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5 Statistics You Should Know

Being Smart Reading Statistics

Martha J Lentz

Funding Support: SON Office for Nursing Research


P30 NR04001
So What are the Stats

Effect size
Plots/Descriptive
Correlations
Tests of Difference
Time ordered
How do I know which one
to use?

What is the question


Types of Questions

Look for action verb


Describe
Compare
Association among
Count the number of groups
What kind of dependent variable
So What are the Stats

Effect size
Plots/Descriptive
Correlations
Tests of Difference
Time ordered
Effect Size

Lets us know was the sample big enough

Mean1 Mean2/ sd

Do try this at home


Find These Effect Sizes d

Sample 12 women

POMS Anger Scale


mean1=2.25 mean2=1.44 sd=2.84
d=0.28
Bodily Feeling Muscle Pain
mean1=17.17 mean2= 15.0 sd 1.46
d=1.49
Rule of Thumb Effect Sizes

Small = .2
Medium = .5
Large = .8
Sample Per Group Need for
80% Power

Effect Size .2 .3 .5 .6 .7 .8 1.0 1.40


Sample 393 175 64 45 33 26 19 10
Statistical Significance is not
Clinical Significance
A non statistically significant effect
may be clinically important
So What are the Stats

Effect size
Plots/Descriptive
Correlations
Tests of Difference
Time ordered
Plots

Plot your data


Look at plots in papers, do they really
look like what author is claiming.
Scatter Plot HT vs. WT
Line Plot eNo
Does the child have a diagnosis of asthma?" baseline night
no yes sleep delay night

30.00

25.00

20.00
Mean eNO

15.00

10.00

5.00

usual UB+4 hrs UB+8 usual UB+4 hrs UB+8


bedtime hours bedtime hours
(UB) (UB)
Comparison
Error Bars eNO Clustered by
Group
labprot
35.00
baseline noc
sleep delay noc

30.00
95% CI Average eNO_2

25.00

20.00

15.00

10.00

5.00

no yes
Does the child have a diagnosis of asthma?"
Descriptive

Mean
Median
SD
Look at sd Compared to
Mean
Sample 12 women

POMS Anger Scale


mean1=2.25 mean2=1.44 sd=2.84
Bodily Feeling Muscle Pain
mean1=17.17 mean2= 15.0 sd 1.46
So What are the Stats

Effect size
Plots/Descriptive
Correlations
Tests of Difference
Time ordered
Correlation

Bivariate- between two variables


Regression- several variables to one
outcome variable
Need variability
Scatter Plot HT vs. WT
r=.72 r =.52
2
Rule of Thumb

Little r < 0.4 is not really meaningful


Square r and look at % variance
explained
<16% not really meaningful
Regression look at change R2 apply
above rule
So What are the Stats

Effect size
Plots/Descriptive
Correlations
Tests of Difference
Time ordered
Tests of Difference

How many independent groups


Parametric test- estimate parameter
e.g. a mean
T-test two groups
ANOVA multiple groups
Non-Parametric
Mann-Whitney U two groups
Kruskal-Wallis multiple groups
Parametric or Non-Parametric

Use Parametric when


Have appropriate distribution required
to estimate a parameter such as
mean
Use Non-Parametric when
Have a funky distribution
Need to do calculation by hand
Good Distribution
Use Parametric
Total score: Attitude Toward Women Scale

80

60
Frequency

40

20

Mean =120.63
Std. Dev. =17.189
N =652
0
50.00 75.00 100.00 125.00 150.00
Total score: Attitude Toward Women Scale
Not So Good Use
Non-Parametric
Histogram

4
Frequency

Mean =115.83
Std. Dev. =8.211
N =12
0
100.00 110.00 120.00 130.00 140.00
total bodily feel score noc 5
Another Reason to Plot Your
Data
So What are the Stats

Effect size
Plots/Descriptive
Correlations
Tests of Difference
Time ordered
Time Ordered Data

It is correlated
It violates all assumption of
independence of most stats
It is very hard to get dont waste it
Time Ordered Data
Types of Tests
Paired T-Test 2 points in time
Repeated Measure ANOVA multiple
points in time
More then 4 need special time series
tests
Time Ordered Data Abuse

It is flat out wrong to treat each time


point as a separate subject and use
in a conventional statistical test

Look at sample N if few in number and


df or n listed for test is a lot it is wrong
Have Fun Reading Statistics