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Seminar 2.

2.4. Exercises
1) Divide the following words into the component morphemes. Use hyphens and the traditional
spelling, according to the model:
MODEL: enlighten en - light - en
a) impoverish i) utilitarianism
b) anticipative j) catchword
c) anticlimatical k) impermeability
d) dishearten l) vertebrally
e) burlesquely m) downtowner
f) dishonestly n) telescopic
g) undeceivable o) sanitize
h) wholesaler p) volubility

2) Divide the words into their constituent morphemes, specifying the nature of each morpheme,
according to the model.
MODEL: impersonalism: im- = prefix, person = noun stem, -al = suffix, -ism = suffix
a) foolishly i) glove maker
b) multinational j) trans-European
c) deepen k) vulgarism
d) rosy l) non-didactic
e) beautify m) preconceivable
f) industrialization n) post-modernism
g) ex-president o) overdone
h) impressionism p) underestimated
3. List the types of morphemes and give examples for each of them.
4. Analyse the following words in terms of roots, stems, lexical suffixes, grammatical suffixes and
prefixes. Indicate the order in which morphemes appear within words.
MODEL: disagreements
a) agree = root; -ment = lexical (derivational) suffix; -s = grammatical (inflectional) suffix;
dis- = prefix; disagreement = stem;
b) agree + -ment; dis- + agreement; disagreement + -s.
uneatable, productiveness, transformational, indecipherability
5. Some derived words consist of an affix attached to a root which is itself a word, i.e. a free
morpheme (e.g. (i)). In other cases the root is a bound morpheme (e.g. (ii)).

(i) Word + affix [[read]V er]N
(ii) Root + affix [[electric]Aity]N (the root electris- never appears as a word on its own).

For each of the nine relationships given below provide two affixes (prefixes or suffixes) which
express that category relationship. Choose your affixes such that one attaches to free morpheme
roots and the other to bound morpheme roots. For each affix give at least 2 words containing that
affix with the given function. This means that you have to provide 18 affixes and 36 words.
(Hint: try looking through a book or newspaper and analysing all the words you suspect of being
derivationally complex).
6. Take a dictionary of English and collect all the words beginning with im- / in-. Check whether
im- / in- is a morpheme for each of your words. For instance, comparing input with output, you
should conclude that in- is a morpheme, whereas it would seem considerably harder to find
evidence that in- is a morpheme in inane.
a) How many distinct (homonymous) im-/ in- are there?
b) Why is input misspelled (as imput) so often?
7. Consider carefully the words in (a -c). To what extent do the words in a given list contain the
same morpheme?
a) analysis, anabasis, anachronism, analogy, anaconda, anabaptist, anarchy, anorak.
b) nominal, nominate, gnomic, nomic, nomenclature, noun.
c) pedal, peduncle, pediform, p(a)ederast, p(a)edagogue, peddle, pedant.

8. List 2 different verbs formed by attaching prefixes to each of the following bound bases:
-ceive, -duce,--fer, -fine, -form, -ject, -mand, -port, -scribe, -serve, -side, -spect, -spire, -sume, -tract,
-trude, -vert, -vade.
9. Draw labelled trees to show the structure of the following words:
motherhood, shoemakers, unputdownable, re-examining, shop-lifted, underprivileged,
unnaturalness, dislocation, unclassifiable.
10. Analyze the words in sets (a-c) into their component morphemes. What problems do these
words present?
a) conceptual, criminal, managerial, professorial, residual, tidal.
b) anthropocentric, gastro-enteritis, Graeco-Roman, gynecologist, hypothetico-deductive,
misanthropist, misogynist, politico-economic.

c) Congolese, Javanese, Mancunian, Panamanian, Peruvian.
9. Complete:
An Adj P (adjectival phrase) consists of ............ and a possible .............. . An .......................consists
of an adverb and a ................... . A PP (prepositional phrase) consists of a noun phrase and
a ....................
10. What do AdjP, AdvP and PP have in common?

Seminar 3.

3.3. Exercises
1. What people inhabited the British Isles before the coming of the Anglo-Saxons?
2. Where did the Anglo-Saxons live on the Continent?
3. What was the influence of the Scandinavian settlement on the English language?
4. What was the chief influence of the Norman Conquest on the English language?
5. Divide the words into sets according to their meanings (e.g. domestic, household articles, etc.).
Consider what these sets of borrowed words might suggest about the relationship between the
Germanic tribes and the Romans.
Latin OE ModE Latin OE ModE
balteus belt belt mulus mul mule
benna bin bin patina panne pan
episcopus biscop bishop pisa pise pease/pea
butyrium butere butter pulvinus pyle pillow
cattus catt cat pinna pinn pin
calx cealc chalk pipa pipe pipe (musical)
caseus cese cheese puteus pytt pit
cuprum copor copper prunum plume plum
cuppa cuppe cup papaver popig poppy
discus disc dish pondo pund pound (weight)
furca forca fork bursa purs purse
uncia ynce inch Saturni (dies) Sæternes (dæg) Satur(day)
catillus cetel kettle secula sicol sickle
cucina cycene kitchen strata stræt street
milea mil mile tegula tigele tile
molinum mylen mill telonium toll toll (tax)
moneta mynet mint vallum wall wall
mortarium mortere mortar (vessel) vinum win wine

6. Use an atlas of England to identify towns and villages with place-names ending in the
Scandinavian suffixes:

He called one of the servants and asked what it meant. Thy brother is come. and asked what these things meant. farm’) b) –thorp (e) (‘village’) c) -thwaite (‘piece of land’) d) –toft (‘piece of loand’). and he called one of the servants. for he resseyued him saf. Þa clypode he anne Þeow. 1611. And he said onto him. Below are four versions of one text. and whanne he cam and neighede to the hous. And he cleipide oon of the seruantis. and mark them on a blank map. . Þin broÞor com. 1961. as he approached the house. (B) SoÞlice his yldra sunu waes on aecere. and he com. a) Match the letters of the texts with the dates: 980 (Old English) 1380 (Middle English) 1611 (Early Modern English) 1961 (Modern English) b) List some differences in vocabulary. he heard musicke & dauncing. he herde a symfonye and a croude. and acsode hine hwaet ÞQt awere. (A) Now his elder sonne was in the field. he gehyrde Þaene sweg and ÞQt wered. and axide what thingis thes weren. (D) Now the elder son was out on the farm. (C) Forsoth his eldere sone was in the feeld. and thi fadir hath slayn a fat calf. and on his way back. because he hath received him safe and sound. 1380. Thi brodir is comen. Þa cwaeÞ he. and Þa he Þam huse genealaehte.a) –by (‘town. and as he came and drew nigh to the house. you should find good evidence of the extent of the Danelaw. and Þim faeder ofsloth an faett cealf. They date from 980. "Your brother has come home. he heard music and dancing. and thy father hath killed the fatted calfe. And he seide to him. forÞam Þe he hine halne onfeng. The servant told him. If you find a sufficient number. and your father has killed the fatted calf because he has him back safe and sound”. 7.

the French ones are literary.ascend holy . The following list contains words of Anglo-Saxon origin.mount .sacred . Find the Latin adjectives corresponding to them. It is assumed that the Anglo-Saxon terms are popular.conflagration 9. Below you will find a number of English words. Here are some English nouns. Explain the existence in English of such sets as: rise .consecrated fire . Try to find the French and the Latin synonyms for the following Anglo-Saxon terms: anger huge unclear friendly lively weariness goodness sure to defeat hidden true to link . Give their Latin synonyms: alike empty bad rudeness alive end happy shelter big endless height stillness brotherhood fat helper stubborn dead first hence teacher daily funny young twin earthy good man wizard 11.8. French and Latin origin. and the Latin learned.flame . In English one may come across sets of three synonyms of Anglo-Saxon. heaven mother town house mind winter letter ox worm 12. big doom front instead smell calm dream happiness jail speech craving easy hearty leave spell clumsy faithful help life whim deed freedom holy purpose whole deep friendship hut shade work 10. Find French synonyms for them.

a) Linguistically. b) One particular regional variety is . palaver....... kayak...forms (dialectal / educated / uneducated / standard / officially recognised). 4... (superior / inferior / equally related / equivalent / equal). khaki.... to the others in every respect. e) There is ....... kindergarten....... tea. hamburger... Give the British equivalents for the following American terms: American British American British gas/gasoline sidewalk baby carriage sneakers druggist checkers curb first floor subway second floor center station wagon truck trunk labor hood mailman atomizer ..... tulip..English may be found in more than one of its ..... and least of all in ...... mattress....variety of the language (British /American/ Scottish /Canadian..... ski........ and even a remarkable lack of .. origami.. piano..English is a ... and vocabulary (a / an / no / divergence / uniformity / grammar / spelling / pronunciation / standardization). ballet.. and none need be regarded as . 2................ waltz... cobra..... confetti.. Below is a list of English words all of which were originally borrowed from foreign languages... denim.. kangaroo... soprano.... mammoth.. single standard form of English..... regional/older/provincial)..... Select one item from the brackets to put in the sentence... 1.. (grammar / lexicon / phonology / vocabulary).. cosmonaut.. c) The difference between one regional variety and another is most noticeable in .. hara-kiri... cafeteria.13...... psychology..... in .... sauna.. but we find very much/considerable .......... Seminar 4. drama.. algebra.. yacht.. chauffeur. tsunami...7. siesta... so as to produce true statements.. ..... mosquito...... Exercises A..... ukulele. marmalade. duvet.. in matters of .. Try and guess which language is the source of each word.. d) The same features of . Regional varieties........

honey? We need some diapers for the baby and band-aid for my finger. b. d. AmE BrE cable telegram diaper nappy apartment flat fall autumn vacation holiday band aid plaster purse bag cookies biscuits drug store chemist freeway motorway check bill bill note (paper money) elevator lift candy sweets faucet tap tick-tack-toe noughts and crosses Now. Luckily a truck driver stopped and gave me a ride. can-opener elevator ashcan derby (hat) 3. They sent a cable inviting us to spend our Christmas vacation with them e. Here are a couple of American terms and their British equivalents: AmE BrE. change these sentences from American into British English: a. Find the American equivalents for the following British terms: British American British American jumble sales flat tin staircase sweets shares (in a bank) crisps chips coffins trousers bill biscuits railway luggage angry 4. Pass me the purse. Last fall I was driving along a freeway when I ran out of gas. 5. Can you give the British 'translation' of the following Australian expressions? . I've got a $20 bill in it. Our apartment is quite near the subway station. Can you go to the drugstore. It's my turn to pay the check. c.

in general way. what do you complain of?' asked Mr.' 'What. an' by what chances. broader an' broader. Look how this ha' growen an' growen. fro year to year. I coom for that I were sent for. somehows. 'Sir. and never had'n no reason in us sin ever we were born. Bounderby. 'to complain.' repeated Mr. Look how you considers of us. Using the functional differentiation made in chapter 4. and how you are awlus right. 'Deed we are in a muddle. harder an' harder. and how we are awlus wrong. MODEL: text register level medium rich as 'tis . an' in what numbers. and goes up wi' yor deputations to Secretaries o' State 'bout us. Australian British Wanna cuppa? Go and tart yourself up! How ya goin' luv? Don't get your knickers in a knot! What's the latest goss? The old man's shot through. "I ha' not coom here. and fairly tell a man 'tis not a muddle?» B. and how they never works us no nigher to onny dis' ant object -ceptin awlus.' Stephen reminded him. Write out a transcription of the dialect speech in Standard English. on the basis of the given model. fur to weave. and look how the mills is awlus a goin. 'do you people. and then seemed to make up his mind. Who can look on 't. an' wheer we live. Read the following fragment from Hard Times. fro generation unto generation. I were never good at showin' o 't. Could I bot a fag? Grouse lippy! 6. and talks of us. by Charles Dickens. aw the same one way. Sir. and writes of us. an' to card. though I ha' had'n my share in feeling o 't. and wi' what sameness. Look round town . 'twixt their cradles and their graves. Sir. scientific neutral written . «Stephen Blackpool 'Now. determine the features of the following texts. complain of?' Stephen looked at him with some little irresolution for a moment. folding his arms. Sir.and see the numbers o' people as has been broughten into bein heer. an' to piece out a livin'. Sir. Bounderby. bigger an' bigger. Functional varieties 6. Look how we live. Death.

As be abstract more heat the molecules. Such a regular arrangement is known as a space lattice. I enjoyed the first day: I hired a boat. 22) b) Let us cool the liquid still further and watch it solidify. as contrasted with the flat lattice or trellis common in gardens. E. My wife and son were not upset because they know my nature. fifteen years after its first publication. i. I got very agitated: the holiday was turning into a nightmare and we went home immediately.T. H. recording debut. Harris quoted in Moody. losing and regaining love . she infuses her music with jazz. still at the same magnification as before. It's common knowledge that literature is not his first love. and voilà! Gabriela Anders is wanting no longer. This easy-listening collection of her own tunes about desiring. (From Susan Morris and Alan Stanton: Practice Tests for CAE. a paradise of senior citizens' colonies ('eventide homes'). a lattice in three dimensions. Something similar can be seen if some marbles in the corner of a box are gently shaken. are pulled closer together. The intermolecular force pulls them together so that they form a regular pattern.151) c) Despite the recent and expensive failure of his latest West End play. getting. 2ot a Penny Less continuing to nip smartly out of the bookshops at the rate of a thousand copies a day. (From People magazine. 'I know you are. p.B: Varieties of English. It is said that it was a Florida hospital patient who. I love the bustle of towns and my excitement comes from working. only a legend. p. but what are you going to do with the needle?' (From David Frost & Michael Shea: The Mid-Atlantic Companion. gentle Latin rhythms and moments of elegant vocal phrasing. by others. liberty and happiness of pursuit'. said. and people who believe in 'life. he has little real reason to be permanently dispirited. October 26. when approached by a young intern wielding a hypodermic needle and explaining' 'Just a little prick with a needle'. This finger pointing downward towards the Caribbean is held by some to be a colony of Cuba. At length the molecules are so close that they can no longer pass between one another.75. sat in the sun for about twenty minutes and had tea on the veranda. Anders began performing in Buenos Aires at 14.) d) I hardly ever take holidays but fourteen years ago I was pressurised into going to the Costa Smeralda with my wife and son.and an appealing cover of the 1964 bosa nova hit "The Girl from Ipanema" . (From A Structural Introduction to Chemistry. In this way the irregular arrangement of molecules in gas or liquid is replaced by regular arrangement in a crystal. He only started writing in his mid-thirties. All I could see were people sitting and frying in the sun.e. p.a) Florida. Now 26 and a transplant to New York City. p. Jeffrey Archer is not noticeably down and a considerable distance from out.S. By the second the novelty of doing nothing had worn off. 1998.L. The daughter of an Argentine jazz saxophonist. when a promising political career collapsed and he resigned a safe seat in Parliament amid business and financial difficulties which would have crushed most men for good. and the liquid contracts. The legend that he wrote his first novel with the cold-blooded intention of making a fortune is.40) . With Kane and Able having sold over three million copies in England and the paperback 2ot a Penny More. I can't stand people who appear lazy. e) Here's a heartening scenario for unsigned would-be recording artists: A talented but unknown singer sends a self- produced demo tape to the offices of a major music conglomerate. As luck would have it. moving ever more slowly. however.marks an especially promising U. an enterprising executive plucks the demo from the heap of unsolicited and largely unheard tapes submitted by other anonymous hopefuls.

Form new words by adding these prefixes to the following words. by a hydraulic system. en-. moan. im-. p 153) 7. glaze. il-. blaze. slave. ir-. un. The latter method facilitates the accommodation of the considerably transverse movement of rubber mounted engines. Here are some of the most productive class-changing prefixes: a-.B: Varieties of English. The clutch is always foot operated. similar to that of hydraulic brakes. H. friend. calm. witch. though occasionally both it and the gearbox are incorporated in the final drive unit.f) The "Clutch".L. This is invariably installed between the engine and gearbox and is almost always mounted directly on the output end of the engine. sleep. Analyse the following words built by prefixation according to the scheme: THE WORD PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION MEANING a) decadence b) debar c) distract d) distort e) subdivision f) superpose g) superman h) ultra-modern 3. quoted in Moody. very often nowadays. snare. PREFIXES 1. Seminar 5. spatter. be-. tomb. jewel. A. Use one of the following prefixes: dis-. Find examples of interference of your mother tongue (Romanian / Hungarian / German) with the English language at the phonological.with each of the following words: a) attentive f) honest k) natural b) aware g) literate l) practicable c) cautious h) logical m) relevant d) discreet i) loyal n) resolute e) fortunate j) modest o) respectful 2. . in-. (From The Penguin Car Handbook by Robert Ireson. the pedal being linked either by a direct mechanical linkage or. grammatical and lexical level. Give the translation of the resulting words or use them in sentences or your own.

. Check which of the following stems can be used with the antonymic prefixes pre.. etc.......) used as a prefix.. up. according to the model: MODEL: lieutenant sublieutenant . a scădea....... down... m) a retrage....... has made things a lot easier in the town centre since it has taken away all the through-traffic...... Identify which of the following stems can be used with the antonymic prefixes sub... by.. out.... SET d) The . c) a schiţa...... n) răscopt. sonic subsonic supersonic cool .. supercool a) saturate g) plot b) normal h) critical c) sensitive i) ordinate d) sequence j) man e) parasite k) conscious f) arctic l) merge 5..... yesterday afternoon which completely ruined our party... when his cat was run over.. h) cuvânt înainte.. PASS c) He was very .and super-. 7.4... a) venit........ Give the English equivalents of the following Romanian words by using prefixation...... k) prevedere. LOOK . POUR b) The new . a) There was a heavy ...and post-. for tomorrow's weather is very promising... Fill in the missing words in the following sentences by combining the verb in capital letters at the end of each sentence with a suitable adverb-particle (in.. d) şperaclu. f) neprescurtat. i) proscris...... l) bicentenar. using the same pattern as in the previous exercise: a) doctoral j) impressionism b) war k) traumatic c) cancel l) condition d) historic m) natal e) tension n) election f) arrange o) colonial g) nuptial p) position h) atomic q) glacial i) clinical r) median 6.. o) a expulza.. b) prorector....... j) prenume...... e) miezul nopţii...

. f) proportion.. g) abridged.. h) shame. occurrence. g) lady. -ist form nouns that name people or things that do something. The ending -ness added to adjectives to form abstract nouns is so active that many new nouns in -ness have been formed even though abstract nouns from the same root already exist.... -ate. defense. antiquity. 12. m) experienced. e) hair.unwelcome.... in-. f) honour.e) The annual . s) dependence. of students has decreased by 2o% in the last two years.. c) cad. navigator. The endings -ment. TAKE f) The . . -ance. women and song were my brother's .. q) academic. -ant.. o) dramatic. -less. non-. fascination... -ish. radiator. specialist.. -like. fighter. speaker.. u) figurative... 10. l) verbal. dis-... generosity.. SUFFIXES 9... attendant.. festivity.. Find out which verb each of the following has been formed from and point out the changes in spelling that are made when the endings are added: admittance.. narrator.. -or. enlistment. -ion.. Use the suffixes -able. i) passionate. 11. alcoholize . p) regard. recurrence.. rapidity. of the election is still not known.... t) consistent.... r) place. inhabitant.g.. investigator. . arrangement.. SET h) Wine. -ly. according to the example: EXAMPLE: welcome . formality. grinder. inflation. The suffixes -er. able. -y to form adjectives from the following nouns: a) secret.. v) eruptive. occupant. COME g) The . -ful.. c) grade. justification. e) usual. economist. CAST 8. j) distinct.. objection.... reliability.. are added to verbs to form abstract nouns meaning 'the act of or the result of the act of'. applicant. hospitality. d) qualified. b) active. tenant. -ive.. Choose from among the negative prefixes un-.. h) likely.. a pianist is someone who plays the piano..... excavator. of this disease is marked by a sudden loss of appetite coupled with a feeling of total lethargy........ dramatist.. reflector.. Now state what each of the following does: driver.. B. cyclist. n) kind.. From what adjectives are these nouns formed: ambiguity. FALL i) He felt very ...dealcoholize a) competence. devotion.. captivity.. e... when she refused to go out with him.. curiosity? 13...g. d) affection. anxiety. k) block. e. priority. b) family. i) death. tourist. de-. Abstract nouns ending in -ty mostly come from adjectives. illumination.. entrance. sensibility.. oddity. -ence. employment.

Form abstract nouns with -ness from the following adjectives. she was very (patience). f) I like the privacy of a (fence) garden. Find adjectives coming from the following verbs: instruct. aim. according to the model: MODEL: Shakespeare Shakespearean Rembrandt Rembrandtesque Mexico Mexican Bonaparte Bonapartist Wagner Wagnerite . 14. construct. permit. collapse. attract. -ed. Use them to say what each of the following is called: a) a very young cat. friendly. draughty. taste. Form adjectives from the following nouns: poison. Here are some of the suffixes used to form diminutives: -kin. life. solve. power. g) a very small kitchen b) a small flat h) a young goose c) a tiny river i) a small crown d) a very young plant j) a small house e) a baby still being suckled k) a very young lamb f) a baby bird l) a little pig 15. honest. envy. b) That visit wasn't (pleasure). c) Mary is always (confidence) that she is right. -y. generous. 16. -ent. deny. various. exclude. fun. anxious. d) His behaviour was always (courtesy). persuade. grace. -ie. convince. candour. -ant. defense. intelligent. -en. humour. name. lovely. homesick. brave. glory. sane. private. -ling. difficult. except for the cases where there already exist abstract nouns from the same root: smooth. reserve. happy. sincere. sleepy. e) Tommy was particularly (mischief). monster. argue. rough. remove. 17. holy. childish. 18. desire. g) It was a (moment) occasion. candidness.ability. relate. -let. willing. pity. concern. candid. proud. kind. fury. ableness. avoid. -ette. derive adjectives from the bracketed nouns: a) She waited without complaining. By adding -ous. patient. By using suffixes form adjectives from the following proper names. extend. bore.

.. Milton. 19..... . RESPONSE f) I hope there won't be too much ... pleasant-sounding...... I still want to one day. this morning as work began on the new supermarket.. badly-behaved.. ATTRACT e) I'm afraid you'll have to see Mr. seems to be getting worse and worse.... start work? USE i) There was ice on the pavement which made it very difficult to walk as it was so . Prometheus............ + '-ed' part.......... Darwin........: hand-made.. COMPOU0DI0G 20. London. ... Paris. Shaw..... Lenin.......... + '-ing' part..... Jacob...... soul-destroying......... coffee and other goods... tongue-tied. New Hampshire......... ACTIVE b) I can think of . Fill each blank in this way.. BEHAVE k) No matter how much people would wish it... Harrow.... in getting a work permit. Hemingway... All matters concerning finance are his ...... Calvin. EQUAL l) What ...: heart-breaking. gazing at the .. Pickwick.. hand in hand.... Einstein.. reasons for not getting married... course in Russian? CORRESPOND h) What time do you .: well-dressed. DIFFICULT g) How are you getting on with your . His . SHORT a) There was a lot of ... STAR d) Thousands of people turned up for the Pop Festival where the big .. Spencer. San Francisco.adj.......... EXAMPLE: During the war there was a great SHORTAGE of sugar. do you need to become a doctor? QUALIFY C. Dante. sky. Pound. c) The lovers stood. COUNT.. Oxford.. The word in capitals at the end of each of the following sentences can be used to form a word that fits suitably in the blank spaces..... : good-looking......adv...Venezuela. . Compound adjectives may be formed of: . Marlowe..noun + '-ing' part. . .... Chicago..... was Bob Dylan. but even so.. SLIP j) I don't know what's the matter with Tommy lately...noun + '-ed' part.............. it is very doubtful whether there will ever be true ... wrongly-addressed... Seneca..

.... .. down-hearted 3.. 22................. clever. e) We call this a .. hard-boiled 7............. whosoever (literary form) ........ of strict and rigid principles d... letters cannot be delivered at the right house....... whosesoever ..... because her clothes fit well and look nice. open-handed 9... + '-ed' part...... .. girl is one who has fair hair.... shrewd and far-sighted c. d) A ....oricine Possessive: whoseever......... double-minded 6............ tender by nature e.... k) . job is one that merely breaks your back..... tedious or lengthy in speech or argument j) straight-laced 10.. first year (as in a first year student) Choose from the list above and add some other adjectives to complete the following sentences: a) A oricărui.adj............... Except for whoever and whoseever... long-legged..... .......: broad-shouldered.. long-winded 8.. long-headed 1.....cakes are cakes that have been made at home............... b) A pupil who behaves badly is said to be . as well as .......... tongue-tied 4. writer is known by very many people. of calm judgment i... soft-hearted 2... Compound pronouns/adjectives have a more indefinite character than the simple forms: Nominative: whoever.. callous and unfeeling f.... all the other forms are used both as pronouns and adjectives........... generous with money b.. 21........... g) Jane is .. cool-headed 5.numeral + noun: second. who(m)ever ......hand.. letter is one that has been written with care. unable to speak. Objective: who(m)soever.............. f) A .. house because it is built of bricks..oricărui.... i) ..... h) A burglar has to be ....... Find in column B the right definition of the compound adjectives in column A: A B a.. . c) A .. discouraged and depressed g.... person is someone who cannot speak easily.................. j) A .. of a mind wavering between two or more courses of action h.....

e) Orice spune ea.Insert whoever.. Translate into English the following sentences... Translate into like..... gândeşte-te înainte de a-i răspunde.... he meets.. .. c) Here you are the three books treating the problems you told me about... 24.. whatever or whichever in the following sentences: a) I must admit ... WORD FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE THIRD CHOICE School Water Fashion Rain Index Tax 25. câinele trebuie vaccinat. b) maşină de spălat.. e) "What shall we begin with?" " .. using compound relatives.. Here you are given the first half of some compound nouns... d) Nu mă interesează.. Take .. trebuie să cunosască regulamentul. g) păta de sânge... al oricui este." 23. you want! d) He kisses .... b) Fiul meu vitreg este un pasionat al cuvintelor încrucişate.. c) Orice ar spune el. he says is true...... b) You may invite Jane and Jack..... and . else you like.. Translate the following into English using compound nouns: a) cutremur de pământ......... d) apă potabilă. stating whether they are used as pronouns or as adjectives: a) Oricine ar fi ei... k) trecător... b) Intreabă de ei pe oricine vezi aici... c) tunsoare. f) strângere de mâna.... paying special attention to the underlined words: a) Oficiul poştal era deja închis când am ajuns acolo. 26.. h) camuflaj... thus forming a compound noun.... Try to find words which could be the other half.... e) revărsat de zori... j) cocoşat... este pe placul lui.. i) centură de siguranţă.

f) The bank robber was . Robson .... the material gently. Identify the words which were clipped in order to form the contracted forms and identify the type of clipping. Tom had to …… the responsibility for his family's debts.. the facts...... .. You can't go on spending as though you were a millionaire.. darling....... top. face. people... E.... 28.. It felt as smooth as silk.. thought. d) After his father's death. I don't want you to face them.. doctor. I simply can't face them!" WIFE: "But. CO0VERSIO0 27.. me that book on the table next to you? c) In the final minutes of the football match.. mean.... i) A înflorit mărul din curtea din spatele casei noastre.... e) Ne-am mutat de curând într-un bloc cu încălzire centrală.. syncope (medial clipping) (MC) and apocope (back-clipping) (BC)...... D... stay.... f) Ne întâlnim la gară la ora 8 fix. fire.... e) She .. I want you to . Illustrate the different functions of the following words: matter..... according to the model: MODEL: specs spectacles BC a) story h) fan b) cinema i) copter c) dorm j) hanky d) max k) cello e) memo l) telly .... foot... distinguishing among aphaeresis (fore-clipping) (FC).. with a knife and a gun. CLIPPI0G 29.. water. b) Could you . them".... d) Nimic nu este mai frumos decât curcubeul după mai multe zile de ploaie.c) Pentru un astfel de rol ai nevoie de un machiaj special... g) HUSBAND: "Don't bring me any more bills.. Complete the following sentences using a verb (in an appropriate tense) which denotes a part of the body: a) You have no money. the ball into the back of the net.. g) Eşti sigură că ţi-ai lăsat geanta la garderobă? h) Te rog să cureţi argintăria înainte de sfârşitul săptămânii... hand...

stagnation. movie. flu. vet. bus. a) Herbert f) Alfred b) Wilhelmina g) Arabella c) Theodora h) Christina d) Octavia i) Dorothy e) Sylvester j) Robert F. smoke. dictate.g. according to the model. phone. Can you identify the manner in which they have been created? . Indian. guest. Cambridge. dome. motor. screen. BLE0DI0G 32. execute. prefab. champ. cast. American. telegram. G. confound. lab. inflation. aviation. 31.f) perm m) pants g) vamp n) wig 30. cable. sport. fog. Choose the pairs of words forming blends. beef. Liz. African. gym. Waterloo Underground. Elisabeth > Beth. a) Amerind i) Oxbridge q) motel b) dumbfound j) avionics r) Eurafrican c) catalo k) smog s) brunch d) dictaphone l) telescreen t) Bakerloo e) electrocute m) stagflation u) beefish f) paratroops n) mailomat v) swellegant g) guestar o) cablegram w) pneudome h) sportcast p) transistor x) motorcade. Clip the following first names by applying aphaeresis. mail. motorist. star. fish. transfer. swell. Find the full form of the following: ad. Eponymous words. hotel. e. cable. Oxford. troop. Baker Street. MODEL: sneet = snow + sleet The choice is made from: breakfast. automat. pneumatic. bike. parachute. cavalcade. 33. elegant. phone. resistor. dump. Europe. lunch. zoo. buffalo. The words in the following groups share a particular sort of origin. television. electricity. cattle. syncope and apocope. electronics.

the words electron. e. No animals are allowed in the cockpit. liquor. parasite. diesel. clue. saucer. spa. silhouette. cheddar. The names of September and October. 1. (Trask. bourbon. the word sinister derives from Latin sinister ‘on the left hand side’ g. magenta. sandwich. a. cloud. treacle.a) jodhpurs. a. bead. e. Etymology is the study of the history of words. but she has a great deal of poise. Consulting a good dictionary.R. We arrived at a dusty village in the middle of the desert. zeppelin Seminar 6. d. The candidate turned up in a dark blue suit. Find a good etymological dictionary and examine how the meanings of the following words have changed over time: assassin. leotard. buxom. . duffel. 1999:272). in each case. b. In some cases. However. try to explain the changes in the meaning of these words. weired. and check your guess in a good dictionary which provides earlier meanings. lynch. The word chapel is derived from Latin cappella ‘cloak’. and the sentence would be quite impossible if the word had retained its original meaning. The word money derives from Latin moneta ‘one who admonishes’ f. the change in meaning of a word can only be understood in terms of associated cultural changes or particular historical events. cologne. Each of the following sentences should seem normal enough. boycott. electronics and electricity all derive from Greek electron ‘amber’ (petrified tree rasin) c. ascot. the modern meaning of the word in italics is quite different from its earlier meaning. the ninth and tenth months of the zear. b) cardigan. She is small and slim. quisling. china. limerick. blarney. d. Here are a few examples of such words. are derived from Latin septem ‘seven’ and octo ‘eight’ h. worm (source: Radford et al. 2. Try to guess the earlier meaning of the word from the context. champagne. The word book is derived from the name of the beech tree. hysteria. Miss Marple’s knitting wool cannot be a clue. heckle. The word car derives from Latin carra ‘two-wheeled cart’. L. The word charm derives from Latin carmen ‘song’. mess. c. 1994:44) 3. b.

... but he always makes it to the top.... she escaped from her escort...... mutton...... z) as light as. peas...f.................. cucumber. 5. mole..... all of nautical origin. (Trask... lath... gold........... Metaphors. nails.......... She’s painted a lovely blues-and yellow miniature........ n) as pale as..R.......... k............ w) as cool as ............. g) as changeable as ..... grass........... s) as tall as.. Consulting a good dictionary.. peacock...... death.... rain. f) as large as. lord........ a) There’ll be the devil to pay....... After the break-in. lion. serpent.... t) as blind as....... Fill in the blanks with the required nouns forming idiomatic comparisons (similes)..... j.... and give their Romanian equivalents.. grave... i) as old as . The ship’s passengers were quarantined for two weeks....... A dishevelled old man.. j) as slippery as... 1994:44) 4.... y) as wise as ... rock..... o) as green as.... d) as good as.. i..... You will need to choose from the following nouns: eel... p) as dead as.. m) as quiet as .............. weather.. g...... b) He nailed his colours to the mast.... c) as deaf as... Here are a few examples....... feather.............. e) as hard as ... life.... r) as right as.. ... The Japanese manufacturers make heavy use of automated factories........ u) as steady as. fish... h. b) as timid as . our vegetarian shop was a shambles......... x) as like as.......... post.. q) as mad as.......... Very often a phrase or expression with a highly specific meaning comes to be used as a metaphor and hence to be used in a much wider sense......... k) as thin as .... l) as proud as ...... explain the shift in meaning... L............. Wrapping her cloak tightly about her. hills..... hare.. v) as obstinate as.......... EXAMPLE: as black as coal = negru ca taciunele a) as bold as.... bald and toothless.. mule.. huddled in a doorway.... c) We’re in the doldrums........... hatter........ John is a mediocre mountain-climber. h) as drunk as.

EXAMPLE: bag and baggage = cu tot calabalacul.... near.........d) I didn’t like the cut of his jib..................................... low........ l) far and ............ f) We gave him a wide berth......... less............... e) The opportunity has gone by the board.. worse. p) for better or ........ nor............................. swim............ void..... y) null and ..... cu căţel şi purcel You will need the following words: face......... i) every now and............. w) high and ... r) retail or ............. (Source: Trask.................... m) the long and the ..... parcel...... R... g) She took the wind out of his sails....................... later......... x) more or ..... f) hard and ...of it 7........... h) rough and .... Give the Romanian equivalents of the following impersonal idiomatic phrases: a) it is bad manners k) it goes like clockwork b) it is bad taste l) it gets on one's nerves c) it is a matter of taste m) it affects one very much d) it irks me n) it slips somebody's notice e) it does not pay o) it is anything but pleasant ....... wholesale............ 1994:44) 6.................. have-nots............. Give their Romanian equivalents. b) safe and .. again....... fast........... a) part and........... e) the twist and.......... g) odds and .... s) not for love........ u) heart and . n) the likes and.... j) the haves and ........... soul............................ v) sink or ......................... turn....... c) face to ................. o) sooner or ............. t) by fits and .... dislikes...... tired. wide........... crook... then....................... starts..L.... ends..... ready. money............ q) by hook or by ............................ Quantitative hendiadys Fill in the blanks with the required terms to form phrases using paired words....................... d) under lock and............................................ k) sick and ................. key... sound.... short..

a rough sea. ‘understand’ b. ‘discomfort’ j. Now give the opposite of the following: dry wine. sack 1. What are the possible opposites of the words ‘hard’ and ‘high’ in the following phrases? Which has the most contextual variation? . ‘smoke’ n. ‘time’ i. thing 7. fee 11. pen 13. tide 14. prove 2. disease 4. hard? 2. Give the opposites of the following: light bag. ‘monk’s costume’ c. thick. ‘prayer’ k. ‘test’ g. a thick person. strong. What is the opposite of: dry. frock 5. rough texture. Can you match each word with its former meaning? a. ‘foolish’ d. ‘livestock’ l. reek 9. A0TO0YMY 1. impertinent 10. wade 6. 3. ‘go’ o. 4. light colours. ‘strong wine’ h. rough area. strong cigarette. rough person. silly 8. skill 3. ‘unrelated’ e. boon 12. ‘feather’ f. light wind. rough. ‘legal matter’ m. a hard exercise. ‘helpless’ Seminar 7. on the right is a list of their former meanings in a different order. fond 15.f) it is no fun p) it is just the other way round g) it is a piece of luck q) it is all the same to me h) it is worth (while) r) it would melt the hardest heart i) it is most likely s) it is hard to say j) it is manifestly wrong t) it's no use (to) 8. On the left is a list of words which have undergone substantial changes of meaning during the last few centuries. rough calculation.

contract k. deteriorate/get worse e. forget . high marks hard exam high opinion hard chair high building hard journey high price hard work high temperature hard person high winds hard drugs 5. fair -unfair weak happiness before right rise easy storm soft illness sincerity native fresh kind white dull remember whole promise like rich perfect little save true shut hate stop north everyone youth war come obedient lengthen high above increase legal good friend late superior new equal beautiful hot find life. to sell 7. 6. to vanish 2. reward l. to increase 9. to improve 12. Choose from the ones on the right. Give the antonyms of the following terms. discourage i. Find the opposites of the words on the left. defend d. a. according to the model: MODEL: deep -shallow. to hurry 4. to remember 3. to insult 6. decrease c. take one’s time h. purchase/buy b. to depart 8. arrive f. to expand 11. to lend 1. to detest 5. appear g. to attack 1o. oppose j.

amaze. bewilder. try. WORD OPPOSITE SIMILAR MEANING e. astonish. cunning. attempt undertake. endeavour. scour. deceive. command. lyre. wealthy. sly careful. decree. make. astound favour. to support 14.m. enjoy hope. cheat swindle. rich. zealous d. artful. like. abhor. adore. strong. queer. keen. hate. ask assure. stand j. SY0O0YMY 8. adore 7. to encourage 15. borrow n. prosperous affluent. prove e. destitute. dictate claim. order. noble. praise o. wish h. dislike. crafty. Underline the word which is closest in meaning to the first three words in each line: a. interesting. write that too. steer. safe unsafe dangerous modest happy complete expensive interesting important perfect friendly polite correct honest certain flexible B. eager. What is the opposite of the following words? Use the negative prefixes un-/ in-/ im-/ dis-.g. to punish 13. entreat. desire g. drop c. raise b. If there is another word that has approximately the same meaning. require. loathe vomit. request. mean i. enthusiastic careful. love. inept f. beg. fool. increase . hate. lose. construct.

debate a.. b. k. n.. You are aware of the fact that he's married.. really. event. h. substitute l. Our new boss isn't too bad at all... weak. result. feeble. considerate and totally dependable.dispute .. I could eat a horse! I'm really hungry. I always get very dizzy when I stand on the top of high buildings. aren't you? e. cannot be continued any longer. she's quite likeable..... impotent.... j.. A good friend is someone who is kind. kill. g. m. f.? a. b. outcome...... slaughter. i. That's the last time I go to a party with Simpson! His behaviour last night was absolutely disgusting. . I didn't mean to break it . I wish you'd grow up! You are so childish. powerless stark.. This .. die. look ridiculous in them! l.. Can't you see this problem is beyond any ....he was completely insane.. We've lost the match! You played like a team of grannies! You were pathetic. assassinate load.k. Our new neighbours are very talkative. The question under .... Fill in the blanks by choosing from the synonymic series the most adequate terms: controversy . Give a synonym for each of the underlined words in the following sentences.. slow.... Choose from the ones below: giddy hopeless immature amiable chatty absurd reliable famished stingy mad disgraceful conscious intentional pensive weird a. Take those trousers off . Charles has some really peculiar ideas sometimes! 10. consequence reason.. d... able m... In fact..... lead off wasn't deliberate.. c.. There is only one way of describing Hitler . What do you mean you can't afford to buy me a drink? Don't be so mean! You've got a lot more money than I have. raised an amendment. You're looking rather thoughtful this morning. o.

Decide which word in each of the following groups is significantly different from the others. Through hard work he .. a password..... to douse.contract ... 45..include n... use your dictionary..embody .bargain ........ all virtues and vices. a logo e....... the station? l.... success.harm .. e.. i...... an assembly. to her reputation.... Military ... j.... Years. to honour b.. to celebrate......... hold . to extinguish... The exhibition .... When does the train . STOP BEI"G COY .arrive at ... in which the writer complains about the use of euphemistic language.. .. to commiserate.. If necessary. a mutiny... an insurrection.... to smother d. a symbol. o.. are a permanent danger to the world’s peace.. a ghost.... Here is a newspaper article.... a rebellion (Gold Advanced.. The ship .. Match them to the correct place in the article. to soothe....... There is no . a sign. The box . for delivering food to underdeveloped countries.. chocolates.convention ....... 22) 12.contain .injury d........ to inflame.. a premonition f......reach k... a. q.. damage . come ...... The two leaders did not reach any ... agreement ........ p.. a phantom.......... and go! m.. some rare manuscripts...... Your statement does a(n) .. and given below the text. The USA have signed several .... to the airport....... The bombs caused great . in taking a few pills..... The euphemisms have been blanked out..000 tons...pact . a spirit..... h.... The two states have signed their first cultural ... The two characters .. 11.. b..... to frighten c.. to startle...treaty g. to commemorate. to alarm..

. 15....’.... Examples of gross understatement may also appeal to some of us........’ (dole).. to describe George as a sex maniac might not endear you to Auntie Mabel but she would be proud to hear him referred to as a 9.’ equals ‘going on strike’ and 8... it turns out that I am a 1. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica... ‘Euphemisms are considered overtly squeamish and affected by contemporary writers.. But let us......... I listen to the voice of officialdom.49) 13.... n) lower income brackets.. distressing...... g) disadvantaged senior citizen.......’ (talk)... is approaching a state of collapse and coma.. or indelicate nature is described in less offensive terms...... have read their encyclopaedia. If. m) retirement pension... drawing a 3.. l) under the weather..’ or 7 ‘. h) working the rule.’ (stupid)... A native of the Lake District who describes himself as being ‘nobbut middlin’..... because the euphemism quickly acquires the stigma of the world it replaced........... ‘...... ‘... I shall die....... and probably others.’ (ill).. o) taking industrial action. 165 ‘. unless used for humorous effect........ These more robust euphemisms may... i) unemployment benefit...............renting a 4. one of these days. stay.’ This may be so among cognoscenti but there is little evidence to show that the masses. drawing an old-age pension. p. 12..... 14.... there will be a funeral in the near future.... The clichés which pour from the lips of trade union leaders are endless.... 13..... however....... f) companion animal..... ‘....... 1994.........................’ (poor).’ (pet). HOMO0YMY 13. do away with the following: 10.....’ For example..... registered as 2. for all I care.... Mark the correct word: ..... please.. presumably.’ (Ministry of War). 11.......... All this is fact..... do not feel younger because I am called a ‘senior citizen’ Bryan Heath (retired vet) a) withdrawing our services.. k) manly man.. ‘..How many euphemisms can you find for each of the following words/phrases? -to kill -to have sex -to die -toilet C. working hard to raise vast quantities of vegetables on an allotment and well aware that.. if he says he’s ‘proper poorly’. e) Ministry of Defence. b) leisure garden..... p) have a dialogue (From Headway Advanced.. immortal because I shall never die – I shall merely 5.. 6...... c) pass away...... especially administrators.... I will die – not “pass away” I am an old cripple.. and... ‘. j) disabled... ‘...... ‘.. I... d) low IQ.’ equals ‘being bloody minded’ Again quoting the encyclopaedia: a euphemism is a ‘figure of speech in which something of an unpleasant. All this effort to avoid unpleasantness is certain to fail....

Cession / session ..which one is used for knives.which one is a device which causes something else to slow down or stop whether it is a car or a desire? r.which one does a boat come alongside? h. ... Berth / birth .which do you pay on a bus? l.. c.. Pair / pear . juicy fruit? m. Ascent / assent . Bail / bale . Fair / fare . Flea / flee ..which one is a wild animal? f.? >No.which of them drenches you if you have no umbrella? d.. Why are black clouds like somebody riding a horse? >Because they both hold the .. I don't care what it's .. Complete the following jokes.which one might continue next week? i. Break / brake ... Pail/ pale . rights? e.. Beach / beech which do you agree to give up lands.which one means a small.which one is a praise? 14.a. Boy / buoy . read/red stories/storeys rains/reins bean/been bolder/boulder pane/pain bare/bear allowed/aloud week/weak a... sir... Have you ever hunted . Waiter. soup. tools? j... Rain / reign / rein .which floats more frequently? b.... Complement/ compliment .. Cereal / serial . Steal / steel .which one is a place for sleeping on a train or ship? q.. What is it now? b.. Key / quay ...which one is a vessel for carrying liquids? n.which one is a tree? c. The humour depends on homophones in each one.which one means 'approval'? p. . Air / heir . what do you call this? > It's . wingless insect that feeds on the blood of human beings and some animals? g..which one is a sweet.....which inherits and which is everywhere? k..which one do you pay to be released from jail? o. I always hunt with my clothes on. Bare / bear .

In the text below find 40 words that have homophone-pairs... We were fighting quietly... into a wastepaper basket and lived..... as well as Past Tense . Did you hear about the novelist who lived on the ninth floor of a block of flats? >He dropped six .d............. j. underline them and write the other word beneath... Make sure to take into account plurals and 3rd person singular Present Tense.... thanks... A teacher saw two boys fighting in the playground.. sir? >Man: No... Why brood about such minor problems? How could such things be lightening the darkness of his tormenting remorse and doubts that had their root in the inner feeling of guilt that kept haunting him day and night like a horde of covetous locusts? He would have liked to seize the naked truth and throw it out if he couldn't bury it deep down in his soul....... g... he would have given anything in the world to find out the source of this nightmarish chain of events.. What is the effect of seven days dieting? > They make one ..No fighting .. mopping his brow with his silk handkerchief.. He felt his heart beat violently in his chest and the sweat yield through all the pores of his face.. f........ ... >Stop! You know the school rules ... Above all. .. e. we weren't fighting ... will disappear... 15... The mayor was sitting in his oaken armchair..... sir.. But.....regular verbs and comparatives.. h. His arms lay on the stationery on his desk without moving as all he could do was just stare at the clock on the mantel above the fireplace..... Fortune Teller: Would you like your palm . How can I get rid of my headache? >Hit your head against a window and the . What did the small shy stone say? >I wish I was a little ...... I like the colour it is now...

Mary? >A bit of both..... a mouse is both an animal and something you use with a computer...players? d) I think we've just had a puncture. feeling base and defiled... although he knew that the confession could not lessen his grief.. Complete these jokes with puns present fork fine pretty ugly atmosphere merry can change charge poor a) Have you noticed any . when I arrived. He took the glass of beer he had not touched so far........usually one word with two meanings.... "Sit over there for the ....... What do you think. b) Some girls think I'm handsome and some girls think I'm horrible...... PUNS A pun is a play upon words ....... His friends who had always held him in such high esteem! And yet he had to let them know what a curse that damn loot meant for the the road.." ........ e) Well. she pointed to a chair in the corner and said.... >Then why are there so many ....... son.... How do you know that? >Well. 16.He knew he had to tell his dear and loyal friends so as not to grow mad..... how was your first day at the new school? >Great! The teacher is going to give me a me? > No! Why? I've just swallowed some coins accidentally......... He had paced beyond the bearable limit of sufferance on his own and now he had to let it leak out and flee from the country lest someone should slay him. >How did it happen? There was a ...... c) You have to be rich to play golf.. For example..

. "Father has gone out".." "She has also gone out. c...... answering the door.... the professor asked. Young man: "I sent you some suggestions telling you how to make your paper more interesting. answered the student... answered the elephant.... Enjoy the following puns based on polysemy and homonymy... not in the least". but not very welcome visitor..." "It's rather cold... "What do you want?'.." ..." i) What do you call a happy tin in the USA? >A .!. sir.. little Paul said." "Well...FOR PARKING. >What's the .... A man knocked at the door of his neighbours' house...." f... Is she engaged?" "Engaged?! She's married!" e. my child. the fire has gone out.. "My grandfather lived to be nearly ninety and never used glasses.... "Not in the least. I'd like to sit by the fire for a while......... a.... Have you carried out any of my ideas?" Editor: "Did you meet the office boy with a wastepaper basket as you were coming upstairs?" Young man: "Yes.... 17.. d.... lots of people prefer to drink from a bottle"......f) Why did the two astronauts decide to leave the restaurant on the moon and return to one on Earth? >They said it had no. "You missed my class yesterday. didn't you?"... "I wonder if I can see your mother.. sir.. g) I'm going to have to put you in a prison cell for the night... he asked. The owner of a luggage shop saw a gigantic elephant standing before the counter... Officer? Nothing...... where he was a frequent.. b... "I'd like to see something new in trunks"........ I'll speak to your mother..." "Impossible. I did.. "Never mind.. It's all part of the service! h) Why did you park your car on the yellow lines? >Because the sign says ".. too..

e) orange and tomato are co-hyponyms. c) plant is a superordinate of tree.Editor: "Well." h. phonetic and grammatical) in the following fragment from Shakespeare's Macbeth: Clean from my hand? 2o. . try to construct partial taxonomies1. Find archaisms (lexical." D. Which of the following statements are true? a) tennis is a hyponym of sport. "and therefore your opinion should be disregarded. Try to extend these taxonomies upwards and downwards and point out any difficulties or points of interest that arise. k) swing and toy are co-hyponyms. d) calf is a hyponym of creature. 1 Taxonomy is a structure in which we meet more general terms as we ascend to higher levels. On the basis of the answers you provided." g. f) chess is a hyponym of game. no doubt. Making the green one red. Enter Lady Macbeth. HYPO0YMY 18. In the midst of a heated argument. g) game is a hyponym of sport.3. j) disease is a superordinate of tuberculosis. Exercises 1. b) cucumber and vegetable are co-hyponyms. he was carrying out your ideas. h) poker is a hyponym of sport. this my hand will rather The multitudinous seas incarnadine." his opponent exclaimed. Aren't your relations pleasant?" "Mine are. but hers are simply terrible. Seminar 8. 8. "So you want to divorce your wife. i) bread is a co-hyponym of milk. a man rose and shouted with anger: "It's common sense that I want! Nothing else!" "It's common sense that you want.

Wake Duncan with thy knocking! I would thou couldst. sandwich generation. lest occasion calls us And show us to be watchers. to awfulize. 2. to shoot oneself in the foot. f) I hope the above is convenient. informal (colloquial) English. bubble. I'm sideways. My hands are of your color. rice burner. the shaft. A little water clears us with deed. g) Write soon and let me know. Formal vs. joe. jet set. automall. c) I don't mind where you put me. Knock. Note: some of the neologisms are colloquial. How easy it is then! Your constancy Hath left you unattended. Macbeth. golden shares. 3.) Hark! more knocking. Get on your nightgown. b) I'm writing to ask you a favour. How does formal English differ from the informal (colloquial) language? Letter to a friend Letter to a hotel a) I would like a single room with a shower. Retire we to our chamber. rock and roll. One is written to a hotel. I'll sleep anywhere! d) I have a further request. but I shame To wear a heart so white. i) Could I have a bite to eat when I arrive? . data capture. 'twere best not know myself. Decide which sentences go with which letter. Can you guess the meanings of the following neologisms? If not. some others scientific. (Knock. icon. To know my deed. I hear a knocking At the south entry. 4. e) I would like to make a reservation for the nights of 22nd. and the other to a friend. h) I'm coming down to London at the end of the month to go to a conference. 23rd. (Knock). look the words up in a dictionary. and 24th of January. Be not lost So poorly in our thoughts. Lady. Here are two jumbled letters. and put them in the right order. Exeunt. Find examples of English 'barbarisms' in Romanian. DDT.

k) I would be extremely grateful. to lake (Lower Northern dialect) g. 5.j) I hope you are all well. autumn 4. Please vacate this seat should an elderly or infirm person require it. q) As I will be arriving quite late. For the following examples of formal style. tor (Welsh) h. badger 6. l) Could I possibly have a room at the back. say how they may be expressed in a more neutral style. please return them starting date and place of purchase. Match the Standard English words with their dialectal equivalents: Standard Dialectal a. c. Should the goods not meet with your entire satisfaction. peak 8. In the event of fire. o) I look forward to your reply. a. p) It's the 22nd . coomb (Wlesh) b. child 5. valley 9. lug (Scottish) . b. Diners are requested to refrain from smoking in this section of the restaurant. pumps 2. and we will gladly refund you. proceed to the nearest exit point. d. ear 1. bairn (Northern dialect) d.24th January. 6. cake 7. brock (Welsh) e. bannock i. as I find the front rooms rather noisy? m) Could you put me up for a few days? n) Just a sandwich will do. to play 3. and that you've recovered from the busy Christmas period. could you possibly put a cold buffet in my room on the 22nd? r) I hope that's right. s) There's something else I'd like to ask you. backend (Northern dialect) c. sandshoes (Scottish) f.