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LECTURE

BEAMS: COMPOSITE

BEAMS; STRESS

CONCENTRATIONS

A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

11 by

Dr. Ibrahim A. Assakkaf

SPRING 2003

Chapter ENES 220 Mechanics of Materials

4.6 4.7 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

University of Maryland, College Park

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 1

Composite Beams ENES 220 Assakkaf

In the previous discussion, we have

considered only those beams that are

fabricated from a single material such as

steel.

However, in engineering design there is an

increasing trend to use beams fabricated

from two or more materials.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 2

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

These are called composite beams.

They offer the opportunity of using each of

the materials employed in their

construction advantage.

Concret

Steel e

Aluminum Steel

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 3

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Consider a composite beam made of

metal cover plates on the top and bottom

with a plastic foam core as shown by the

cross sectional area of Figure 26.

The design concept of this composite beam is to

use light-low strength foam to support the load-

bearing metal plates located at the top and

bottom.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 4

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Foam Core with Metal Cover Plates

tm

Foam Core Figure 26

Metal Face hf

Plates tm

b

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 5

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

The strain is continuous across the

interface between the foam and the cover

plates. The stress in the foam is given by

f =Ef0 (53)

because its modulus of elasticity Ef is

small compared to the modulus of

elasticity of the metal.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 6

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Assumptions:

Plane sections remain plane before and

after loading.

The strain is linearly distributed as shown

in Figure 27.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 7

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Foam Core with Metal Cover Plates

y

M

Compressive Strain

Neutral Axis x

Tensile Strain

Figure 27

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 8

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Using Hookes law, the stress in the metal

of the cover plates can be expressed as

m = Em = y Em (53)

but Em / = M / Ix , therefore

m = My (54)

Ix

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 9

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

The relation for the stress is the same as

that established earlier; however, the foam

does not contribute to the load carrying

capacity of the beam because its modulus

of elasticity is negligible.

For this reason, the foam is not considered

when determining the moment of inertia Ix.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 10

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Under these assumptions, the moment of

inertia about the neutral axis is given by

2 2 m 2

hf tm bt

INA 2Ad = (h f +tm ) (55)

2 2

= 2 btm

stress in the metal is computed as

M (h f + 2tm ) (56)

max = 2

btm (h f +tm )

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 11

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

The maximum stress in the metal plates

of the beam is given by

Foam Core t

m = M (hf + 2tm )

max

btm (h f +tm )2

h

f

Metal Face

Plates (56)

t

m

b

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 12

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 1

A simply-supported, foam core, metal

cover plate composite beam is subjected to

a uniformly distributed load of magnitude q.

Aluminum cover plates 0.063 in. thick, 10

in. wide and 10 ft long are adhesively

bonded to a polystyrene foam core. The

foam is 10 in. wide, 6 in. high, and 10 ft

long. If the yield strength of the aluminum

cover plates is 32 ksi, determine q.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 13

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 1 (contd)

The maximum moment for a simply

supported beam is given by

M = qL2 = q(1012)2 =1800q

max

8 8

When the composite beam yields, the

stresses in the cover plates are

max = Fy = 32,000 psi

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 14

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 1 (contd)

Substituting above values for Mmax

and max into Eq. 56, we get

M ( h f + 2tm )

max = ( + )2

btm h f tm

32,000 = 1800q(6 +20.063)

10(0 .063)[6 +0.063]2

Or lb

q = 67.2 = 806 lb

in ft

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 15

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Several Materials

The derivation given for foam core with

metal plating was based on the assumption

that the modulus of elasticity Ef of the foam

is so negligible,that is, it does not

contribute to the load-carrying capacity of

the composite beam.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 16

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Several Materials

When the moduli of elasticity of various

materials that make up the beam structure

are not negligible and they should be

accounted for, then procedure for

calculating the normal stresses and

shearing stresses on the section will follow

different approach, the transformed

section of the member.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 17

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Transformed Section

Consider a bar consisting of two portions of

different materials bonded together as

shown in Fig. 28. This composite bar will

deform as described earlier.

Thus the normal strain x still varies linearly

with the distance y from the neutral axis of

the section (see Fig 28b), and the following

y (57)

formula holds: x =

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 18

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Transformed Section

y y

y E1 y

M 1 = 1 =

x

N.A x Ey x

=2 2

2

Figure 28 (a) (b) (c)

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 19

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Transformed Section

Because we have different materials, we

cannot simply assume that the neutral axis

passes through the centroid of the

composite section.

In fact one of the goal of this discussion will

be to determine the location of this axis.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 20

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Transformed Section

We can write:

E y

1 = E1x = 1 (58a)

E y

2 = E2x = 2 (58b)

dF = dA = E1 y dA (59a)

1 1

dF = 2 dA = E2 y dA (59b)

2

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 21

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Transformed Section

But, denoting by n the ratio E2/E1 of the two

moduli of elasticity, dF2 can expressed as

dF = (nE1 )y dA = E1 y (ndA) (60)

2

Comparing Eqs. 59a and 60, it is noted

that the same force dF2 would be

exerted on an element of area n dA of

the first material.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 22

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Transformed Section

This mean that the resistance to bending of

the bar would remain the same if both

portions were made of the first material,

providing that the width of each element of

the lower portion were multiplied by the

factor n.

The widening (if n>1) and narrowing (n<1)

must be accomplished in a direction

parallel to the neutral axis of the section.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 23

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

b E b

n= 2

E

1

1

2 N.A =

b nb

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 24

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Transformed Section

Since the transformed section represents

the cross section of a member made of a

homogeneous material with a modulus of

elasticity E1,the previous method may be

used to find the neutral axis of the section

and the stresses at various points of the

section.

Figure 30 shows the fictitious distribution

of normal stresses on the section.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 25

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Transformed Section

y y

x

My

=

I

C N.A. x

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 26

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

1. To obtain the stress 1 at a point located

in the upper portion of the cross section

of the original composite beam, the

stress is simply computed from My/I.

2. To obtain the stress 2 at a point located

in the upper portion of the cross section of

the original composite beam, stress x

computed from My/I is multiplied by n.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 27

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 2

A steel bar and aluminum bar are bonded

together to form the composite beam

shown. The modulus of elasticity for

aluminum is 70 GPa and for streel is 200

GPa. Knowing that the beam is bent about

a horizontal axis by a moment M = 1500 N-

m, determine the maximum stress in (a) the

aluminum and (b) the steel.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 28

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 2 (contd)

M Steel 20 mm

Aluminum 40 mm

30 mm

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 29

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 2 (contd)

First, because we have different materials,

we need to transform the section into a

section that represents a section that is

made of homogeneous material, either

steel or aluminum.

We have

n = Es = 200 = 2.857

Ea 70

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 30

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 2 (contd)

30 mm n = 85.71 mm

Steel 20 mm Aluminum

Aluminum 40 mm Aluminum

30 mm 30 mm

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 31

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 2 (contd)

Consider the transformed section of Fig.

31b, therefore

(85.7120) + (3040)

I NA = 85.71(22.353)3 (85.7130)(22.353 20)3

3 3

+ 30(40 + 20 22.353)3 = 852.42103 mm4 = 852.42109 m4

3

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 32

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 2 (contd)

85.71 mm

yC = 22.353 mm 20 mm

N.A.

C 40 mm

30 mm

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 33

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 2 (contd)

a) Maximum normal stress in aluminum

occurs at extreme lower fiber of

section, that is at y = -(20+40-22.353) =

-37.65 mm.

al = My = 1500(37.65103 ) = 66.25310 Pa

6

I 852.42109

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 34

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 2 (contd)

b) Maximum normal stress in stelel occurs

at extreme upper fiber of the cross

section, that is. at y =+ 22.353 mm.

St = n My = (2.867) = 112.8 10 6 Pa

1500(22.353103 )

I 852.42109

=112.8 MPa (C)

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 35

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Reinforced Concrete Beam

An important example of structural

members made of different materials is

demonstrated by reinforced concrete

beams.

These beams, when subjected to positive bending

moments, are reinforced by steel rods placed a

short distance above their lower face as shown in

Figure 33a.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 36

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Reinforced Concrete Beam

Figure 32

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 37

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Reinforced Concrete Beam

Figure 33

b b

x 1

2

x

d C N.A.

d-x F

x

(a) n As

(b) (c)

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 38

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Reinforced Concrete Beam

Concrete is very weak in tension, so it will

crack below the neutral surface and the

steel rods will carry the entire tensile load.

The upper part of the concrete beam will

carry the compressive load.

To obtain the transformed section, the total

cross-sectional area As of steel bar is

replaced by an equivalent area nAs.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 39

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Reinforced Concrete Beam

The ratio n is given by

n= Modulus of Elasticity for Steel = Es

Modulus of Elasticity for Concrete Ec

by determining the distance x from the

upper face of the beam (upper fiber) to

the centroid C of the transformed section.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 40

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Reinforced Concrete Beam

Note that the first moment of transformed

section with respect to neutral axis must be

zero.

Since the the first moment of each of the

two portions of the transformed section

is obtained by multiplying its area by the

distance of its own centroid from the

neutral axis, we get

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 41

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Reinforced Concrete Beam

x

2 (bx ) (d x)(nAs )= 0

or

1 bx2 + nAs x nAs d = 0 (61)

2

Solving the quadratic equation for x, both

the position of the neutral axis in the

beam and the portion of the cross section

of the concrete beam can be obtained.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 42

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Reinforced Concrete Beam

The neutral axis for a concrete beam is

found by solving the quadratic equation:

= 0 (62)

b

x 1x

2

d d-x C

Slide No. 43

ENES 220 Assakkaf

diameter steel rods placed 1 in. above the

lower face of the slab and spaced 6 in. on

centers. The modulus of elasticity is 3106

psi for concrete used and 30 106 psi for

steel. Knowing that a bending moment of 35

kipin is applied to each 1-ft width of the slab,

determine (a) the maximum stress in concrete and

(b) the stress in the steel.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 44

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 3 (contd)

M = 35 kip in

4 in. 12 in.

4 in. 5 in.

6 in.

6 in.

5 in. 6 in.

6 in.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 45

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 3 (contd)

Transformed Section

Consider a portion of the slab 12 in. wide, in

5

which there are two - in diameter rods having

8

a total cross-sectional area

2

12 in. 5

8

x N.A. As = 2 4 = 0.614 in2

4 in.

4-x C n

=

Es 30106

= =10

Ec 3106

nAs =10(0.614)= 6.14 in2

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 46

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 3 (contd)

Neutral Axis

The neutral axis of the slab passes through the

centroid of the transformed section. Using Eq.

62:

Quadratic

Formula 1 bx2 + nA x nA d = 0

2

b b 4ac 2

x=

s s

2a 1 (12 )x x =1.575 in

2

+6.14x 6.14(4 )= 0

x =1.575 take 2

1

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 47

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 3 (contd)

Moment of Inertia

The centroidal moment of inertia of

the transformed section is

12 in.

4 in.

C

+6.14(2 .425)2 = 51.7 in4

I=

2.425 3

6.14 in2

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 48

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Composite Beams

Example 3 (contd)

Maximum stress in concrete:

My 35 (1.575)

c = I = 51.7 = 1.066 ksi (C)

Stress in steel:

s = n My

= (10) 35(2.425) = +16.42 ksi (T)

I 51.7

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 49

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Stress Concentrations

a b

Mc

I

in the vicinity of points where the

loads are applied Figure 33

in the vicinity of abrupt changes in

cross section

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 50

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Stress Concentrations

Example 4

Grooves 10 mm deep are to be cut in a

steel bar which is 60 mm wide and 9 mm

thick as shown. Determine the smallest

allowable width of the grooves if the stress

in the bar is not to exceed 150 MPa when

the bending moment is equal to 180 Nm.

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 51

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Stress Concentrations

Example 4 (contd) Figure 34

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 52

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Stress Concentrations

Example 4 (contd)

From Fig. 34a:

d = 60 2(10)= 40 mm c =

1 1

2 d = 2 (40 )= 20 mm

section about its neutral axis is given by

1 1

I = 12 bd 3 = 12 (9103 )(40 103 )3 = 48109 m4

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 53

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Stress Concentrations

Example 4 (contd)

Therefore, the stress is

= Mc = = 75 MPa

180(20103 )

I 48109

Using m = K M

c

I

150 = K (75 ) K = 2

Also D = 60 =1.5

d 40

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 54

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Stress Concentrations

Example 4 (contd)

From Fig. 33b, and for values of D/d = 1.5 and K = 2,

therefore

r

d = 0.13

r = 0.13(d ) = 0.13(40 )= 5.2 mm

2r = 2(5.2)=10.4 mm

LECTURE 11. BEAMS: COMPOSITE BEAMS; STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (4.6 4.7) Slide No. 55

ENES 220 Assakkaf

Stress Concentrations

a b

Mc

I

in the vicinity of points where the

loads are applied Figure 33

in the vicinity of abrupt changes in

cross section

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