You are on page 1of 29
Fall 16 First Nations Legends Katarina Baziw This document is a three-week text set unit outline
Fall 16 First Nations Legends Katarina Baziw This document is a three-week text set unit outline
Fall 16
First Nations Legends
Katarina Baziw
This document is a three-week text set unit outline for a Grade 5
class. This text set focuses on first nations literature and legends
in a Canadian context. Subject themes include creation, peace,
sacrifice, empathy and discovery.
Fall 16 First Nations Legends Katarina Baziw This document is a three-week text set unit outline

Baziw 2

First Nations Legends

Table of Contents

TITLE PAGE

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2

ENDURING UNDERSTANDING STATEMENT

3-4

THEMATIC STATEMENT

5

PURPOSE

6

INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES

7-8

MIND MAP

9-10

THREE WEEK UNIT OUTLINE

11-15

LITERACY LESSON PLAN

16

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

17-29

APPENDIX

29

Baziw 3

First Nations Legends

Enduring Understanding Statement

The following text set is a guide to first nations legends and stories that’s purpose is

twofold; to support the grade five social studies curriculum as an introduction to the culture and

ways of life of the first nations people prior to European Contact, and as an introduction to

different ways of storytelling and the importance of listening to understand. The important big

idea this text set will capture is the importance of understanding culture through legend, and to

answer the question of why oral culture holds such impact. How are these legends similar and

different to legends we have heard before? How do these legends shape the first nations culture?

The books in this text set were carefully chosen to support different types of legends

within the culture and how each and every story has a purpose and describes a facet of life

important to the many tribes within first nations culture. Three guiding questions that will be

answered throughout the unit are:

  • 1. Why is oral culture and legend so important in conveying important messages in first nations culture? How does this affect the way we tell the history of Canada prior to European contact?

  • 2. What are some themes within legends that are used to describe some important facets of first nations life? Why are legends and stories used to convey religious and meaningful messages?

  • 3. What are some of the values within creation legends of the first nations people? Why are these values important in the way we view first nations religion and people? How do your values affect the way you view someone else’s values?

Books included in this Legend Text Set:

Baziw 4

First Nations Legends

Hiawatha and the Peacemaker – Historical Legend- Key Note Text

The Rough-Faced Girl – Adaptation of the Cinderella Story

Rainbow Crow – Creation Legend

Bones in the Basket: Native Stories of Origin of People – Creation Legends (2)

The Nightwalker – Suspenseful Rhythmic Narrative

Sky Sisters – Family and Sky Spirits

Hidden Buffalo – Community

The Song Within my Heart – Music and Powwow

Knots on a Counting Rope – Family and Ceremonies

Baziw 5

First Nations Legends

Thematic Statement

This unit was inspired by several events that happened during the last summer of

Edgewood Camp and Conference Centre. I found myself creating a worship program, a

leadership in training program and a teen camp program. After consultation with one of the staff

members, we decided to run the KAIROS Blanket Exercise with the teen campers and leaders in

training. After the exercise I was given many comments by the campers that they had wished

they had learned much of the culture, the land deprivation and the history in school. Many of

what was taught was not in schools, and because of the positive feedback and the further interest

I gained on the subject, I was inspired to research into legends and stories of the first nations.

The culture is so rich with oral culture; community building and sacred traditions that I believe

we all have something to learn from these stories. As controversial as this subject may seem, I

wish for students to be exposed not only to the literature, but the culture and rich diverse history.

Students will have a range of knowledge from those who may have extensive knowledge, to

those with little knowledge from the grade three social studies curriculum. Using this as a basis

for their knowledge, this text set will be used to strengthen that and extend their knowledge of

important messages within legends, the importance of oral culture, and the history prior to

European contact.

This unit will support the grade five social studies unit as they learn about first nations

after European contact, by showing the students what Canadian land and peoples had to offer

prior to European contact. This text set will foster oral communication skills such as listening to

understand through read aloud, speaking to communicate skills through a readers theatre, and

reflecting on oral communication skills and strategies through reflective journal entries. Students

will also make connections for text-to-text by the end of the three-week unit.

Purpose

Baziw 6

First Nations Legends

  • 1. To develop a text-set that incorporates first nations literature into the classroom, and allows for a study on the culture and importance of this culture in a Canadian context

  • 2. To develop a curriculum that teaches literacy, listening and reading strategies from the Ontario curriculum with a specific focus on the grade five curriculum

  • 3. To develop an enduring understanding for first nations culture, history and strengths in a Canadian context. To develop an appreciation for the unique culture through careful observation of multiple facets of first nations groups, and how each unique group plays an important role in the unity of all six tribes, and the development of the first nations community within Canada

  • 4. To understand the importance of oral culture and oral storytelling, and how each story has importance in conveying a specific message

Baziw 7

First Nations Legends

Intended Learning Outcomes

This text set will have learning outcomes that focus on three important tasks for students;

to know, to value and to create. As an extension of the enduring understanding statement, the

three guiding question, the thematic statement and the purpose these learning outcomes listed in

the chart on the next page, are designed for students in a grade five class. The age

appropriateness and the controversy of the topic were taken into consideration while making

these outcomes.

Grade Range: Grades 3-5, with a focus on Grade 5

Ages: 8-11

Three-Week Unit

Curriculum Standards Met:

Literacy

Specific Expectations: 1.1 Purpose, 1.2 Active Listening Strategies, 1.4 Demonstrating

Understanding, 1.5 Making Inferences/Interpreting Texts, 1.6 Extending Understanding, 1.7

Analysing Texts, 1.8 Point of View

Reading for Meaning: 1.1 Variety of Texts, 1.2 Purpose, 1.6 Extending Understand

Oral Communication: 1.2- Active Listening Strategies, 1.4 Demonstrating Understanding, 1.5

Making Inferences/Interpreting Texts, 1.7 Analysing Texts (Oral Texts), 1.8 Point of View (Oral

Texts), 1.8 Presentation Strategies

Art

Ontario Art Curriculum Connection:

D2.1, D2.3, D3.2

Baziw 8

First Nations Legends

To Know

To Do

To Value

To Create

K1: Students will understand the difference between reading a legend with pictures, speaking a text, and listening to a legend through the art analysis of Allen Sapp, the read aloud of several texts and their literature circle

D1: Students will demonstrate an ability to convey their thoughts and reflections in written and oral formats in their literature circles and final portfolio reflection entries

V1: Students will compare and contrast creation legends and adaptive stories to assess what certain cultures value as the foundation for their community

C1: Will engage in a literature circle and create and present their role to their small group based on their text -Comprehension skills, responsibility and motivation, oral proficiency and reinforces writing skills/

K2: Students will understand that the first nations notions of community are much more intertwined then we are led to believe, through

D2: Students will be able to make text-to- text connections to the materials they are reading, and previous materials they have read.

V2: Students will begin to think about what they value in their lives and their community through looking at creation legends

C2: Students will comment and assess their own, and their peers written and oral work with at least one positive and one constructive comment.

K3: Students will begin to understand the first nations

D3: Students will investigate the incorporation of

V3: Students will value their peers opinions and

C3: Students will present through readers theatre a portion of the book

cultures through

images in the legends

reflections through

Hiawatha and the

careful investigation of their value systems and their communities

and how they impact the way we view story.

working cooperatively in group settings and a literature circle

Peacemaker to their younger reading buddies

K4: Students will understand and critically analyze the adaptations of fairytales into first nations situations and how it creates new meaning

D4: Students will visually show their interpretations of these legends through creating new endings to legends and their final portfolio title page.

V4: Students will begin to value the legends themselves as stories and historical artifacts of the first nations people that deserve recognition. They will begin to

C4: Students will write a letter to someone who knows little about first nations legends citing what they have learned and what they want them to know

K5: Students will understand the peace- filled sophisticated community that was created and encountered by Europeans at European contact

D5: Students will demonstrate their knowledge through careful discussion with their peers and whole class settings

respect them in and view them as valuable pieces of literature that conveys many different messages.

C5: Students will create anchor charts to convey their reflections in an easy to present format

Baziw 9

First Nations Legends

Mind Map Explanation

The mind map shown below shows the overview of what the text set will achieve through

activities and teaching strategies. The enduring understanding is reflected in the text set mind

map as this text set will discuss the importance of oral literature, the different facets of first

nations culture that this text set wishes to touch on, and how picture books change the game

when it comes to reading these stories and legends. This is reflected in the center of the text set

where it states that students will interact with different first nations legends and cultures, and

uses this as the guideline for what will be done throughout the three-week unit.

This text set uses a variety of different teaching strategies that are age appropriate for

the students who will be partaking in it. This includes several read aloud and storytelling’s,

indirect instruction and direct instruction. The inclusion of a vocabulary wall will also provide

students with an opportunity to learn and reflect on these words throughout the story and how

each one can play a significant role in how the story is shaped.

Written skills, reading skills and oral communication skills are fostered and extended

through the readers theatre read aloud, the reflective journal entries, the letter writing workshop

and the compare and contrast text to text connection session.

Baziw 10 First Nations Legends
Baziw 10
First Nations Legends

Baziw 11

First Nations Legends

Three-Week Unit Timeline: Week One

Weekday

Description of Mini-Lesson

Student Demonstration of Knowledge and Understanding

Guiding Question #1: What are some of the values within creation legends of the first nations people? Why are these values important in the way we view first nations religion and people? How do your values affect the way you view someone else’s values?

Weekly Goals: Students will rediscover what they know from previous knowledge of first nations cultures, and dive into this text set through the readings of three creation texts. They will understand the value and importance of creation myths to the overall enduring understandings that legends have values, and each value effects our overall worldview.

Monday

KWLS Chart:

Create a title page for their portfolio t

What do they already know? Discuss as a class and make a chart-

introduce the topic they will be studying based on their prior knowledge

Read Aloud: The Night Walker Discussion

Create their own KWLS chart by separating a piece of paper into three, and having the S on the back blank.

What do they want to learn? What can they use from their read aloud from the Nightwalker

Must complete the K with at least one of their own ideas, and the W section by the end of the class period

Portfolio Introduced: They will create a portfolio of their work

Tuesday

Creation Legends Introduction:

Worksheet page one: ask the students to

Read in a circle, have the students look at

“Explain that Aboriginal Elders say that Aboriginal people have been here since the beginning of time and that the Aboriginal peoples of Ontario each have their own distinct creation story.–Creation Story- Where we all come

How do you believe the world was

reflect on their own beliefs and how the world came to be. Ask the students to hand in their page one of their worksheets

the crow feather

from? (Appendix 1)

created?

Rainbow Crow Read Aloud- Have a feather to represent that of a crow

Wednesday

Think-Pair-Share: Have students independently read the Mohawk and the Cree legends on creation and

Read one of the two creation stories. Think about some major themes and ideas, write them down

summarize the main points and what they value They will then share with a partner their ideas

Discuss with a partner the legend you read. Listen to them and the legend they read. Full Class participation discussion. What

Baziw 12

First Nations Legends

 

Full Class will discuss what they believe each story values (Inquiry-based discussion after this)

do these legends value? What did you gain from these legends? What about you? What do you value in your communities that you live by?

Finish Worksheet from day prior, what do they value? Based on the important messages from the three creation stories

Do you have any questions about creation legends?

discussed thus far. How do their values shape the way they view these values?

Finish Worksheet

Text Used: Bones in the Basket: Native Stories of Origin of People (Cree Creation Legend and Mohawk Creation Legend)

Thursday

Portfolio Art Reflection, Ontario Art Curriculum Connection:

Choose two images and write a summary on what the image is showing, what they

Which elements and principles of design

D2.1, D2.3, D3.2

believe the artist is attempting to portray,

The Songs Within My Heart Read Aloud

and comment.

Show other paintings by Allen Sapp Listen to the music associated with the book as you show the images

are being used to strengthen the painting for the story of the Song within my Heart?

List principles of design previously discussed in class for students to use

Friday

Written Work Day:

Reflection Entry #1

-Introduce reflection entries and what is expected in them -Finish any uncompleted work

Write if they learned anything from this week that they wish to include in their brochure

Finish title page if incomplete

Baziw 13

First Nations Legends

Three-Week Unit Timeline: Week Two

Weekday

Description of Mini-Lesson

Student Demonstration of Knowledge and Understanding

Guiding Question #2: What are some themes within legends that are used to describe some important facets of first nations life. Why are legends and stories used to convey religious and meaningful messages?

Weekly Goals: Students will be begin to make text-to-text connections through comparing and contrasting texts, as well as participate in the unique opportunity that the literature circle process offers. They will understand there are different ways to view and interpret texts, and begin to independently show responsibility and motivation through working in peer collaborative settings.

Monday

Cinderella Comparison:

Students will create an anchor chart in

-Characters

The Rough-Faced Girl *Additional text: Disney’s Cinderella by Brittany Rubiano

groups of four that will compare and contrast through Venn diagrams. Using signal words they will compare and

Will read the story of Cinderella, the

Split the class into groups of four and

contrast the following:

Disney version, on their own for

-Settings

D.E.A.R time (Drop everything and

-Events

read) for the first ten minutes of the lesson. Will also read aloud as a class the story of The Rough Faced Girl.

collect the anchor charts to hang up in the classroom, and use as an assessment for learning piece.

Tuesday

Presentation of Compare and Contrast

Each group will finish their anchor charts

Anchor Charts: Presentations will be marked for correct connections between the two, at least three comparisons and contrasts, the content of their reflective statement as an assessment of their understanding, and finally the collaborative group effort to convey their thoughts to the class.

They will write a reflective statement based on their groups findings in the anchor chart. Students will present their anchor charts to the class with their reflective group statements on whether they enjoyed

Peer Assessment of the Presentation will be written and graded as an assessment of learning piece

Students will write a peer reflection with one comment of what they did great, and one constructive comments

Wednesday

Literature Circle Prep Period:

Seven roles assigned to the students:

Discuss the roles in great detail and what they do to help run the overall literature circle.

-Discussion Director -Summarizer -Connector

Baziw 14

First Nations Legends

 

Texts Used:

-Word Detective

Knots on a Counting Rope Hidden Buffalo Sky Sisters Groups assigned (7 per group) and roles given to students

-Literary Luminary -Researcher -Illustrator Students who have not completed their role in class will have this work to do for homework.

Thursday

Literature Circle

Students will come prepared with their roles complete

Each person will then discuss their role, and the work they did by following the discussion director

Friday

Reflection Entry #2:

Students will write a reflection on the

-Reflection of the Literature Circle Experience -What have you learned thus far about first nations legends? What are two things you learned this week you found extremely interesting

literature circle experience - What was their role in the literature circle? Did they enjoy their role? Would they have picked another role?

Baziw 15

First Nations Legends

Three-Week Unit Timeline: Week Three

Weekday

Description of Mini-Lesson

Student Demonstration of Knowledge and Understanding

Guiding Question #3: Why is oral culture and legend so important in conveying important messages in first nations culture? How does this affect the way we tell the history of Canada prior to European contact?

Weekly Goals: Students will reflect on their learning from this unit through role-playing the keynote text, and conveying their understandings in written form. They will discuss the importance of themes such as community and peace within the keynote text with their peers, and finally summarize what they have learned and what they still wish to learn through a letter for assessment piece.

Monday

Hiawatha and the Peacemaker Literacy Lesson

Explained in the detailed lesson plan

Tuesday

Hiawatha and the Peacemaker Literacy Lesson CONT’d Introduce Readers Theatre Presentation

Students will be put into groups and given a portion of the text to memorize and role- play. They will be required to have the section partially memorized

Props are recommended

Wednesday

Readers Theatre Practice Period

Work together with their groups to stage their portion of the story for the reading buddies

NO COSTUMES.

Thursday

Readers Theatre Presentations to

 

Reading Buddies Grade Five Drama Curriculum Connection- Fundamental Concepts:

-Developing and analyzing a character in terms of his and her relationships with other characters -Establish a clear setting using objects and props -Using drama conventions to reveal/communicate key emotions and motivations to the audience and/or to draw audience attention to specific aspects of the drama

At the beginning of the class period we will run through the staged stories

Present to the class where all of their reading buddies are present. Their reading buddies will read the story either prior to this readers theatre or after, at the discretion of the other teacher

Friday

Culminating Activities:

Students will finish any outstanding work

-Finish KWL: What have they learned? -S: What do they still want to learn -Letter Writing: using the L from the KWL chart to assist them in their writing

Final portfolios due on the Monday after this three week unit plan

Baziw 16

First Nations Legends

Literacy Lesson Plan

Date: Week Three: Monday and Tuesday

Time: 2× 45 minute periods

Title of Book: Hiawatha and the Peacemaker

Curriculum Area or Unit of Study: Literacy

Intended Learning Outcomes: Students will understand that variety of themes that this text discusses, primarily that of

war, peace, sacrifice, forgiveness and reconciliation. Students will be given a chance to reflect their own understandings

of the text using prior knowledge and will develop a visual or written representation of their learning. Students will work

on learning skills such as self-regulation and time management for completing their assignment, responsibility of their

work through the option of presenting their idea, and the ability to work independently.

 

Intended Learning Outcomes Comprehension Sub-processes:

 
  • q Microprocesses (developing fluency) _____________________________________________________________

  • q Integrative Processes (relationships among words and sentences) _________________________________________

  • q Macroprocesses (organizing and summarizing using structural patterns) ___________________________________

  • q Elaborative Processes (text to self, text to world, text to text connections)

_________________________

  • q Metacognitive Processes (monitoring comprehension and developing strategies) _____________________________

Comprehension Strategies:

 
  • Tapping Prior Knowledge

  • Making Connections

  • Playing with Language

 
  • Predicting

  • Applying Fix-Up Strategies

  • Summarizing

  • Organizing Ideas

  • Revising Meaning

  • Evaluating

  • Figuring out unknown words

  • Monitoring

 
  • Visualizing

Day One:

Hook: Real Life Connections:

Have you had a nasty fight with a friend? A family member? Was there reconciliation?

Do you know of any countries right now who are at war? Is there peace in sight? Are

communities coming together?

Prereading

q

q

Set purpose

Activate Prior

Knowledge

   

q

Vocabulary

 

q

Make Predictions

Introduction:

Introduce this story as a historical piece; how these characters through oral tradition were

Reading

said to have actually existed in the fourteenth century.

 

q

Read Aloud

 

q

Shared (whole

Activity 1:

class or partner)

Read aloud- Read the story until you reach the portion where all representatives of the tribes

q

Guided

go to face the evil dictator.

 

q

Independent

 

q

Model Strategies

Activity 2: What is your ending?

 

q

Continue

Students will depict their own way the book will end. Did it end in peace? Did it end with

predictions

more war? Was the evil dictator defeated? It is up to them . They will have the following two

options available to them. They can decide one of the following two options:

Responding

q

Grand

Writing: Write a newspaper article describing the end the story, citing what happens

Conversations

with the evil dictator, what happens with each of the tribes and what happens to

q

Reflections (oral,

Hiawatha. Is the conflict resolved? What happens with the Peace maker?

illustrated,

Illustration: Draw an illustration of your ending and including what happens with

written)

each of the tribes

Baziw 17

First Nations Legends

Included in this assignm ent, they will write a reflection statement explaining why they made

Exploring

the choices they did and reflect on if their own experiences or examples from class

discussion changed the way they created their end piece.

q

Retelling (oral,

illustrated,

Day Two:

Activity 1: Finish your work and those who wish to present their ideas will have a chance to

share their ending to the class

q

written)

Graphic

organizers

q

Rereading

q

Make

Activity 2: Complete picture book of Hiawatha and the Peacemaker

Read Aloud

q

connections

Examine author’s

craft

Conclusion:

Discussion- How does this ending change the way we view the story? Does this text have

real world connections? What are some events in recent history that we can use these

lessons?

q

Minilessons on

reading

procedures,

concepts,

Reflect- knowing the information that you know now from the end of the story, does your

story ender fit? Did you like this ending? Why or Why not? Is there a lesson we should take

from this story? What do you think it is, and can it be applied to current events.

strategies and

skills

Applying

 

q

Construct

Assessment:

projects

Students will be assessed for learning through careful observation during in class discussions

q

Involve the arts

for participation, and the ability to stay on task. A checklist for their story ending assignment

q

Explore related

will be created.

texts

Students will be have assessments as learning through the creation of their story, and through

 

class discussions with their peers.

They will be assessed for learning based on their reflection statement made as supplementary

material to their story ender, and their reflection they made after the have read the end of the

story.

Modifications:

Students who need more time with an assignment to either visually represent their story

ender, or write their story ender, will be given time to do so.

If there are some students who have difficulty with their writing proficiency, they still be

required to write or draw their story ender, but will be asked to orally represent their thoughts

and reflections to the teacher, one on one. That will be what is assessed.

Baziw 18

First Nations Legends

Annotated Bibliography Table of Contents

THE NIGHTWALKER

19

THE ROUGH-FACED GIRL

20

SKY SISTERS

21

THE SONG WITHIN MY HEART

22

RAINBOW CROW

23

KNOTS ON A COUNTING ROPE

24

HIDDEN BUFFALO

25

BONES IN THE BASKET: MOHAWK CREATION STORY

26-27

BONES IN THE BASKET: CREE CREATION STORY

27

HIAWATHA AND THE PEACE MAKER

28-29

Baziw 19

First Nations Legends

APA Information

Thompson, Richard. (2002). The Nightwalker. Markham: ON.

Source

Fitzhenry & Whiteside. Print. Private Collection of Dr. Belcher

Content

The book starts with a boy on an adventure, travelling and collecting treasure. He stayed out too late and was far from his home. As he travelled back he heard a noise. He started to imagine what it may be, and grew fearful as he guessed and guessed and concluded it could be a nightwalker, something to be feared. The boy fell, and surely thought he was in trouble, and the nightwalker would attack, but nothing happened. He listened hard and fell asleep. When he woke up, he travelled home marveling at the world around him. When he made it home, he told his mother about his journey, and showed her his treasures that made a clicking sound, and a rustling sound. His mother than said that sometimes the monster you hear behind you is the rustle of things you collected during the day. Or, the boy claims, it could be the Nightwalker

Key Literary Features

This book features a first person account of a boy walking through the woods with his imagination guiding him. Description of the boys journey is loaded with dialogue and images to support them. The author shows the character development of the boy throughout the story by comparing the noises to animals and then rationalizing his fear through that. The Onomatopoeia in this story is the rustling of objects in the boys pocket that scares him into thinking there is an animal following him.

Key Text Features

Reading Level- Grade Four 32 pages Times New Roman Hard Cover Book Illustrations by Martin Springet Features illustrations that reflect the imagination of the boy as he is walking in the woods.

Key Vocabulary

Nightwalker

Teaching Suggestions

Is there predicting? Questioning? Descriptive Writing? Introduces?

This book largely is about the boy experiencing the story, and then recalling the story to

This book largely is about the boy experiencing the story, and then recalling the story to another. Encouraging students to tell stories and their story no matter what it may be is extremely important.

Baziw 20

First Nations Legends

APA Information

Martin, Rafe. (1992). The Rough-Faced Girl. New York: NY. G.P. Putnam's Son. Print.

Source

Peter Turkstra Library

Content

This story is about a girl who defies all adds against her. In the legend, all women in the village wish to marry the invisible man, but in order to do so they must see him. Her older sisters, tending the fire and the fire changing her, torture the girl named the Rough Faced Girl. Her older sisters however, attempt to marry the Invisible Man for honours, putting on the finest clothes, are rejected by the Invisible being.

The rough-faced girl however, had courage and was kind. She took her humble clothes and worn our shoes to his sister to be judged. Answered correctly, and married the Invisible being. They saw what was in her heart, and then through magic her inner kindness was exemplified outwardly by the healing of her wounds and charred hair.

Key Literary Features

Spoken from a third person perspective, the narrator tells the story of Cinderella from an Algonquin perspective. Huge compare and contrast element to the original fairytale of Cinderella, but still the same message of showing kindness, bravery and courage. This spin of the fairytale shows characteristics of being humble and uses the Invisible Being’s bow and arrow as a metaphor.

Key Text Features

Reading Level: Grades 3-5 32 Pages Times New Roman Hard cover book Illustrations by David Shannon Summary on inside cover

Key Vocabulary

Wigwams, buckskin dress, legend, Algonquin

Teaching Suggestions

Teacher can compare and contrast to the original legend, show the

importance of fire in first nations culture, and allows the students to think critically about the

importance of fire in first nations culture, and allows the students to think critically about the same story in multiple texts, a key curriculum component and life skill.

Baziw 21

First Nations Legends

APA Information

Bourdeau Waboose, Jan. (2002). Sky Sisters. Toronto: ON. Kids Can Press. Print.

Source

Peter Turkstra Library

Content

This story is about two sisters who adventure in the snow in hopes of seeing the Sky Spirits so greatly discussed by her Grandmother. They experience snowfall, icicles, deer, rabbits, wolves and sky spirits. The story is about their relationship and how they are not afraid of what is around them, for everything is a song. The Sy Spirits are the northern lights, that tell a story and dance around the sisters. This story concludes with the two sisters lying in the snow marveling at creation and realizing that wisdom comes on silent wings.

Key Literary Features

Third person narrative that is allegorical. Symbolically describes the northern lights as Sky Spirits. As they are portrayed in the story, the metaphor of the two sky spirits dancing in harmony with one another is an example of how the girls acted in the story, and allows the characters and the reader to make connections with this.

Key Text Features

Reading Level Grades 3 and 4 Content Level 31 pages Font Soft cover book Illustrations by Brian Deines Foreword describing what the words Nokomis, Nishiime and Nimise mean.

Key Vocabulary

Nokomis, Nishiime, Nimise, Ojibway

Teaching Suggestions

Introduces the words meaning older sister, younger sister and

grandmother and their roles within the Ojibway culture. It portrays the relationship of siblings and the

grandmother and their roles within the Ojibway culture. It portrays the relationship of siblings and the importance of storytelling in this legend. Describes the role of the northern lights in Ojibway society, and the role of creation in legend.

Baziw 22

First Nations Legends

APA Information

Bouchard, D. (2002). The Song Within My Heart. Vancouver: BC. Raincoast Books. Print.

Source

Private Collection of Dr. Belcher

Content

“Your stories, your songs and beating heart are truly yours and yours alone”. Everyone has a story and this text about a grandmother teaching a child about their culture and life paints a beautiful image of Cree culture. The goal is to keep heritage and preserve their culture through the singing and beating of the drums that continue throughout this story that puzzle the boy and make the grandmother sing.

Key Literary Features

Verse narrative from the first person perspective. This poem shows the boy is the speaker learning from his grandmother. With a somewhat rhyming nature the book incorporates music and song into the text. The Onomatopoeia in this is the singing going on in the background of the story that shapes and forms the overall story.

Key Text Features

Reading Level- Grades 3-8 32 pages Hard cover book Paintings by Allen Sapp Afterword includes a note from the painter showing images of her and his life, but his love of Pow-wows and that being the inspiration for many of her paintings.

Key Vocabulary

Cree, Nokum, Pow-wow

Teaching Suggestions

Talk about David Bouchman

Look at more paintings by Allen Sapp. What can you see? Does this story support the

Look at more paintings by Allen Sapp. What can you see? Does this story support the paintings? Discuss what goes on in a Pow-wow and the power of music in Cree culture. Perhaps even listening to some music throughout the story.

Baziw 23

First Nations Legends

APA Information

Bouchard, D. (2012). Rainbow Crow: Nagweyaabi-Aandeg. Markham: ON. Red Deer Press, Fitzhenry & Whiteside Company.

Source

Private Collection of Dr. Belcher

Content

This story is a creation story about how the world came to know fire. The world was in a cold winter, and all of the animals knew they would not make it another winter. After debate, it was decided that rainbow crow would go to the creator to ask for help. She had a beautiful song, and could fly high enough. When she made it to the creator, singing her song by herself, as the creator was busy, the creator gifted the rainbow crow with fire. Crow made great sacrifices to get the fire back to earth, scorching the colours off of her wings, and sacrificing her voice to save the animals. As fire made it to the earth, the creator gave crow shiny feathers, and the will to never be hunted in rewards for her sacrifice.

Key Literary Features

Themes: Thankfulness, Forgiveness, Sacrifice, and Compassion. Third person narrative, creation legend. This legend is foreshadowing what would happen to crow as now If you look in the sky the crows do not have as beautiful of a song, or as colourful feathers as other birds. Compares and contrasts other creation stories by opening that it is open to interpretation a multiple ways of knowing.

Key Text Features

Reading Level: Grades 2-6 32 pages Hard cover book Illustrations by David Jean Foreword describing that this is one of many versions to the story, and that it is subject to the interpretation of many. This is how the author will tell it.

Key Vocabulary

Metis, Ojibway, Nagweyaabi-Aandeg

Teaching Suggestions

Sit in a circle as the book says, to set the tone of the story. Make a

KWL chart for what they know of creation stories from this culture and what they want

KWL chart for what they know of creation stories from this culture and what they want to know. Then read the story. Can even take a crow’s feather and pass it around to do the activity at the end of the book, to look at the feather and see if it is shiny.

Baziw 24

First Nations Legends

APA Information

Martin Jr., B., & Archambault, J. (1987). Knots on a Counting Rope. New York: NY. Henry Holt and Company.

Source

Private Collection: Dr. Belcher

Content

This book is about a young boy, hearing the telling of his birth by his grandfather. He wants to know the story of who he is and how he came on this earth. The story begins with the great storm, how a grandmother must be present for the birth, and how he was born sick and frail, but then became strong at the presence of two blue horses. The naming ceremony showed strength, the boy needs to grow strong and mighty. Then the story talks about how his horse was born and how with the horse, the boy grew stronger everyday and learned as the horse would to live of this earth. The boy then raced the horse at tribal day. The story then, is supposed to be memorized when the rope is filled with knots. When his grandfather will no longer be with him here on earth, his strength and memory will surround him, day by

Key Literary Features

day. Third story narrative conversation between a boy and his grandfather, discussing how the boy came to the earth. Strong symbolism with the colour blue, the meaning of a sunrise breaking the night, the strength of a new day etc. The rainbow has strong symbolism in the story for new beginnings, and leadings trails into their hearts as it signaled the birth of the boy’s horse. The counting rope is something to emphasize symbolically as well. With this rope, it shows strength and character development for the boy, for when it is filled with knots he will have memorized the story to share with others.

Key Text Features

Reading Level: K-5 38 pages Hard cover book Illustrations by Ted Rand

   

Key Vocabulary Teaching Suggestions

Tribal Day, Naming Ceremony, Rainbow, Counting Rope The importance of oral literature is bound in this book with the knot

rope. Can use a physical rope to help in the understanding of this sto with your

rope. Can use a physical rope to help in the understanding of this sto with your students. It is also imperative to note that the boy is blind story. How does this change the way that you read the book? Can us reflective tools on how this story differs from your story, how did ea student get their name? Have them create a web poster with their na the center, and characteristics of what makes them unique and differ

Baziw 25

First Nations Legends

APA Information

Weibe, R. (2006). Hidden Buffalo. Markham: ON. Red Deer Press, Fitzhenry & Whiteside Company.

Source

 

Content

Peter Turkstra Library This book is about finding Buffalo to hunt for the survival of Sky Running’s people. The grandmother tells stories of the creation of the buffalo for meat for the people to survive the winter. Sky finds a stone in the shape of a buffalo, what he craves most, and grandmother says to keep it warm. Sky gets a vision in his sleep of the location of the buffalo, and shares it with his people. However, it is in a dangerous area. At the suggestion of the elders, they decide to meet with the people to discuss a trade. Perhaps they are willing to share their buffalo. However, on their journey they meet n people but find the buffalo and praise their creator for the gift of food.

Key Literary Features

Third person narrative showing foreshadowing through his vision during his sleep. Is allegorical in the sense where Sky is on a quest for food, but in the end pursues a spiritual journey with his people trusting in his vision from the creator. Major character development for Sky as he is originally skeptical about his food source, but trusts in his creator and becomes a leader among his people.

Key Text Features

Grades 1-5 32 pages Soft Cover Illustrations by Michael Lonechild

   

Key Vocabulary Teaching Suggestions

Cree, Buffalo, SikSika People, Vision This ancient Cree legend discusses the characteristics of survival,

trust and shared responsibility. Have students write about how shared responsibility is an asset for any

trust and shared responsibility. Have students write about how shared responsibility is an asset for any family and classroom environment. Why is it so important? Have them cite examples Have them research and look into what these cultures used the buffalo meat and skin for. Did they waste any of the animal? Have them think about their culture and how nothing goes to waste. Environmentally, how much does each student waste? Give them a checklist to go home with and check each thing they do. Perhaps even creating a visual of their carbon footprint.

Baziw 26

First Nations Legends

APA Information

Taylor, C.J (1994). Bones in the Basket: Native Stories of Origin of People. (pp. 20-29). New York: NY. Tundra Books.

Source

 

Content

Peter Turkstra Library The story discussed is the creation story of the Mohawk people. It begins with the task of one man, to safeguard the tree of life. But, his wife desperate in pregnancy cravings begs for the roots of the tree of life, for the fruit there can satisfy her. She then reaching for it, falls down a hole, and is flown by two birds safely onto a turtles back. She then witnesses the earth being formed on this back. The Sky woman approaches the woman and tells her she will have two strong healthy boys. But, the boys argued and when one decided to birth, he killed his mother. The Sky mother heartbroken, raises the boys, and they will call you mother earth. Flint the more evil of the two, disrespects his grandmother and upen death argues more with his brother, Young Tree, over burying her with her daughter., with her head becoming the moon.

The story surrounds the two boys fighting over the creation of the earth, making it difficult for one another. Young Tree wins two momentous battles with his brother and a stranger, casting his brother to the underworld and the stranger into the trees for medicine for humans. Once he was done, he returned and presented Mother Earth to humans for them to take care of.

Key Literary Features

In this third person narrative, we see the development of creation through the story of the birth of young tree and flint, to their great battle and the finished product of mother earth. There is huge symbolism in in through the mention of the land being on the turtle’s back, mother earth falling into this creation, the creation of the moon, the creation of medicine for humans and the sending of his brother to the underworld. Development of Young Tree’s character from kindness and respect to doing what needs to be done to be a leader and create a peaceful earth. Room to compare and contrast with the other creation stories.

Key Text Features

Reading Level: Grades 3-6 32 pages; 9 pages for Mohawk Creation Story Hard Cover Book Paintings by C.J. Taylor Foreword warning the reader that these different legends all have a common theme; that the earth is a gift given to us and that we as a people have a right to protect it.

Key Vocabulary

Mother Earth, Sky Mother, Grandmother Moon, False Face, Mohawk

Baziw 27

First Nations Legends

Teaching Suggestions

 
Compare and contrast this legend with the other one that will be read. What is similar?

Compare and contrast this legend with the other one that will be read. What is similar? What is different? What do both legends value?

APA Information

Taylor, C.J (1994). Bones in the Basket: Native Stories of Origin

Source

of People. (pp. 20-29). New York, NY: Tundra Books. Peter Turkstra Library

Content

Cree creation legend about how the world was created. In this legend it discusses how giant beaver, the creator of wanted land and Wisagatcak, the creator of wanted land, fought with each other. They each had magic that they used to attempt to defeat each other. First, Wisagatcak created a dam to dry to trap giant beaver, but it broke and spread water everywhere. Giant beaver used this as an advantage and spread water over all the land. Wisagatcak was forced to create a raft to save the animals drowning and fighting for their life. With his last bit of magic, Wisagatcak got help from the wolf to get take his moss, and swim around the raft. Wherever the moss hit, it created earth. Then there was a land and a water again. They made peace with one another, so that they could all live in harmony.

Key Literary Features

In this third person narrative, we see the battle between land an water, and then the character development through the end of the story where we see all magic has its limits, and the two characters agree to make peace so that all may live. Strong symbolism and questions how the land is surrounded by water.

Key Text Features

Reading Level: Grades 3-6 32 pages; 9 pages for Mohawk Creation Story Hard Cover Book Paintings by C.J. Taylor Foreword warning the reader that these different legends all have a common theme; that the earth is a gift given to us and that we as a people have a right to protect it.

 

Cree

Key Vocabulary Teaching Suggestions

Compare and Contrast this with the previous legend. What is similar? What is different? What do they both value?

Baziw 28

First Nations Legends

APA Information

Robertson, R. (2015). Hiawatha and the Peace Maker. New York, NY: Abrams Book for Young Readers.

Source

Online: Hamilton Public Library

Content

This story is about a devastated man who has lost his family, his home and his people to an evil chief. After several days of harbouring revenge, he is visited by a peacemaker. The peacemaker hopes to have one body and mind for the remaining tribes, but the man does not believe him as he has lived in fear for so long. The peacemaker then needs his help for he is weaker in his speech, and so Hiawatha agrees. They travel to the Mohawk together. As the message is spread across the tribes, and proof that it can happen spread, the message of forgiveness associated with peace, even in great pain, can happen. Even among more devestation, and the evils saying that they will never be free of violence, the peacemakers message calms the hearts of the strong, and mends the hearts full of pain. New beginnings can happen. This message is further proven when all three chiefs return to the Mohawk tribe, and the peacemakers ultimatum of not perishing when a tree he is in cut down, shows how true his message it. They then went to the evil, and cured him despite his violence and his sickness. They then buried their weapons of war, and lived with unity between the five nations.

Key Literary Features

First person account narrative. Symbollic of the historical event and legend among the First Nations of the uniting of the nations for peace. Describes how each tribe came to be changed in their hearts for forgiveness of the great evils and violence, and changed for peace and better days. Huge character development for all characters involved, especially Hiawatha who had harboured such revenge and the forgave and helped the evil from his sickness, for the greater good of all nations.

Key Text Features

Reading Level: Grades Four to Six 48 pages Online Copy Illustrations by David Shannon, Oil Painting Historical Note at the end of the story discussing the key figures for which the story is written about, citing its creation in the 14 th century before European first contact. It is said that the peacemaker had a speech impendiment which is why he needed Hiawatha for his message. Authors Note at the end describes how the author first came about the story, and how he wished to be able to tell stories like that respected elder.

Baziw 29

First Nations Legends

Key Vocabulary

Mohawk, Peace Maker, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, Onondaga

Teaching Suggestions

For a topic filled book such as this, the message of peace is one

in our current world is possible, but not yet achieved. This book teaches us many lessons

in our current world is possible, but not yet achieved. This book teaches us many lessons on peace and forgiveness. Orally read the text to the students, and have a read aloud of a section of the text, separating them into groups of four or five to analyze how each nation or person changed in the name of peace. Then practice role-playing and read aloud this book for a younger audience. In order to do this, they must write a one page reflection of what they learned to help them during their read aloud.

Appendix

Quote: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/aboriginal/strategygr05lancreation.pdf