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Meghann Bailey 22231934 Southern Cross University

A. Outline classroom instructional practices that would limit access


to the curriculum for a student with disability or additional needs.
In the classroom a teacher may intentionally or unintentionally use classroom
instructional practices that limit students with a disability or additional needs
access to the curriculum.

Teachers who do not modify or adapt the curriculum or environment to suit


the needs of the student with a disability are not providing appropriate levels of
adjustment (Conway, 2014; Australian Government Department of Education and
Training (DET). n.d.). The levels of adjustment occur within the environment of
the classroom and school as well as the teaching and learning experiences within
the classroom (Conway, 2014).

Limiting practices that impact on access to the learning environment can


create a barrier for learning. An example of this may include seating a student at
the back of the class or placing obstacles that will impact on the mobility of a
student that requires the use of a wheelchair (Conway, 2014). Some other
examples that limit access to the curriculum through lack of adjustment to the
environment include:

o No applying to correctly level of adjustment (Conway, 2014)


o Failure to modify equipment, provide equipment or change the
procedures used in the classroom (Conway, 2014)
o Failing to work in professionals in the development of an individual
education plan
o Not assessing new environments that the student may encounter
such as going on excursions (Conway, 2014). A teacher may
assume that a student with additional needs will require the same
level of adjustment across all contexts (Conway, 2014).

Instruction strategies are the primary mode to which information is


transmitted to students in the classroom. Because of this primary role in
teaching and learning, a teacher who fails to use appropriate strategies will
ultimately limit the access to the curriculum for students with additional needs
(Conway, 2014). This can include both written and verbal forms of
communication and the level to which this instruction is aimed (Conway, 2014).

When using written information it is important to consider the material


instructional level (Conway, 2014).A teacher who fails to account for the
readability of a document or other information is limiting the access to the
curriculum (Conway, 2014). An example of this includes not adapting the written
materials font size to help the student with a visual impairment access the text
(Conway, 2014). Some other examples of where failure to adapt at the material
instructional level include:

o the same handout or worksheet to all students and expects that


each student can read the text
o home readers the same for all students
o Not providing students with a visual impairment text in Braille
(SCU, 2015b, Module 2 Week 4, p. 7)
Meghann Bailey 22231934 Southern Cross University

When a teacher presents to the class, the level to which they present the
information is known as the teacher instructional level (Conway, 2014).The
teacher is the expert and the one with complete knowledge of the subject, if a
teacher can be observed using highly technical language or information that is
not appropriate for the students level of understanding than this will limit access
to the curriculum (Conway, 2014). For example when a teacher talks about a
science subject and uses technical vocabulary but fails to define the key
concepts or adapt the level of instruction so that all students can understand,
they are limiting some students access to the curriculum. Not all students within
in the classroom will have the same level of comprehension of spoken or written
text (Conway, 2014). A teacher must have an understanding of their students in
order to present information in an effective way (Conway, 2014). Some examples
of this limiting teacher instruction include:

a teacher uses only direct instruction


Presents information only in written form without the use
of visual displays or other strategies (Conway, 2014; SCU,
2015b, Module 2 Week 4, p. 8).

Inadequate instructional practices mean that students with a disability or


additional needs may have inappropriate expectations placed on them as well as
participate in learning experiences that use only selected parts of the curriculum
(Conway, 2014). Also when participating a lesson a teacher may expect all
students to be working towards the same objective for that lesson (Conway,
2014). This is inappropriate when students have varying ability levels (Conway,
2014). These lower expectations mean that students with additional needs do
not have to participate in learning experiences at the same level as other
students in the class (Conway, 2014). These experiences will leave students with
additional needs feeling isolated from the rest of the class, having low self-
esteem and motivation (Watson, 2007. as cited in Conway, 2014; Rosenshine,
1985. as cited in King-Sears & Cummings, 1996). A teachers expectations of who
can succeed have an impact on the types of learning strategies that are selected
(Rosenshine, 1985. as cited in King-Sears & Cummings, 1996). When students
participate and succeed in a lesson they have increased self-esteem and
motivation (Rosenshine, 1985. as cited in King-Sears & Cummings, 1996).
Meghann Bailey 22231934 Southern Cross University

B. In one curriculum or KLA area detail an example of medication or


adjustments to curriculum, teaching and learning strategies for a
student with high support needs.

Samantha is a year 5 student diagnosed with Down Syndrome and speech


difficulties. Her literacy and numeracy skills are that of a year 1 student.
Curriculum work is modified to ensure her inclusion in whole class activities.
Samantha shows difficulty with handwriting and fine motor activities.

Communication in the classroom is a barrier for Samantha. She uses very


limited expressive language, with sentences often only 3 or 4 word sentences.
Samantha uses communication cards with photos and words to communicate her
needs .In the classroom the use of visual resources are used by the teacher to
establish routine and be explicit with tasks and expectations.

She enjoys working with groups within the class but can show frustration
when she cannot communicate her ideas to her peers. Her frustration can lead to
disruptive behaviour in the classroom which can disturb other students. The
development of social skills are an important part of every learning experience.

Disability Standards for Education (Australian Government, 2005) ensures


that reasonable adjustments are made to ensure that students have access to
the curriculum. The levels of adjustment document (Australian Government
Department of Education and Training (DET). n.d.) details what adjustments must
be made according to the level of disability experienced by the students and how
these disabilities create barriers to learning. To ensure that Samantha has access
to the curriculum adjustments were made to the content, presentation of
information, materials used and alternative forms of communication (BOSTES,
2014a; SCU, 2015a, Module 2 Week 5, p. 1).

Place value is explored in this lesson using the NSW Mathematics syllabus
(The Board of Studies, Teaching and Education Standards NSW [BOSTES], 2012a).
The selection of the appropriate outcomes has been based in the learning needs
of the students in the class (BOSTES, 2014d). Samantha has a numeracy skill
level at year 1 and is working towards stage 1. Therefore stage 1 outcomes were
used for this lesson. For substantive adjustment, students may require
curriculum content that is at different year levels from their peers (Australian
Government Department of Education and Training (DET). n.d.).
Meghann Bailey 22231934 Southern Cross University

Date: 20/3/2016
Class: 5B Lesson Duration: 9:00-10:00
Topic: Mathematics: Whole number
Syllabus outcomes addressed:
MA3-4NA > orders, reads and represents integers of any size and describes properties of whole
numbers

Modification:
MA1-4NA > Applies place value, informally, to count, order, read and represent two- and three-
digit numbers

(BOSTES, 2012a)
Links to previous lessons:
S1: Grouping numbers in tens, partitioning 2 digit numbers (icy pole sticks)
S3: Place value, partitioning
Assessment of/for learning: Modification:
WALT:
We are learning to state the place value of WALT:
digits in a number We are learning to state the place value of digits in
We are leaning to partition digits in a a number
number according to place value We are leaning to partition digits in a number
We are learning to use expanded notation according to place value
to record numbers
WILF:
WILF: Correctly identifying the place value of
Correctly identifying the place digits in a number
value of digits in a number Partitioning numbers according to place
Partitioning numbers according to value
place value
Correctly using expanded (BOSTES, 2012b)
notation

Are there student with additional needs to be catered for? Yes. Samantha: learning
difficulties (stage 1), speech (expressive) difficulties
Equipment/resources: o Icy pole sticks
o WILF/WALT cards o Rubber bands
o Individual WILF/WALT cards o Prepared two-four digit number
o Communication cards cards (see examples Appendix 2)
o Show me boards (individual o Prepared 1000/100/10/1 cards (see
white boards) examples Appendix 3)
o White board markers o Place value table
o 2x dice o Unifix blocks
o Interactive white board o 321 slip
o Prepared IWB slides (see o Modified 321 slip
Meghann Bailey 22231934 Southern Cross University

examples Appendix 1) o Reflection box


o IWB pens o Pencils
Links to next lesson:
S1: Partitioning of two-digit numbers in non-standard forms
S3: Partitioning numbers of any size in non-standard forms to aid mental computation skills
(BOSTES, 2012a)
Time Lesson plan for all Teacher activity Learning activity
students for focus student
9:00-9:05 . Students on floor at front of . Direct student to the floor .Samantha sitting at
classroom . Display day planner: front of group
outline lessons/activities for .Provide Samantha
the day- highlight any with individual
changes WILF/WALT cards
.Outline behavioural (modified
expectations for the lesson objectives)
. Outline lesson objective (BOSTES, 2012b)
. Read whole class . Ensure Samantha
WILF/WALT display on has communication
Orientatio WILF/WALT cards on board cards- Photos are a
n Dice Bingo . Use clear and explicit collection of images
9:05-9:15 . Students write six numbers language that represent
on show me board (grid 2x3) (Babkie, 2006. as cited in regular classroom
using digits 1-6 Conway, 2014b; SCU, 2015c activities (toilet,
.Students mark off the Module 2 Week 6, p. 4) maths, English,
numbers on grid as dice rolled sport) feelings (sick,
continue until a student calls . Explain activity happy, confused),
bingo . roll dice common
Note: one die for tens, one expressions (thank
for ones you, please, yes) as
. be explicit about which die well as ones that
Guided is for tens/ones help Samantha ask
discovery for help (I need
9:15- 9:30 help).
. Information displayed on AAC are systems
interactive white board that help to support
(Conway, 2014) students with
additional needs to
Think/pair/share what is place become effective
value and how do we represent Direct instruction communicators
it . Review base 10 system (Sutherland, 2014).
. Bundles of icy pole sticks . Position of digits determine
passed around class for value . Provide Samantha
students to touch (Jorgensen & .facilitate think/pair/share with assistance to
Dole, 2011) (Jorgensen & Dole, 2011) write numbers on
bingo grid
. Students use IWB and icy . Demonstrate (IWB slides)
pole sticks for other examples >35 3 tens 5 ones
> place circles in table BOSTES (2014b)
>State place value of each states that for
partition students with
Meghann Bailey 22231934 Southern Cross University

>Bundle icy block sticks additional need,


>write in expanded notation whole class
30+5 (explain- expanded instruction can be
notation) used when a teacher
> more examples 45, 8 is introducing new
>450- 4 hundreds, 5 tens , concepts and when
zero ones modelling tasks.
>State place value of each This organisation
partition strategy was used to
>use 100/10/1 labelled ensure that all
squares on IWB and position students were
under place value engaged and that
> write in expanded student prior
notation learning was
> more examples 356, 1567 activated (BOSTES,
2014b).

. Pair Samantha and


Yasmin (peer tutor
from year 6)
.Samantha is given a
social cue checklist
to monitor her social
behaviours e.g. turn
taking, active
listening, speaking
clearly (Down
Syndrome WA,
2009)

Explicit terminology,
modelling, draw
attention to
important concepts
(BOSTES, 2013b).
These strategies and
procedures ensure
that students with
additional needs are
supported in the
development of
mathematical
knowledge (BOSTES,
2013b)
Meghann Bailey 22231934 Southern Cross University

References

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Foreman & M. Arthur-Kelly (Eds.), Inclusion in action (4th ed.) (pp. 191-233).
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Australian Government. (2005). Disability Standards for Education. Attorney-


Generals Department, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.

Board of Studies, Teaching & Educational Standards. (2012a). NSW Mathematics


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Meghann Bailey 22231934 Southern Cross University

Retrieved from
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students-special- needs/implementation/adjustments

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