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WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

Mishra et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
SJIF Impact Factor 5.210

Volume 4, Issue 06, 377-387. Review Article ISSN 2278 – 4357

THE AYURVEDIC PERSPECTIVE OF RASAYANA – A REVIEW

Dr. Sriram Chandra Mishra1*, Dr. Anil Kumar Singh2, Dr. Jagadish Prasad Mishra3,
Dr. Kalanidhi Hota4

1,2
Associate Professor, PG Dept of Kayachikitsa, VYDS Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Khurja
(UP).
3
Assistant Professor, Dept of Shalakya tantra, VYDS Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Khurja (UP).
4
Assistant Professor, PG Dept of Shalya tantra, VYDS Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Khurja (UP).

ABSTRACT
Article Received on
11 April 2015, Everyone wants to maintain young and healthy life-span forever but

Revised on 01 May 2015, the natural phenomenon of undesirable changes is the inevitable phases
Accepted on 22 May 2015
of human life. The changes are always degenerative in nature. So it is
necessary to rejuvenate the body systems for a better harmony of the

*Correspondence for Body, Mind and Soul. Ayurveda helps in Maintaining health,
Author Prevention of diseases and also avoid the recurrence of diseases. It
Dr. Sriram Chandra counters the aging and its allied ill-effects with three approaches. First
Mishra
it recommends Vayasthapak drugs (age stabilizers) to counter the
Associate Professor, PG
aging and its adverse effects, secondly by using Jeevaneeya group of
Dept of Kayachikitsa,
VYDS Ayurved herbs (Vitalisers) to rejuvenate the aged body and third by Rasayana
Mahavidyalaya, Khurja therapy (rejuvenative process and formulations) for Jarachikitsa (old
(UP). age care). The main purpose of Rasayana therapy is to impede the
aging process and to delay the degenerative process in the body in
terms of special herbs, fruits or any other form of medication that are known to promote
positive health and longevity.

KEYWORDS: Rasayana (Rejuvenation Therapy), Vayasthapak (Age stabilizers), Jeevneeya
(Vitalisers), Jarachikitsa (Geriatric disorder management).

INTRODUCTION
The world population is rapidly ageing due to over exertion and hectic life style – physical as
well as mental. Day by day the people feel insecure which increase stress. The faulty diet like
fast foods, preservatives etc, addiction of alcohol, smoking etc, lack of exercise, use of too

www.wjpps.com Vol 4, Issue 06, 2015. 377

Rakta etc dhatus[2] and also which decreases the aging process. What is Rasayana? The term “Rasayana” is formed by union of two words[1] “Rasa” and “Ayana”. herbo-metalic formulations for general well being and in disease specific conditions relating to geriatrics. fatigue. increases the longevity. enabling a person to complete his normal life span of 100 years. which nourishes all the tissues in the body and the word Ayana is it’s circulation. According to Maharsi Dalhana Vayahsthapanam Varsha-Shatayuh-Sthapanam i. among eight branches. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences much television. 2015. All these factors decrease the normal Dhatu. 378 . Ayurvedic literature record numerous single and compound plant based medicines.e.the immune system) and helps the person to maintain good health. herbo-mineral. Tarunyam Bahu-Kalam Sthapyati-Iti-Arthah i. Issue 06. Rasayana also elaborated in Rig-Veda and Atharva-Veda for Gods like Soma etc to resists fire. since its inception.wjpps. Rasayana basically boosts the Oja (vital force of life . So literally the technical term Rasayana refers to the means of obtaining the optimum nourishment to the Dhatus. Anye Tu Vayah-Sthapanm Jara- Apaharanam. [5] Gangadhara roy in his commentary jalpakalpataru defined that the therapy which prevents jara (old age itself is disease) as Rasayana. The word Rasa in this context means the first liquid tissue. computers etc also enhances the problem. the Rasadhatu. depression etc. then naturally all the tissues in the body will be nourished properly. Chakrapani defined that if Rasayana taken by healthy persons it bestows strength to the ojus and dhatus of the body. has a very well developed branch. water and various weapons (Rig-Veda 5/1/7. recurrent illness. The nourishment of vital tissues helps in stopping old age.e. for the management of Geriatrics disorders entitled “Jarachikitsa” and elaborates Rasayana (Rejuvenation) which deals with the problems related to ageing and methods to counter the same. Rasayana prevents aging thus establishes youth for a longer period[4]. Rasayana drugs are those which invigorate a healthy person by producing the best quality of Rasa.com Vol 4. As per Ayurveda if rasadhatu is produced in optimum quality and quantity.[6] www. Ayurveda. Hence Rasayana or rejuvenation is such a form of treatment in which all the tissues are nourished and enhanced. Ojas etc and vitiate all Doshas resulting in – premature aging. This became the special health challenges of old-age care for the 21st century. Atharva-Veda 16/2/2). Rasayana Chikitsa is also known as Rejuvenation Therapy.Mishra et al. mobile phones. increases the mental as well as physical strength and which destroys the disease process [3].

Examples –  Prameha: Haridra. Jivanti etc. Example .Amalaki.  Medhakamya – Promoter of intelligence and memory. Some of them are as follows- Primarily of two types I. Chyavanaprasha.Adravya consequently means where no substance is used hence when modalities like good behaviour. Example is Achara Rasayan. Triphala. Dravabhuta Rasayana . Naimittika Rasayana – The Rasayana used to promote the health of a particular tissue or system or to prevent their disorders is known as Naimittika Rasayan. Amalaki etc  Amavata: Bhallataka. Gugulu. minerals. Shilajatu. They can be further divided in following types –  Pranakamya – Promoter of vitality and longevity. Vidanga (worms).It is used to serve a special purpose or to serve a special purpose.Brahmi. Guduchi. According to scope I. Adravabhuta Rasayana . meditation etc are used its called as Adravya Rasayana. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Classification of Rasayana There are various classifications for Rasayana therapy.Yogaraja Rasayana.wjpps. Shilajatu etc  Gastro-Intestinal System: Amalaki. II. Example . Haritaki. Haritaki. Pippali etc  Nervous Disorders: Bala.Guduchi. Nagbala etc  Skin Diseases: Tuvaraka. Examples are daily usage of cows milk. Ashvagandha etc. Guduchi. foods etc used is known as Dravyabhuta Rasayana. II. Bhringaraja. ghee etc. Issue 06. Jyotishmati. Shatavar (also lactogaugue) etc  Vata Vyadhi – Shilajith. Loha.Mishra et al.Dravya means substance hence the rasayan therapy where various substances like herbs. Guduchi. Bhringaraja etc  Urinary Tract: Gokshuru.com Vol 4. Abhayamalaka ch:chi:28 etc  Pandu. Kamya Rasayana[7] (Kamya . 2015. Shatavari etc.  Srikamya – Promoter of complexion. Punarnava. Shilajith ch:chi:26 Abhayavaleha ch:chi:16 etc. Mandukaparni. 379 . Amalaki.desire) . III. Ajasrika Rasayana – It is the using of food substances on regular basis for nourishment of body. www. Lashuna. Example .

having lot of patience.wjpps. It also provides immunity against diseases. the person has to undergo Panchakarma therapy. Examples of Rasayanas used in this methods are Chyavanaprasha[15]. Before taking this form of rejuvenation therapy. preferring religious sayings are some examples of this. 2015. This is rightly indicated in the name “Vatatapika”. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences According to drug.Based on drugs and herbs II.e. Some special Rasayanas  Vardhaman Rasayana[22]: Vardhamana means in increasing order. Shilajitwadi Rasayana[21] etc. According to administration[8] I. generous. sensible. Vatatapika Rasayana – This is the Ambulatory method also called as Open air therapy or outdoor therapy [12]. egoless. Issue 06. Amalaka Rasayana[16]. while a person remains exposed to air and heat and this type can be taken while working and doing normal routine work. complexion. Hence the Rasayana in which the dosage is increased periodically then reduced periodically is called Vardhamana Rasayana. and “atapa” means heat or sun[14]. [11] II.com Vol 4. diet and life style I. preferring cleanliness. specifically to improve memory and intellect by Prabhava (specific action). Hence in this form of Rasayana therapy. Sweet by speech. Pippali Rasayana[18]. Haritaki Rasayana[17].  Medhya Rasayana[23]: Medhya Rasayanas are group of medicinal plants described in Ayurveda with multi-fold benefits. spiritual. Ahara Rasayana . well-Mannered. Vidanga Rasayana[19]. having equal sleep & work. Keeping cool mind. nonviolent and calm behaviour. avoiding misuse of alcohol & sex. strength. Triphala Rasayana[20]. worshipping gods and teachers. Aushadha Rasayana . the person is made to stay in a specially designed chamber for a certain period and is given Rasayana preparations (Non-ambulatory method/ In -door therapy). Kuti-praveshika Rasayana – Kutipraveshika is made up of two words i. So this is a method of taking Rasayana. sincere. Kuti meaning “A hut or cottage”[9] and Praveshika means “To enter”[10]. where “Vata” means [13] air .Mishra et al.Based on diet and nutrition III. This is generally done for improving immunity of certain organs or channels with herbs like Piper longum or Pippali etc. serving elderly people. 380 . voice and www. Achara Rasayana .Based on conduct and Behaviour / Lifestyle.

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences digestive capacity. Mahameda. Yet in practice few more handful drugs used with same aim are mentioned elsewhere in the Ayurveda classical textbooks.. conception plus and galactogogue. the churna (powder) of Yastimadhu (Glycirrhiza glabra Linn. Snigdha Sita Madhur Guduchi Tikta. Table 1: Properties of different Medhya ausadhi[24] Drug Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Mandukaparni Tikta Laghu Sita Madhur Yastimadhu Madhur Guru. Meda . Ksheerkakoli Substitute…Aswagandha moola (Withania somnifera) 7. Jeevak . Tinospora cordifolia www.Substitute…Varahikand (Diascorea bulbifera) 8. Tikta Laghu. As the original herbs have become extinct. Vriddhi -Substitute…Varahikand (Diascorea bulbifera)  Vayasthapak drugs[28] (Age Stabilizers) .Mishra et al. Guduchi. Kasaya Guru. stem and flowers) of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Wild) Miers) and kalka (paste) of Shankhapushpi (Convolvulus pleuricaulis Chois). blood purifier.wjpps. Kasaya Madhur Laghu. Riddhi .. Issue 06. Kakoli-Substitute…Aswagandha moola (Withania somnifera) 6. the substitute herbs are in use today.com Vol 4. the swarasa (juice) of all parts (roots. Tikta Tikshna Usna Katu Kushmanda Madhur Laghu. Collectively these herbs are also named as Astavarga. Tikshna Usna Katu Jatamamsi Tikta.various diseases or help contribute to positive health like age stabilization or enhancing aphrodisiac power.27] (vitalisers). Picchil Sita Madhur Aindri Tikta Laghu Usna Katu Jyothishmati Katu. Snigdha Usna Madhur Shankhapushpi Tikta Snigdha.Substitute… Shatawari moola (roots of Asparagus racemosus) 4. 1.Substitute…Vidarikand (Pueraria tuberose) 2. Shatawari moola (roots of Asparagus racemosus) 5. Vidarikand (Pueraria tuberose) 3. Rishbhak – Substitute. The eight herbs mentioned below constitute the Jeevaneeyagan[26.) in milk. Snigdha Sita Katu [25]  Astavarga Herbs . These herbs are listed below.Substitute. 2015.. Snigdha Sita Madhur Vacha Katu. 381 . These herbs are aphrodisiac. The special herbs used include swarasa (juice) of Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn). strengthening. 1.

Clitoria ternatea 6. Haritaki. Urinary System Punarnava. Ashwagandha. Shatavari. Suvarnamakshik Bhasma Mamsa (Muscle) Masha. Boerhaavia diffusa  Rasayana drugs for specific dhatus [29. Gold bhasma. Vardhaman pippli Water Metabolism System Fresh ginger. Asperagus racemosus 8. Nux vomica. Guduchi. Circulatory System (lymphatic Draksha. Reproductive System Vidarikanda. Amalki. Desmodium gigenticum 10. Mandookparni. Sthira. Emblica officinale 4. Kukkutandatwak bhasma. Cardamom Digestive System Long pepper. Gokshura Excretory System Kutaj. Vidarikanda. Ashwagandha. 382 . Bala. Jeewanti. Silver bhasma Meda (Fat) Guggulu. Majja (bone marrow) Calamus. Kukkutandatwak bhasma. Ghee and Cow milk. Shankhapushpi. Bala. Dates portion) Circulatory System (blood portion) Amalki. Haritaki. Terminalia chebula 3. Kapikacchu. Dhati lauha.  Rasayana for specific channel-systems[31. Milk www. Asthi (Bone) Vamsharochana. Dates Rakta (Blood) Amalki. Centella asiatica 9. Cyperus. Shatavari. Suvarnamakshik Bhasma Muscular System Masha. Issue 06. Garlic Shukti (mother of pearl) bhasma. Leptadenia reticulata 7. Nux vomica. Haritaki. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2. 2015. Dhati lauha. Mishra et al. Shilajit. Gotukola. Atirasa. Bhringaraj. Shweta. Makaradhwaja Kapikacchu. Makaradhwaja Aswagandha. Garlic Shukti (mother of pearl) bhasma. Skeletal System Vamsharochana. Gold bhasma. Silver bhasma Adipose System Guggulu. Jeeraka. Ashwagandha. Triphala Sweat System Basil. Shatavari. Pluchea lanceolata 5. Vidanga. Loha bhasma.Gold bhasma. Sweta Mushali.32] Respiratory System Chyavanprash. Punarnava.30] Rasa (Plasma) Draksha. Guduchi. Aswagandha. Yukta. Bhringaraj. Ghee Sukra (Reproductive) and Cow milk. Nux vomica Menstrual System Ashoka. Shatavari Lactation System Shatavari. Lodhra. Shatavari. Shilajit. Loha Nervous System bhasma.com Vol 4. Bhallataka. Calamus.wjpps. Gold bhasma. Shankhapushpi. Haritiki.

Rasayana or Rejuvenation literally means to return to youthful conditions www. Elecampane. Decades of life Specific loss from the body Suitable Rasayana Drugs Vacha (Acorus calamus) 0-10 Balya (childhood) Kasmari (Gmelina arborea) Bala (Sida cordifoila) 11-20 Vruddhi (growth) Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) 21-30 Chavi (luster) Amalaki (Emblica officinalis) Shankhapushpi (convalvulus pluricalis) 31-40 Medha (intellect) Jyotishmati (Celestrus paniculata) Bhringaraja (Eclipta alba) 41-50 Twak (luster of skin) Somaraji (Centratherum anthelminthicum) 51-60 Drusti (Vision) Saptamruta loha Atmagupta (Mucuna prurita) 61-70 Sukra (sexual ability) Munjataka (Orchis longifolia) 71-80 Vikrama (physical ability) Bala. Hardness and roughness of the skin. Excessive sleep. Bakuchi Brain Gotu kola. Excessive Pitta sweating. Rasayana therapy gives various benefits according to its compositions. Stiffness and pain in the joints. Cracking of the hair. growth.40] According to various Ayurvedic classics. easy weight gain. Premature greying of the Regular intake milk hair. excessive thirst. Mishra et al. unable to lose weight. luster of skin. Amalaki 81-90 Buddhi (thinking ability) Brahmi. Licorice.38. Catechu.wjpps. Garlic. Insomnia Burning sensation in the body.com Vol 4. Bala  Rasayana drugs as per the constitution[36] Diseases prone to suffer from Specific measure to prevent Dryness. Kapha Regular intake honey drowsiness. luster/beauty. Vata Regular intake of ghee nails etc. 383 . Nagbala. Constipation. calamus Heart Guggul. Acid eructation. Guggul  Selection of Rasayana according to age[35] The changes of ageing are always degenerative in nature which is very beautifully quoted by Sarangadhara. excessive temperature. thinking ability and locomotion starts to loss from the body with each passing decade. Wrinkles Heaviness of the body.39. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences  Rasayana for senses and other organs [33. Shatavari Nose Nasya of Anu oil Skin Tuvarak. Laziness. sexual ability. Obesity Benefits of Rasayana Therapy[37. Issue 06. Vision. Gold bhasma Neuro-Muscular System Bala. Sankhapuspi 91-100 Karmendriya (locomotion) Aswagandha. 2015.34] Eye Triphala. physical ability. The childhood. intellect.

Roughness in words. It improves natural resistance against infection by increasing Immunity power. thinking ability and locomotion with each passing decade so to prevent unnatural loses there is description of rasayanas for this also. physical strength and sharpness of sense organs. These are unfit on account of respective ignorance.Maintains the balance between mind and body  Antiaging action.Prevents recurrent infection. It enhances the intelligence. Thus prevents chronic degenerative changes and illness. Modern research also covered a lot of pharmacological screening of most of these rasayan herbs. sexual ability. will power. sweetness of voice. intemperance and inability to secure the genuine medicines. poverty. memory power.Encourages the growth of new cells www. It also increases a healthy person’s mental and physical capabilities and also keeps the body and mind pleasant. luster/beauty. Cruel and sinful acts are to be avoided during use of Rasayan therapy. physical strength. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences or to normal from diseased state. The possible mechanisms by which action of Rasayana can be interpreted with modern aspects are as follows  Immuno-modulatory action . Both dravyabhuta and adravyabhuta form of rasayanas are important for benefit of human being. Use of the adravyabhuta form of rasayanas daily will gave prestigious issue in the socity also [44].wjpps.Mishra et al. inactivity. 2015. Issue 06. skin luster. It nourishes the Sapta dhatus and the whole body. Violence and Jealousy.43] but as we naturally loose childhood. As per our Maharsis Rasayanas are advised for peoples of above 16 years[42. DISCUSSION Rasayana is the term given to special herbs.com Vol 4. Vision. vacillations.. luster of skin. Things to be avoided during Rasayan therapy[41] Anger. intellect. physical ability. herbo-mineral. herbo-metalic formulations known to promote general well being and in disease specific conditions relating to geriatrics. The various types of Rasayana therapy are useful for specific as well as general use of it. expelling the damaged cells  Adaptogenic action . Fatigue due to excessive strain. growth. fruits or any other form of medication that are in single or compound plant based medicines. It improves metabolic processes. Indulgence in liquor and sex. It helps to promote and preserve health and to cure disease in sick. 384 . body strength. It also increases the strength of Agni as well as Prana and removes waste products from the body.

Nourishes and maintains the cell life  Antioxidant Action . www. Brahmanand Tripathi. Varanasi. Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan. Page 147. Page 878. Sutra Sthana. Page 278. 4. Dalhana nibandha samgraha tika on Sushruta Samhita. Dalhana tika on Sushruta Samhita. Chakrapani tika on Charak Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 1/1/8. Waman Aapte. Page 15. Sushruta Samhita. pg 2266. 2007. Anil Prakashan Delhi. 2007. 2007. Sanskrit Hindi Shabdkosha. Anil Prakashan Delhi. Sri Narendra nath Sengupta et al. 2007. Chikitsa Sthana Chapter 1/1/17-20 Page. REFERENCES 1. 385 . Dr. Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan. Charak Samhita.10. Issue 06. 2. Chikitsasthana. Charak Samhita. Sanskrit Hindi Shabdkosha. 2009. it cannot be avoided. Kaviraj Ambikadutta Shastri. 2007. 5. Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan.2007. Varanasi. Vd Jadavji Trikamji Acharya. Jalpakalpataru and Ayurveda Dipika tika on Charaka Samhita chikitsasthana Chapter 1/1/8. 3.wjpps. Brahmanand Tripathi. Kasinath Tripathy. Chikitsasthana. chapter 27/3-4.2007. Waman Aapte. The main purpose of Rasayana therapy is to impede the aging process and to delay the degenerative process in the body. chapter 1/4. 10. Waman Aapte. Anil Prakashan Delhi. Dr. 6. Anil Prakashan Delhi . Dr. 2007. 2007. Chikitsa Sthana Chapter 1/1/16 Page. Sanskrit Hindi Shabdkosha by Waman Aapte Page 94 . 2015. Anil Prakashan Delhi . Page 668. 9. 2007.Mishra et al. Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan.com Vol 4. Sanskrit Hindi Shabdkosha. but as Jara (old age) is inevitable. Charak Samhita. it can only be delayed with the help of Rasayanas. CONCLUSION Rasayana drugs are those medicines which are capable for Rejuvenation of the body by imparting superior Rasas and Dhatus to the body and toning up the system of healthy persons. Page 151. Chikitsa Sthana Chapter 1/1/5 Page.9. 2007. 7.. Charak Samhita. Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan. Brahmanand Tripathi. Varanasi. Dr. Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan. Kaviraj Ambikadutta Shastri. Brahmanand Tripathi. chapter 27/1. 12. 14. Waman Aapte. 13. 8. Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan.4. 2010. Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan. Chaukhamba orientalia. 2009. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences  Nutritive function . Dr. Sanskrit Hindi Shabdkosha. Chikitsa Sthana Chapter 1/1/16 Page.Eliminates the toxic metabolites and pollutants. 11.9.

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