd] de:.fu1tr~ th~n. implidJtly ~ [fi,VQ of them] 'WQ!I;.!I],d be equals, M ;a sti'pld~d ((!(:tdlition for [beill!gj ;aJ, '[h::fwner' i:; th~t [the 'defiLfitt~] :sl'lotUJd be tlle eq UiJJ[ of w[h;~l is, ~deJi[]ltd~. Br!l.!l.t ill fac4 the [,2:mi] i~ [:r.eill[y] IF:l.'D:i)C: speciJIic than [the [5't]~ as [t.he 2'nd]] wcmld. bt: a ~'~]X1ci6c d\t.iner' by rhe lrthtte.n:t logi~~Jl :n,~()e~i:tty ij)f ifts bcillS the ~~ril.d] dl~fir:Le~ of a [1 5~]

~ RMng w,~t.1i the M$~ MS, ,(h~iti"eiit 9a9Ha i.md MS H-.dIfT!::u"'Y.JlhdJi, +'48~: [iiD:tiJfU Dam rf'l,Ljj;a~~IZ ••. f~UI, r'~Wl'btt bfitlh~ 3lI .. t;l"'ili:fI,. Tlife ~~tiioo ef L has tp1arilliy ~~ ~F.i.t['~n· ~.b:] tit) ~ad [y~.iw!'¥w,iz]~, iIl~id this. 'cJ;u~dl ,~rutli[!l~ ' .... as f(ill~d. by doo ,~di,tOJ:"l 00 T.

d~lhJie['" So there ,~!!.:ddJ be' no MS 1 h v,~lid_ity im a dle:ailL~:tt(m b~ ] t iii mea ns,

:1 • -a. The ~Hl:S'V!lel' to' the 'fu!r~t [ObJ~C:b!O'[IJ]i6 i~ that the [2nd] de-AiDer o§ '~he [I ~t] de6n,e:r '%'!;'Quld 'be da~Uii,ed 1\S, subordinate to, '[he \""!iboo'lliute [lst] definer', ,::3!S being ill L2~d] definer, aad [tllli~ 2nd dJ~er] wOll.d,d. be difl7h'itot.W!Jted, from, all other de5.llers 'try its ,~J[]it'lction to me ~a'bm]lne ['],st] d£fi1ite[~. 'So~ if w~ should '!1U'ld:el"staJind tbe a'bm~!J.1!te ~~ryre' ,of the []s[] d~ftTIer~ the~l n~Q~~arlJy the'¥'e ~'!{Q'l,lJld be ,m under£tootdiJJ1(g' of ~t5; [2nd] definer, as being a, [2Ilrl] cl~.er. 'Futrthtlm.O'.re~~ [the ,~.n;d. d£'Jir!J.cr"s] $usljttnciliun to ~'~~t:, [] st] defult:t lJI!iOwrl b~ ,8 'weI] !kn!lJ1.~n faJJI;t w'helr:~iI." '~h~r~ was an ~d~r~jrn.'Qdmg of thfl '!jV.~'O adfjfj(med l!:enTIs,; th~~ in 1m tOlruity [dlf Znc] de:fitne:r.] ~wulJd beceme we'll knQW;IJ1~ 30 [th,e 2nd dk:::fincij wOlUlld, have no need IDill" ~no'tbef' [l,e., a 3~] d:'e:lir.r(~ F.

2. [A 8p';(X'-1]'c~] QbiiiODtim:~, bas, been raisoo ilhi'lt th .. is [!L"t,ply] requires cil]u~}ider,a;tWrut, belCau!«'.: the' ,t:o,ta1i'ty ,-a, (.Oi'nl[JOs:it:e o§ the: D ~~tj de.finer ~~gether 'With i.'i!£ ,;irljiiUnct~O'D1J ~clle 2nd! defli1e;]'] ~,-w'Oil!ld be ,[ii, defiaer by w-ao/ of tlNo ]lt3lm, the [ls-t] tteft.rlc']" ~[~d the [2m:), defnn~~] a~unc;.. di@~ Bli,['~ rhe '~c~ ~ha!l the two p~ru: []sit ~l'ijcl 2;nd, d~finers] '\c"lroiuLd be w,'e:n 1k~:!i(li!tVil, in a fO'~emial, sense w'O~[d ~~!!)t j[np~y '~ha~ they h(J~b as a 'hJt:iiuty '\crould ,Dot have need ror' anotaet {S~] d.efitiiITt"

2. ---.a 1 L The real :a:n&we[' [b,ere] is tftlat. il"h~s ]rtiiutiJte ~eries ~:rgu~ n.1,el"f~ WQ\J~d bE' an il]fiilliE:e series irn matters >of meatal cO:Ils.id~]7i.'tion~ and ,iit '\~'QQ~d cease widl the' oessation of the ilITi.'te!rled"g, cCH!~iclera~i(:m [or .it~]" SOrnttiilJles, dl,e ~];!jtcl[e(Jt ~~.ll oorrcs.ider the [2r:!.d] definer of a. [Ist] d.~fin~:r fr{}m the iMiU~dpo.1i]t of i'lr£i h~!rug a [21Jd] d)e.fili~t~ Ii'Jiflid fr.~Jim thi:s ~andpO]Dljt: an lIJ[I~~,e:rst:::(Illid!~[lg' is gained of the [l:Slt] definel",,7 And aoco;riling to thi~ oon~ideif~:t]Q:f,i, th,e're '~",ould be ][0, need for ill [Sitd] dle:fitJ,et~, [se the argument l!o\!\oCjj]cl come to ,~ ~nd] '" 'iffih_u sometimes the' in.te]lecii: 1'!.";]l '[111'[,0. :Mts a'llttJJ1l.ti,QD. to ir~~r ,8)fidl !Db~$[~le it.sdf L 241 f:Ow whJa[ it ]S~ and ,it v.iFI, htJ.\-'e need 'fiJir ill d£fineT", But the ~ru~j]e.~·t '~iIiJ ~O'~ ]keep, rlb ,~pe~t -[of hSf,;I:ff'] ~J:[lder.' ~O:r.Jj:l!deTalijil}n C:QJflI,C1nuously", so the' 'i~jijnite series ee:ase~ 'vJi(b (he c.e~sadQ11. Oil" th~ ~Qte~,~ leet's ro;jr[:S[cl\er~io]1J T 12 of lm!) aspect,

2'.-.:t2. Jlh:n: the [forma]] ~n!:s-rwer' to' the second ObjOCtiUlr:L I~ thai it 'wDuJld b.e ~drHissib]e fm" an !Bil:1i.rity~ ,...i:th if'Eg~!I..-d, to ,~ts O'!N]!l essence,

G MS ,gJ: Le., ,L~g1lMh!l_g dit' idL1tiJiIS: ~~ri~,

t MiS ,~~ Tl''io'it ~ W,Il;:' ,cle'ln.II,H [l;S'~J ill an ahsdlule sense,

t(li' 'be ~qU.hl'~.d~[])t 'to aii1,O'~htir enr!tity,~ and with ,r.{~,gard, '00 ,8j[lJY one of

• • _j 'I en" • 'I! :.ii:: IL IT ~, iL.,

1~':S m~.mL aCCla'Bl1ita, q uannes, tn file mO:[\L; E]lCC!lilC t!lJi;]I'~, IL the other

err.rtll)':]_ ~J['he [2~nd] dlf':.hner of:ri, [[~~~ dei]]n~r w,oulcl !be ~ ca~ like thar, Chr in consideration ij]I1~ l'tlii, ow.ri! essence [the 2nd] WD1!ti~d be f:q I)]a] 00' the [1 st] definer ~ a while in cousideration of i'~~ be~.Qg' ~ S]Je(;i~'c dle:fim:t:i,!i! [thif: ~hd] WU1i1.1ld he more ;spe(ifi'C than [~iJje l ~[ k.]. That ]Sl t:o say ~ itt lSj ][1 consideration of the faet tl;at [[he 2nd] is a

, .

''d1e6r1le1f', that jt is. [therefore] eqldv~ienlI to a ,detineT,; [~ts !eq)ui,v,aJ, •.

le~C"f] ~, not in con~iduatio(tl of '~'l~,e [ac~ ~hat. [[1i,e '2:nd dIe~,llie~] ]S, mere $pecifi,t· tha:n [the fin't is]. :iN" Ol\r ~ an und~filt.and1ing' ,of ~e ~:defi[ler' of same tl1L~nS" :rn:~rt~t precede an iIl~:ld.e;r;5!t~ndiJi.l;g 'of the th~ng that ]~ ~'dX16f.!led"",~ because kta,mvJe~ge or tb.~. '~defit1er'!l [$ a ~~UJ!~·~ 0'£ kno\.\t1,ed!ge of the 'defined' tt:riIilg'~ and a 'L.aJUSf:' precedes the caused effect, And if lii1JJiw:~t':dsL": of the ~dt::f1Jnei["; precedes knm~l,edlgc' of ,the "defiF!J.ed,~

th:ljng~ then the foemer must be much clearer ~'ha~ '~h~ lauer-

'tt [Thus, [defil]~ tions are go'Veme~l '~ ~he :FoJllovring condldons, as ,given by JJa)idai!ovi]

t. m,tt is nO'~ valid to ~ve an ~e~'Plam:ljiwry d)e::fiuiiUO]]I' of ~iom.c thi D,g ;:1i1 terms fh0l!t wI{tir!.:dcl be ['UJ; bdte,r tban ~u~, to :i(" w:~!e'lhe~,' :i!l] c'larti.ty or (lb~t;!)dty. Tl\~.It ls, ".'!ih~ueV'ei·· would boe presente d as a 'o_efirliee Itl1lit case would. be such []1!!ll.'t.~ if [the ~de:ilne!r1 should 'be l]iI],de:[!l,tolj)d~, then the ·dldln~d·- [entity] WG1l]]d be 'iJ.;u[lrlerst.(~OCI~ brllt U ['the 'de:fine["~] should be S-!i)methll:lg U~:Ilknm"l~l~ thea [the ~deti:n~d~] would be 1J;~i.lkfit)""'V~j" An example of thbJ, is wlleJl semeene sa,yrS,~ '~AI1 even num ber is. not an. odd number' ~ foil:' an '~odd, [~!Il;tWII.bG~ 1S ~{[Wl£d to ·f:VCIiI. number' :i!l'~, [d£g[($B ,all d::l"riJly and ob~C!llLriity.

:2,., NOl," is i~ \~~lidJ '~. ~'i,.J"(; a definiti.on of a iii:1:!i:~~:lg' by w,ar Qf ltseJlf..

Od:l,e~~j~e~ dl~' i;mp]kadm~ W'!Ofl,ji]d be '~:'hai; kJ1!.u'l."ile(il@;,t'! (if i~df would precede ~ [ 4b knowledge of ttse1l: and thaJJt ''Y'ould :~m.ply Ithat a '~llJing would :pttcl'ldt: itsdr. [This ]~ uu,;t]l '!t(lllla][l~{ wt.,c~liLer the 'defLD~i is presented as o!J.11ly the same as the 'defined", as w~:um dispu-

~ - -

~aH1i'~ may ,say that ~:m()!cloJJl,~halige'~ ~ t.J.i,a:t j~l' ]O·~~~iI)Nta11 [m(it'vem~nt1:~

is ~ to be ]0, transition', or whetncr [tthe '~d~fin~t"'J is ptescnb:dJ ~.s the ~ame ~, the ~dC'fillled' plus something mere, as w.~eill people Sia'y~ ·'Man is, a. human ]~.viL'Iig being, ~ The fO]JTIil.'~~~ :i:s, an example of [~:l€'fmi.t~,oilll by way !uW] am. aeeidental qu~J~,ty' eta be ][lJ. teansition'], whr;]e- the ,bUf;!L is ",UiL exam'p~,e' of [d~ifi1i.i]t;iOlTI by way of] the aubstance,

;oj ~.!IIS mil 'I' 11.. 11. -~ .' d ~-' .

,L'!;"JI' .:!i~:' .. C'_, b~e ,a~J~LfJIlI~e . i!1.L:UJitllTI!llI!,

'II M!S w:: Le., the ddlJlile.- of ,31, dl!'£blJ;:'-_