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Circulatory System,

Respiratory System

Fejesn Mnika Bakos


Teaching Assistant
The general structure of the
blood vessels
Intima (Tunica intima):
layer of the endothelial cells, underneath basal lamina
subendothelial layer : loose connective tissue with some smooth
muscle cells
Media (Tunica media):
smooth muscle cells, elastic and reticular fibers, collagen type III.,
proteoglycans
not characteristic or absent in veins
Adventitia (Tunica adventitia/externa):
mainly consists of connective tissue (longitudinally arranged
collagen and elastic fibers, collagen type I.)
well-developed in veins (smooth muscle cells can be found)
Vasa vasorum, vascular nerves

In muscular arteries internal elastic membrane/lamina (I. E. M.)


separates the media from intima. Between the media and adventitia,
the external elastic membrane/lamina (E. E. M.) is found.
Aorta (resorcin-fuchsin), 1x
- Large elastic artery
Intima:
endothelial cells, basal
lamina
Subendothelial layer:
loose connective tissue,
some collagen and elastic
fibers

Media:
30-70 concentrically
arranged elastic
laminae, smooth
muscle, some collagen
fibers and fibrocytes

Adventitia:
poorly developed, longitudinal
collagen fibers, elastic fibers,
fibrocytes
Vasa vasorum, Vascular nerves
Aorta (resorcin-fuchsin), 5x

Intima

Media

Vasa vasorum

Adventitia
Aorta (resorcin-fuchsin), 20x

Subendothelial
layer

Elastic laminae
ARTERY,VEIN (HE) 3X

Artery Vein
ARTERY (HE) 5X
- Muscular artery

ruffling of the section,


artifact

Intima:
endothelium, basal lamina, subendothelial layer

Internal elastic membrane (I. E. M.):


charactristic elastic lamina between the intima and
media; appears as a wavy line
Media: concentrically arranged smooth muscle layers,
with some, mainly circular elastic and collagen fibers and
fibrocytes
External elastic membrane (E. E. M.): in large muscular
arteries; contains logitudinal elastic fibers

Adventitia: thinner than the media; collagen fibers,


fibrocytes, adipocytes; vasa vasorum, vascular nerves
ARTERY (HE) 5X
- Muscular artery
E. E. M.

Intima

I. E. M. Adventitia

Peripheral
Endothelium Media nerve

Vasa vasorum
ARTERY (HE) 40X
- Muscular artery

Endothelium

Intima
Subendothelial
layer

Smooth
muscle cells
I. E. M.

Fibrocytes

E. E. M.
Media

Adventitia
VEIN (HE), 5X

-They have a thinner wall and


wider lumen than arteries.

-Their wall has also relatively less


elastic components and smooth
muscle cells but more connective
tissue fibers.

-The media is poorly developed.

- In medium sized veins: venous


valves (duplicatures of the
intima).

Types:
- Venules (<50 m diameter)
- small and medium sized veins
(1-9 mm diameter)
- large veins (>1 cm diameter)
VEIN (HE), 20X
Intima:
- Endothelium, Basal lamina
- Subendothelial layer
- at the border of the media an increasing number of elastic fibers

Media:
- thin layer
- small amount of sparsely located smooth muscle cells
- collagen fibers and fibrocytes

Vasa vasorum

Adventitia:
- the widest layer of the veins
- rich in longitudinal collagen fiber bundles and elastic fibers
- in some large veins: longitudinal smooth muscle cells
- Vasa vasorum
VEIN (HE), 40X

Endothelium

Intima
Media
Smooth
muscle cells
Adventitia
Collagen fibers
Trachea (HE), 2x
1.Tunica mucosa (Respiratory
mucosa):
a, Epithelium mucosae:
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
epithelium, goblet cells, endocrine
cells
b, Lamina propria mucosae:
loose connective tissue,
lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast 2.
cells, eosinophil granulocytes Membranous wall 1.
2. Tunica submucosa:
3.
loose connective tissue
Tracheal glands: seromucous
glands
3. Tunica fibro-musculo-
cartilaginea:
Anular ligaments
Membranous wall (trachealis
muscle, connective tissue.) 4.
hyaline cartilage
4. Tunica adventitia:
connective fibers, vessels, nerves
Trachea (HE), 5x
Epithelium mucosae:
pseudostratified
ciliated columnar
Lamina propria
epithelium

Tracheal
glands

Hyaline
cartilage

T. adventitia
Trachea (HE), 40x
Pseudostratified
ciliated columnar
epithelium

Basement membrane

Lamina propria
Trachea (HE), 20x
Pseudostratified
ciliated columnar
epithelium

Lamina
propria Tracheal
glands
Capillary

Venule with
RBC
Hyaline
cartilage
Trachea (HE), 40x

Endothelium

Venules with RBC


Trachea (HE), 5x

Hyaline cartilage

Membranous
wall
Tracheal
glands

Smooth
muscle
Trachea (HE),30x
- Membranous wall

Smooth
muscle
Lung (HE), 5x

Bronchus:
Glands Epithelium 1. T. mucosa:
- pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
- the epithelium gradually decreases in its
height the lamina propria becomes thinner
towards the terminal bronchioli

Lumen 2. T. muscularis:
- the continuous smooth muscle layer in the
larger bronchi is replaced by spirally
arranged smooth muscle cells in the smaller
bronchi.

3. Cartilage plates:
- decrease gradually in number and size
Hyaline
cartilage 4. T. adventitia:
- collagen fiber bundles

Smooth Small salivary glands can be found in the wall of


the bronchi.
muscle
40x
Lung (HE), 10x Goblet cells

Lumen of a
bronchiole

Epithelium
Smooth
muscle

artifact
Lung (HE), 40X

Type II pneumocyte/
alveolar cell

Type I pneumocyte/
alveolar cell

Lumen of
an alveolus
Interalveolar
septum