NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML


Fifty Years of Spring
Besides the struggle against different hues of revisionism inside the
communist movement in India, struggle against modern revisionism in the
international communist movement conducted by Communist Party of China

Thunder over India under the leadership of Com. Mao also played a very important role in the
emergence of Naxalbari peasant armed struggle. This struggle influenced the
ideological political struggle against revisionism inside the communist
Communist movement in the country reached a turning point half a movement in India. Communist Party of China had conducted a Great Debate
century ago when the Naxalbari peasant uprising burst forth on the political against Khruschov's modern revisionism exposing different aspects of modern
scene of the country. After Great Telengana People’s Armed Struggle, revisionism including its class collaborationist character. It helped communists
Naxalbari once again brought on the agenda the Armed Agrarian Revolution all over the world in grasping the true nature of modern revisionism and equipped
for the liberation of the people of India. Further, it led to ideological, political the revolutionary communists in the struggle against revisionism in their own
and organizational parting of ways with revisionism and neo-revisionism parties as well. CPC under the leadership of Com. Mao later launched Great
and their parliamentary path. Naxalbari paved the way for the formation of Proletarian Cultural Revolution (GPCR) against capitalist roaders, revisionists
Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) which adopted Marxism- among the leadership of the Party, to prevent the capitalist restoration in
Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought as the ideological guide, the programme of China. This brought vast sections of working masses of China into the struggle
New Democratic Revolution and the path of Protracted People’s War. The against capitalist road and created an upsurge in the people's struggle in
cobwebs of parliamentarianism were cleared and the clarion call of Naxalbari China under the condititons of dictatorship of proletariat. GPCR enthused the
rose above the din of parliamentary humdrum of revisionists and neo- communist revolutionaries world over in their anti-revisionist struggle and
revisionists. emboldened them and guided them in their ideological, political and
organizational struggle against revisionism.
Struggles of the peasants in Bengal (Tebhaga), Worli, Punappa Vyalar
and Telengana, the latter an armed peasant struggle over a vast area, Naxalbari peasant uprising occurred in the backdrop of rising people's
placed the Armed Agrarian Struggle on the agenda for the liberation of struggles in India and all over the world in the seventh decade of 20th
Indian people. But the then revisionist leadership not only betrayed Century. Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China and upswing in the
Telengana Armed Struggle but also pushed the struggle of Indian people struggles of workers and youth in the developed capitalist countries and
for liberation into the quagmire of refomism and parliamentarianism. Struggle rising struggles of the people in oppressed countries including liberation
against this revisionist line continued uninterrupted in the communist struggles of the people of different countries against imperialism including
movement of the country and Naxalbari struggle became an expression of Vietnam, characterized the period. India also witnessed upswing in the
this struggle. As the Basic Lessons of History observed, "The struggle struggles of different sections of the people. Strike struggle of workers of
against the CPM leadership on various national and international issues different sectors, struggle of students and youth all over India and food
gradually developed in various provinces. But in the beginning, in the majority movement especially in West Bengal were some of the struggles which
provinces, the concept of People’s War was not the central slogan around dotted the Indian landscape then. Unrest and disillusionment was rising
which the internal two-line struggle was conducted. It was mostly based on among the people of the country which targeted the then ruling Congress
international ideological issues and support to the correct line of the CPC. resulting even in electoral setbacks to Congress in a number of provinces.
Only in West Bengal, a section of comrades in Siliguri district selected Emergence of Naxalbari peasant uprising gave a revolutionary outlet to
Naxalbari area to concretize the slogan of People’s War and took certain that rising disaffection among the people. The spark at Naxalbari led to
practical steps to mobilize and prepare the people for armed struggle, however similar struggles in different parts of the country, in Debra-Gopiballabhpur
vague their ideas might have been. The result has been the emergence of the Baharagora (Bengal and Bihar), Mushaheri (Bihar), Lakhimpur Kheri (UP)and
Naxalbari Armed Peasant uprising." Srikakulam and Godavari Valley (Andhra Pradesh). This spark has kept on

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
igniting fires in the different parts of the country ever since including in We observe the 50th Anniversary of Naxalbari peasant uprising not only
Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Punjab, Maharashtra and as a historic event which had played a role in the past, but also as illuminating
elsewhere. the path of Indian revolution even today. There are some organizations
which are observing 50th Anniversary of Naxalbari with the former
Naxalbari was not only aimed at capture of land, foodgrains, crops and perspective, holding it no longer relevant. But we observe the 50th
loan deeds, it also aimed to capture state power. In the concrete conditions Anniversary to renew our commitment to the path shown by Naxalbari, to
of the revolutionary movement in India, Naxalbari peasant uprising hold high the banner of Armed Agrarian Revolution held aloft by Naxalbari
illuminated the path of Armed Agrarian Revolution, linking the struggle for Peasant Armed Struggle and subsequent armed struggles of the peasantry.
land and struggle for state power. This linkage is essential for unleashing We are committed to building and developing areas of sustained resistance
the energy and initiative of the peasant masses in the people's war. While and to develop armed struggle to liberate the people of India through
armed actions without an agrarian programme lead to anarchism, anti-feudal protracted people's war.
struggles of peasantry without armed struggle end up in the blind alley of
reformism. The path of Armed Agararian Revolution illuminated by Naxabari The 50th Anniversary of the Great Naxalbari Peasant Armed Struggle
peasant armed struggle is the concrete form of Protracted People's War in has come at a time when our country is going through great crisis. Ruling
India. class representatives in power are moving to impose fascist dictatorship
over the country to crush the struggles of the people, to safeguard the
There have been many changes in the country over the last fifty years. imperialist exploitation of the country and the rule of big bourgeois, big
It is the task of communist revolutionaries to make a detailed study of landlord ruling classes. For this, RSS-BJP are trying to deepen communal
these changes and to adapt their slogans to the prevailing concrete situation polarization by targeting minorities, particularly Muslims and intensifying
in the country and this task will remain in future as well. There have been their attacks against the revolutionary struggles and progressive forces
some quantitative changes in the situation but these changes have not among the people. Their real purpose is to intensify the exploitation and
brought about a qualitative change in the country. These changes have not oppression of the workers and peasants. Opposition sections of ruling
brought about basic change in the stage of Indian revolution or in the strategy classes do not have any concrete programme to oppose these attacks and
for liberation of the Indian people. Big majority of the people still live in do not draw the people into struggles against such attacks.
villages which are under the domination of landlord forces. India is still
subject to imperialist exploitation, in fact neocolonial exploitation has further To meet this challenge, communist revolutionaries must come to one
increased. Even today India is a semifeudal and semicolonial country. Indian platform and intensify revolutionary struggles. And for this, while intensifying
people are still groaning under exploitation and oppression of imperialism, the struggles of different sections of the people, mainly revolutionary peasant
comprador bureacrat capitalism and feudalism. To end this exploitation struggles have to be intensified. For this we have to march resolutely on
and oppression and to overthrow the rule of big bourgeois, big landlord the path shown by Naxalbari. Advancing revolutionary struggle and the
ruling classes is still the main task of Indian revolution. India is still at the unity of the toiling people forged in the course of these advancing struggles
stage of New Democratic Revolution with agrarian revolution as its axis. is the best guarantee of resistance to the fascist drive being unleased by
Even today, the path of protracted people's war is the path for liberation of RSS-BJP.
the people of the country. It does not mean denying the changes that have
occurred, it means grasping them properly and incorporating them in the On the occasion of 50 years of Naxalbari, paying homage to the immortal
perspective of intensifying revolutionary movement in the country. These martyrs of the revolutionary movement of the country, we reiterate our
changes put the onus on us to assimilate the tasks emerging from these resolve to advance on the path of Armed Agrarian Revolution. We also
changes and not to discard that very revolutionary path shown by Naxalbari reiterate our pledge to spare no sacrifice in advancing the struggle for the
in the name of these changes. liberation of the people of our country.

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Elections to Fi ve Assemb
Fiv lies:
Assemblies: country including these five states, nor deep crisis of agriculture or industry
found any echo in the people’s concerns as articulated by the ruling class

Ang er of the P
Anger eople and
People propaganda media. Question of land reforms and distribution of land among
the landless poor peasants has any way disappeared from the agenda of

Advvance of F ascism
Fascism the ruling classes.
Another important aspect of intervention of corporate media is complete
Results of the elections to five state assemblies held in the months of
marginalization of the parties other than those vying for power, the ruling
February and March 2017 have witnessed rising anger of the people against
class parties. It is reflected in increasing concentration of votes among
the Govts. in saddle in these provinces. While ruling parties in Uttar Pradesh,
main contenders for power. Both the issues focused and parties talked off,
Uttarakhand and Punjab have received serious defeats, BJP ruling in Goa
are those within the ambit of ruling class politics and continuous
and Congress ruling in Manipur too faced electoral decline. BJP despite
bombardment of propaganda is meant to force the people into making a
lagging behind Congress in both these provinces, has resorted to rank
choice between the main ruling class parties guaranteeing continuity of the
opportunism and manipulation utilizing the offices of Governors to come to
policies serving the interests of the ruling classes and of the ruling class
power, though BJP’s rejection by the electorate in these states was
politicians who have proved their utility to the ruling classes. The biggest
unmistakable. This has been an important aspect of the electoral verdict.
fall out of this has been steady decline of vote share of parties with smaller
Corporate Media Helps Ruling Class Agenda electoral base and independents, which means monopoly of the articulation
of people’s concerns solely within the language and policies favoured by
Elections in India have increasingly come to be dominated by money, the ruling classes. It is this decline which contributes most to the so-called
media and muscle power. Election Commission guidelines have virtually sweeps by a ruling class party or combination.
eliminated inexpensive means of propaganda and the guidelines on
permissible expenditure, which has been highly increased, are seldom It is indeed the undemocratic character of our election system that a
observed. EC does little to rein in blatant violation of the guidelines issued party getting less than two fifths of votes (like BJP in UP) gets nearly four
by it. Use of money and abuse of power, blatant whipping up of communal fifth of seats. Similar is the pattern seen in Uttarakhand and Punjab where
passions and parochial sentiments is done without restraint. Election seats secured by winning parties are far in excess of the votes polled by
Commission expresses eventual satisfaction for having conducted the them. Focus of the propaganda on seats won rather than votes polled is to
election at all. Corporate media tried to marginalize the people’s issues, hide the rejection of the party credited with having ‘swept’ the election by
trivialize their concerns and focus the elections on persons rather than the majority of the electorate.
policies. Corporate media energetically dished out propaganda of the ruling While results of these elections are being projected as Modi led BJP’s
class parties eclipsing Goebellsian propaganda blitzkrieg. For example Modi sweep, the reality is more nuanced and reflects regional trends including
and BJP made claims on the payment of dues of sugarcane peasants and anger of the people against ruling class parties.
loan waivers for peasantry if they were to come to power in the state while
both these issues are under the domain of the Central Govt. where they RSS-BJP Victory in UP, Uttarakhand
had been in power for nearly three years. Real issues of the people
particularly issues relating to policies being pursued by the ruling classes, BJP scored big victories in Hindi heartland, UP and Uttarakhand. In a
even those on which people have been struggling, are treated as non-issues way it broadly conformed to the pattern of parliamentary elections of 2014
and just ignored. Neither the problems of the peasant masses including with some decline in BJP vote share e.g. nearly 3% in UP and 9% in
agricultural labourers, nor that of industrial workers particularly those of Uttarakhand. Like its 2014 campaign BJP conducted a sharp communally
unorganized sectors which constitute the overwhelming work force of the polarizing campaign. With the help of media BJP leaders led by Modi created

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a rhetoric of appeasement of Muslims, with such baseless statements like its upper caste votes, BJP split the votes of other castes by aligning with
“no shamshan in the villages but there are qabristans”, there being parties of numerically smaller castes among backwards and dalits.
“uninterrupted power supply on Eid but not on Diwali”. That these allegations
In a way this election signifies the end of the era of caste based parties
were freely circulated by the mainstream media showed how much ruling
though not of caste based politics as major parties of the ruling classes
classes wanted to bring communal schism to the fore to sideline the real
move to further fragment the mobilization of castes by these parties. In
issues of the people. BJP buttressed its communal campaign with clever
fact, these parties had been born out of the mobilization of lower castes,
caste arithmetic trying to confine their rivals particularly SP and BSP to
dalits and backwards, against Brahmannical social order. When upper
single castes. RSS-BJP had been trying for this pan-Hindu identity
castes were politically ruling, these mobilizations signified mobilization of
mobilizing non-Yadav OBCs and non-Jatav Dalits in UP. It has been on
these social groups. However, when these parties came to power, these
this job since decades but has succeeded in doing this recently. In Bihar
caste groupings were broken as these parties, wedded to the protection of
this campaign had faced the combined might of RJD and JD(U) and could
the interests of ruling classes, did not do anything to address the root
not emerge successful. Like Bihar, if the regional parties like SP and BSP
cause of caste oppression in society, particularly semifeudal agrarian
would have come together, BJP might have faced a similar defeat. Neither
relations. In fact these parties of ruling classes rely on elites of these
of these challengers for power, as they have no positive programme for the
social groups to harness their votes and only promote their interests, which
people, could singly face the communally polarizing campaign of BJP in
are mostly at variance with that of the common people of these castes. On
the changed situation post-2014.
the other hand, their rule signified ascendency of a particular caste group
There are some important developments in ruling class politics in this thereby alienating the other castes of the same group. The rise of elite
regard. Decline of Congress is quite serious particularly in Hindi heartland. among these castes also intensified struggle among them for loaves of
Congress has lost the support of upper castes, having lost support of Dalits power, giving rise to emergence of several parties every one of them
and Muslims earlier. Congress tried to muster Brahmin support but dominated by a particular caste group. It led to fragmentation of backwards
abandoned the project due to feeble response. This paved the way for and dalits among these parties.” (ND, June 2014)
consolidation of upper castes in favour of BJP, a vote bank far more
BJP’s main rivals in UP, SP and BSP had failed to draw any lesson
consolidated than the vote banks routinely talked of by the corporate media.
from 2014 and merely repeated their earlier election strategies. They failed
One could find a number of studies about consolidation or division of Muslim,
to factor in 2014 and mechanically repeated the old formulae. In particular
Dalit or OBC votes but rarely about Brahmin or upper caste votes. There is
they did not gauge their isolation from the social groups they claim to
an undercurrent in ‘mainstream’ propaganda that upper castes represent
represent. Taking this support as granted, they made a dash for Muslim
nationalism while the rest of the communities represent sectarian interests.
votes believing that it would take them to victory. These parties have done
In UP upper castes constitute nearly 23% and with Jats included, are well
little to undo the economic, social and political handicaps faced by Muslims.
more than one fourth of the electorate. This provided a solid vote base to
SP rule saw horrendous Muzaffarnagar killings of Muslims and forced
BJP which was earlier divided mainly between Congress and BJP.
migration from villages of over 50 thousand Muslims. SP rule also saw a
There is a second important aspect in the relative success of RSS-BJP large number of incidents of anti-Muslim violence and leaders like Yogi
plan of wooing sections of Dalits and OBCs for its pan-Hindu anti-Muslim Adityanath were allowed to threaten Muslims without hindrance. BSP rule
mobilization. CC resolution after 2014 Lok Sabha elections had noted the too was characterized by large scale targeting of Muslim youth in terror-
decline of caste based regional parties and observed, “Caste mobilization related cases and foisting of false cases against them. In 2007, Mayawati
of these parties was met by micromanagement of castes by BJP through had come to power befriending Brahmins who constituted most of her cabinet
so-called social engineering. Mobilization of caste groupings like backwards and dictated the terror related narrative of Mayawati Govt. However, the
and dalits has been weakened by mobilization of individual member castes way SP and BSP went about soliciting Muslim votes only helped communal
of these groupings for securing their share of power. While consolidating polarization which was being carved out by BJP. SP and BSP fought these

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
elections more against each other than against the BJP. SP struck alliance Congress. Kejriwal sidelined all recognized leaders from Punjab, practically
with Congress to consolidate Muslim votes, this alliance spurned RLD so everybody who had some base in Punjab. So intoxicated had the AAP
that BSP would not get more Muslim votes in Western UP. BSP gave leader become by its social media campaign that he rode roughshod over
tickets to a larger number of Muslims only to win them over from SP. In all local leaders, which was utilized by other ruling class parties. Denuding
their drive to augment their “core” vote, they failed to address erosion of the party of all leaders from Punjab also made AAP prone to people’s
their “core” vote. Even otherwise they did not raise any issue pertaining to doubt about safeguarding interests of Punjab by Harayanvi Kejriwal. Even
the problems being faced by the people. While Modi and BJP leaders were the social media campaign launched by AAP became so arbitrary that it
offensive, SP and BSP leaders were mainly defensive and complacent, lost credibility. AAP was solely banking on the negative perception of Akalis
not responding to their charges and not tearing their baseless rhetoric of and Congress among the people and had nothing positive to offer to the
Muslim appeasement. people on different issues faced by them.
In Uttarakhand too, BJP broadly repeated its 2014 performance albeit AAP was the main beneficiary of the anger of the youth, particularly in
with reduced vote share, capitalizing on the failures of the Congress Govt. rural areas. These sections have been hostile to Congress since Operation
Exposure of Harish Rawat in corruption and a large number of Congress Blue Star and genocide of Sikhs in Delhi and elsewhere. These sections
leaders joining BJP had weakened the Congress. The real issues of the came to treat Akalis as betrayers and Akalis’ alliance with BJP became a
people, both in the hills as well as plains, found no mention in the campaign further galvanizing point. This sentiment was widely shared by Sikh
of these two parties. Diaspora which was vocal in their support for AAP. While utilizing this
anger went well for AAP, its identification with Khalistani extremists, became
Punjab : Congress Comeback, AAP Stumbles
a liability. Though centred on some token gestures, it distanced large
In Punjab, Congress swept back to power. While defeat of Akali-BJP sections of people from them. Even in Malwa, Congress was ahead both in
combine was a foregone conclusion, AAP which was seen as the main terms of seats as well as votes polled. As AAP floundered with marginal
contender for power, has been relegated to distant second in a number of decline in votes polled, the shift of Akali voters was to the Congress as
seats and third in the votes polled. Akali Dal had been ruling for last ten compared to 2014. As compared to last Assembly elections held in 2012,
years, a period marked by sharp rise in drug menace and all round Mafia AAP has drawn votes from Akalis-BJP and very small part from Congress.
raj under the patronage of ruling Akalis- transport mafia, education mafia,
sand mafia and of course drug mafia etc. Akalis imposed their dictatorial In Goa, BJP which has been mired in corruption, went down and finished
rule over the people paying no heed to the problems of the people. Coupled lower than Congress. While Congress did improve its tally, anti-BJP votes
with the rising anger of the people on these basic issues, desecration of were split among different forces, stopping Congress short of majority. In
Sikh holy book and tardy response of Akali Govt. on that further enraged Goa also AAP was expected to do well but failed to get a single seat with
the people whose religious distress became a reflection of their real distress. only 6% votes despite contesting all the seats.
Congress this time however accommodated more people from outside
In Manipur, Congress lost its majority though getting highest number of
including likes of Navjot Singh Sidhu and Pragat Singh and curbed the
seats. In this state where Army is engaged in anti-insurgency operations
royal behavior of its leader, Captain Amrinder Singh.
and the state where AFSPA is in operation, BJP got a large number of
AAP had heralded its entry into the Punjab electoral scene with an seats while it did not have any earlier. There was expectation of BJP getting
impressive performance in 2014 parliamentary elections, winning four seats. majority, but Congress played on Meiti-Naga discord to stem erosion of its
A year back, impressive crowds attracted by AAP leader Arvind Kejriwal base though it was not enough to get the majority. Irom Sharmila, known
gave an impression of AAP sweeping to power. However, Arvind Kejriwal for her hunger strike against AFSPA in Manipur for nearly 16 years, received
practiced a high command culture, for which they had been criticizing only 92 votes.

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In brief, while people’s anger against performance of local Govts. have small number of votes.
been used by Hindutva forces in Hindi heartland, the same was not the
Elections are a political struggle though they cannot lead to any basic
case in three other states.
change in society. Elections are not even the most important legal struggle.
No Ruling Class Party Made Demonetization an Issue But people continue to have illusions about them as reflected in growing
percentage of votes cast. These illusions have both the aspects, lack of
Demonetization had caused big hardship to the people, rendering millions viable alternative with countrywide appeal as well as illusion of reforms
of workers jobless, jeopardizing agricultural operations. More than a hundred from the ruling class parties particularly in the spheres of social and religious
people died standing in queues. However, it did not get reflected in anger oppression. We have to analyze our experiences and experiences of the
against the BJP as all ruling class parties supported this measure against revolutionary movement to come up with better tactics of intervention during
‘black money’ only faulting its execution. Despite elections being quite elections.
near, none of them held any protest nor tried to build any movement. With
all ruling class parties which were main players in this contest for power Increased Danger of Fascism
supporting the measure, the hardships caused by demonetization did not
RSS-BJP represent the most reactionary section of the ruling classes
become an issue though it did contribute to anti-BJP anger where other
and their sharp offensive against the people. As the economic and social
factors were also in operation e.g. Punjab.
crisis of the system is deepening, politics of the ruling classes is taking a
Performance of Communist Revolutionaries rightward tilt. There has been increasing fascicization of state machinery
and increasing offensive against the people. This offensive is couched in
Our Party had fielded ten candidates in Punjab and one in UP. Where the rhetoric against immigrants in developed capitalist countries and against
we had not fielded candidates our party campaigned for NOTA. Our campaign minorities in third world countries like India. Rise of RSS-BJP is neither
was built around real issues of the people and we tried to also give alternative accidental nor a fortuitous development. It represents the need of the ruling
policies on those issues. Our Party in Punjab particularly focused on the classes to intensify their attacks on the one hand and disrupt unity of the
crisis of the imperialist sponsored model of ‘Green Revolution’ and struggle people to pre-empt struggle against the policy framework being imposed
of Dalits for their share of Panchayat land. In UP we highlighted the issues on the country by the ruling classes. Other representatives of the ruling
of peasantry and labourers. We also campaigned for action against police classes, though having differences, compromise with this section,
and administrative officers as well as people’s representatives for their attempting to co-opt many of their policies. Though they project it as
complicity in violence against minorities. Our campaign highlighted the necessary to stem the tide of fascist forces, they lend more strength to the
bankruptcies of ruling class parties and their lack of real concern about the fascist offensive and disarm the people.
problems of the people. We also campaigned against undemocratic nature
of electoral process and the role of money, media and muscle power in the With increased strength in UP, RSS-BJP is expected to increase its
elections which distort the real opinions of the people. strength in Rajya Sabha and will gain greater control over legislative agenda.
They will also be in a position to get their nominee elected as President.
Though our comrades campaigned well and also received good response These would mean that some institutional hurdles in imposing fascist
from the people, this support was not translated into votes polled by our dictatorship would be reduced. Danger of fascism has increased.
candidates. Overall, votes polled by our candidates declined. This has to
be seen in increasing polarization of votes among the main contenders of Modi led RSS-BJP victory will also mean greater efforts at anti-labour
power. Identity based parties which raise the expectations of coming to changes in the labour laws, more facilities to foreign capital even going
power in alliance with others, also fare better without having any history of beyond the existing ones. RSS-BJP nationalism’s hollowness is on open
work through utilizing the caste based social structures. Predominance of display by the quiet of their twitter happy PM and Foreign Minister over
economic struggles in our work also is an important factor in our polling murderous attacks on Indians in USA. They have been able to thrust upon

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the people demonetization of 86% of the currency causing tremendous
hardship, which will encourage them to launch bigger attacks against the On Agrarian Question- Is
there any place for
people, particularly labouring masses. They will be more brazen in their
attacks to displace peasants including tribals from their land. Further erosion
of Govt. facilities in health and education, further impetus to corporatization
of agriculture and retail trade, further trampling of democratic rights under
the boots of security forces and further adoption of even more draconian Naxalbari ?
laws are on the anvil. Even cruder attacks in the educational institutions,
more brazen attacks against minorities and sharper offensive against Amit Chakrabarti
communist revolutionaries including bigger ideological offensive against
left forces are expected. Their offensive against minorities, particularly ‘There is no prospect for naxalite politics’,’Naxalbari shall never repeat’,
Muslims, will increase and so will the attacks on Dalits and other oppressed ’Naxalites' position on land question does not conform to reality’,’Big
castes. The very issue of caste oppression is sought to be erased even as landholdings do not exist then where is the basis for naxalite politics’ - with
pliable leaders of these sections are projected as show pieces. Further all these interesting remarks we are going to face the 50th anniversary of
curbs on women and slander of their struggles would be the order of the Naxalbari peasant struggle.
day. While RSS-BJP are sharpening their offensive, opposition sections of
I am delighted to listen to all these comments which denote Naxalbari
ruling classes are listless in their opposition, even scared to raise the
struggle to be without any prospect or any basis and a struggle which does
issues of people’s concern. Many of these parties do not hesitate to use
not conform to reality etc. etc. But I am still unable to solve a simple
the same draconian laws to suppress the people’s movements in the states
puzzle-Then why is there so much discussion about Naxalbari? Why does
ruled by them. While RSS-BJP ascendency increases the danger of fascism,
Indian state still consider different Naxalite groups as its main internal
unleashing of fascist repression is not limited to RSS-BJP but is a
security threat? Contemporary to Naxalbari peasant struggle there was
characteristic of the rule of ruling classes.
another big peasant movement in Sonarpur, West Bengal. CPM peasant
Communist Revolutionaries Should Unitedly Face This Challenge leader, late Harekrishna Konar, considered it a very important struggle for
land but astonishingly 50 years later, today nobody can recollect that
The situation calls for increasing initiative and action from the communist struggle. On the other hand 50 years after Naxalbari, toiling people-
revolutionaries. CRs should come on one platform to fight this growing peasants, adivasis and youth in Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West
fascist offensive, for projecting a people’s alternative and for building Bengal, Vidarbha, Odisha, Telengana, Andhra, Punjab are still fighting in
struggles of the people on their issues and against the assault on democratic the name of Naxalbari. They are sacrificing their lives. Is it only sheer
rights in different walks of life as well as attacks on minorities, dalits, romanticism? Is there any socio economic relevance for Naxalbari?
women, tribals. CRs may join with other struggling forces as well to face
the attacks of the ruling dispensation where-ever necessary and possible. In last fifty years those organizations who have turned sceptical about
The situation calls for a determined and serious response. Naxalbari politics are gradually playing the role of junior partners of CPI-
CPM led front. Another section of them are restricting themselves to few
Central Committee workers' mohallas or are on the verge of extinction. This is an observation
but not a conclusion.
CPI(ML)-New Democracy
March 15, 2017 I am not going to elaborate on the relevance of Naxalbari struggle.
Naxalbari struggle defined land reform as the central task of Indian revolution.
It advanced along the revolutionary path taking agrarian revolution as the

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axis. We want to discuss the relevance of this task in present situation. livelihood of 53.2% working people is from agriculture. 24.48 crore people
We have to analyse the claims made by some Mazdoor Kisan Krantiwallas out of total 46 crores of working people earn their livelihood from agriculture.
that Indian state has in the main completed the task of land reform and Only 11.03% of working population are employed in factories. On the other
what we see in rural India are some remnants of feudalism. hand though 53.3% of national income come from service sector but only
25.28% or 11.87 crores of people work in service sector.
The impact of imperialist globalization since 2006 unleashed anti
displacement militant peasant movements in Kalinganagar, Niyamgiri, 59th round of NSS has shown 10.04% of rural households do not
Jagatsinghpur, Singur, Nandigram, Dadri, Bhatta Parsol, Karchana, against possess any land not even homestead land. 41.63% families possess only
Trident, Andhra Coastal Corridor & Polavaram, at Kakrapalli, Sompeta, homestead land. Now let us see the All India average land ownership
Jaitapur etc. scenario. Landowning families with 10 hectares (HA) or 75 bighas (1HA=2.5
acres=7.5bighas) are only 0.52% but they own 11.77% of agricultural land
These struggles embracing India are the movement of peasants and of India. On the other hand 31.12% families are landless, 29.82% of families
adivasis to protect their right over land and forests. Essentially these are own less than 3 bighas of land. 10.68% of families own land from 7.5-15
peasant movements centering around the land problem. These struggles bighas, they possess 20.47% of total agricultural lands. 3% families own
combating Land and Forest mafias plus the state goons are essentially 22.5-37.5 bighas of land which is 16.51% of agricultural land. The land
resistance movement by the peasants. Some pundits consider radical land distribution scenario described here has proved that overwhelming
reform policy of agrarian revolution equivalent to Zamindari abolition and population of India are agriculture dependent and there is gross discrepancy
the existence of landlords and large size of landholdings synonymous with in distribution of land.
feudalism, semifeudalism and precapitalism. They fail to understand the
significance of these movements and lack the basic understanding of In statistics there is GINI number or GINI coefficient. If its value is 1
feudalism and precapitalism. then there is absolute inequality in distribution, if it is zero then there is
absolute equality. At all India level of land distribution its value is 0.76.
Is there any necessity for land reform in India? This shows that on the question of land distribution there is gross inequality
& discrepancy. In Tamilnadu it is 0.84, in Punjab 0.82, in Haryana 0.80, in
Many left parties and intellectuals consider that land reform has been
Andhra Pradesh 0.80, in West Bengal 0.73. The involvement of large number
resolved, they think that in present Indian scenario people can not be
of people in agriculture and the gross inequality in land distribution clearly
mobilized on the demand of ‘land to the tillers’. Firstly let us discuss how
proves how important is the task of radical land reform (i.e. land to the
the people of India are placed on land issue.
tillers). Old zaminders have largely disappeared but malnourished, landless,
Land scenario shelterless, jobless farmers are flooding rural India.

Presently 20% of landowners possess 75% of land. Among them 7.88% In the last five decades, as per Land Ceiling Acts, 74.3 lakh acres of
landowners possess 47.91% land. More than half of rural population does land has been declared vest, of which 57 lakh acres have been taken over
not possess any land or own a meagre amount of land. Recent data shows by government. Only 43.4 lakh acres of that land have been distributed
that 5% of landowners possess 44% land. 60% of them own only 5% of among 50 lakh people. Out of total 8126.3 lakh acres of total land of India
land. 2011 census found landless peasants & agricultural labourers only 1% of land or less has been declared vest in last 5 decades. This is
constitute 54.9% of rural workforce. about 2% of the total cultivable land of India. We should remember that
according to Mahalanabish Committee the all India amount of such vest
In India only 1.1% people work in organized agricultural farms i.e. land was calculated to be around 630 lakh acres (considering family land
government farms, farms of agricultural universities & estates etc. 66th ceiling to be at 20 acres at that time). The numbers of big landholdings in
round of National Sample Survey (NSS) has shown that the source of Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra, Gujarat, Haryana,

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Punjab and Rajasthan are quite high. In J&K they have 22% of agricultural After placing this data Surjeet claimed that 100 percent of Bargadars in
lands, Punjab 15.65%, Haryana 12.21%, Andhra 14.29%. On the other West Bengal had been recorded. Where do we stand now? Either peasant
hand 25.96% of families in Punjab, 45.37% in Gujarat, 38.27% in leader Harekrishna Konar had wrongly inflated the number of bargadars or
Maharashtra, 31% in Karnataka, 48.75% in Andhra Pradesh are landless. Surjeet followed his class collaborationist line of CPM and to protect the
We can express this simply as follows: one out of four agricultural families interests of landlords he reduced the number of bargadars to half of their
are landless in Punjab, 1 out of 3 are landless in Karnataka, Maharashtra & existence.
Gujarat, 1 out of 2 agricultural families are landless in Andhra Pradesh.
In 2008, CPM organ Ganashakti wrote that uptill January 2008, out of
Therefore we can easily understand the pressure on land in all big provinces
total vested lands declared by government 10.98 lakh acres had been
of India.
distributed with title deeds (Patta). Before CPM came to power 6 lakh 17
thousand 215 acres were distributed. In this regard CPM leader Binoy
Now come to the birthplace of Naxalbari- let us talk about West Bengal.
Chowdhury said that only 5% of land has been distributed. According to a
In fifties the then Minister of Revenue in West Bengal said that estimated
statement of CPM in 2011 the distributed land reached 11 lakh 33 thousand
surplus land in Bengal was around 18 lakh acres. The family ceiling was
acres.Therefore we may come to a conclusion that in 34 years of tenure of
revised in 1972 (12.5 acres in irrigated areas & 17.5 acres in non irrigated
CPM led government in West Bengal the land distributed amounts to 5
areas), therefore estimated surplus land should have increased. Before
lakh 15 thousand 785 acres.This shows that even Congress govt.
being sworn in as a Minister in 1977, Mr. Binoy Chowdhury of CPM had
distributed more land than CPM govt. This is the reality!
declared the amount of vest land to be around 30-35 lakh acres. Later on,
while considering Second land reform bill he talked about another 10 lakh Present CPM state Secretary & ex Land Reform Minister of LF govt. in
acre of excess land. As calculated by Mr Binoy Chowdhury, the vest land one of his article stated that ‘eviction & threat of eviction are now matter of
was expected to be about 40-45 lakh acres. But till January 2011 the amount past. This is applicable not only for recorded bargadars but also true for
of land distributed by Left front government was 11 lakh 32 thousand 400 non recorded bargadars.’ But unfortunately Human Development Report
acres. Before Left front government came to power the amount of land shows that in West Bengal 13.23% deed holders (pattadars) and 14.37%
distributed was 6 lakh 17 thousand 215 acres and in the last 34 years Left bargadars have already been evicted.
front government distributed 5 lakh 20 thousand 400 acres. Now the question
We have discussed the problem of landlessness and state of land reform
is how and where have the remaining 30-35 lakh acres of land out of total
all over India and West Bengal in particular. Even after 50 years of Naxalbari,
40-45 lakh acres of land calculated by Mr Binoy Chowdhury vanished?
in the light of facts we find how important is the question of land reform and
landlessness all over India as well as in West Bengal in particular.
We find many discrepancies in the data given by Left front leaders. It
is unfortunate that nowadays some erstwhile naxalite intellectuals prefer This is very unfortunate that those who support Naxalbari, work among
to tread along the path of CPM and beat the drum for Left front government's people and simultaneously oppose the treachery of LF govt. have failed to
successful land reforms. They conveniently forget that once the United produce before us any latest empirical survey report on land distribution in
Front Minister of land department had declared in ’Dainik Swadhinata’ West Bengal. Very sparse ‘anecdotal’ surveys show that land problem in
newspaper that the number of Bargadars in West Bengal was around 30 north Bengal is slightly different from south Bengal. The administrative
lakhs. Again ex- CPM general secretary late Harkishen Singh Surjeet in land reform activity in north Bengal is less. There landowners have hidden
his ‘Land Reform in India’ wrote that the number of bargadars was around many lands under the cover of tea estates and Pineapple orchards. In
15-20 lakhs. According to the calculation made by Surjeet, till October many areas of districts Nadia, Murshidabad & the two 24 Parganas, the
1979 the number of recorded bargadars were 5 lakh 72 thousand & 694, in pattadars don’t have any control over their lands & wet lands. Though big
1981 this increased to 11 lakh 25 thousand 826 and in 1990 it increased to landholdings are broken still the absentee landlords are in significant
14 lakh 20 thousand. numbers in rural areas of West Bengal. In the post second world war land

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reform in Japan, the land from absentee landlords was confiscated. increasing consciousness of toiling people so that people will march forward
According to political economy these absentee landlords (present in any to revolution! Now after 34 years of LF govt. their ‘consciousness building’
size of landholdings) consume the ground rent and stand as obstacles to programme is lying under the feet of Trinamool Congress (TMC) govt. Post
the capitalist development of agriculture. In case of radical land reforms, ’47 role of Indian ruling class, the role of 34 years of LF govt., the role of 5-
the land with these landowners has to be accounted for. These people 6 years of TMC govt. have proved that radical land reform is only possible
may have grabbed the 30 lakh acres of land as calculated by Binoy by rejecting the parliamentary path and marching along revolutionary path.
Chowdhury. To build a revolutionary peasant struggle in West Bengal we
But still there are few questions as well as confusions among some
have to conduct a land and agricultural investigation campaign and march
progressive intellectuals and revolutionaries. Some of them think that in
forward. If we don’t conduct any survey and do a class analysis we should
the last fifty years since Naxalbari a fundamental change has taken place
never be able to carry forward the revolutionary peasant movement. We
in agrarian relations in India. They want to say that in the agrarian field
shall never forget the teaching of Com. Mao ‘Land investigation campaign
semifeudal –precapitalist relationship is no longer in dominant position, the
is a violent class struggle’. Land investigation is not land distribution but it
dominant relationship is capitalist with few remnants of feudalism (backward,
is part and parcel of revolutionary peasant war.
halfbaked, distorted capitalism- they like to call them). Few organizations
The Naxalbari peasant struggle considered agrarian revolution as the that support Naxalbari are also saying this and in the very beginning of this
axis, brought forward the programme of radical land reform by opposing write up I have said that they ‘are gradually becoming comfortable in playing
parliamentary path and raised high the flag of armed revolution. To undermine the role of junior partner of CPI-CPM led front. Another section of them is
this movement, Mr. Shyamal Chakraborty, leader of CPM in ‘Deshiteshi’ restricting itself to few workers mohallas or are on the verge of extinction’.
has thrown tonnes of false allegations at the leaders of that movement. Still we shall try to analyse their position and try to understand the
Lets quote some of its gems: ’The leaders of Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling socioeconomic perspective of Naxalbari movement in present context.
district were Charu Majumdar, Souren Bose, Kanu Sanyal, Jangal Santhal While criticizing Proudhon, Marx in a letter wrote that capitalism
etc. Kanu Sanyal & his team were working in Naxalbari area. During represents a specific social relationship and Com. Lenin said 'Capitalism
Congress regime they were not found to carry out any programme. But represents a specific relationship between two groups of people, their
when United Front govt. was formed suddenly they became very active.’ relationship remains same independent of the position of the classes under
Those who have any idea of political history of North Bengal peasant consideration in their higher or lower condition of development.’ Therefore
movement are aware that since days of Tebhaga movement in fifties, Com. one cannot construct an imaginery theory in the field of agriculture in India
Charu Majumdar, Com. Kanu Sanyal had built struggles, fought against by forgetting this Marxist Leninist understanding.
oppression and were arrested several times. What was the magic weapon
with which Com. Charu Majumdar and Com. Kanu Sanyal were armed that In search of capitalist relationship in agriculture of India, distinguished
could suddenly mobilize thousands of peasants in Naxalbari. It was nothing economist Mr Ashok Rudra started his seminal work in 1969-70 post
but their painstaking work with the magic weapon of Mao Ze Dong thought. Naxalbari. After survey in 261 big farms he concluded- ‘The changes which
The cock & bull story of this renegade proves CPM's political dishonesty. have taken place are essentially quantitative changes within the previously
34 years after Naxalbari, people of West Bengal saw the LF govt rule. existing production relationship & class structure.’ In 1969 another famous
CPM led Left Front came to power talking about giving relief to people. economist, Utsa Patnaik, surveyed 66 farms of 10 districts from 5 states
For 34 years we saw their real face and utter failure of their land reform of India and concluded in her book ‘Capitalist development in agriculture’-
programme. We have seen the tragic end of their political marriage with ‘A new class of capitalist farmers are flourishing; Inspite of variability in its
rural riches and reactionaries. In ‘80s when we were students and used to intensity in different areas the extent to which the force of expanding market
critcise Left front government, at that time student-youth supporters of & expanding profitability are influencing to that extent it has become the
CPM used to tell us that they were building Left front government and general characteristics of those areas.’ In this debate on capitalist

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development in agriculture, Prof. Amit Bhaduri & Prof. Sau expressed Historically wage labour as relation of exploitation was found in southern
different opinion in contradiction to Prof. Utsa Patnaik. By observing surplus Gaul in first century Roman empire but that cannot be described as capitalist
accumulation & re-investment in the agriculture of Punjab in ’60-'70s Utsa production relationship. Because wage labour can be involved into a
was certain about the development of capitalism in agriculture. But in 2007 capitalist production relationship under certain historical conditions. Whether
in her writing 'New data on arrested development of capitalism in indian the employment of wage labourer is intrinsically linked up with production
agriculture’, after seeing the condition of net investment she termed the of surplus value & the accumulation in a given historical stage in India is a
condition as captivity of capitalism in Indian agriculture. Some economists question which has to be answered from concrete data for India. Com Lenin
think that in globalized India semifeudalism is not possible but they while reviewing his understanding on the development of capitalism in Russia
commented, ’It is obvious that usury like semifeudalism is obstructing the said ’While we correctly defined the trend of development, we assumed
path of capitalism in agriculture’. Prof. Amit Bhaduri talked about four that the elements of capitalist agriculture has taken full shape in Russia
characteristics of ‘semifeudalism’ in eastern India particularly West Bengal- both in landlord farming and in peasant farming which seemed to have
a) Widespread non recognized sharecropping b) Permanent credit system given rise to a strong peasant bourgeoisie and therefore incapable of bringing
& moneylenders for small sharecroppers c) Characteristics of ruling class out a ‘peasant agrarian revolution’. He also said that the erroneous programme
in countryside: on the one hand they are the landowners on the other hand was not the result of fear of revolution but of an overestimation of capitalist
they are creditor to small tenants. d) The specific feature of rural ‘market’ development in agriculture.
where entry of small tenants is restricted & in this type of ‘market’, by
peculiar organization the small tenants are forced to participate in exchange. Over last three decades the share of wage labourer among agricultural
Later on we shall discuss this in globalized Indian agriculture. workforce has stagnated. Even in Punjab which is considered to be
agriculturally advanced the proportion of agricultural labour has declined
Prof. Amit Bhaduri in his article ’An analysis of semifeudalism in the significantly from 23.82% in 1991 to 16.30% in 2001. The likely reason
agriculture of eastern India’ said: Firstly the economic power of may be as the agricultural work is gradually becoming non profitable therefore
semifeudalism does not arise from the legalized right of property over land. the cultivators have attempted to reduce the cost of production by
The non recorded tenancy is one important aspect of this problem. The substituting family labour for hired labour.
other aspect is the role of creditor for the livelihood of tenants (other types
of fixed & variable capital). According to him the political movement of In a field study from rural Bengal we find ”many of the labourers who
land confiscation in this system, inspite of its economic legitimacy, is had taken wage advances had to accept rates lower than market wage
unlikely to be successful- till the usury system is abolished. Because due rate. These labours also had to work for longer hours at the market wage
to lack of effective capital poor peasants cannot cultivate and their land rate, which implies that they were working at lower than the market wage
goes back into the hands of semifeudal landlords. To uproot this semifeudal rate." (The Indian Journal of Labour Economics-Vol. 53, No-4, 2010 p-681-
system therefore land struggle has to be intimately related to struggle for 82) In a field study from Orissa by Ms.Mamata Swain we find that ’The
change of this exploitative system. Naxalbari struggle concluded the same. tenants, attached labourers and farm servants are exploited as interest
Terai Report rightly said that the revolutionary struggle for land confiscation rates charged either explicitly or implicitly are exorbitant, wages paid to the
must be combined with capturing of state power. workers are low and the minimum wage declared by the government is not
paid to the labourers. The labour tying arrangements are in total contrast to
According to Marx the characteristics of capitalist development in the free labour found in capitalist agriculture.’ (Journal of Social & Economic
agriculture are 1) The dominant & determining feature of produce is Development, Jan-June 2001, p-142) Therefore it is not enough to find
commodity 2) Free wage labour is the general form of labour. Marx also labourers who get their wages in terms of Rupees but we have to understand
said in capitalist production process ‘It produces not merely natural products under what condition these wage labourers labour. The above mentioned
but reproduces the production relation in which the former are produced’. field surveys have challenged the overall picture of development of free

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labour among the agricultural workforce. More field surveys are needed to family can meet 35% of their consumption expenditure from their total
reach a conclusion. But we have to remember that the development of free agricultural income. If the agricultural expenditure and wastage is added
wage labourer is a necessary condition for capitalist production relation to it then the income is much less. According to data by SASF, peasants
but not a sufficient condition. don’t have the surplus for savings therefore they are unable to carry out
expanded reproduction. Landowners owning more than 10 HA of land are
Recently Mr. Pratyush Chandra and many scholars have opined that ’in able to do so and they are only 0.52%.
rural India a staggering majority is dependent on wage labour’, they have
commented that ’much of the peasant community is directly linked to capital The dominant form of agricultural activity in India is small peasant type.
as part time or seasonal wage labour’. This wage labour income is mostly The share of animal husbandry, poultry & agricultural machinations are
coming from non-agricultural rural work not from agricultural employment. less. Those who have income in excess to their consumption own land
They have also said that it does not necessarily confirm capitalist more than 4 HA. In the second edition of ‘Capitalist development in Russia’
development in agriculture. Akhil Alha & Bijayata in ‘Recent developments Com. Lenin has shown from census of Russia that in 1897 the peasant
in farm labour availability in India & reasons behind short supply’ (Agricultural bourgeoisie in that country was 20%. He assessed them and said ’as to
Economic Research Review, 2011, Issue 2011) while discussing the broad their weight in sum total of peasant farming, in the total quantity of means
employment status for rural India said that in 1993-94 58% were self of production belonging to the peasantry, in the total amount of produce
employed, working on regular wages/salaries were 6.4%, casual labour raised by the peasantry, the peasant bourgeoisie are undoubtedly
were 35.6%. In 2009-10 it was 54.2%, 7.3% & 38.6% respectively. After predominant’ ‘they are the masters of contemporary countryside’. In India,
seeing income of rural population from non agriculture sector some scholars according to SAS, total farmer households possessing less than 2 hectares
are finding capitalism in agriculture of India. But what they fail to see is the of land are 90.4% & their share in total aggregate income of all the farmer
increase in ‘Nil holding’ from 1992 to 2002-03. Nil holding or zero holding households was only 68.4%. This shows that peasant bourgeoisie are not
means that there is no production in this type of holding. If there is no fulfilling the condition of capitalist development. Vakulbaranam (2010) has
cultivation of crops or a peasant leaves behind a land without cultivation noted increase in rural inequality from 1993-94 to 2004-05. He explained
then it is termed as nil holding. This happens when the production cost is this to be largely due to inequality between agrarian & non agrarian classes.
high, remuneration for produce is low or holdings are left aside then there The non agrarian classes who have enriched themselves during the period
is a nil holding. The number of nil holdings in all the provinces of India have are ’the rural professionals, moneylenders & absentee landlords’. How can
increased. There are 20-32% of nil holdings out of total land holdings. capitalism develop in a country over last few decades where predominant
Presently in Andhra Pradesh out of all the rural families nil holdings have surplus expropriating rural classes are not peasant bourgeoisie? To
increased from 37% to 67%, in Kerala from 6% to 39%, in Tamilnadu from understand capitalism in Indian agriculture the production of surplus value
36 to 67%, in West Bengal from 14 to 30%. If we analyse the detailed and its accumulation shows that even 40 years after the study by Prof.
reasons behind these nil holdings then we shall understand why the share Ashok Rudra & of Prof. Utsa Patnaik, the capitalists in Indian agriculture
of rural workforce comes mainly from non agricultural sector. The increase are still not the master of the countryside and in the context of the change
in nil holding and the increase in share of non agricultural income of rural in the production relation it is still quantitative in nature.
population are intimately related. The issue of nil holding reflects the crisis
in agriculture of India and not necessarily capitalist production relationship. Another point to be noted in the context of commodity production is the
difference between production for the market and a product turning into
Another condition for the development of capitalism in agriculture is commodity due to distress sale where a poor farmer is compelled to sell
that the dominant form and characteristic of the product is ‘commodity’. his product in a market. In Indian market a large number of peasants are
According to SASF report of NSS 88% of peasant families under survey compelled to sell their product due to distress which may be described as
are indebted or families with deficit. It has been shown that an average forced marketization in a interlocking market. How can this be equated

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with capitalist commodity production in agriculture? is inversely proportional to the degree of development of capitalist
production’. Still some political forces conclude, as the non institutional
Marx while discussing usurious capital has shown, ’This usurers capital lending is not the dominant mode of production rather the share of bank is
impoverishes the mode of production, paralyses the productive forces more therefore therefore the dominant mode of interest bearing capital is
instead of developing them, and at the same time perpetuates the miserable capitalist in nature. These ‘scholars’ failed to see the Arhatias in Punjab &
conditions in which the social productivity of labour is not developed at the Haryana who are the commission agents in grain markets. Anita Gill
expense of labour itself, as in the capitalist mode of production’. He also characterized them by the following description: The study revealed the
said that ’The distinguishing feature of interest bearing capital, so far as it dominant position of moneylender in a new guise- that of a commission
is an essential element of capitalist mode of production, from usurers agent, who interlinked the credit market with the output market. Singh et al
capital is by no means the nature or character of capital itself. It is merely in 2005 showed the purpose of borrowing was unproductive in 59% cases
the altered condition under which it operates and the transformed character and was highest (71%) among marginal farmers. If one follows the role of
of the borrower who confronts the moneylender who is in his capacity Arhatias in Punjab one shall find how ridiculous it is to find capitalism in
industrialist or merchant and can appropriate unpaid labour with borrowed agriculture by stamping the dominant interest bearing capital in rural India
capital.’ Where the borrower is a small peasant, artisan or even a small as capitalist in nature.
capitalist farmer who is equivalent to a self employed personnel there interest
bearing capital bears the feature of Usury capital as discussed by Marx. In Analysing the amount and source of indebtedness by size of holdings –
the last 3 decades of past 50 years it is being seen that the usurious loan out of 83.9% of total households possessing upto 2 HA of land, 79.9% of
is gradually increasing & in most of the cases the borrowers are small them are indebted. 49.7% of their loans are from non institutional agencies
peasants. The debt investment survey shows that between 1991 to 2002 (SASF, 2003). G S Bhalla in his book ‘Condition of Indian peasantry’ has
the share of moneyholders in the total dues of rural households increased stated that 42.3% of total loans are from money lenders & non institutional
by 75%. Since economic reforms in 1990 Indian state is gradually restoring sources. 35.6% of loans are from banks. The cause of increase in the
the non institutional moneylenders. In August 2007 RBI technical group bank’s share is due to nationalization of bank & a rule of minimum18% of
concludes that, ’There is a case for looking at the possibility of leveraging share of loan from bank among farmers. P. Satish (in Agricultural credit in
the presence of moneylenders who continue to operate despite century the Post Reform era EPW, June 2007) has given the data of increase in
long efforts by policy makers to find substitute for them.’ Mr Mihir Shah share of moneylenders among rural households to the tune of 75% (from
warned about these moneylenders in EPW, April 2007. He said these 17.5% to 29.6%) by stopping institutional credits to rural poor.
moneylenders are in a strong position to undervalue collaterals & that the The Indian government sponsored imperialist penetration in agriculture
collateral which a rural borrower can offer is future harvest, future labour not only created a vast potential market for industrial capital in India with
service or the right to use already encumbered land. According to SASF fertilizer, pesticide, farm machinery & HYV seeds. It also helped to manage
estimate & AIDIS reports, 49% peasant households are indebted. AIDIS food crisis & low yielding agriculture & keeping the value of labour power or
reports suggest that interest on rural institutional debts come to an average social wage at lower range. This created a newer class alignment of forces
of 15% & 30% and above for non institutional. The calculation shows the in rural area with landlord trader moneylender nexus as a social base for
interest payment on farmer debt would be over Rs. 2 lakh crores. Considering imperialist investment in agriculture without any fundamental change in
average rate of interest to be around 21% peasants' interest payment comes existing structure of agrarian economy. They are exploiting the major surplus
to around 41 thousand crores. This figure of interest payment is clearly from agriculture.
greater than gross investment in agriculture and five times its net
investment. Com. Lenin in ‘Development of Capitalism in Russia’ treated the problem
of development of capitalism in Russia exclusively from the standpoint of
Lenin mentioned that, ‘The independent development of merchant capital home market leaving aside data on foreign market & foreign trade. He said

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‘Consequently as applied to Russia the question to be answered is: Is
merchants' capital being linked up with the industrial capital? Are commerce CC Sta tement on R
Statement ecent
& usury disintegrating the old mode of production, leading to its replacement
by the capitalist mode of production or by some other systems?’ Com. Political Developments
Lenin mentioned that capitalism penetrates into agriculture particularly
slowly and in extremely varied form but the crux of the question is ‘Are International Developments
commerce & usury disintegrating the old mode of production, leading to its Growing Opposition to Trump in US
replacement by the capitalist mode of production or by some other Since his becoming US President, Trump has unleashed a reactionary
systems?’ He has shown the combining of rural bourgeois or independent agenda in the domestic policies. He had barred entry of citizens of seven
farmer carrying out commercial agriculture in varied forms (i.e. the combining Muslim countries, even those holding valid visas, a move since stayed by
of commercial agriculture with commercial and industrial enterprises). the higher judiciary. He has responded to this stay by ordering extreme
vetting for entrants from other countries. He has announced plans to
In case of India this feature is not only absent but the other probability
drastically reduce H1B visas which is going to seriously impact Indians
of 'some other systems’ are developing. Semifeudal, precapitalist forces
desiring to go to USA. He has also issued orders of deportation of those
combining with merchant & usury capital in connivance with imperialism
‘illegally’ living in the US. He has repeatedly announced that he would
and comprador capital are heading towards that ‘other system’. This ‘some
expedite building of a wall along the border with Mexico. He has threatened
other system’ is the semifeudal agriculture of India encircled by neo colonial
that Mexico has to pay for building the wall lest he would recover the amount
exploitation nexus.That is why even after 50 years of Naxalbari we find the
by levying extra duties on imports from Mexico. All his anti-immigrant
growth of Indian agriculture in this sorry state. Indian ‘Kulaks’ are still
rhetoric and actions have created conditions in which hate crimes targeting
marginal or vacillating to the tune of imperialism and feudalism & pre
people from Asian and African countries including India are rising. Some
Indian origin persons have been killed in racial hate crimes. Modi Govt. is
Therefore the liberation of Indian peasantry is closely linked with the downplaying these attacks.
liberation of working class by breaking the yoke of imperialism, feudalism
Trump has announced repeal of what is called Obamacare jeopardizing
& comprador capital, advancing along the path of agrarian revolution. 50
over 20 million people’s health care. Trump came to power saying that he
years ago Naxalbari struggle taught us this lesson soaked with the blood
would challenge the Wall Street and Washington establishment. However,
of glorious martyrs.
he has filled his defense, intelligence and foreign affairs setups with retired
top military officers and he has packed all his economic affairs and civilian
ministries with people linked to Wall Street and corporate world. His domestic
policies represent renewed offensive against the working people. In foreign
affairs he has reneged on the US commitment to two state solution of
Palestine problem. He has issued threats against Iran and China. However,
his talk of forging close ties with Russia has not seen any initiative. His
talk of offensive against what he calls Islamic terrorism has not been
articulated into policy positions. His authorization of air raids in Yemen
resulted in casualties. Established leaders of both the parties have only
one main difference with Trump i.e. his attitude to Russia and it is too early
to draw conclusions on this as Trump throughout his life has proved to be
a rank opportunist. Anyway Trump's pronouncements are a bundle of

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contradictions mirroring the web of contradictions in which US imperialism press has been opposed to his campaign. In fact his tirade against the
finds itself entangled. Trump’s victory is a pre-emptive strike by the big press shows his intolerance towards any view opposed to his views. Ruling
bourgeoisie against the growing resentment and anger among the working class media is trying to portray through relentless propaganda that he got
masses and even middle classes. Lest this anger is channelized into elected due to massive shift of white working class votes from Democrats
challenge to neo-liberal policies and eventually to capitalism, big bourgeoisie to Trump. But the election figures show that white working class votes
have, through Trump platform, tried to divert it into a racist platform targeting shifting from Democrats mostly went to third and fourth candidates and
immigrants from third world countries, into militarism flaunted as US very few opted for Trump while there was lack of enthusiasm in minority
supremacism and generally into a platform representing attacks against voters particularly among African Americans. This propaganda is launched
different sections of the people. This ultra rightist offensive in a number of to push Democratic Party further to the right while the voting figures pointed
countries is the ruling class response to deepening economic crisis, rising out growing alienation of Democratic Party from working class and
social inequalities and growing restiveness and anger among the people. minorities.
This ultra rightist offensive is supported by the ruling classes which has
shifted the political spectrum to the right in a number of countries by Trump’s reactionary, pro-corporate and anti-immigrant actions have given
portraying the choice as between this and its alternative of status quo. rise to widespread protests. A very large women’s rally and daily protests
have galvanized the people while Republican members of Congress are
Ascent of Trump to Presidency is a result of very deep crisis of US feeling the heat from their electorate. People’s protests are rising and there
imperialism because of deepening contradictions of its economy and is renewed interest in left politics as figures of growing numbers joining
catastrophic military aggressions in Afghanistan and Iraq. Imports of reformist left outfits show.
consumer goods made through relatively labour intensive production
processes have increased while exports of high technology products have Russia Increases its Footprints in Different Parts of the World
not kept pace with resultant growing trade deficit. US wants to browbeat
Even as Trump Admn. is reviewing its policy towards Russia, Russian
other countries into importing more of US high value goods and services.
Govt. is engaged in enhancing its role in the different regions of the world.
In this the globalization process which gained speed after unipolar world
On 20th December, 2016, Foreign and Defense Ministers of Russia, Iran
came into existence since first Gulf War, is seen as an impediment. Hence
and Turkey met in Moscow to discuss the situation in Syria. The three
a section of the big bourgeoisie is targeting the globalization as per the
countries agreed to the cease-fire between Govt. of Syria and rebel groups
rules framed in that period. Trump’s annulling the TPP and opposition to
barring Islamic State and Al Nusra (now changed to Fateh al-Sham). This
other trade pacts is part of this design as his Admn. wants to extract more
cease-fire was guaranteed by Russia, Iran and Turkey. The importance of
concessions from the countries seeking market access in USA. In the
this meeting lay in the fact that America and Saudi Arabia were excluded
international sphere, the difference of approach within ruling sections in
from it and thus from determining the future of Syria. Cease-fire proclaimed
US is the attitude towards Russia as one section represented by Trump
by the parties has been tenuous yet it is holding. It has been followed by
wants to wean away Russia to disrupt emerging Russia-China alliance. But
joint air campaign by Russia and Turkey against the Islamic State. This
this stance is running into problem as Europe continues to be the centre of
initiative marked increasing marginalization of the United States and
contradiction between Western alliance and Russia. Concessions to Russia
increasing isolation of Saudi Arabia. Russian military intervention in Syria
in Europe are seen to be disruptive of the US influence in that vital region
and military successes of Assad led Syrian Army supported by Iran and
which is still the largest producer of goods and services in the world.
Hezbollah, have not only changed the ground situation in Syria but also the
Trump’s election saw serious spin given to political upheavals in the political situation in the Middle-East. A day before this meeting in Moscow,
developed capitalist countries. He was touted as the anti-establishment Russian Ambassador to Turkey was killed in Turkish capital Ankara. Turkish
candidate though he has been part of US elite. His campaign was given media laid the blame of this killing at the doorstep of the Western intelligence
extensive press coverage though it is made out that mainstream corporate agencies. However, the killing could not stop the meeting nor cause

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estrangement in the growing relations between Turkey and Russia. Russia does not want Turkey to monopolize the region. This has put Kurds
in a serious situation. They too are trying to negotiate with Russia. Areas
The ceasefire has been followed by talks between representatives of under Syrian Kurds face existential threat from Turkey. Hence, Kurds would
the rebel groups and the Govt. of Syria in Astana (Kazakhstan) beginning like to maintain a line with Russia and would like Russian backed Govt. to
January 23. Though US Admn. was not first invited, after Trump became act as a buffer between Turkey controlled and Kurd led SDF controlled
President, invitation was extended and a representative of US too areas. After capture of Al-bab by Turkey, Kurds would not like to lose
participated. Whatever the progress achieved in the negotiations, it marked Manbij to Turkey. These rising contradictions will play a very important
advent of Russia as the main interlocutor in Middle-East. Though this round role in the emerging battle against IS for the vast areas it controls in Syria.
of negotiations is to be followed by another one under the auspices of UN
in Geneva, Russian domination over the process remains. Russia is also trying to increase its influence in Libya, the country which
was a victim of regime change engineered by western imperialist powers in
Turkey’s rulers have readjusted their stance seeing the growing military the wake of Arab Spring. In the aftermath of western intervention, Islamist
success of Russian military intervention. Govt. of Turkey has changed its groups had grown in Libya and are controlling different parts of the country.
stance of seeking removal of Assad from power to admitting that Assad is Western powers had cobbled together coalitions between pro-West forces
a necessary party to any discussion on the future of Syria. In brief, it and some Islamist groups to rule the country. There has been a bitter
amounts to Turkey seeking to further its interests under the new situation struggle for control over the oil rich eastern region and capital Tripoli in the
of Russia dominated Syrian landscape. Unwilling to commit its ground shifting sands and alliances in Libya. With the fall of Morsi Govt. in Egypt
troops to Syria, United States increasingly relied upon Northern Syrian and assumption of power by military under Al-Sisi, Libyan army units have
Kurds to fight the Islamic State. This befriending of Syrian Kurds by the regrouped under Khalifa Hifter (calling themselves Libyan National Army)
United States has infuriated Turkish rulers who see any strengthening of and have started controlling some parts of the country. Egyptian Army has
Kurds in Syria as emboldening Kurd forces in Turkey. Turkey has reached conducted air raids against the Islamist groups in Libya.
an agreement with Russia under which Turkey has been allowed to capture
Syrian town Al-Bab. Under this agreement Turkey is allowed to control the Three forces are controlling different regions in Libya. Western imperialist
area north of Aleppo Manbij road in exchange of withdrawal of its support powers have forged a coalition of sorts to run the country. This Govt. of
to rebels in Eastern Aleppo which hastened the fall of Eastern Aleppo. National Accord (GNA) includes pro-West individuals and some Islamist
Turkish Army has entered Northern Syria not to let Kurd forces in Northern forces which control Misrata and some other centres. Different Islamist
Syria join their north eastern areas with Azrin Enclave in Northwest. The groups control capital Tripoli and some more cities. Rebel Army General
operation, called “Euphrates Shield”, aims to evict Kurd forces from west Hifter has gained control over some parts of eastern Libya. Over recent
of Euphrates and thus not let them approach the borders of Turkey. As war past Russia has moved closer to Egypt and has also extended support to
in Syria has become a global war, battlefront Al-Bab encapsulates the main Hifter. On January 11, Hifter was flown abroad a Russia Aircraft Carrier
adversaries in the Middle-East- Russia backed Syrian Govt. to the west, that had anchored off Libya’s eastern coast, where he held a video
Turkey in the north, US backed Kurd forces in the East and Islamic State conference with Russian Defense Minister. Russia is aligning with Egyptian
in the South. Thus the battle to force IS from the areas it controls military rulers and Algerian Govt. to increase its influence. The three held
encapsulates sharp struggle between world and regional powers. several meetings with different Libyan factions to reach a political settlement
which would include Hifter. This threatens to undermine the deal signed in
While Russia and Turkey are co-operating and US and Turkey are December 2015 on the initiative of the UN.
following divergent strategies in Syria, their contradictions are intensifying.
Kurd forces which are being supported by US are not a substitute for Turkey In Arab world, western powers are torn between targeting Islamist groups
as an important power in the region and US is trying to sort out their while simultaneously promoting and shielding some of them. US imperialism
differences. On the other hand while giving entry to Turkey in North Syria, has faced further erosion of support in the region with Muslim Brotherhood

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forces making peace with Russia. Turkey’s collaboration with Russia and has already taken off. There are plans to merge Russia’s Eurasian Economic
recent deals signed by Qatar with Russian oil and gas giant, Resneft, show Union (EEU) with CPEC thereby leading to convergence of the interests of
the changing alignment in the Middle-East. The two groups i.e. Turkey led the two important powers of Asia and roping in a number of Central Asian
MB forces and Saudi Arabia & Gulf monarchies which were jostling for republics as part of it. Modi led Indian Govt. has opposed CPEC in the
influence under US umbrella, are charting their own separate courses. name of its passing through PoK. It got the SAARC summit in Pakistan
cancelled to avert the proposal of making China a member of SAARC to
Another important meeting held in Moscow towards the end of December which all other SAARC members had already agreed. India has now virtually
2016 was on the future of Afghanistan. The meeting, attended by disowned SAARC, replacing it with BIMSTEC but these countries too are
representatives of Russia, China and Pakistan, was the third of a series. drawing close to China primarily due to economic reasons because of the
Of particular significance is the absence of any US Govt. representative in readiness and ability of China to invest in these countries.
the meeting. US has over 10,000 troops stationed in Afghanistan. Obama
Admn. had sent 300 more from Marine Corps to augment its military force. Neighbouring country Nepal is going through deep turmoil. The ruling
Moscow meeting marked a cementing of a tie-up between Russia, China classes of Nepal are torn between the demand for operationalizing the
and Pakistan in the region. Russia has moved away from India and towards Constitution by holding elections and accommodating the demands of
Pakistan and in this, open alignment of Modi Govt. with US Admn. and Madhesis, a contradiction which has assumed the added dimension of
Israel has played an important part. It is reported that at the Heart of Asia growing contradiction between US supported India and China. Prachanda
Conference (Istanbul Initiative) held in Amritsar on December 3 & 4, 2016, Govt., which was brought to power by India, has made no headway towards
the Russian representative termed Indian allegations against Pakistan as solution while CPN(UML) is increasingly mounting pressure against
baseless. In the next meeting held in February 2017 on Afghanistan, Constitutional amendment. While demands of Madhesis are democratic,
representatives of Govts. of Afghanistan, India and Iran also participated. Modi Govt.’s blatant interference in the internal affairs of Nepal has turned
Afghanistan had protested its exclusion from the earlier talks and India vast sections of the people against Indian Govt.
had sent Ajit Doval to Moscow to seek invitation to this meeting. Moscow
Summit characterized Taliban as a force against Islamic State which,
Rising Struggles of the People in Different Countries
according to the participants in the summit, is gaining ground in People’s struggles against neo-liberal policies and reactionary racist,
Afghanistan. Russian spokespersons have recently repeated this stand on xenophobic and anti-immigrant attacks are growing. These struggles are
Taliban on several occasions. targeting the more reactionary sections of the ruling classes. Such
movements are increasingly taking students and youth in their sweep. A
In view of Trump Admn. signalling only ‘conditional’ support to NATO,
pro-struggle mood is building in developed capitalist countries, the rising
many European countries have elected Govts. which are for accommodating
strength of the racist, fascist forces notwithstanding.
Russian interests. Even in France and Italy, major parties are for removing
sanctions against Russia. On the other hand, several European countries Due to rising anger among the people, there is growing rebellion in social
are hiking their defense budgets. democratic parties for articulating the issues of the people. Jeremy Corbyn
in England, Hammon in France, Schutz in Germany and the rising profile
South Asia : Growing Turbulence of Bernie Sanders in US are forcing these ruling class parties in imperialist
countries in that direction. Though other sections of ruling classes are
The coming together of Russia, China and Pakistan has important
supporting more rightist, fascist organizations, the former trend has gained
portents for South Asia. It shows that Modi Govt.’s efforts to isolate Pakistan
some strength.
in international fora have failed. China has laid out its “one belt one road”
outreach for the countries of the region promising big investments. China Among the revolutionary communists, in Nepal Prachanda led UCPN(M)
Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) with estimated $ 46 billion investment has turned into a revisionist party and lost prestige among the people of

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Nepal. Organization led by Com. Kiran is in the process of working out its The declared objectives behind demonetization have been diversionary
steps in the present scenario while they oppose the neo-revisionist tactics of the Govt. Black money, fake currency and ‘terrorist’ funding
Prachanda section. Section led by Com. Biplab, though enjoying the support were never the real reasons behind demonetization and facts prove it amply.
of youth cadre, is also only in the process of formulating a coherent policy Demonetization was done to restore the health of public sector banks which
framework. In Colombia, where FARC has reached an agreement with the have been hit by large scale NPAs. It was to augment money supply to the
Govt., the ELN (subscribing to Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought) banks as well as to reduce the liability of banks. It was hoped by the Govt.
has not reached any agreement with the Govt. In Philippines, the ceasefire that notes that are not deposited back would cease to be the liability of the
between CPP led NPA and Govt. of Philippines has broken down on the banks and relief could be given to corporate by waiving off their bad debts
question of the release of leaders of the revolutionary movement. This and also giving fresh loans. However notes largely came back and this
shows that while revolutionary forces may negotiate with the ruling expectation of the Govt. was belied. Further, with the demand further
dispensation they do not compromise the basic interests of the people. plummeting and growth rate going down, there is a danger of accumulation
Revolutionary communist forces in other countries are participating in the of more NPAs. The second objective of the Govt. was to increase the tax
rising struggles of the people though they are not able to make decisive collection by widening the tax net. Successive Govts. have been talking of
impact yet on these struggles. European ML forces are supporting rights this and now Modi Govt. through demonetization and promotion of cashless
of immigrants in their own countries and opposing attacks against economy is targeting large sections particularly middle classes engaged in
immigrants. informal sectors for tax collection. Another objective of Modi Govt. has
been to lower the interest rate of banks. Moreover, Modi Govt. is trying to
National Developments increase the business of corporate engaged in payment business, largely
foreign owned MNCs. It amounts to a percentage of the value of the goods
Demonetization - Attack against the people and services going to these companies contributing to their profits and
At the time of last CC meeting, Modi Govt. had launched its serious increasing the burden on the people.
offensive against the people in the form of demonetization. We had passed Demonetization was a huge exercise by the Govt. to hoodwink the
a resolution on this in the last meeting. People faced a lot of hardships people, to attack them while portraying this as an attack against rich people.
with over a hundred dying standing in the queues. The economic activity This was a very large scale deception practiced on the people by the vested
slumped and now it is estimated that the growth rate, even according to interests in whose interests Modi Govt. took this step. It was a sort of
new method of calculation, will be just above 6%. Crores of workers fascist exercise where people are mobilized on false pretexts while
particularly daily wage workers lost their jobs, even the small industries unleashing attacks on them. It did not become an issue before the people
closed. Peasants faced enormous difficulties as lack of cash coincided because the opposition ruling class parties were not willing to make it so
with agricultural operations in large parts of the country. The opposition nor were willing to organize people’s protests against this.
sections of ruling classes mostly hailed the step as correct but faulted its
execution or management. Opposition ruling class parties were not willing Union Budget 2017-‘18
to make this an issue among the people. Moreover they are not willing to
speak about its pro-corporate and anti-people character. Among the ruling Union Budget showered further concessions on the MNCs and corporate
class parties TMC for whatever reason, opposed it among the people. AAP and increased economic burdens on the people. There are no measures for
criticized it earlier on, but later kept largely silent. CPI(ML)-New Democracy addressing unemployment and the problems being faced by agriculture
consistently opposed demonetization and exposed the real motives behind and industries. Industrial production is stagnant and whatever growth has
this Govt. move. Party units took up a number of programme. However, we been registered in agriculture is due to favourable weather conditions. Budget
could not build a real people’s movement against this pro-corporate measure. also neglected health, education and social sectors.

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Govt. has used demonetization to lower interest rates whose main inflows. The whole strategy of the Govt. is to depend on FDI particularly in
beneficiaries will be foreign and domestic corporate. While corporate are the face of declining private investment in the country.
given huge tax exemptions and loan waivers there is no waiver of the loans
for peasants, agricultural labourers, small businesses and other sections Abolition of separate budget for the railways has coincided with
of poor people. Finance Minister has also not addressed the question of abdication of responsibility towards this public carrier. The Budget banks
rising NPAs of the Public Sector banks which have reached over 12% of on privatization for providing the funds for investment. In the recent years
their total lending. there has been gross neglect of maintenance including of tracks resulting
in increasing accidents and declining quality of service.
The projected increase in revenue by 17% even while the growth rate is
projected by the Govt. to be between 6.75 to 7.5% is due to increasing the Union Budget also neglected the growing crisis of health care delivery
tax burden on the people. The increase in indirect taxes will only increase system. There is no emphasis on improving the peripheral health care
the burden on the people and fuel increase in the prices of essential centres. Similarly, education too has been neglected. Mr. Jaitley has talked
commodities. The Finance Minister has called Indians as non-tax compliant of increasing autonomy of the educational institutions while every day the
and India having one of the lowest tax/GDP ratios. This however hides the Govt. interference in their affairs is increasing. Modi Govt. has cut down
fact that while between more than half or nearly two third of the tax collections funding for basic scientific research and it depends more and more on
in developed countries are spent on social sectors, in India this expenditure foreign sources for bringing in new technology and improvements.
is virtually miniscule. Jaitley has made a mockery of addressing the question of funding of
There is large increase in the credit flow to agriculture while peasants the political parties. Reduction of the permissible limit of individual
are sinking deeper into debt burden and peasants’ suicides owing to them contributions to Rs. 2000 will be as meaningless as the earlier one. Nexus
are continuing. There is no attempt to address the causes of this increasing between corporate and ruling parties is at the root of political corruption
indebtedness of peasantry; there is no attempt to lower the prices of inputs which has not been addressed in the present Budget.
and no announcement for remunerative prices of the produce. This increased Assembly Elections in Five States
flow of rural credit will only help the landlords and other rural rich who
corner these loans and further give them to small peasants on exorbitant Elections are continuing for the assemblies in five states. Of these,
rates. On the other hand, Mr. Jaitley has announced the Govt.’s intention elections in Punjab, Uttarakhand and Goa have been completed. Four of
of promoting contract farming which is another name for bringing in corporate the seven phases of UP elections have been completed while elections in
agriculture and depriving the peasants of their land and agriculture and Manipur have yet to take place. Some important features of these ongoing
makes them labourers on their own land. elections are—Elections are dominated by Money, Media and Muscle power.
Basic issues of the people do not become the agenda of elections because
In his Budget Speech, Finance Minister has declared the Govt.’s intention
of overarching importance of print and electronic media controlled by
to carry through anti-worker changes in labour laws doing away with the
corporate and absence of very sharp and overwhelming people’s struggle
rights of workers. This is yet another effort to bring in FDI to exploit the
to overcome this ‘censor’. Even when some people’s issues are allowed to
lower wages to labour in the country. There are no measures to address
seep into the election process, the same are projected when raised through
the crisis faced by the textile industry which is one of the biggest employers
the parties which the ruling classes patronize. For example, the same issues
in the country. There are no measures for the workers employed in
when articulated by revolutionary left are ignored but when taken by AAP
construction industry and other sectors of economy which are facing
are given wide publicity. Obviously AAP raises these issues emasculating
stagnation or where growth rate has slowed down.
them of their class content. Ruling classes monopolize not only the ruling
Even the so-called emphasis on infrastructure is mainly to rope in private and parliamentary opposition parties but also the right to articulate 'change'
investment through PPP. Finance Minister has claimed an increase in FDI and project only the parties they consider their own.

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Another important aspect of the elections is continuing decline of section. However, the issues of rural poor- landless, poor and even middle
Congress Party. It is not able to even benefit from the lapses of the ruling peasants, workers and even middle classes do not find mention in ruling
party. It gives the picture of a party in terminal decline with totally inept class parties’ leaders’ speeches.
leadership. Further, Congress used to be always the main party of the
ruling elite, the dominant sections of society. But these sections have These elections, particularly in UP, are bound to have a big impact on
deserted the Party and joined the BJP. The main opposition to RSS-BJP is the ruling class politics in the country. Modi led RSS-BJP’s efforts to secure
provided by the regional parties of the ruling classes. majority in Rajya Sabha and thereby control the legislative process would
suffer a serious setback if it is defeated in UP. A Bihar style verdict may
In Punjab people appeared to be determined to overthrow Akali-BJP undermine the leadership of Modi within RSS-BJP as well. However, victory
Govt. for its sponsoring drug, sand, transport Mafia, for monopolizing all of BJP would give its fascist campaign a big boost. The preceding four
aspects of economic activity, for dictatorial attitude towards the people rounds of elections have not yet produced a clear winner in popular
and their organizations. Congress would have been the natural beneficiary perception though all ruling class parties are claiming to be on road to
but for the advent of AAP which, despite throwing out a number of prominent victory. However, due to first past the post system of elections in India, in
leaders, continued to be the alternative to Akali Dal and Congress duopoly. multi-cornered contests, a minor swing of a few percentage points yields
Further Sikh youth have rooted for AAP due to their aversion to Congress disproportionately larger number of seats.
and disillusionment with Akalis. The large-scale turnout of Sikhs migrants
to western countries, particularly Canada and England, also shows Sikh CPI(ML)-New Democracy has fielded 10 candidates in Punjab and a
youth’s feeling of discrimination of Sikhs in Punjab and also an undercurrent candidate in UP. Party had conducted campaign to highlight anti-people
of pro-Khalistani feeling among a section of them. policies of the Govt. and undemocratic character of the electoral process.
Party also highlighted its own programme on the issues of the people.
In the most populous province of UP, the elections are being fought on Party called upon the people to vote NOTA where party candidate was not
the issues of law and order (BJP & BSP), on issue of secularism (SP- there.
Congress and BSP) and propagation of Hindu assertion (BJP) and atrocities
against Dalits (BSP). Besides law and order which is largely giving unbridled Increasing Attacks in Educational Institutions
power to police, the other main issues of people are not being projected by
the main ruling class parties. While people have suffered from Attacks by Modi Govt. against dissent in the institutions of higher
demonetization and its effects on workers of informal sectors and peasants learning are continuing. RSS affiliate, ABVP, has emerged as the fascist
including agricultural labourers with declining employment, peasants have storm troopers of the present Govt. in this respect. They are browbeating
suffered from pending dues of the sugar mills and rising cost of agricultural the University authorities to take action against lecturers, holding divergent
inputs but these problems are not being articulated by the parties of ruling opinions and not permit even academic seminars and lectures painting the
classes. Land question is any way totally absent from their agenda. BJP speakers as anti-national. Recently a lecturer in Rajasthan was suspended
has adopted stringently communal tone even in Modi’s speeches, to for organizing a lecture by JNU professor, Nivedita Menon. In Ramjas
communally polarize the state as its agenda of development has been College of Delhi University, ABVP first forced the college to not allow a
drowned under two and half years of its rule. BSP has aggressively wooed panel discussion involving JNU student leaders, Umar Khaled and Sheila
Muslims to buttress its Dalit vote as upper castes particularly Brahmins Rasheed, and then attacked the protest march organized in protest against
whom it had courted in 2007 have deserted it. SP has aligned with Congress this cancellation. Students and teachers participating in the March were
to consolidate Muslim votes (nearly 19%) and augment its vote share. beaten up with the help of Police. In fact support from the police and
However, Congress is in continuous decline and may benefit from alliance administration plays a very important role in promoting the activities and
with SP. Family feud within SP has also engaged the attention of the people attacks of these communal and fascist thugs. In case of Ramjas attack,
and may account for loss of some seats through the activities of disgruntled the role of police has been unmasked and even police officers have been

April, 2017 39 40 April, 2017
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forced to acknowledge it. Higher Education Under Attack:
There was an attempt to change the character of JNU by making the
admission solely dependent on interviews to be conducted by the people All Out Attempt for Privatization
to be selected by Govt. through the authorities appointed by them. When
this attempt did not succeed, JNU announced reduction in the number of M and Saffronization
Phil and Ph D seats in JNU. The intent of dismantling JNU is quite obvious.
But the attack is not limited to JNU but is unfolding in different educational Mrigank
institutions. These attacks are part of an orchestrated campaign against
right to dissent in the institutions of higher learning and are a part of overall Current Relevance
design to bring about fascist dictatorship in the country. Through ABVP,
Ever since Modi Government has taken over, Institutions of higher
RSS is trying to target the very left ideology which it considers its ideological
learning are under constant attacks. We saw in the case of FTII that a
enemy. These attacks necessitate a serious and broad-based resistance.
person who was a soft porn star and the only other known thing he had
Since advent of Modi Govt. RSS branches are increasing in different parts
done was the role of Yudhishtara in serial Mahabharata, was made President
of the country including in states like West Bengal.
of FTII. This sparked a long protest by the students. A group of students
There is greater emphasis on increasing commercialization and who made Ambedkar-Periyar Study Circle and discussed among many things
privatization of education, cut in the funds for institutions of higher education pro-imperialist economic policies, faced a ban which was lifted after country
and scientific research and restricting the access of students from common wide protests. Then came the Rohith Vemula incident followed by an outburst
background to these institutions. in the country exposing both caste and communal bias of the government
as well as its support to Pro-imperialist Education Policy. Country wide
Besides this campaign there have incidents of misuse of the draconian
protests fanned out, putting government on the back-foot. Even while this
law, UAPA which is being used against mass movements. Recently leaders
was going on, the famous JNU incident took place on 9th of February 2016.
of Bhangar movement have been charged under this law. Earlier, a leader
False propaganda, a ready machinery to blow it out of proportion and create
of Niyamgiri movement was similarly charged though the charge did not
a frenzy to cloud facts and rationality- the time tested methods of RSS
hold in the Court. While opposing RSS-BJP campaign, the anti-democratic
were in full swing and attempt was made to create an opinion that JNU is a
actions of other parties of ruling classes should also be vigorously opposed.
breeding ground of Anti-Nationals and should be shut down. There was an
Tamilnadu : Central Govt.’s machinations outburst of protest by democratic, patriotic people all over the country to
counter this. This was followed by many such incidents like in Haryana
Tamilnadu has witnessed a large movement against ban on Jallikattu
Central University, where staging of a play based on Mahashweta Devi’s
with students and youth participating in large numbers. This movement
story was made an issue to intimidate professors of English department.
showed growing agrarian distress and what is perceived by people of
In many places, Professors of JNU were bullied; in Jaipur, Jodhpur, BHU
Tamilnadu as discrimination by Central Govt. The real distress of the people
etc. similar incidents took place, the latest big one being in Ramjas College
got reflected in this movement against restriction on their tradition. For
where out of nothing a story and again a frenzy was created by ABVP
example removal of Pongal from the list of Central Govt. holidays is just
goons with the support of Police. These are not stopping and this list is not
an example of perceived grievances. This movement was followed by
comprehensive and it is growing.
machinations by RSS-BJP Govt. to increase space for itself in that state
after the death of Jayalalitha. Central Govt. tried to extract mileage by Similarly BJP-RSS is trying to place their people everywhere. JNU Vice-
pitting sections of ruling AIADMK against each other. Chancellor is an example, whose only contribution is that he organized a
Vigyan Chintan shivir of RSS in IIT Delhi and is shamelessly playing into
(Central Committee of CPI(ML)-New Democracy February 26, 2017)

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the hands of RSS. Gajendra Chauhan has been mentioned earlier, ex The first NDA government openly vouched for privatization. In 1998 in
cricketer and ex BJP MP Chetan Chauhan was given charge of National the UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education held at Paris, then
Institute of Design, an unknown face from Kakatiya university has been HRD Minister M.M. Joshi said, “Major efforts have been mounted for
made director of ICHR, Dinanath Batra advises on education contents. mobilization of resources and it has been recommended that while the
This list too is growing and the above are only a few glaring examples. government should make a firm commitment to higher education, institutions
of higher education should make efforts to raise their own resources by
There is an all out attempt to saffronize both content of education as
raising the fee levels, encouraging private donations and by generating
well as campuses. The content of education is being modified and at school
revenues through consultancy and other activities,..." “It is not only justifiable
level it has already begun in BJP ruled states. Distribution of saffron coloured
but desirable to raise money from private sources in order to ease pressure
bicycles in Rajasthan etc. are ways of doing the same.
on public spending.”
In the background of this saffronization is the pressure of implementing
It is in this background that the Birla-Ambani Report - “A Policy Framework
WTO agenda and other dictates, privatizing and commercializing entire
For Reforms in Education” appeared in 2000. This report sought to convert
education in India and converting education to a purely ‘commercial service’.
entire higher education into a profitable industry and recommended full
Cutting down of fellowships last year which triggered ‘Occupy UGC’ protest
cost recovery from students, education should be controlled by corporate
and then massive seat cuts, cuts in funds of universities as well as IITs,
and denial of any political activities including the usual Trade Unions. There
introduction of CBCS etc. are just steps in this direction. In fact the RSS-
was a wide opposition to this Report and Government could not dare to
BJP is bent upon completing these unfinished tasks of UPA government.
implement it openly.
This Government is proposing a new policy on education, although not out
formally, but the input document that has come out for suggestions is While there were protests worldwide and in India against provisions of
indicative enough of the intent. GATS. World Bank crept in with a vision document titled ‘Constructing
Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education’. It noted fierce
In the view of such recent attacks, we need to examine the issue today
opposition to GATS and proposed to formulate a long term goal for tertiary
in greater detail.
education. It proposed to mediate between private players, governments
Background and “The Bank can bring to the same table stakeholders who would not
normally converse and work together.”. A Model Act was proposed for all
It is worth noting that education has been considered as a profit making universities with single regulatory environment. As state funding is to be
service by WTO. It was estimated that global public spending in higher progressively reduced, it proposed financial incentives, open system of
education is about 1 trillion USD. Thus corporate sector jumped in to reap education, credit transfer, tuition exchange, education loans, creation of
profits in this, converting students to consumers, teachers to service virtual universities. Regulation should be only on some minimum entry
providers and institutions to companies. This also means that learning in quality and no other trade barriers should exist. Funds should be generated
university is no longer for nation building but merely a business for profit from the assets of Institutions, students, or third party.
making. GATS conceive of creating an open global market in all services
(including education, particularly higher education) and it should be done This prompted the NDA-I government to ask University Grants
without discrimination between domestic and foreign players for all Commission (UGC) to bring a Concept Paper in October 2003 entitled
commercial or business purposes. “Towards Formulation of Model Act for Universities of the 21 st Century in
India” with a view “to prepare the Indian University system for the future.”
This process was initiated by the UPA government. A prelude was there
even earlier when Rajiv Gandhi government changed the name of Ministry It says, “Indian Universities, like their counterparts elsewhere in the
of Education to Ministry of Human Resource Development. world, have been performing many additional functions now a days, e.g.,

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undertaking sponsored R&D and continuing education, providing knowledge- Well realizing that Model Act or direct submission to WTO dictates is
based advice and consultancy, preparation / publication of educational not possible as it will generate an outburst, Kapil Sibal brought a series of
material like books / study reports / research papers and extending services bills to achieve the same. It should also be noted that there were massive
to society. Of late, the worldwide advances, particularly in new Information fund cuts in higher education in USA, UK and Europe, following which
and Communication Technologies (ICT), are greatly influencing the there were many protest in these countries. There was lots of pressure on
University system in the country. However, major issues like size, access, India to ease out the pressure by opening it doors. An Indo-US Education
equity, relevance, quality and resource constraints continue to dominate Council was set up. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh issued a joint
the working of Indian Universities.” Since the “Universities are becoming statement with Obama in November 2009 to work together and launched a
complex institutions”, an appropriate strategy needs to be adopted “for Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative between the US and Indian
their governance, organization and management.” It further noted that “to universities. Kapil Sibal and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton met on
bring in some uniformity in the working of Universities” a Model Act 2 June 2010 in Washington. Appreciating Singh-Obama knowledge initiative,
framework is needed, so that the Universities accept the challenges of they noted “We need to establish a bi-national India-US Education Council
globalization to offer high quality education and other services in a having academics, entrepreneurs and government representatives as
competitive manner. The new Acts of Universities would be “flexible and members.” Sibal also mentioned the 14 Innovation Universities that were
responsive to rapid changes taking place in the society.” This will enable being set up in India and said, “The two nations could partner in setting up
India to “become competitive nationally and internationally” and help “India some of these Innovation Universities, one of which could be announced
to become a Knowledge Super Power by the year 2020.” it is easy to see during the proposed visit of President Obama to India later this year.” They
that 'society' means market and 'flexible' means adaptability to market also discussed the interest shown by US universities in establishing
needs. This government was desperate to bring this act in 2003 but it was institutions in India. Little later in 2010 UK Prime Minister David Cameron
blocked in Parliament. And in 2004 UPA took over. said: “Education is not just vital for national success, it is one of the best
growth businesses of the 21st century. I want us in Britain and India to
UPA-I committed in 2005 that it will fulfill it obligation as a WTO member pool some of our advantages for our mutual benefit.”
and will include education as service as per norms of GATS. Ministry of
Commerce (not HRD) issued a paper entitled “Higher Education in India This was when he visited India with a trade delegation. It was also
and GATS: An Opportunity”. It sought a balance between domestic regulation agreed that UK-India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI) will
and free trade. But GATS has identified barriers. Some of them are facilitate collaboration for the two nations to join hands to set up new
restrictions on free movement and nationality requirements of students institutes, increase skills development programmes, hold leadership
and teachers, immigration regulations, types of courses, movement of programmes and work on quality assurance of courses offered to students.
teachers, modalities of payments or repatriation of money, conditions
Government now tried to push the WTO-WB agenda formally but without
concerning use of resources, direct investment and equity ceilings,
announcing so. It brought 6 bills related to education ‘reforms’- it is another
existence of public monopolies, subsidies to local institutions, economic
matter that they lapsed.
need tests, exchange controls, non-recognition of equivalent qualifications,
etc. Ministry of Commerce wanted to remove these. The implications are 1) The Foreign Educational Institutions (Regulation of Entry &
not difficult to guess. It means allowing of foreign students and teachers Operations) Bill, 2010 : This Bill was meant to clear and facilitate Foreign
without restriction so that Indian institutes can provide a cheap education players in education to operate in India. It defines Foreign Educational
to them and employ visitors rather than Indians. There should be no control Institute (FEI) as “an institution established or incorporated outside India
on spending and generating resources, removal of subsidies and which has been offering educational services for at least twenty years in
reservations or other encouragements for deprived are to be done away the country (of its origin)... which offers educational services in India or
with. proposes to offer courses leading to award of degree or diploma or certificate

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or any other award through conventional method including classroom practice till now, they will not be created through an Act of Parliament but
teaching method not including distant mode in India independently or in through signing memoranda of agreement (MoA) between the central
collaboration, partnership or in a twinning arrangement with any educational government and the private promoters/ companies/ trusts/ foreign
institution situated in India.” It gives free hand to FDIs and only control by universities. They will be fully autonomous and not accountable to
a Central Government body. It also allows them to makes profit as long as Government. Only their fee structure, admission policy etc. have to be
they impart a degree. They are not to come under scrutiny of UGC. No there on website. Their disputes would be settled by an internal committee
affirmative action etc. are certain key points in this. and not even go to Education Tribune. Probably this was drafted as the
Foreign University Bill was finding it a bit difficult to be accepted. Notorious
2) The Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical Educational
Four Years Undergraduate Programme (FYUP) was an attempt in this
Institutions, Medical Educational Institutional Institutions and Universities
direction. FYUP was abolished by BJP government only to bring in its new
Bill, 2010.
avatar Choice Based Credit System (CBCS).
3) The Educational Tribunals Bill, 2010 : This bill envisaged setting up
It can be seen that the WTO Agenda was the actual background for
of education tribunes for any disputes in educational institute at state and
these bills. But these bills lapsed as there were obstructions in functioning
national level. Appeal of state level could be done only in national tribune
of Parliament at that time by then opposition party BJP. It is in this backdrop
which could be challenged only in Supreme Court. Thus an alternate redressal
that the New BJP led NDA-II government took over. It had unfinished tasks
system bypassing the normal right of challenging in courts was to be in
of previous government to fullfil to satisfy imperialist masters. Being more
place. It was to look into service matters, affiliation related issues and any
than willing to do so, with higher speed, intensity and under a cover of
unfair practices by institutes. Since the tribune will be appointed by the
nationalism- the Government and RSS flung into swift and intense action.
government, it will amount to seeking justice from the parties allegedly
Attempt is to change the debate to saffronization and nationalism and quietly
doing injustice.
push the neo-liberal agenda through.
4) The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Education
Institutions Bill, 2010. This Bill was a continuation of National Assessment The proposed New Education Policy too is an attempt in this direction.
and Accreditation Council (NAAC) established in 1994. It had certain criteria Though, Mr. Javadekar says it will take about a year to come out finally,
which would downgrade many state universities thus making a ground for the input document has imbibed all these lapsed billss into it.
lowering funding. What is interesting is that while there were only 36 deemed
Recent Assaults
universities till '80s, now this number has crossed 200 and mostly these
are private institutions. Saffronization
5) The Higher Education and Research Bill, 2010. Draft of this bill was
It has been the long cherished dream of RSS to change the content and
introduced and it sought to have heavy control of central body over Higher
direction of education to suit its ideology. As the crisis of imperialism
Education in Research. It was dead against federal structure. It also
grows and forces India to make education a service and open it to foreign
proposed to have a commission which will control everything with banking
players, such organizations grow as they have the ability to hide the real
and corporate background persons and will also guide the disbursal of funds.
agenda and engage people in chauvinist value driven activities. That is
Corporate control over state funds is not difficult to see. State Universities
precisely what is happening. RSS has started work in all campuses,
will have to struggle further.
particularity institutes of higher learning and centres of excellence. A Vigyan
6) The Universities for Innovation Bill, 2010, again a draft bill. This has Chintan Shivir was organized by Dr. M. Jagadesh Kumar in IIT-Delhi. It
provisions for establishing ‘Universities for Innovation” which will be was attended by RSS functionaries. As a reward Jagadesh Kumar was
established with full public funding, PPP or full private funding. Unlike the appointed new VC of JNU. They are organizing such shivirs all over the

April, 2017 47 48 April, 2017
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country. Recently an RSS backed organization Prajna Pravah organized a again by gradually ascribing their values to him.
Gyan Sangam. It was addressed by Mohan Bhagwat and attended by about
700 academicians including 51 vice chancellors of the country. J. Nand Communalization of campuses
Kumar, national convener of Prajna Pravah, said that there is lack of In January 2016, Additional DCP sent a letter to Jamia Millia Islamia
‘indianness’ (read Hindutva) in our education. He quoted Mohan Bhagwat - (JMI) to be marked to all HODs, Directors, Principals and administrative
“The exercise is not an alternative to the present educational system, which heads and security officers. It says that JMI is a soft target of millitant
is aping the West, but it is a real nationalist narrative to imbibe Bharatiya attacks and therefore unarmed security personnel deployed are not enough.
perspectives in it”. Mohan Bhagwat discussed how to create non- Armed police should be deployed and people should be sensitized to report
governmental autonomous academic system. With RSS backed people (or any stranger to armed security personnel. This is a way to target Muslim
people who succumbed to it) at the helm of all advisory or decision making youth in a ‘soft and concerned’ way.
bodies, the future of academics is not difficult to envisage. Obscurantism
will replace Science, myths will replace history, rationalism will be replaced At many Institutes Yoga is being made compulsory, and with it chanting
by obscurantism, nationalism will be as defined for upper-caste brahamanical of some mantras. In many schools, bhojan mantra is now chanted before
Hindu communal order, democracy and right to dissent will be replaced mid day meal. Many programmes are being held by so called religious
with dictate to agree, discussions will be replaced with discourses. leaders who are open supporters of RSS ideology like Baba(lala) Ramdev,
Ravishankar and even many of the pracharaks of RSS.
Change in content
There are attempts to change the content of education, wherever
possible. They have replaced many chapters in texts of school books, like Autonomy of colleges
the chapter on Nelson Mandela was deleted in Rajasthan, Gujarat has
changed the text to not only teach some negative aspects of Gandhi, but This is interesting that while government is centralizing the control over
also to include texts glorifying Nazism and Hitler. education, it is trying to give autonomy to colleges. Actually in the garb of
autonomy and freedom of colleges the intent is to commercialize and
There are attempts to change science. Baba Ramdev dictated to IIT to privatize education. St. Stephens College of Delhi University is the first
do research on the genetic code of Bull and a cow based agriculture. We example of the same. Despite majority opposing it in the College Body, it
had a special session on ‘Vedic Science’ at Indian Science Congress. was passed by management. Teachers have alleged that the push for
Dina Nath Batra advises doctors to raise medical science to the standard autonomy is a “sinister” move towards privatization of education.
of ancient India. Money is being withdrawn from the research in basic “Autonomous colleges will be asked to fund part of their expenditure, and
sciences. Rather Yoga institutes and courses are being financed. Gita Saar this will force colleges to introduce self-financing courses that are geared
has been introduced in MP. towards getting jobs. Students who study these courses will be forced to
take a loan as these ‘professional’ courses are more expensive. Traditional
Change in symbols pure science and humanities courses will be forced to take a backseat,”
said a teacher of English at DU.
The worst part are the attempts to change the symbols in a subtle but
well designed manner. Rajasthan Government distributed bicycles to girl Others have questioned how DU colleges can be forced to apply for
students aping the Bihar Goverment, but they were saffron coloured. RSS autonomy when the university is governed by the Delhi University Act,
functionaries are being glorified. Many of the novels of Premchand and which does not have a provision for granting autonomy to colleges. We
others were removed, replaced by those of some obscure authors. They have examples where teachers and students are reprimanded by private
are trying to hijack Bhagat Singh without reading him and hanging him managements for their opinions like in Ashoka University. Scope of dissent

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will also be further limited by such steps. JNU incidents are glaring examples. Then harassment of English professor
of Haryana Central University, insulting of many JNU teachers in different
Fee hike/reduction in Fellowships/funds/ faculty campuses like Gwalior, BHU etc. where they went to speak. Then Jaipur
Fees of various universities are being hiked. There was a cut in number and Jodhpur universities, trolling of many professors of JNU, recent Ramjas
of fellowships by UGC, which had spurred ‘Occupy UGC’ movement last incident, AMU incident etc. are other examples. There are more examples
year. There is shortage of teachers and even IITs, IIIMs are not unaffected of many such incidents and pointers to the future.
by this. As per records of HRD ministry, Institutes of Higher Learning face UGC and HRD Ministry are continuously issuing notifications to tighten
a shortage of 35% faculty. IITs have 39% posts vacant closely followed the grip of central control on education. Various things like Central
by Central Universities with 38%. If we take the case of Delhi University University Act, Central Syllabus, NEET, RUSA are steps in this direction.
the figure is 60%. Even UGC is not spared, its powers are curtailed and Government will
directly look into many matters. There is a proposal for a central testing
Budgetary allocation is on the decline, from about 4.4% of GDP in 1999
agency to conduct all entrance exams in the country.
to 3.7%. It is worth noting that developed countries where education system
is more mature and GDP is much higher, spend about 4.5% to 6% of GDP National Eligibility cum Entrance examination is now one centrally
on education. The first budget (2014-15) of current government saw a conducted exam for medical aspirants. It puts students from state board
decrease in allocation for education by Rs. 1134 crores. A further decrease at a disadvantage as there are different syllabii in different state boards.
of Rs. 3535 crores was there in 2015-16 and this year it is up by only RS.
1316 crores. It is a clear indication of the priorities of the government. RUSA is Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan started by MHRD. It
will decide norm based and performance based funding to different
De-democratization universities. Therefore a curtailment of funds is on the cards for state
universities. At the same time it also provides space for public funding of
In October 2016, in JMI when students decided to protest against the private institutions.
proposed visit of then HRD Minister, Smriti Irani, students were served
show cause notices. We have seen what happened in JNU or HCU. Spread Central University Act proposes to have a single central syllabus. This
a lie, build a story, create a frenzy and engulf everything in that. No need will not only be detrimental to the diversity that is prevalent in different
of going to facts, listening to logic, whatever has been propagated is ultimate states but will also abort the freedom of universities to decide their syllabi
truth and stories are built around that. All this where an opinion different creatively and based on their profile or mandate. One central exam will
from that of ruling regime tries to flourish. again have similar problems. Divergent nature of culture and education will
be ignored. Even appointments will be made centrally. Judging from
Students’ Union Elections are not being held in many universities. government to government, anybody can guess who will be appointed.
Wherever unions are not of the liking of administration, Unions are not Faculty transfer too is proposed. It will provide a powerful weapon to
given any hearing and attempts are made to implicate leaders. This is straighten the faculty members of 'wrong line’.
happening not just with students' activities but in other bodies too. Examples
can be seen in the academic council meetings or of similar bodies of JNU, Control of Higher education.
DU, St. Stephens College etc.
Government is losing no opportunity to control Higher education whether
Hooliganism and vigilantism is on the rise in the campuses, all with the directly or indirectly. We have already discussed interference of Baba
active support and abetment by the administration including Police. A Ramdev in IITs. Appointing Directors/VCs or other controlling authorities
handful of goons of ABVP decides which programme should be held, who of their choices like in FTII Gajendra Chauhan), JNU (Jagadesh Chandra),
should speak, what is to be spoken. Several examples can be given. HCU, ICHR (YS Rao), BHU (Girish Chandra Tripathy, a state level RSS pracharak

April, 2017 51 52 April, 2017
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made VC). ICCSR Chief is a nearing 90 years Lokesh Chandra who claims One has to look at the concept of Education policy, Skill India and
that Modi is greater than Gandhi and is reincarnation of God himself. Baldev Child labour (Prohibition and Protection) Amendment Act 2016 together.
Sharma former editor of RSS mouthpiece Panchjanya, is now Chairman of This Act allows child labour if it is for helping traditional work (“help the
NBT. These heads will control and shape the things to come as well as family in the fields, do home-based work or work in a forest”). New Education
appoint people under them with similar ‘qualifications’. Policy puts emphasis on just development of skills. So it will drive these
children either to be marginalized or acquire skills in traditional work, thereby
Earlier govts. also used posts to promote points of view or as gifts for depriving them of actual knowledge and strengthening the caste system.
toeing the line. But ususally the choice was made from among the people
of appropriate abilities. Attempts to shut down campuses.
Wherever they cannot change things they are using dictum. Like they Last year after the ‘JNU Incident’ there was a campaign by right wingers
did in case of IIT-Chennai to close down Ambedakar-Peryar Study Circle, to shutdown JNU. And this year we see a drastic reduction of seats in
HCU to oust Rohith Vemula and others, JNU, JMI IIT-D etc. etc. This M.Phil/Ph.D. Courses which is more than 80%. This followed closing of
could be done because the administrations of these institutes either share Advanced Centre of Women Studies in Tata Institute of Social Sciences
this ideology or are run by people who are more bothered about their career (TISS), Mumbai. This is not just closure but also an attack on the education
and post retirement benefits than either quality of academics or the academic where thinking, freedom of thought, dissent and creativity exists. Thre was
reputation of their institutes. an attempt to close the Centre for Dalit studies which was hurriedly
abandoned to keep up unity of 'Hinduism'.
On Dalit/women front
Adaptability to foreign players CBCS etc.
It should be surprising that gender based and caste based discrimination
is increasing in educational campuses putting a big question mark on them Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) is the new avtar of FYUP. It has
being educational at all. BHU is one glaring example where irrational a cafeteria approach much like American Universities. Courses are to be
restriction on women students are made, like they cannot go out after 6 sliced and diced into categories like foundation, core and electives and a
pm, they cannot eat non vegetarian food, nor wear certain types of clothes. student can opt for courses of her choice from a bouquet of courses. Of
Imposition of Brahamanical values on women, various dress codes in the course there should be a choice before students. But, there is no
name of preservation of cultural values is throwing them back to medieval infrastructure to introduce such system, no classrooms or enough trained
era. teachers. Moreover, courses are diluted to a very low level and many courses
are of school level. The assessment will be in grades which is definitely a
With increasing privatization, reservation for SC/ST and other categories better system, but here assessment will be mere translation of marks
is diminishing fast. There is fund cutting and many centres for studies on system into grades as it will be absolute assessment. Unless one goes for
socially deprived sections have been closed by UGC. In last five years relative assessment, grades or marks will not tell anything different. The
more that 20 students belonging to dalit, adivasi or minority have committed idea is to just make it suitable for US universities.
suicide. Recent change in admission policy of JNU is another example.
This policy enabled students from remote areas to attain higher education. WTO etc Agenda and NEP
But not any more.
New Education Policy input document just echos the spirit of WTO
Discrimination is on the rise. In Jiwaji University, Gwalior, when students which was outlined above. Apart from this it has a strong saffronization
went to the VC for permission to celebrate Ambedkar Jayanti, the VC tone. It talks about great culture, gurukul system, ancient values and many
abused them and asked 'who is Ambedkar, stop creating dramas every other things. It proposes to change the contents of education to suit dictates
day'. This is not an isolated example. of WTO. It will have stratified education. Better education will be reserved

April, 2017 53 54 April, 2017
NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
for elite and privileged. Rest will be just able to acquire some skills to Janhastakshep Report on Incident in Nauva Village in Rohtas
supply trained man power to MNCs. Even in humanities and arts, emphasis
will be on producing some skilled manpower. CBCS will provide enough
choices for that. Literature, Interpretation of History, basic conceptual and
Ghastlyy Bea ting up of Two Youth
theoretical aspects of political science, philosophy etc. will either not be of Extr emel
emelyy Bac kw
Backw ar
ardd Castes by
there, of if selected by students, will be made socially irrelevant. Critical
thinking and creative development will not be part of education. It will help Kur mi Landlor
urmi ds in Bihar
‘make in India’ and ‘skill India’. One may learn to fit electrical wiring, but
not how to produce electricity. One may learn language so that one can On the 29th of January in Nauva village of Kochas block of Rohtas
translate/transcribe/interpret it but there is no need of learning literature. district in Bihar there was an incident of severe beating of two youth of
No need for any creative thinking or new development to produce social extremely backward castes by the Kurmi landlords. In the video of this
leaders, but produce either servants of ruling classes and imperialism or incident one could see two youth who had been stripped naked, with their
highly paid managerial staff or some professionals working as outsourced hands tied behind their back being beaten up mercilessly. Judging the
material for MNCs. This is the new avatar of Macallauy. seriousness of the issue Janhastakshep decided to send a team for
investigation of the case. A two member team comprising of Prof. Ish
The final document is yet to come. But there is a more serious point Mishra of Hindu College, Delhi University and Dr. Vikas Bajpai of the Centre
which needs to be understood. NDA-I tried desperately to implement Model for Social Medicine and Community Health at Jawaharlal Nehru University,
Act but could not do so. UPA-I committed in 2005 on education to be visited Sasaram (district headquarter of Rohtas) on the 17 th & 18th of
included in GATS but could not do so fearing protests. It brought bills to February, 2017. They visited Nauva village and talked to a cross section
achieve the same, however the bills lapsed. This government wanted to of the villagers and the family of one of the victims and later the victim
commit in GATS in December 2015, but country wide protest prevented it. himself. From Nauva they went to Dinara town to see the SHO at Dinara
But all the while this Govt. has started implementing the agenda. police station. The team also visited the office of the Deputy Superintendent
Centralization, Single Act to control universities, privatization, reduced state of Police (DSP) at Bikramganj town. However, since the DSP was reported
funding and control, curbing political activities etc. is already on. While to have gone for a meeting at Sasaram, they came back to Sasaram and
formal NEP is yet to come this Govt. has already started implementing the went to the District Magistrate’s office. Next day they met the DIG Shahabad
same. range, Sh Muhammad Rahman and later the team addressed a press
It should also be understood that in RSS-BJP's case Saffronization conference at the public library in Sasaram.
and Privatization are interconnected. They cannot be fought separately. This team released a report on the incident and also submitted the
Saffronization is done to facilitate privatization. It is done so that while same to NHRC. The team pieced together the heart rending tale of caste
people are either engaged in the saffronization debate or boast of oppression unleashed on the landless labourers of Nauva village in Bihar.
(pseudo)nationalism, education is sold out to foreign companies. According to the Report, "the root cause for this (beating) was the
unwillingness of the landlords to pay up the wages." The team also
documented severe signs of beating on the body of one of the victim,
Vijay, while the other was being treated at Benares, the money for which
was being raised by the poor among the villagers through voluntary
The team also documented the 'sarpanch's statement' that the landlords
took the ‘mukhia’ inside the house while he (sarpanch) was sitting outside

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where teh two victims Suresh and Vijay were lying. He also reported that peril. Such defiance would be met with denial on part of the landlords of
the ‘mukhia’ had signed on the paper on which the victims’ thumb any further work, and the denial of access to the lower caste families to
impressions had been taken on a forced confessional statement to the the landlords' fields either for cutting fodder for the animals owned by them,
effect that they had stolen a tractor battery. He also reported that he or something even more fundamental – to relieve themselves every morning.
overheard the conversation when the SHO of Dinarathana rung up the Another way to penalize would be that the landlords may decide to debar a
‘mukhia’ to inquire as to what was going on in the village. Rather than family from taking any land on rent for cultivation. ... The other method of
telling the truth the ‘mukhia’ had said that nothing significant had happened. expropriating surplus that the landlords resort to is by way of obnoxious
The sarpanch said that the landlords are rich and powerful; that he had no terms of land rent. We were told that the land rent is fixed and is punitive at
position in front of them despite being the ‘sarpanch’, and that he was the high rate of Rs 13,000 per bigha per year. ... There is another practice
scared when they tried to pressurize him. that is prevalent in this area with respect to land rent, which is that the
landlords often charge rent for more land than has actually been rented
The team also held that "No relief has been provided to the victims by out. ... The small, marginal or landless peasants are often obliged to comply
the police till now as far as the logistics of treatment of the victims is with such terms due to their social and economic condition being
concerned." Even his (DIG) comment regarding the plight of the brutalized compromised in a number of ways. Lack of a stable source of employment
youth was – ‘Yeh to kuch zaida hi kardiya.’ The comment suggests that a round the year, or under-employment and lack of ownership of productive
lesser level of brutalization could have been considered acceptable. resources are just a few to recount."
According to the Team, "The role of civil administration in the whole The Janhastakshep team demanded that immediate arrangements be
affair till now has been the most deplorable. ... Regarding providing relief, made for proper medical treatment of the victims of this carnage at government
the DM only submitted that the administration had to go by the rules." The expense. Janhastakshep appealed to the people of Rohtas district, people of
Team held that the "DM’s response is that the district administration’s Bihar and all justice loving Indians to come forward in support of the demand
response is but a part of the political response to this incident decided at for justice to be delivered to the victims and their families at the earliest. Such
the highest levels in the state government rather than being a result of the pre-medieval form of barbarity is a slur for all justice loving people of the state.
ignorance of the administration regarding facts of the case." Janhastakshep further demanded that the state government should immediately
According to the Team, "The sheer brazenness of the incident shows announce adequate compensation for the victims' families.
the extent to which the local landlords are willing to go to cast a spell of Janhastakshep also calls upon the government of Bihar to ensure that
terror on the oppressed castes and classes not only in the village but also the culprits are brought to justice without further delay and strictest possible
in the entire area. In fact the villagers reported some other incidents that action be taken against the SHO of Dinarathana for active connivance in
reflect the ruthlessness of the local landlords." the commissioning of this crime.
"The most common way is to always retain part of the wages of the Janhastakshep report declared that they would also demand from the
workers in order to ensure that they keep coming to the landlords for work. National Human Rights Commission to ensure that the state government
Moreover, no written record of the number of days of work done and the should fulfill all of its obligations towards the victims and their families. A
wages due is maintained; or if it is maintained, it is maintained by the representation along with our Report shall be handed over to NHRC in Delhi
landlords since the workers themselves are largely illiterate. Such an upon our return.
arrangement always serves as a mechanism to cheat the worker of a part
of their wages. Any contention raised by the workers for the same could (Full Report of Janhastakshep team may be accessed at
prove costly as it did in the case of Suresh and Vijay. The workers may
refuse to work for a landlord who resorts to such methods only to their own

April, 2017 57 58 April, 2017
NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
India’s Haymarket any of the 13 accused, when the issue at stake was a trade union dispute
Life Sentences to Mar
Life uti Union Leader
Maruti s
Leaders with the MNC and no possible motive was there to kill the particular manager.
The post mortem established that death was due to suffocation and police
for Daring to Unionize & Str
Unionize ug
ugggle in MNC could not prove that the workers started the fire.
March 10th 2017 was a dark day for the working class of India and its In fact, the fallacies of the judgement are glaring. The Judgement
struggle to keep alive the right to unionize. It was also a dark day for the recognizes the arguments of the defence on collusion between the
democratic rights movement. Almost five years earlier, while the workers management and the police, about workers being picked up without a shred
of the Manesar unit of Maruti Suzuki fought for their right to unionize and of evidence and of fabrication of evidence. By acquitting 117 workers, the
for equal rights for regular and contract workers, the MNC management Judgement has laid to rest the story of a huge riotous mob assaulting
had succeeded in twisting this dispute into a violent criminal law and order management personnel and actually killing one manager. All the prosecution
incident on 18th July 2012. An Indian manager lost his life, 148 workers witnesses named in the FIR appeared before the Court and denied that
were charged with murder, rioting etc. on a single charge sheet, and the they were present during the incident, some even saying they were coerced
MNC managed to get rid of over 2300 workers, the union leaders and the by the police and management. The workers’ leaders have been convicted
union. 546 regular workers were officially terminated, contract workers for murder despite the post mortem report not substantiating this charge,
anyway fled and a good number of other workers never returned fearing the despite the absence of any circumstantial evidence. There are many, many
open ended FIR and the management’s vengeance. The police description other glaring discrepancies. Due attention has not been paid to the fact
of the incident itself stands testimony to the collusion between the police that bouncers of the MNC were present inside the premises in the name of
and the MNC management- 90 executives and police personnel injured guards and that police was also present within the boundary walls at the
and not a single worker with even a scratch! The parallels with similar ‘law time of the incident. Despite all this, the court has convicted the union’s
and order’ situations to wipe out workers’ struggles in other MNCs like office bearers of murder. It is in essence a political message to the working
Hero Honda, Graziano, Nippon, Regency etc. in Gurugram, Noida, class especially in MNCs to desist from exercising the right to unionize. It
Sahibabad, Yanam (Andhra) are too striking to ignore. It should be noted should also be seen against the backdrop of the attack of the Central Govt
that the Govts. of both Haryana and the Centre had ignored all demands of against the labour laws including the right to organize and also the growing
Trade Union Centres including IFTU for an enquiry by a sitting Judge of the impunity in wielding UAPA against people’s movements.
Supreme Court into the incident in Maruti especially the circumstances
The workers of Maruti have a long history of struggle for the right to
leading to the death of the Manager.
unionize, for regularization of contract workers and for better service
On 10 th March 2017, the Gurugram District Court totally acquitted 117 conditions. The company has moved from being a PSU in 1981 to a Japanese
workers, many of whom have spent almost 4 years in jail on these serious MNC and the workers have been in struggle since 2000. The situation here
charges. Of the 31 convicted, 18 are held guilty of rioting, causing injury mirrors that in other MNCs in India. Entering India against the slogans of
for which they were sentenced for three years though they have already ‘’MNCs, Go Back” these companies, mostly in automobile sector, began
been in jail for four years. 13 others have been held guilty of murder (302), by giving high wages and lots of facilities to the initial workers so as to
attempt to murder (307) and other sections of the IPC. These include all defeat the propaganda against their own entry and also to create a privileged
the office bearers of the Union and one workman named Jiya Lal who was sect of workers. Gradually they expanded production and began showing
abused on the basis of caste on the day of the incident (the management their true colours. They employed contractual and apprentice workforce to
sought to dismiss him). The sentence pronounced on 17th March 2017 to do maximal production work, working side by side on the floor with the
these thirteen is life imprisonment, though the Haryana State Govt. which regular workers and gave them no rights. When workers in these MNCs
is the prosecutor, asked for death penalty! Sentence for murder and a moved to form unions, in both BSP and later SP ruled Uttar Pradesh as
death penalty sought in a case in which there is no specific evidence against well as in Congress ruled Haryana, they found that unions would not be

April, 2017 59 60 April, 2017
NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
registered except with the explicit agreement of the MNC management,
which only gave go- aheads in case of stooge unions. This was the norm
US Imperialism, Hands Off Syria
in these MNCs despite these being non-SEZ areas and despite there being
no modification of the labour laws. Struggles in one MNC after another In an about turn on his campaign rhetoric, US President Trump ordered
were initially suppressed by throwing out the workers involved and later by missile attack against Syria targeting an airbase at Shayrat. The avowed
brutal repression by police, local labour depts. and administration in total reason for this attack was alleged use of chemical weapons by Assad
collusion with managements. Other tactics were also employed. The MNCs Govt. of Syria against civilians in Khan Shaykhoun in Idlib province
engaged the local landowning castes, from many of whom land for the controlled by the rebel forces mainly Al-Qaeda linked Al-Nusra, now
company had been acquired, in various economic activities connected with renamed. Trump and his Admn. has flaunted this missile attack as a proof
the companies like transportation, jobs of guards and bouncers, running of of his decisive action compared to Obama’s alleged dithering in face of
canteens etc. and also gave some employment to local youth. In turn these such a situation in 2013.
landowners functioned as social goons for the MNCs. They threatened In fact this action had little to do with any use of chemical weapons. It
workers who dared to struggle, obligingly attacked workers in struggle. is largely born out of domestic compulsions where the ‘deep state’ and
Thousands of workers who are outsiders live as tenants in the local areas bipartisan leadership is mounting pressure on Trump investigating links of
and are vulnerable to threats by these landlords against ‘disturbing’ the his campaign with Russian Govt. His National Security Advisor has been
area and the company. In fact the workers of Maruti have sustained their forced to quit and the Chairman of the Congressional Committee has been
support to the arrested workers and their struggle for justice to them against forced to recuse himself. This investigation implies the alleged softness of
all these odds. Trump towards Russia. Many top leaders of Democratic Party have also
The message being sent out by the Judiciary and of course by the been mounting pressure on Trump to act against Syria. Trump has sought
ruling classes to the imperialists is unequivocal. FDI, those who come to to parry these attacks by this missile attack and rally the people in face of
‘Make in India’ will be fully aided irrespective of labour laws in exploiting his faltering administration.
the cheap labour of India’s workers, even skilled workers. While the
That this attack had little to do with alleged use of chemical weapon by
judgement in the Maruti case is before us, the cases are still under trial in
Govt. of Syria is corroborated by the fact that US Admn. has spurned the
Graziano and Nippon where the accusation is similar.
offer of UN investigation into this attack. Pictures of affected children
In 1886, workers throughout America went on strike on 1st May to demand definitely show their suffering but not the perpetrators. By rejecting UN
an 8 hour working day. In Chicago town, 40,000 workers observed this investigation into the attack, US Admn. demonstrated that it was bent on a
strike and attended subsequent meetings the following days. On the 4th of demonstrative action against Russian ally and was not interested in
May, a bomb went off suddenly at Hay Market Square just as the workers’ establishing perpetrators. That UN investigation was not a mere tactic to
leaders finished addressing the gathering. Four of the workers’ leaders allow Russia and Syria to gain time, is grounded in the facts of 2013 case
thus framed were sentenced to death and hanged. Those workers too were when US, UK and France along with their Mideast allies had blamed Assad
fighting for just working conditions. 131 years later, in 2017, 13 workers’ Govt. for using Sarin gas against civilians in Ghouta. The chemical analysis
leaders get life imprisonment for having dared to unionize and demand done in UK showed that the gas used in Ghouta was different from the one
rights for contract workers. The irony is that this same year the Supreme possessed by Syrian Govt. Moreover, UN agencies themselves corroborated
Court has reiterated equal pay for equal work in context to contract workers. that the same gas was used by rebel forces against Syrian soldiers in a
This really is India’s Hay Market Square. The Working class movement later attack. With this clear evidence, US Admn. thought that its agreement
must beat back this attack and demand that the false charges against for investigation will rob Trump of demonstrating a muscular response.
these workers be quashed and all the terminated workers restored to duty. Moreover, after 2013 incident, there was an agreement between Russia
and USA to take out the chemical weapons from Syria. The same was

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
done under the auspices of UN and UN body on chemical weapons vouched Yemen which is being supported by US and in which it is militarily
that there were no chemical weapons left with Syrian Govt. participating, is also leading to a large number of civilian casualties. US
bombing raid in Yemen resulted in civilian casualties. Suffering of the people
Even if it is conceded that Syrian Govt. had either hidden some or there is also not been highlighted by the western media. Imperialist US,
manufactured new ones later, it also does not stand to reason why Assad which has murdered a very large number of civilians in its hegemonic wars,
Govt. should resort to use of chemical weapons when the war in Syria is is pretending to fight targeting of civilians by Assad Govt.!
turning in its favour including capture of whole of Aleppo. It is noteworthy
that Syrian Govt. with Russian intervention is sending rebels from different Whatever be the immediate context of Trump Admn.’s action, Trump
areas near Damascus and Aleppo to Idlib which is under the control of has packed his Admn. with military officers, “mad dogs” and has increased
rebel forces. Why would Syria block its own efforts to clear the areas close military spending. US anyway spends nearly two fifth of the total military
to capital? On the other hand, Al Nusra (now Fateh Al-Sham) has been spending in the world, spending more than combined expenditure of the
opposing shifting of rebels to Idlib. The narrative of Russia and Syria that next six countries with maximum military spending.
Syrian bombing on a warehouse released the poisonous gas stored by
rebel forces, whether true or not, is not baseless as UN itself had alleged Trump is the epitome of political conmanship. He has no conviction
use of poisonous gas by rebel forces against Syrian Army. By turning other than self-promotion. Benefiting from workers’ anger against the wall
itself against any impartial investigation, US Admn. has sought to stop street dons, he has packed all his economic and commerce ministries with
detailed enquiry into the role of rebel forces particularly Feteh Al Sham, as the very same people. He benefited from the disillusionment of the people
US Admn. and senior politicians and officials find it difficult to sell the idea from mindless wars of US Admn. yet packed his Admn. with military hawks
of collaborating with Al-Qaeda affiliate. The hard reality is that US supported and warmongerers. Nothing illustrates chameleon like character better than
rebel forces are practically powerless or aligned to Al-Nusra, a fact mostly his support to US invasion of Iraq in 2003 and opposition to it in 2016
brushed under the carpet by the west controlled international media. without even a blink.

By bombing Syria, Trump has also sought to unite US allies in the But the world has changed over the past decade and this change cannot
Middle-East. It is US Admn. failure to militarily intervene in Syria which be undone even by this conman. His adventure in Syria may either be one-
had resulted in deepening the fissures in US led camp in the region. Trump off showmanship or may draw US deeper into this military quagmire. Even
Admn. wishes to draw Turkey and Egypt back into US fold and prevent if it does not entail a deeper commitment on part of Trump Administration,
their drawing close to Russia which was being witnessed of late. It could it would embolden the rebel forces and their mentors thereby contributing
not be done without use of military force and Trump Admn. has taken to further prolongation of this conflict. Even if most of the missiles have
steps towards this slippery path. Trump had been vociferous in his support reportedly landed in the sea and the airbase which was targeted is still
to monarchies and dictators in the region during his campaign and has functioning, this air strike has made the situation even more complex.
been trying to befriend them ever since assuming Presidency. His action Middle-East is going through a deep turmoil. US attempt to turn the clock
in Syria would only embolden the Gulf monarchies particularly Saudi Arabia back are doomed to fail.
who have been hell bent on drowing the growing anger among the people of (Statement issued by CPI(ML)-New Democracy on April 8, 2017)
Arab countries in sanguine sectarian conflicts.
US Admn. bombing of Syrian air base also serves a purpose of hiding
mass casualties in US air strikes in Mosul where US is bombing civilian
areas. Thousands of civilians have died in these attacks. But the western
media has not showcased suffering of civilians in these bombing raids as
it does in case of civil war in Syria. Saudi led military campaign against

April, 2017 63 64 April, 2017