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2. Concrete Dams

The structural integrity of a dam must be maintained across the range of

circumstances or events likely to arise in service. The design is therefore

determined through consideration of corresponding spectrum of loading

conditions. In all foreseeable circumstances the stability of the dam and

foundation must be ensured, with stresses contained at acceptable levels and

watertight integrity essentially unimpaired.

The Gravity dam is subjected to the following main forces

1. Water Pressure (Water load) 5. Silt Pressure

2. Weight of the Dam (Self weight) 6. Ice Pressure

3. Seepage and Uplift Pressure 7. Wind Pressure

4. Wave Pressure 8. Earth Quake Force

Loads can be classified in terms of applicability or relative importance as

primary loads, secondary loads, and Exceptional loads.

i) Primary loads: - are identified as those of major importance to all dams

irrespective of type. Example self weight, water & related seepage loads.

ii) Secondary loads: - are universally applicable although of lesser magnitude

(e.g. Silt load) or alternatively are of major importance only to certain types

of dam (e.g. thermal effects with in concrete dams).

iii) Exceptional loads:- are so designed on the basis of limited general

applicability of occurrence (e.g. tectonic effects, or the inertia loads

associated with seismic activity)

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It is convenient to compute all the forces per unit length of the dam.

i. Primary Loads

Water Load: - the water pressure acts on the u/s and d/s faces of the dam. The

water pressure on the u/s face is the main destabilizing (or over turning) force

acting on a gravity dam. The tail water pressure helps in stability. The tail water

pressure is small in comparison to water pressure on the u/s face.

The water pressure always acts normal to the surface. While computing the

forces due to water pressure on inclined surface, it is convenient to determine

the components the forces in horizontal and vertical directions instead of the

total force on the inclined surface directly. The forces due to water pressure are

discussed below separately for the non-overflow and section and overflow

sections.

a. Non- overflow section

i. Upstream Vertical face:-

by

PH = H 2

It acts horizontally at H/3 form the

base of the dam

The tail water pressure is

PH = H ' ( ) 2

dam

by

PH = H 2

It acts horizontally at H/3 form the

base of the dam

The vertical component Pv of the

water pressure per unit length is

equal to the weight of the water.

PV = PV 1 + PV 2

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cases, and it has a vertical compone-

b. Overflow Section:-

i. Upstream vertical face:-

The horizontal component is given

by

H + H 2

PH = 1 + H a (H 2 + H 1 )

2

It acts horizontally at

_ 2 H + 3H a + H 2

Z = (H 1 + H a ) 1

1

form

3 H1 + 2H a + H 2

the base of the dam. If the velocity of

approach (Va) is neglected, Ha is taken

as zero in the above equation.

be the same as previous, however

there will additional vertical force

due to the weight of the water in

triangular prism ABC, and it acts on

the centroid of the area.

It is the main stabilizing force in gravity dam. Determined with respect to an

appropriate unit weight of the material

Pm=c Ap KN/m

acts through the centroid of x- sectional area AP.

(c 23.5 KN/m3)

Where crest gates & other ancillary structures of considerable weight exist they

must also be considered in determining Pm & their appropriate position of line

of action.

Seepage & Uplift load:

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The water enters the pores, cracks and fissures within the body of the dam, at

the interface between the dam and within the foundation. Because the water

under pressure, it creates uplift pressure on the dam. The pressure acts in all

directions, but the pressure acting upwards is important for the design of the

dam, as it reduces the effective weight of the dam. The magnitude of the uplift

pressure depends upon; the character of the foundation, the materials used in

construction, grout curtains, the drainage conditions, and method of

construction. The computation of forces due to uplift pressure requires the

determination of the area on which it acts and intensity of the uplift pressure at

various points.

a. Area Factor: - the uplift pressure generally does not occur on the entire

horizontal area, because in some portions, there are no pores in which water

can enter. The area factor can be determined experimentally. The modern

practice is to take the area factor as unity, i.e. it is assumed that the uplift

pressure acts on 100% of the horizontal area within the body of the dam, at

the interface, and within the foundations.

b. Intensity of Uplift pressure: - the uplift pressure at any point depends upon

the depth of the water at that point. The pressure variation along the base is

assumed to be linear between the u/s and d/s faces.

dam

U = average pressures intensity * area

U=

H +H' (

* (1 * B )

)

2

5H + 2 H '

_

acts @ Z = form the toe of

3(H + H ')

the dam

c. Effect of drains on uplift pressure:- to reduce the uplift pressure, drains are

formed through the body of the dam and also drainage holes are drilled in the

foundation rock. These drains and drainages holes are usually provided near

the u/s face.

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Pu = Ah (Uw ,avg)

H + H'

= . Ah . w if no drain functioning.

2

is area reduction factor

Ah nominal plane area at a section considered Ah = (B*1)

If no drains functioning

T (2 H 2 + H 1 )

Pu acts at Y1 = m

3 H 2 + H1

In modern dams internal uplift is controlled by the provision of vertical relief

drains close behind the u/s face. Mean effective head at the line of drains, Zd can

be expressed as

Hd = H2+Kd(H1-H2)m

Kd is function of drain geometry (i.e. diameter, special & relative

location with u/s face.)

Kd= 0.33 (USBR)

Kd = 0.25 Tennessee valley Authority

Kd= 0.25-0.5 appropriate to the site by the U.S crops of Engs

The standard provision of deep grout curtain below the u/s face intended to limit

seepage also serves to inhibit pressure within the foundation. However, less

certain than efficient draw system & its effect is commonly disregarded in uplift

reduction.

d. Effect of Tension Crack: - the uplift pressure diagram gets modified if a

tension crack develops in concrete. The tension crack occurs on the u/s side

of horizontal section if the reservoir water pressure (H ) exceeds the vertical

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stress ( f yu ) . The horizontal tension crack extends form the u/s upto a point

were the computed stress is just equal to the reservoir water pressure H

U = B'+ (H + H ')(B B')

1

2

Example: - Determine the uplift force at the base of the gravity dam shown

below with the following three cases

i. No drain

ii. With drain and grout curtain at a distance of 5m form the u/s end

iii. Tension crack upto 2m from the u/s end

ii. Secondary loads

Wave Pressure (hydrodynamic wave load): - Waves are generated on the

surface of the reservoir by the blowing winds, which cause a pressure towards

the d/s side. Wave pressure depends upon the wave height. Wave height may

be given by the equation:-

hw = 0.032 UF + 0.763 0.271 4 F if F 32 Km

hw = 0.032 UF if F > 32 Km

Where: - hw height of the wave

U wind velocity in km/hr

F fetch or straight length of water expanse in km

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The transient load, Pwave, generated by wave action against the dam is not

normally significant. The maximum pressure intensity due to wave action is

Pwave = 2.4 w hw and hence the total force will be

Fw = 2.0 w hw2 and acts at height of 0.375h above the still water level

w

Example: - Determine the force due to wave pressure on a dam with the

following data: Fetch of the reservoir and velocity of the wind are 100km &

80km/hr respectively.

.

Sediment load:

Silt is deposited in the reservoir on u/s of the dam. This silt exerts the earth

pressure on the dam, similarly to that in the case of an earth retaining wall.

The generated horizontal thrust, Ps has vertical and horizontal component,

and is a function of the sediment depth hs, submerged unit weight s & active

lateral pressure coefficient Ka

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Case (a) when it has a vertical u/s face and Case (b) when it has inclined u/s face,

in case b it will have a vertical component

1 .h 2

Ps = K a s s & acting @ hs/3 above the base of the dam

2

s = s-w where s is sediment saturated unit weight

1 Sin s

Ka = Where s is angle of shearing resistance

1 + Sin s

For representative values of s 18-20KN/m3

3 Z 32

s 300 Ps

2

Just after constriction of the dam, the depth (hs) of the silt is zero. It increases

gradually with time, and finally it becomes equal to the height of the dead

storage. It is usual practice to assume the value of hs is equal to the height of

dead storage above the base.

In design of dams, the silt pressure is sometimes neglected because of the

following reason: Initially, the silt is not present, and by the time, it becomes

significant in depth, it had already been consolidated under the weight and it

becomes more like a solid and less like a liquid. Moreover, the deposited silt is

some what impervious and helps in reducing the uplift pressure on the dam.

Wind load: when the dam is full, wind acts only on the d/s side thus

contribute to stability. When empty the wind can act on the u/s face but in

significant compared to hydrostatic load. For buttress dams load on the exposed

surface has to be considered.

Ice load: Not a problem in Ethiopia. It can be significant where ice sheets

form to appreciable thickness & persist for lengthy periods.

Pice =145 KN/m2 for ice > 0.6m thick, other wise neglected

Thermal & dam /foundation interaction effect: Cooling of large pours of

mass concrete following the exothermic hydration of cement & the

subsequent variation in ambient & water temperatures combine to produce

complex & time dependent temp gradients within the dam equally. Complex

interaction develops as a result of foundation deformation.

iii. Exceptional Loads

Seismic load: if the designed dam is located in a region which is susceptible to

earth quakes, allowance must be made for the stresses generated by the earth

quake. An earth quake produces waves which are capable of shaking the earth

upon which the dam is resting, in every direction. The effect of earth quake is,

therefore, equivalent to imparting acceleration to the foundations of the dam

in the direction in which the wave traveling at the moment. The dam has to

resist the inertia forces caused by the sudden movement of earths crust. If

the ground under a dam moves, the dam must also move with it to avoid

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failure due to earth quake. Inertia force always acts opposite to the direction

of earth quake acceleration.

The magnitude of the earth quake force depends upon a number of factors,

such as the severity of earth quake, the mass of the dam and the elasticity of

the material of the dam. The earth quake acceleration usually expressed as a

fraction the acceleration due to gravity (g) is equal to g where is the

seismic coefficient.

Earth quake force on the body of the dam

1. Effect of horizontal acceleration: - the horizontal acceleration can

occur in either u/s or d/s directions, because the dam is design for

worst case, the horizontal acceleration is assumed to occur in the

direction which would produce the worst combination of the forces.

i. Reservoir full condition: - the worst case occurs when the earth

quake acceleration moves towards the u/s direction and the

corresponding inertia force acts in the d/s direction.

ii. Reservoir empty condition: - the worst case occurs when the earth

quake acceleration moves towards the d/s direction and the

corresponding inertia force acts in the u/s direction.

The horizontal force due to the earth quake is equal to the product of mass M of

the dam and horizontal acceleration

W

Fh = * h g = hW The force is assumed to act at the center of gravity of mass.

g

2. Effect of horizontal acceleration:- due to vertical acceleration, the

inertia forces act on the dam and on the water. The magnitude is

W

Fv = * v g = vW

g

If the vertical acceleration acts down wards, the inertia force acts

upwards, and the effective weight of the dam and water decreases;

hence the stability reduce, because in a gravity dam the main stabilizing

force the weight of the dam and vise versa.

Since the vertical acceleration does not alter the volume of the concrete

in the dam and the water in the reservoir, the modified weights of the

dam and the water may be use in the analysis

Modified weight = W ' = W V W = W (1 V )

Earth quake force on the body of the water

1. Effect of horizontal acceleration on water (Hydrodynamic pressure):-

the horizontal acceleration acting u/s towards the reservoir causes a

momentary increase in the water pressure. The dam and its foundation

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accelerate towards the reservoir and the water resists the movement

owing to its inertia, and hence the water pressure increased. The

additional water pressure in known as the hydrodynamic pressure. The

following simplified methods are used to estimate the hydrodynamic

pressure variations.

a. Van Kormans methods:- suggested that the hydrodynamic pressure

has parabolic variation and the pressure force

4H

Fe = 0.555 v H 2 acts at above the base

3

b. Zangers methods:- the intensity of the hydrodynamic pressure at a

depth y below the water surface in the reservoir with the total depth

of water H is given by

Pey = C h H C is dimensionless coefficient and is given by

y y

Cm y y

C=

2 + 2 and C m = 0.7351

H H

2 H H 90

The corresponding total hydrodynamic force and moment is given as

Peh = C h H

Feh = 0.726(Pey * H )

(

M eh = 0.299 Pey * H 2 )

Load combinations

All forces which we discussed in the preceding sections may not act

simultaneously on the dam. A concrete dam should be designed with regard

to the most rigorous adverse groupings or combination of loads which have a

reasonable probability of simultaneous occurrence. Different design

authorities have different load combinations.

There are three nominated load combinations in USA standard which is

sufficient for almost all circumstances. In ascending order of severity we can

have normal, unusual & extreme load combination (NLC, ULC, ELE

respectively) (see the table below). With probability of simultaneous

occurrence of load combination decreases, factor of safety should also

decrease.

Nominated Load combination (after USBR, 1987; Kennard Owens and Reader 1995)

Load Combination

Load Source Qualification a

PRIMARY

Water DFL

NML

Tail water TWL

Minimum

Self weight -------

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Drains inoperative _b

SECONDARY

Silt

Ice Discretionary

Concrete Minimum normal

Temperature Min. @ time of event

EXCEPTIONAL

Seismic CME (control max. EQ)

Studies and investigations may be appropriate with respect to nominated load combinations in relation

to foundation stability and/or any other loading combination which it is considered appropriate to

analyze the dam under review.

a

DFL: Design flood level

NML: Normal maximum level

CME: Control maximum earth quake

_b ULC should also be investigated for the drains inoperative condition

The nominated load combinations as defined in the table are not universally

applicable. An obligation remains with the designer to exercise discretion in

defining load combinations which properly reflect the circumstance of the

dam under consideration.

Stability Requirements of Gravity dam

The gravity dam must be in overall equilibrium (i.e. structurally safe and

stable). It should not move in any direction or rotate about any point. In

addition to the overall stability, the internal stresses induced anywhere in the

dam must be within the safe limits. The foundation should be able to

withstand the imposed loads. The essential conditions for structural

equilibrium and to make the structure stable, the following governing criteria

should be satisfied;

1. The concrete in the dam is homogenous, isotropic, and elastic

2. The dam consists of a number of vertical cantilevers of unit length, each

cantilever acting independent of the adjoining cantilevers

3. The stress in the dam and its foundation are within elastic limits

4. There is a perfect rigid bond between the dam and its foundation and both

behaves as one unit

5. All loads are transferred to the foundation by the cantilever action. No loads

are transferred to the abutments by the beam action

6. The foundation is strong and unyielding. No movement is caused in the

foundation due to the imposed load

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7. Small openings, such as galleries and shafts, do not affect the overall stability

of the dam

8. The vertical stresses on a horizontal plane vary linearly from u/s to d/s faces

9. The horizontal shear stresses on a horizontal plane vary parabolically form the

u/s to d/s

The gravity dam must be designed such that it is safe against all possible mode

of failure, with adequate factor of safety. The dam may fail in one or more of the

following modes:-

a. Rotation and Overturning c. Over stressed and material

b. Translation and Sliding Failure

Over turning

Sliding

X Stres X

s

a) Overturning stability

Factor of safety against over farming, Fo, in terms of moment about the d/s toe

of the dam

M

M

+ ve

Fo = inclusive of moment generated by uplift )

M

ve

ve

b) Sliding stability

Factor of safety against sliding, FS, estimated using one of the three definitions:

1) Sliding factor, FSS;

2) Shear friction factor, FSF or

3) Limit equilibrium factor, FLE.

The resistance to sliding or shearing which can be mobilized across a plane is

expressed through parameters C & tan.

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FSS =

H if it has a horizontal plane

V

c) Stress analysis: gravity method

Gravity method is useful to analyses stress in straight dams which are not

geometrically complex. It is founded on 2-D elastic dam on uniformly rigid

foundation & linear variation of stress from u/s to d/s.

The stresses evaluated in a comprehensive analysis are:

1) Vertical normal stress, z, on horizontal planes

2) Horizontal & vertical shear stress, zy & yz

3) Horizontal normal stress, y ,on vertical planes and

4) Principal stress, 1 & 3 (direction & magnitude).

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bending load

z =

V M * y ,

Ab I

Where:- v- resultant vertical load above the plane considered exclusive of uplift.

M* - summation of moments expressed w.r.t the centroid of the plane

y - distance from the centroid to point of considerations

I - second moment of area of the plane w.r.t centroid.

For 2-D plane section of unit width Parallel to the dam axis, & with thickness T

normal to the axis:

V Vey , v 6e

z = 12 and at y =T/2 and results z = 1

T T3 T T

For reservoir full condition

v 6e

At the u/s face zu 1 and

T T

v 6e

At the d/s face zd = 1+

T T

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Where e is the eccentricity of the resultant load, R, which must intersect the

plane d/s of its centroid for the reservoir full condition and the sign convention

is reversed for reservoir empty condition of loading.

The eccentricity is determined by evaluating the moments, M* , given by

M *

e= Where v - excludes uplift

V

For e > T/6, at u/s face ve stress is developed, i.e. tensile stress. In design,

tensile stress has to be permissible, but difficult to totally eliminate low tensile

stress in gravity dam. Total vertical stresses at either face are obtained by the

addition of external hydrostatic pressure.

2. Horizontal shear stresses:- The vertical stress intensity, max or min determined

v 6e

form z = 1 is not the maximum direct stress produced anywhere in the

T T

dam. The maximum normal stress will be, in fact, be the major principal stresses

that will be generated on the major principal plane. Numerically equal &

complementary horizontal (zy) and vertical (yz) shear stresses are generated at

any point as a result of variation of vertical normal stress over a horizontal

plane.

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u/s and d/s face angle u & d respectively & Pw hydrostatic pressure at u/s end,

when the reservoir is full the maximum vertical stress occurs at the toe of the

dam. The major principal stresses is given by

d = f yd sec 2 d P' tan 2 d if there is no tail water d = f yd sec 2 d

The maximum shear stress at the d/s edge of toe is given by

d = f yd P' tan d if there is no tail water d = f yd tan d

When the reservoir is empty the maximum vertical stress occurs at the heel of

the dam. The major principal stresses is given by

u = f yu sec 2 u PW tan 2 u if there is no tail water u = f yu sec 2 u

The maximum shear stress at the u/s edge of heel is given by

[ ]

u = f yu PW tan u the major principal stress acts on the u/s face and is

equal to Pw . for the reservoir empty conditions, Pw = 0 u = f yu tan u

To avoid overstressing of the material, the principal stresses should not exceed

the allowable compressive stress in the dam and foundation.

3. Principal stresses

1& 3 may be determined from knowledge of z& y and construction of Mohrs

circle diagram to represent stress conditions at a point, or by application of the

equation given below.

z +y

Major Principal Stress 1 = + max

2

+y

Minor principal stress 3 = z max

2

1/ 2

z y

Where max = + 2

2

The u/s and d/s faces are each planes of zero shear, and therefore planes of

principal stress. The boundary values, 1 & 3 are determined by: -

1u= zu (1+ tan2u) - Pw tan 2u

3u = Pw

1d=zd (1+tan 2d)

3d=0

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