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698 views26 pagesUltimate Moment Capacity of RC Beams

Apr 28, 2017

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Ultimate Moment Capacity of RC Beams

© All Rights Reserved

698 views

Ultimate Moment Capacity of RC Beams

© All Rights Reserved

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Beams

Analysis of flexural behaviour

When load is initially applied to a beam all sections are uncracked unless

there has been a history of restrained shrinkage. When the load reaches its

serviceability limit state and the peak moment regions are cracked, there

are still extensive regions where the moment is not large enough for the

cracks to form.

P<Pcr

Moment at midspan

Bending Mu

Moment Mcr

My

P>Pcr

Mcr

Moment Mcr

My

Uncracked region cracked region Uncracked region

RMIT University

Last week we looked at analysis of RC beams for Flexure in service limit state

Uncracked elastic section analysis of RC beams

o o

C

dn

d

Tc

st st

Ts

ct

Ast Stress Internal

Beam Cross Strain Stress

in concrete in steel Forces

section

Cracked elastic section analysis of RC beams

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Post-cracking, service load behaviour

Cracked elastic section analysis of RC beams

o o

C

dn M

d z

st st Ts

Ast Cross

Beam Strain Stress Internal

section

Forces

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Analysis of flexural behaviour

When load reaches its ultimate limit state and the peak moment

regions are cracked and overloaded, the reinforcing steel has yielded,

and the ultimate moment capacity of the beam at the section of

maximum moment is reached.

P>Pcr

Moment Mcr

My Mu

Uncracked region cracked region Uncracked region My

P>Pcr

Mcr

Deformation at mid-span

Bending

Mcr

Moment

My

cracked region Mu

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Non-Linear Overload Behaviour

As the moment increases further above the working load level the

concrete and steel start to yield and stresses become non-linear. This is

known as overload behaviour up to the point where the beam develops its

ultimate moment capacity, Mu.

The concrete stress increases less than proportionally with strain, so that

the stress block above the crack becomes progressively more curvilinear.

o = fc

fc

fc

Stress

fc

Ec

Strain

cpeak

Typical Stress-strain curve of Concrete

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Failure

Beyond peak load : concrete crushing after steel yielding

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Condition at Ultimate Moment, Mu

At Ultimate Moment, M u, the stress and strain profile at the cross section is

represented as:

u

Note: dn= ku.d

kud C dc

Mu

d zu

st>sy fst=fsy T

the steel reinforcement will exceed its yield strength before the concrete in the

extreme compressive fibre crushes. (and we limit the ultimate compressive

strain u = 0.003)

Stress

fsy failure

Idealised Stress-

strain curve of steel Yield Plateau

Strain

sy

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Condition at Ultimate Moment, Mu

The steel reinforcement has yielded ie it carries a stress equal to the yield

strength of the steel, Therefore the internal tensile force is now a constant

value (T = Ast .fsy) which will remain unchanged with increase in external load

The concrete compressive region above neutral axis depth is highly stressed

and at point of crushing

The compressive C force and the tensile T force are equal in magnitude and

for a resisting couple moment with a lever arm z= d-dc

For equilibrium we have T= C and Mu = Tz = Cz

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Rectangular Stress Block AS3600-2009

As shown previously the concrete compressive stress profile is non-linear at ultimate

AS3600 allows for the non-linear concrete stress profile to be simplified with the

rectangular stress block given in Clause 8.1.3 and u = 0.003

u

2fc dc

kud kud kud C Neutral axis

d z

st>sy s=fsy s=fsy T Note: dn= ku.d

Strain Actual stress profile Rectangular Stress Block

= 1.05-0.007f

1.05-0.007fc ( 0.67 0.85 )

2 is used to determine the magnitude of the uniform compressive stress ie. rectangular

stress block assumptions given in AS3600-2009 Clause 8.1.3

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Rectangular Stress Block AS3600

u

2fc dc

kud kud kud C Neutral axis

d z

st>sy s= fsy s=fsy Note: dn= ku.d

T

Strain Actual stress profile Rectangular Stress Block

(Remember 2 = 0.85 for fc 50MPa )

and acts at depth dc = 0.5dn

The resultant tensile force, T = Astfsy

Equating C = T gives neutral axis depth dn, with dn we can determine the location of the

compressive force dc this in turns allows the internal lever arm z=d-dc and the moment

capacity Mu to be calculated

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Neutral Axis parameter ku

To calculate the ultimate moment capacity Mu, it is often convenient to use

the dimensionless neutral axis depth parameter ku = dn/d

This term can be used in lieu of dn to specify the neutral axis depth and is

also an indicator of ductility

To derive equations for Mu we equate T = C

The resultant compressive force

C = 0.85fckudb

and acts at depth

dc = 0.5dn

The resultant tensile force

T = Astfsy

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Moment Capacity of a singly reinforced Section

Equating C = T gives

1 f sy Ast

ku =

0.85 f 'c bd

Which gives Mu= Tz = fsyAstd(1-0.5ku)

Substituting for ku :

Ast f sy

M u = f sy Ast d 1 0.6

bdf 'c

f sy 2

M u = f sy 1 0.6 bd

f 'c

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Moment Capacity of a singly reinforced Section

The moment capacity of the section shown below is to be calculated using the

limiting strain criterion u = 0.003 and the AS3600 rectangular stress block. The

concrete strength fc is 40MPa so that = 1.05-0.007(40) = 0.77

B=300

D=600mm d

Ast = 3N28

Clear cover to main bars = 30mm

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Failure mechanism of R/C beam

There are three possible failure mechanisms which determine the ultimate

moment capacity. They are:

Failure through steel reinforcement. That is, reinforcing bars reaching their

yield capacity well before concrete starts to crush

Failure through concrete reaching its compressive strength prior to steel

reinforcement yielding

Both materials reaching their capacities simultaneously (less probable in

practice)

The mode of flexural failure of a reinforced concrete beam is dependent upon

the quantity of the steel reinforcement present. It is for this reason that the

code AS3600 specifies limits on both the minimum and maximum allowable

reinforcement ratios.

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Failure

Beyond peak load : concrete crushing after steel yielding

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Ductility

A region of a beam is ductile if it undergoes large plastic deformations

prior to failure.

Ductility is characterised by an extended flat plateau in the moment

curvature relation.

Good ductility achieved if the quantity of reinforcement is kept small.

M / f'cbd2

= 0.0375

= 0.030

0.2

= 0.0225

= 0.015

0.1

= 0.0075

Curvature

5 10

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Ductility and ku (neutral axis parameter)

N

kud A

kubd

N A kud

N A

is considered as 0.003 (0.3%) and also independent of the concrete

strength. Steel reinforcement strain at yield, st is considered as 0.0025

(0.25%) for N500 or L500 steel

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Under-reinforced, over-reinforced and balanced sections

We know that the failure through steel (ie yielding) is ductile in nature and

therefore desirable. This means condition given in figure (1) should be

encouraged where st>sy = 0.0025. Such as beam is called under-

reinforced.

reinforced

Condition shown in figure (2), where steel and concrete both reach their

limiting values at the same time is called the balanced failure

failure and regarded

as the point where beam changes from being ductile to being brittle

We also know that failure through crushing concrete is sudden and brittle in

nature and therefore undesirable and should be avoided as the steel strain is

less than st<sy=0.0025. The beam is then called over reinforced

reinforced.Figure

(3)

Although balanced failure is also not desirable as it is close to being brittle,

however in theory, this will allow us to demonstrate the margin which we can

base our design recommendations

The neutral axis parameter kub (under balanced failure) is therefore a good

parameter to use as a guide.

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How do we find the kub value?

u=0.003 From Similar triangles we get

kub d

kubd =

N A 0.003 0.0025+0.003

d

0.003

kub = = 0.55

0.0055

st+u = 0.0025+0.003

Therefore,

When kub = 0.55 - balanced

ku 0.55 - under reinforced

ku 0.55 over reinforced

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Minimum ductility requirements in AS3600-2009

1. Clause 8.1.5 states that the neutral axis depth parameter ku must not be

greater than 0.36 to ensure ductility

(When ku is very close to, yet less than 0.55, still there will be very little

warning of failure. In other words member is not as ductile as we would

like it to be. Leaving a safety margin, the design code AS3600 prescribes

to limit ku 0.36 to regard the beam as ductile).

Hence the designer must also calculate ku and satisfy the ductility

requirement

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Minimum strength requirements in AS3600-2009

Clause 8.1.6 places a lower limit on the steel content. The intention is to avoid

steel fracture and hence sudden collapse and cracking.

M u ,min = 1.2 M cr = 1.2. f 'ct . f .Z

Where fct.f = 0.6fc

Z is the elastic section modulus and for a rectangular section is

Z=bD2/6

Minimum required tensile reinforcement is given by

2

Ast D f 'c t . f

b

bw d d f sy

Where b = 0.2 for rectangular sections

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Moment Capacity of a Doubly Reinforced Section

Note: dn= ku.d

b u dsc

dsc 0.85fc Cs

kud dc

kud sc Cc C Mu

dst zc zs zu

st>sy fst=fsy

T = Ast.fsy T

Cc= Ts Cs

Tentatively assuming both steels have yielded

1

dn = ( f sy Ast f sy Asc )

0 . 85 f 'c b

With this value of dn and u=0.003, the strain distribution in the section is fixed

and the strains in the compressive and tensile steels can be determined

d st d n

d d sc s = u

sc = u n dn

dn

If the steel strains are in fact at yield then all internal forces are known and M u

is calculated as

M u = Ts d st Cc d c C s d sc

If the compressive steel is not at yield a trial value for d n is chosen until Cc=Ts-

Cs

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Example Moment Capacity of a Doubly Reinforced Section

Determine the moment capacity Mu of the section shown below. The section

contains both tensile and compressive reinforcement.

Concrete strength fc=30MPa, = 0.836

60

550

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Design Consideration for Ultimate Moment Capacity of Beam Section

In designing the beam for strength in flexure, AS3600 clause 8.5.1 requires

that M* Mu and ku 0.36 to ensure ductile failure ( assumes under

reinforced section)

= 0.8 for bending

In actual fact the beam section details such as reinforcement are not known

at this stage of the design but what is known is the design moment M M** which

is obtained from an analysis of the structure for various load combinations

The beam section then needs to be proportioned ie. determine the amount of

reinforcement needed to ensure the ultimate moment capacity is not

exceeded

Design tables for proportioning steel have been set-up for example by C&CA

and in house spreadsheets.

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To proportion beam section

M * < M u

* Ast f sy 2

M < f sy d 1 0.6

bd

bd f 'c

*

M Ast Ast f sy

2

< f sy

1 0 . 6

bd bd bd f 'c

The steel proportion p can be used as a useful non-dimensional measure of the

amount of tensile steel reinforcement in the section

p=Ast/bd , submit this into the above equation to give

*

M f sy

2

< f p

sy

1 0 . 6 p

bd f 'c

Alternatively

*

M M u

2

<

bd bd 2

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