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The Vulgar Latin Question and the Origin of the Romance Tongues: Notes for a Chapter of

the History of Romance Philology Prior to 1849
Author(s): Urban T. Holmes
Source: Studies in Philology, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Jan., 1928), pp. 51-61
Published by: University of North Carolina Press
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jstor.." This work may be considered as one of the first to attempt the re- construction of the vulgar Latin tongue. and 842 A. 36-47. 20-476 A. 476-842 A. as comprehensible as the Gargantua or the Pantagruel minus Rabelais. one of the early pupils of Diez. In 1849 was published die Romanischen Sprachen in ihrem Verhdltnisse zum Lateinischen. D. "dass man auch von den Romanischen Sprachen haiifig mit ziemlicher Sicherheit auf die Romische Volksprache zuriickschliessen kann.236 on Sun. and Italian. By URBAN T. D. D. W.154. Verlag von H." and. s Ibid. sixty pages to Accent. Spanish. who had previously published a Grammatik der Italidnischen Sprache (Halle. L. in which he confuses vulgar with middle and modern Latin. 240-20 A. Versification.. some thirteen pages to Phonology. 1844). 2 Ibid. HOLMES Romance languages without vulgar Latin would be a hopeless paradox to the twentieth century scholar. 02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about. 1849. Even those who did recognize a vulgar Latin made very little effort to study it. Blanc.. Schmidt. Fuchs's thesis was 2 " dass die Romanischen Sprachen ganz naturgemdsse Fortbildungen der Rimischen Volksprache . This was in spite of such striking evidence as the Fredegarius and Gregory of Tours. C. G.. 754-240 B. Druck u. Yet for several centuries many learned men. C. 51 This content downloaded from 140. Fuch admits six periods of vulgar Latin: Origins to 745 B. This volume of three hundred and sixty-nine pages was seen through the press by Dr. D. steeped though they might be in Latin lore. 35. to the present time 3 (sic!).. sought elsewhere the origin of French. (the founding of Rome)..206. and Rhyme.l a posthumous work of August Fuchs. forty-seven pages to Morphology. His information for periods one and two must have been particularly hard to find! He devotes one hundred and eleven pages to Lexicography and Word Forma- tion.THE VULGAR LATIN QUESTION AND THE ORIGIN OF THE ROMANCE TONGUES: NOTES FOR A CHAPTER OF THE HISTORY OF ROMANCE PHILOLOGY PRIOR TO 1849. as he would add. much quoted by Claude Fauchet (1530-1601). and a mere 1Halle.

3 ff. da in einem so einheitlichen Staate. was freilich ganz natiirlich ist.. 6a The reader must bear constantly in mind the distinction between vulgar Latin or the sermo vulgaris which. See especially his Lateinische Gedichte des X u. Gittingen. which today seem singularly odd.236 on .. Fuchs had still to reargue the case for the very existence of vulgar Latin.6 perhaps we should be rearguing the case today. ist iiberhaupt nicht miglich. die Hauptstadt der Welt nicht leicht Volksmundarten zur schriftstellerischer Ausbildung gelangen lassen konnte. The first of the moderns to remark upon the existence of a vulgar Roman tongue oa was certainly Leonardo Bruni of Arezzo (1369- 1444). in-fol. 5 ff. 1838 (of which he was co-editor with Andr.154. I (1836). 1838. 4 Ibid. nec alium vulgarem. Apostolic secretary to four of the Popes and later Chan- cellor of the Florentine Republic. wie der Romische war. 35. May I resume briefly this question of origin for the Romance languages. The last two are meagre in extreme. using as my guide and chief source the introductory chapter of Fuchs's book? His references and quotations are full beyond measure. and else- where. due to barbarians and general loss of culture. da unsere Quellen fur die Kenntniss derselben iiussert spirlich fliessen. sic etiam tune distinctam fuisse vulgarem linguam a litterata estimo. ego autem. ' Epistolarum familiarum libri VIII. Save for the last item this makes one think of a grammar of the future. For these proportions.206.. he manifested a keen interest in the Italian language. 1495. ut nune est. If it had not been for the powerful voices of such scholars as Jacob Grimm 6 and Friedrich Diez. Bonn. Indeed. existed beside the sermo classicus from Plautus on. Fuchs has an excuse. in his own words: 4 Eine vollstiindige Geschichte der Romischen Volksprache zu geben. XI jh. we assume. This content downloaded from 140. he writes as follows:7 Quaestio nostra in eo consistit. In his tenth letter to Biondo di Forli.jstor. Gottingen. and the late corrupt Latin. in the sixth book of his collected letters. quod tu apud veteres unum eundemque fuisse sermonem omnium putas. 6 Grammatik der romanischen Spracken. if some of the new school should have their way. Schmeller). 02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about. 52 Vulgar Latin Question and Origin of Romance Tongues nine pages to Syntax. alium litteratum.

racoolte da Girolamo Gigle. e prima e poi. He never expressly states this in his long letter on the subject. 97. che la Lengua volgare degli antichi Romani. . II. 3. sect. 12 Saggio da Iingua Etrusca e di altre antiohe d'Italia. e pura latina. He did not believe. 1739.236 on Sun. 11Della Storia e della Ragione d'ogni poesia. e oome. Scipione Maffei 10 (1675-1755) and Francesco Saverio Quadrio11 (1695-1756). II. Vol. He said: 8 Ora egli e da sapere che per ogni tempo. professor of humanities at Padua. e Nome della nostra Lingua. Roma. Rome 1789. 1804. Others of note who professed it were Luigi Lanzi. who was a philologist as well as a collector of Petrarchiana. 2 ff. la quale era propria degli scrittori. the official librarian of Napoleon from 1804 on. This brings us to the nineteenth century and to such men as s Opere di Celso Cittadini. And speaking of the Italian. L'una rozza. Berlin. . e mezzo barbara . della gente bassa. 1721. this is a history of his native city. furono in Roma due sorti di Lingua. 18 La Clef des Langues ou Observations sur l'origind et la formation des principales langues qu'on parle et qu'on ecrit en Europe. ma rimutato in tanto. XXIV. e perch&. Holmes 53 He compares the rustic Roman listening to the polished orator with the Italian of his day understanding the Mass and yet not able to speak the learned tongue.. e quando dimostrato avemo. 1731-1732. II.154. he added: 9 che altro non e. sect. at least. Florence 1824. Urban T. I. J.. This theory of a rustic Roman speech continued to find supporters in Italy.jstor. that the Italian and vulgar Latin are identical. while it was rejected elsewhere. e del Processo. Milano. Bologna. Part ii. in quanto. Verona. 6G.206. 9 Ibid. S. This content downloaded from . The subject was more definitely discussed a hundred and fifty years later by the antiquary Celso Cittadini (1553-1627). and for a time an apostate and friend of Voltaire. Because of these two passages it is generally believed that he confounded Vulgar Latin with modern Italian.12 (1732-1810) and Carlo Denina 13 (1731-1813). p. p. Begun in 1718. 1742. p. 10 Verona illustrata. Trattato della vera origine. It is just as probable that in trying to illustrate the phe- nomenon of a rustic dialect beside a polished speech he made use of a misleading comparison. 331. 02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about. It was repeated by such authorities as the Veronese. 41.

Lorenz Diefenbach 15 (1806-1883) and Murgu. as the Genuese. Diefenbach was municipal librarian of Frank- fort-am-Main during the years 1848-1876. viz. 22. le latin n'employait aucun de ces carac- teres speciaux. Leipzig. Biondelli was occupant of the chair of Archeology and Numismatics in the Royal Academy of Milan. dass die Wallachen nicht romisoher Abkunst sind. les personnes les moins impartiales seront forcees de con- venir qu'aucune preuve. though a bitter opponent of Raynouard's theory. as the Catalonian to the Spanish. differing from the Latin in its grammatical struc- ture. l6 Erweis. rhdtoromanische (in der Schweiz) franz6sische. This none-too-correct comparison shows that Lewis did not have a clear conception of what was meant by vulgar Latin. portu- guesische. This content downloaded from 140. 1841. Ofen. Con- taining an Examination of M. of a patois or dialetto.l' who supported Grimm and Diez in the final proof of the theory. Verwandtschaft u. un idiome vulgaire qui a precede et prepar6 la langue italienne. p. 16 Ueber die jetzigen romanisohen Schriftsp'rachen. Raynouard (1761-1836) was especially emphatic.. dieses Sprach- stammes. Sir George Cornewall Lewis (1806-1863). was not sympathetic to the existence of a vulgar Latin. et qui avait les carac- teres romans distinctifs. and French to the Latin. die spanische. des verbes auxiliaires. que mAme aucun indice raisonnable ne permet d'adopter ces assertions. 18 An Essay on the origin and formation of the Romance languages. italiinische und dakoromanische (in mnehren Ldndern des 6stlichen Europa's) mit Vor- bemerkungen iiber Entstehung. .236 on Sun. 104. 14 Atlante linguistico d'Europa. Oxford.: 17 Si ces philologues ont voulu dire que. 17. c'est-a-dire un idiome particulier. Mantuan or Bolognese to the Italian. 1821. Spanish. Raynouard's Theory on the Relation of the Italian. 49. qui faisait usage des articles.54 Vulgar Latin Question and Origin of Romance Tong. Mit mehreren Griun- den vermehrt.154. concurremment avec la langue latine. 1835. his later years were devoted to studies on the Aztec Indians (1861-1869 in particular).206. dans le siecle d'Auguste. Provengal. etc. standing to the Latin in the same relation as the Provencal or Gascon to the French. 1827-1830.Les B.jstor. To quote him:18 There is no trace of the existence in ancient Italy of a language spoken among the lower orders. und diess nicht aus ihrer italienisch-slawischen Sprache folgt. s. xlviii. 17 Grammaire comparee des LaJngues de l'Europe latine dans leurs rap- ports aveo la langue des Troubadours. il existait i Rome. Milano. 02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about. He was chiefly concerned with Gothic and Celtic. Biondeli 14 (1804-1886). 1831. as we shall see fur- ther on. p. That this theory met with opposition well into the nine- teenth century will be best observed from the following citations. Paris. w.

02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about. did they not use the Greek language? 22 He did not argue that the common people spoke Greek. so6 (the actual pronunciation) < tA. A. . 46a.. 28 These are taken from folios 42b. cit. VI. He had one predecessor. aol. Urban T. 144a. in the case of French. soy < soi. 14b. 19 Paris. 71a. Others saw classical Latin modified by German as the origin. 1554. he added.jstor. Here are a few of his Greek etymologies: brebis < rp6jaTov feu < ir6p esseier < eyXetpltrev moi.154. Why. descent from the Greek. 161-175. I heureux < o6ptos drap < AaKos jour < SpOpop beaucoup < IroXXdKLs oui. 33a ff. toy. or.2al 18a Tenney Frank and other scholars of the present-day are still denying the existence of a sermoo tvugaris and believe that Latin was corrupted by Greek and Oriental influence. that presumptuous . fol. Holmes 55 But how had men explained the origin of the Romance tongues without acknowledging the existence of a vulgar Latin speech? They had chosen nearly every other explanation possible: descent from a local indigenous language with a slight Latin coating. and last of all there is the well-known theory of Raynouard. 61b... 48a. to6. and ainsi < o0fTws and ovrTW. JP. respectively. oT moy. if not more. fol.20 From Csesar's Gallic War 21 he had learned that the Druids used Greek letters in their writings. oo mo6. dom Joachim Pieron (end of XVth century-1559?). but that the Druids must have had a tremendous part in the formation of the Gallic language. 22 Op. ai. cit. Pieron admitted the existence of a small Latin element as well.19 In this work he lamented that there was no mention of French among the seventy-two languages arising from the confusion at the Tower of Babel.206. uov. then. 2o Op. his De origine linguae gallicae et in ejus cognatione cum graeca dialogorum libri IV. soi < Iuol. This content downloaded from 140. 45a. 53b. 21 Bk. XLV.l8a Henri Estienne II (1528-1598) was not the first to see a Greek source for the French language. Pieron published a development of the theory in 1554.236 on Sun. aussi. toi. 14. and 142a.

02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about. a. We shall do so in translation: 25 It has long seemed to me that this noun amiral is derived from the Greek aXiwvpos. a Romana Italaque corrupta fluxisse. les autres en partie. les uns pris du Grec entiQre- ment.2 Ed. or whatever other year is to be put. This content downloaded from 140..206. 25 De latinitate falso suspecta. in Gallicae linguae ex Graeca repetenda origine. Perionus. 1566. divis6 en trois livres. 99. None of those to whom I have communicated this etymology have ever dis- agreed with me. et hanc et Hispanam Italamque. Miller. I have not been able to locate the original for this quotation. none the less foolishly than those who wish almanach to be Arabic or Chaldaean: when frequently there occurs in the German vernacular the expression from which this is derived. en ayant retenu quelsques lettres par lesquelles on peut remarquer leur etymologie: Avec une preface remon- strant quelque partie du desordre et abus qui se commet aujourdhuy en l'usage de la langue Frannoise. 50b. 1708. quotes Scaliger: 26 Frustra laborant. . they begin with the time that it occurred. fol.66 Vulgar Latin Question and Origin of Romance Tongues As a fitting climax we should mention that he considered the lack of case endings due to Hebrew influence. quasi res ita se haberet: cum certissimum sit. I am not ignorant of the fact that there are those who derive it from Arabic. nor do I think that those who read this will disagree. Two of Estienne's etymologies from another work are famous and well worth the quoting. ait Scaliger.24 Henri Estienne II repeated this absurdity. p. En ce Traicte. Als man nach der geburt Jesu Christi unsers se- ligmachers gezelt hat 1560 vel 1570. but 24 Op cit. 328. sont descouverts quelsques secrets tant de la langue Grecque que de la FranQoise: duquel l'auteur et Imprimeur est Henry Estienne. Ste- phanus et alii. c'est a dire. which the Moors call a thassalarch or sea commander. But there were some in the sixteenth century who held to surer facts. and they are wont to say. I know that there are some who would derive this word from the word . ac utriusque cognatione probanda. Daniel George Morhof (1639-1691). J.jstor. Liibeck. The complete title of his chief work on the subject would ill suit the modern catalogue card: Traicte de la conformit6 du langage Frangois avec le Grec. For when they [the Germans] are about to narrate something. dont les deux premiers traictent des manieres de parler conformes: le troisieme contient plusieurs mots Frangois.236 on Sun. H. 4. Paris. and it is to be believed that the later Greeks have used daX\uvpa as a noun for the sea itself. In 8. a literary encyclopedia of the year 1688. in his Polyhistor. 11.154. fils feu Robert Estienne. IV. 1576. in Primis Scalig.

but it was Antoine Court de Gebelin (1725- 1784) who made the theory famous. 175-188. XV. Paris..32 This view was continued by La Ravaliere in the IHistoire Littgraire. gique ou Origines de la Langue Franmoise. expressed it in these terms:33 Les mots francais descendus de la langue celtique constituent le fond m8me de notre Langue et forment des families immenses. etc. 1549. 1694. a French Basque. a lawyer. xxxiii. Larramendi was a well-known cosmographer. Monde primitif.29 and Italian from Etrus- can and Aramaic. 5. Oihenart. 27 We must not forget the two authorities who would derive French entirely from the Hebrew. gives as the originator of this theory a juriscon- sult Emmanuel Poga (end of XVIth century). p. however. I. also cited by Gebelin.206. Paris. 28 Besnier.1750). 17. ou dictionnaire etymologique de la langue frangoise. 1638. Andres de Poca.27 Nearly as strange were the attempts to derive Spanish from Basque.28 Rhitoromance from Etruscan.31 We need not wonder that Jean Frangois Duclos (1705-1752) proposed to see in French a mixture of Classical Latin and Celtic. whose work on Etruscan is still useful! 80 See Pietro Francesco Giambullari (1495-1555) in his Origine della lingua fiorentina. S2 Sur l'Origine et les Revolutions des Langues Celtique et Franwoise in the Memoires de I'Acaddmie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. occupied himself with this subject in his Notitia utriusque Vasconiae. I can find no trace of this man. ." Modern Philology. turn aquitanicae. op. (see n. This content downloaded from 140. turn ibericae. and Stephanus' work did not appear till later. This Protestant minister. who was at the same time Royal censor and a great champion of tolerance. His father. 33). Paris. 1806-1808. The theory was carried istill further by Arnault de Oihenart (1592-1668) and Manuel Larramendi (1690 ? . 6. Julius Caesar Scaliger. who died in 1595 and who was interested in linguistic subjects. Holmes the mention of Stephanus indicates that Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) must be intended. p. 29 See Joseph von Hormayr (1781-1841) in his Geschichte der gefiirsteten Graffschaft Tyrol. This theory was also held by Planta. Etienne Guichard (1610) and Thomassin.jstor. I suspect this is the authority referred to. an article by Denis Saurat. XXIII. 1778. 81 Consult " Blake et les Celtomanes.30 The Druids and the Celtic languages seized the XVIIIth cen- tury by storm. altrimenti il Gello. 02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about. Tiibingen. the former cited by Besnier in his preface to Menage's Dictionaire Etymolo. Urban T.236 on Sun. VIII. There was. 88 Monde primitif analys6 et compare avec le monde moderne. considdr6 dans les Origines francoises. died in 1558.154. cit. who later collaborated in the French transla- tion of the New Testament.

Firenza. 4.38 (1731-1794). the Portuguese Nunes de Leo 40 fl. pp. Bologna. 1831. a In his Linguae germanicae vindicatio oontra exoticas quasdam. the Spaniard Bernardo Jose Alderete39 (1565-1645). Cardinal Peter Bembo 37 (1470-1547). et ils ont fait un chaos des Origines de la Langue Fran- goise. Paris.36 Followers of this popular theory were the Petrarchist. G. Lisboa. 1586. 28. 40 Origem da lingoa Portuguesa. viii. in elucidating his theory. 84 Origini della lingua italiana. 1. aux 6tymologies simples et lumineux que leur auroit fourni la Langue Celtique. 41 Polyhistor. he says: Malheureusement ce n'est pas ainsi que se sont conduits ceux qui ont cherche l'Origine de la Langue Frangoise. Ginguen6's first lectures on this subject were given in 1806. the Swiss historian. ix. Ils n'ont vu que du Latin dans le Francois. Vinezia. Sourds i la voix de ceux qui vouloient les ramener a la Langue Celtique. II. 1606. chancellor at Freising.154. Braunschweig. 1606. III. Ottavio Mazzoni Toselli 34 and Pierre Louis Ginguene35 (1748- 1816) extended this Celtic theory to include Italian. ils ont prefere les etymologies les plus etranges.jstor. n'etoit en quelque sorte qu'un Latin corrompu. xi. Pietro Bembo. J. Morhof 41 (1639-1691). D. rector of the University of Ingol- stadt. S. 1805-1813. 1811-1823. C. 87 See Le Prose di M. G. nelle quali si rag iona della volga lingua. He is mentioned by Justus George Schottel (1612-1676) in his Ausfiihrliche Arbeit von der Deutschen Haupt-Sprache. . 16. 58 Vulgar Latin Question and Origin of Romance Tongues Of special interest for the vulgar Latin controversy is another observation of his: Nous regardons la Langue Celtique comme la source du Francois. Tiraboschi. There are twenty volumes of this work. 88 Storia della letteratura Italiana. 89 Del origen de la lengua castellana 6 romance que oi se usa en Espw4a. tandis que jusques A present on a toujours ete dans l'idee que le Francois. J.236 on Sun. 1575. That the Romance languages are classical Latin acted upon by Germanic invaders was first developed by Wolfgang Hunger (1511- 1555). 1. 1576). Vol. 02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about. librarian of the Duke of Modena. 1663.206. quae cumplurium vocum et dictionum mere germanicarum Etymologias ex sua petere sunt conati. This content downloaded from 140. Then further on. 35 Histoire litteraire d' Itale. IV. 123 ff. les plus absurdes.

1818. des nombreux rapports. Deutsch herausgeg. 1844. was filled with much philological interest.236 on Sun. vous ftes sans doute surpris et charm6s des identites. c'est qu'il a exist6. il y a plus de dix siecles. It was merely a question of what intervened. As Sir George Lewis (1806-1863) said:44 " It seems that there is no reason for not adopting the explanation of Schlegel that the change produced in the Latin was purely the effect of the German conquest. Leipzig u. 44 Op. he believed. Pari3. Italiens et vous tous dont l'idiome vulgaire se rattache aux idiomes de ces peuples.. p. on suit jusqu'au latin l'origine de toutes ses regles grammaticales. et pre6od6es d'une notice sur I'auteur par M. but. siecle. it would have arrived even- tually at the Romance stage..45 Indeed. Hain. des analogues incontestables que vous d6couvrez sans cesse entre vos langages particuliers. etc. 48 Ibid.206. v.. 1816-1819. 45 Grammatik der Italidnischen Sprache. secretaire perpetuel of the Academy. it remained for Frangois Juste Marie Raynouard (1761-1836) to present a modification like a bolt from the blue.jstor. Sismondi 42 (1773-1842). Let his theory be stated in his own words:47 Francais. 1839. 47 Grammaire compar&e. . A. Indeed the theory was even ascribed to him by some. 'nee du latin corrompu. B. Gustave Fallot (1807-1836) stated this belief firmly in 1836: 46 Le frangais est un degagement natural et regulier du latin. I. Latin would have developed more slowly. permettez- moi de vous expliquer la cause. 10. cit. and most of all that great precursor of Romanticism. Elle a conserve plus particulierement ses formes dans un idiome illustre par des poetes qui furent nommes troubadours. 42 Die Literatur des siidlicher Europa's. Portugais. 46 Recherches sur les formes grammaticales de la langue frangaise et de ses dialectes au XIII. 29. 1 ff. une langue qui. Without German influence. . Urban T." A rather more moderate view was assumed by Blanc. . the editor of Fuchs' book. But before vulgar Latin was to be universally admitted.154. a servi de type commun L ces langages. et du latin seul: on l'en voit sortir. 449. 48 Observations sur la langue et litterature Provengales. Espagnols. iii. This content downloaded from 140. Guerard. . Holmes 59 L. perhaps. W. 02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about. Ludw. publiUes par Paul Ackermann. by the beginning of the nineteenth century nearly every scholar was convinced that the Romance languages had Latin as their basis. von Schlegel43 (1767-1845). The end of the life of this poet. Altenburg. Halle. 11.

I. To aid in confounding the opposition he com- 48a It is probable too that he was influenced by Claude Fauchet.jstor. 28. But he would not submit. 50 \Sorittori del Trecento. To quote from Lewis:49 The same theory has been adopted by Champollion-Figeac. 1841. Bernhardy likewise in his Grundlinien zur Encyclopaidie der Philologie (p. That the Provengal dialects have affinities with French.236 on Sun. as well as by A. by Niccolini Lampredi.. 7. Bruce-Whyte.206. 1581. the son of the great physicist. I have in mind a remark by one of our most distinguished present-day scholars which was made to me more or less humorously. and this served as the common mother of the other Romance tongues. cit. and Ugo Foscolo. how- ever. In brief. It is easy enough to follow the train of Raynouard's thoughts.48' His solution of the question had. is true. a great vogue. by Sismondi in the later editions of his work on the Literature of Southern Europe. Introduction.51 and Jean Jacques Ampere 52 (1800-1864). The Provencal poetry composed in Italy and Spain was well fitted to throw him off the track. Reoueil de l'Origine de la Lague et Poesie Frangaise. 7. Giulio Perticari (1779-1822) also shared this belief: 5 Quindii possiamo dire che la latina veramente fu avola. On the other hand Raynouard was vigorously opposed by Lewis. Such a state of affairs evi- dently misled Raynouard. 188). von Schlegel. It is worthy of passing note that the great scientist bitterly resented his son's interest in the history of letters. appears to consider the Provencal as intermediate between the Latin and the other Romance languages. Paris. W. 02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about.60 Vulgar Latin Question and Origin of Romance Tongues I1 a exist6 une langue intermediaire dont le type a fourni les elements et les formes de nos idiomes . from a debased Latin was formed Provengal. ma la romana (Provengal) fu madre delle nuove favelle che ora si parlano in tante parti d'Europa. Paris. that you may find any form or any sound change in the many Provengal dialects if you search long enough. 62Histoire de la Litterature frangaise au moyen age compar6e aux litteratures 6trangeres. and even Spanish. namely. 3 vols. and it is received by Balbi as the established opinion in his Ethnographic Atlas.154. Italian. 49 Op. Histoire de la formation de la langue frangaise. This content downloaded from 140. 61 Histoire des Langues Romanes et de leur litterature depuis leur origine jusqu'au XIV siecle.

XIV. 68 Lecique. enlarged by the L6vy supplement. An interesting fact to note in this discussion is the role played by the Italians in early Romance philology. . From errors are born great things. les rapports souvent identiques que j'ai indiqu4s. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.). Overshadowed by greater and more long-lived con- temporaries. Wie are grateful for the Lexique.236 on Sun.jstor. Having traced the history of these early theories of the origin of the Romance tongues. Although they have been little quoted. which. l'analogie de leurs combinaisons diverses. Urban T. Holmes 61 posed that invaluable Lexique roman ou dictiona/ire de la langue des Troubadours (Paris. la concordance de leurs formes essentielles. still serves as our basic lexicon for Old Provengal. malgre les rapprochements nombreux que j'ai etablis.206. This content downloaded from 140. beaucoup de persones hlsitent encore: croire qu'elle (Provencgal futt la source commune de oes divers idiomes.154. 02 Apr 2017 05:15:34 UTC All use subject to http://about. we must call to mind once more this book of August Fuchs. 6 vols. Raynouard states his purpose in his Introduction:53 Quelque soin que j'aie mis k demontrer la conformitk de leurs el6ments constitutifs [speaking of the neo-latin tongues]. by Charles H. I. The University of North Carolina. j'ai cru devoir entre- prendre pour la lexicographie ce que j'avais essaye de faire pour les formes grammaticales. Grand- gent. et pour d6truire jusqu'au moindre doute. he wrote a curious and distant forerunner of that splendid book. it was certainly their reflections on the origin of their own language which initiated for us so much that is sound of our Romance philology of the present day. Dans cet etat de choses.