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Seminar 2.

2.4. Exercises
1) Divide the following words into the component morphemes. Use hyphens and the traditional
spelling, according to the model:
MODEL: enlighten en - light - en
a) impoverish i) utilitarianism
b) anticipative j) catchword
c) anticlimatical k) impermeability
d) dishearten l) vertebrally
e) burlesquely m) downtowner
f) dishonestly n) telescopic
g) undeceivable o) sanitize
h) wholesaler p) volubility

2) Divide the words into their constituent morphemes, specifying the nature of each morpheme,
according to the model.
MODEL: impersonalism: im- = prefix, person = noun stem, -al = suffix, -ism = suffix
a) foolishly i) glove maker
b) multinational j) trans-European
c) deepen k) vulgarism
d) rosy l) non-didactic
e) beautify m) preconceivable
f) industrialization n) post-modernism
g) ex-president o) overdone
h) impressionism p) underestimated
3. List the types of morphemes and give examples for each of them.
4. Analyse the following words in terms of roots, stems, lexical suffixes, grammatical suffixes and
prefixes. Indicate the order in which morphemes appear within words.
MODEL: disagreements
a) agree = root; -ment = lexical (derivational) suffix; -s = grammatical (inflectional) suffix;
dis- = prefix; disagreement = stem;
b) agree + -ment; dis- + agreement; disagreement + -s.
uneatable, productiveness, transformational, indecipherability
5. Some derived words consist of an affix attached to a root which is itself a word, i.e. a free
morpheme (e.g. (i)). In other cases the root is a bound morpheme (e.g. (ii)).

(i) Word + affix [[read]V er]N
(ii) Root + affix [[electric]Aity]N (the root electris- never appears as a word on its own).

For each of the nine relationships given below provide two affixes (prefixes or suffixes) which
express that category relationship. Choose your affixes such that one attaches to free morpheme
roots and the other to bound morpheme roots. For each affix give at least 2 words containing that
affix with the given function. This means that you have to provide 18 affixes and 36 words.
N→V V→N A→N
N→A V→A A→V
N→N V→V A→A
(Hint: try looking through a book or newspaper and analysing all the words you suspect of being
derivationally complex).
6. Take a dictionary of English and collect all the words beginning with im- / in-. Check whether
im- / in- is a morpheme for each of your words. For instance, comparing input with output, you
should conclude that in- is a morpheme, whereas it would seem considerably harder to find
evidence that in- is a morpheme in inane.
a) How many distinct (homonymous) im-/ in- are there?
b) Why is input misspelled (as imput) so often?
7. Consider carefully the words in (a -c). To what extent do the words in a given list contain the
same morpheme?
a) analysis, anabasis, anachronism, analogy, anaconda, anabaptist, anarchy, anorak.
b) nominal, nominate, gnomic, nomic, nomenclature, noun.
c) pedal, peduncle, pediform, p(a)ederast, p(a)edagogue, peddle, pedant.

8. List 2 different verbs formed by attaching prefixes to each of the following bound bases:
-ceive, -duce,--fer, -fine, -form, -ject, -mand, -port, -scribe, -serve, -side, -spect, -spire, -sume, -tract,
-trude, -vert, -vade.
9. Draw labelled trees to show the structure of the following words:
motherhood, shoemakers, unputdownable, re-examining, shop-lifted, underprivileged,
unnaturalness, dislocation, unclassifiable.
10. Analyze the words in sets (a-c) into their component morphemes. What problems do these
words present?
a) conceptual, criminal, managerial, professorial, residual, tidal.
b) anthropocentric, gastro-enteritis, Graeco-Roman, gynecologist, hypothetico-deductive,
misanthropist, misogynist, politico-economic.

c) Congolese, Javanese, Mancunian, Panamanian, Peruvian.
9. Complete:
An Adj P (adjectival phrase) consists of ............ and a possible .............. . An .......................consists
of an adverb and a ................... . A PP (prepositional phrase) consists of a noun phrase and
a ....................
10. What do AdjP, AdvP and PP have in common?

Seminar 3.

3.3. Exercises
1. What people inhabited the British Isles before the coming of the Anglo-Saxons?
2. Where did the Anglo-Saxons live on the Continent?
3. What was the influence of the Scandinavian settlement on the English language?
4. What was the chief influence of the Norman Conquest on the English language?
5. Divide the words into sets according to their meanings (e.g. domestic, household articles, etc.).
Consider what these sets of borrowed words might suggest about the relationship between the
Germanic tribes and the Romans.
Latin OE ModE Latin OE ModE
balteus belt belt mulus mul mule
benna bin bin patina panne pan
episcopus biscop bishop pisa pise pease/pea
butyrium butere butter pulvinus pyle pillow
cattus catt cat pinna pinn pin
calx cealc chalk pipa pipe pipe (musical)
caseus cese cheese puteus pytt pit
cuprum copor copper prunum plume plum
cuppa cuppe cup papaver popig poppy
discus disc dish pondo pund pound (weight)
furca forca fork bursa purs purse
uncia ynce inch Saturni (dies) Sæternes (dæg) Satur(day)
catillus cetel kettle secula sicol sickle
cucina cycene kitchen strata stræt street
milea mil mile tegula tigele tile
molinum mylen mill telonium toll toll (tax)
moneta mynet mint vallum wall wall
mortarium mortere mortar (vessel) vinum win wine

6. Use an atlas of England to identify towns and villages with place-names ending in the
Scandinavian suffixes:

he heard music and dancing. a) Match the letters of the texts with the dates: 980 (Old English) 1380 (Middle English) 1611 (Early Modern English) 1961 (Modern English) b) List some differences in vocabulary. (C) Forsoth his eldere sone was in the feeld. and as he came and drew nigh to the house. as he approached the house. 7. and asked what these things meant. 1611. 1380. because he hath received him safe and sound.a) –by (‘town. The servant told him. "Your brother has come home. and acsode hine hwaet ÞQt awere. and axide what thingis thes weren. and Þim faeder ofsloth an faett cealf. Þin broÞor com. (D) Now the elder son was out on the farm. you should find good evidence of the extent of the Danelaw. and thy father hath killed the fatted calfe. 1961. (A) Now his elder sonne was in the field. he herde a symfonye and a croude. and your father has killed the fatted calf because he has him back safe and sound”. and he called one of the servants. (B) SoÞlice his yldra sunu waes on aecere. And he cleipide oon of the seruantis. He called one of the servants and asked what it meant. Below are four versions of one text. Þa cwaeÞ he. And he said onto him. forÞam Þe he hine halne onfeng. and whanne he cam and neighede to the hous. he gehyrde Þaene sweg and ÞQt wered. and on his way back. . Thy brother is come. and Þa he Þam huse genealaehte. for he resseyued him saf. And he seide to him. Thi brodir is comen. and thi fadir hath slayn a fat calf. and he com. They date from 980. farm’) b) –thorp (e) (‘village’) c) -thwaite (‘piece of land’) d) –toft (‘piece of loand’). Þa clypode he anne Þeow. he heard musicke & dauncing. If you find a sufficient number. and mark them on a blank map.

Find the Latin adjectives corresponding to them. It is assumed that the Anglo-Saxon terms are popular.consecrated fire . Here are some English nouns.flame . In English one may come across sets of three synonyms of Anglo-Saxon. the French ones are literary.mount .8. French and Latin origin.sacred . Find French synonyms for them. heaven mother town house mind winter letter ox worm 12. Explain the existence in English of such sets as: rise .conflagration 9. and the Latin learned. big doom front instead smell calm dream happiness jail speech craving easy hearty leave spell clumsy faithful help life whim deed freedom holy purpose whole deep friendship hut shade work 10.ascend holy . Give their Latin synonyms: alike empty bad rudeness alive end happy shelter big endless height stillness brotherhood fat helper stubborn dead first hence teacher daily funny young twin earthy good man wizard 11. Below you will find a number of English words. The following list contains words of Anglo-Saxon origin. Try to find the French and the Latin synonyms for the following Anglo-Saxon terms: anger huge unclear friendly lively weariness goodness sure to defeat hidden true to link .

. origami.. psychology.. waltz.. and none need be regarded as ... c) The difference between one regional variety and another is most noticeable in . Give the British equivalents for the following American terms: American British American British gas/gasoline sidewalk baby carriage sneakers druggist checkers curb first floor subway second floor center station wagon truck trunk labor hood mailman atomizer ..variety of the language (British /American/ Scottish /Canadian. in .............. mattress... Seminar 4...forms (dialectal / educated / uneducated / standard / officially recognised).. but we find very much/considerable . hara-kiri. Try and guess which language is the source of each word... mammoth.. marmalade.. hamburger...... cosmonaut.... ski.. ballet........ chauffeur..... duvet... a) Linguistically. d) The same features of .. Select one item from the brackets to put in the sentence. 2.... khaki.. Below is a list of English words all of which were originally borrowed from foreign languages.. piano. Regional varieties.... in matters of . and even a remarkable lack of .... regional/older/provincial)..... e) There is ... siesta........ and vocabulary (a / an / no / divergence / uniformity / grammar / spelling / pronunciation / standardization).. tsunami............English may be found in more than one of its ..........English is a . soprano.. single standard form of English....... tulip...... cafeteria....7.. palaver. Exercises A.. denim... ukulele.. to the others in every respect.. (grammar / lexicon / phonology / vocabulary). tea...... and least of all in ... b) One particular regional variety is .... yacht.. (superior / inferior / equally related / equivalent / equal). drama...... .......... cobra..... kangaroo. algebra. kayak.... 1.13..... so as to produce true statements.. 4.... mosquito. kindergarten. sauna.... confetti.

change these sentences from American into British English: a. 5. AmE BrE cable telegram diaper nappy apartment flat fall autumn vacation holiday band aid plaster purse bag cookies biscuits drug store chemist freeway motorway check bill bill note (paper money) elevator lift candy sweets faucet tap tick-tack-toe noughts and crosses Now. Our apartment is quite near the subway station. It's my turn to pay the check. Last fall I was driving along a freeway when I ran out of gas. Can you go to the drugstore. Here are a couple of American terms and their British equivalents: AmE BrE. They sent a cable inviting us to spend our Christmas vacation with them e. Find the American equivalents for the following British terms: British American British American jumble sales flat tin staircase sweets shares (in a bank) crisps chips coffins trousers bill biscuits railway luggage angry 4. I've got a $20 bill in it. Pass me the purse. Can you give the British 'translation' of the following Australian expressions? . c. Luckily a truck driver stopped and gave me a ride. honey? We need some diapers for the baby and band-aid for my finger. b. can-opener elevator ashcan derby (hat) 3. d.

and talks of us. and how we are awlus wrong. Who can look on 't. and look how the mills is awlus a goin. I coom for that I were sent for. "I ha' not coom here. Look round town . and writes of us. and fairly tell a man 'tis not a muddle?» B. Sir. an' to piece out a livin'. an' wheer we live. Sir. what do you complain of?' asked Mr. 'Sir. Bounderby. Australian British Wanna cuppa? Go and tart yourself up! How ya goin' luv? Don't get your knickers in a knot! What's the latest goss? The old man's shot through. scientific neutral written .and see the numbers o' people as has been broughten into bein heer. MODEL: text register level medium a. complain of?' Stephen looked at him with some little irresolution for a moment. fro year to year. fro generation unto generation. Could I bot a fag? Grouse lippy! 6. I were never good at showin' o 't. bigger an' bigger. Look how you considers of us. and goes up wi' yor deputations to Secretaries o' State 'bout us.' 'What. Sir. 'to complain. and never had'n no reason in us sin ever we were born. Functional varieties 6. Look how we live. Look how this ha' growen an' growen. an' by what chances. harder an' harder. somehows. 'twixt their cradles and their graves. 'do you people. Death. Read the following fragment from Hard Times. and then seemed to make up his mind. folding his arms. fur to weave. in general way. on the basis of the given model. Sir. broader an' broader.' repeated Mr. though I ha' had'n my share in feeling o 't. aw the same one way. 'Deed we are in a muddle. an' in what numbers. an' to card. and how they never works us no nigher to onny dis' ant object -ceptin awlus. Write out a transcription of the dialect speech in Standard English. Bounderby. and wi' what sameness. «Stephen Blackpool 'Now. and how you are awlus right. determine the features of the following texts. Using the functional differentiation made in chapter 4.so rich as 'tis . by Charles Dickens.' Stephen reminded him.

marks an especially promising U. p.75.B: Varieties of English. (From A Structural Introduction to Chemistry. an enterprising executive plucks the demo from the heap of unsolicited and largely unheard tapes submitted by other anonymous hopefuls. It's common knowledge that literature is not his first love.T. i. by others. H. Anders began performing in Buenos Aires at 14. I enjoyed the first day: I hired a boat. sat in the sun for about twenty minutes and had tea on the veranda. This easy-listening collection of her own tunes about desiring. This finger pointing downward towards the Caribbean is held by some to be a colony of Cuba. when approached by a young intern wielding a hypodermic needle and explaining' 'Just a little prick with a needle'. At length the molecules are so close that they can no longer pass between one another. 2ot a Penny Less continuing to nip smartly out of the bookshops at the rate of a thousand copies a day. losing and regaining love . As luck would have it. and the liquid contracts. With Kane and Able having sold over three million copies in England and the paperback 2ot a Penny More. 1998.40) .and an appealing cover of the 1964 bosa nova hit "The Girl from Ipanema" . 'I know you are. gentle Latin rhythms and moments of elegant vocal phrasing.a) Florida. p. I got very agitated: the holiday was turning into a nightmare and we went home immediately. getting. He only started writing in his mid-thirties. Harris quoted in Moody. October 26. as contrasted with the flat lattice or trellis common in gardens. a paradise of senior citizens' colonies ('eventide homes'). and people who believe in 'life. The intermolecular force pulls them together so that they form a regular pattern. E. The daughter of an Argentine jazz saxophonist. e) Here's a heartening scenario for unsigned would-be recording artists: A talented but unknown singer sends a self- produced demo tape to the offices of a major music conglomerate. It is said that it was a Florida hospital patient who. he has little real reason to be permanently dispirited. p. only a legend. moving ever more slowly.S. I love the bustle of towns and my excitement comes from working. (From Susan Morris and Alan Stanton: Practice Tests for CAE. and voilà! Gabriela Anders is wanting no longer. when a promising political career collapsed and he resigned a safe seat in Parliament amid business and financial difficulties which would have crushed most men for good. Something similar can be seen if some marbles in the corner of a box are gently shaken.L. I can't stand people who appear lazy. still at the same magnification as before. however. she infuses her music with jazz.e. The legend that he wrote his first novel with the cold-blooded intention of making a fortune is. All I could see were people sitting and frying in the sun. but what are you going to do with the needle?' (From David Frost & Michael Shea: The Mid-Atlantic Companion.) d) I hardly ever take holidays but fourteen years ago I was pressurised into going to the Costa Smeralda with my wife and son. liberty and happiness of pursuit'. My wife and son were not upset because they know my nature. Now 26 and a transplant to New York City. fifteen years after its first publication. 22) b) Let us cool the liquid still further and watch it solidify. Such a regular arrangement is known as a space lattice. As be abstract more heat the molecules. In this way the irregular arrangement of molecules in gas or liquid is replaced by regular arrangement in a crystal. (From People magazine. Jeffrey Archer is not noticeably down and a considerable distance from out. said. are pulled closer together.151) c) Despite the recent and expensive failure of his latest West End play. By the second the novelty of doing nothing had worn off. p. recording debut. a lattice in three dimensions.

tomb. sleep. though occasionally both it and the gearbox are incorporated in the final drive unit. Seminar 5. in-. quoted in Moody. p 153) 7. Analyse the following words built by prefixation according to the scheme: THE WORD PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION MEANING a) decadence b) debar c) distract d) distort e) subdivision f) superpose g) superman h) ultra-modern 3. moan. spatter. glaze.with each of the following words: a) attentive f) honest k) natural b) aware g) literate l) practicable c) cautious h) logical m) relevant d) discreet i) loyal n) resolute e) fortunate j) modest o) respectful 2. The clutch is always foot operated. H. Form new words by adding these prefixes to the following words. witch. This is invariably installed between the engine and gearbox and is almost always mounted directly on the output end of the engine. (From The Penguin Car Handbook by Robert Ireson. snare. A. Give the translation of the resulting words or use them in sentences or your own. by a hydraulic system. calm. The latter method facilitates the accommodation of the considerably transverse movement of rubber mounted engines. PREFIXES 1. Here are some of the most productive class-changing prefixes: a-.B: Varieties of English.L. ir-. un. similar to that of hydraulic brakes. friend. the pedal being linked either by a direct mechanical linkage or. en-. Use one of the following prefixes: dis-. very often nowadays. blaze. Find examples of interference of your mother tongue (Romanian / Hungarian / German) with the English language at the phonological. il-. . slave.f) The "Clutch". be-. grammatical and lexical level. jewel. im-.

and post-.. by...) used as a prefix....... has made things a lot easier in the town centre since it has taken away all the through-traffic. according to the model: MODEL: lieutenant sublieutenant . supercool a) saturate g) plot b) normal h) critical c) sensitive i) ordinate d) sequence j) man e) parasite k) conscious f) arctic l) merge 5.... h) cuvânt înainte.. PASS c) He was very ... f) neprescurtat.. yesterday afternoon which completely ruined our party. when his cat was run over...... down.. using the same pattern as in the previous exercise: a) doctoral j) impressionism b) war k) traumatic c) cancel l) condition d) historic m) natal e) tension n) election f) arrange o) colonial g) nuptial p) position h) atomic q) glacial i) clinical r) median 6... l) bicentenar. Fill in the missing words in the following sentences by combining the verb in capital letters at the end of each sentence with a suitable adverb-particle (in.. a) venit...... e) miezul nopţii. for tomorrow's weather is very promising... j) prenume... b) prorector....4... m) a retrage... a) There was a heavy .. sonic subsonic supersonic cool ... n) răscopt.... i) proscris. c) a schiţa...... a scădea.. Check which of the following stems can be used with the antonymic prefixes pre.. SET d) The .. up.. LOOK ....... out... 7........ d) şperaclu... POUR b) The new .. etc......... Give the English equivalents of the following Romanian words by using prefixation.and super-... k) prevedere.... o) a expulza. Identify which of the following stems can be used with the antonymic prefixes sub.

. e) hair. specialist. occupant. B.. inhabitant....g... -ive. recurrence. 10. q) academic. grinder. e. Abstract nouns ending in -ty mostly come from adjectives. -ion.. generosity. investigator. -ful. tourist. d) qualified... cyclist. devotion. t) consistent. rapidity. c) grade.. are added to verbs to form abstract nouns meaning 'the act of or the result of the act of'.. inflation. SUFFIXES 9. attendant.... justification. Now state what each of the following does: driver. From what adjectives are these nouns formed: ambiguity.. o) dramatic... Find out which verb each of the following has been formed from and point out the changes in spelling that are made when the endings are added: admittance. The ending -ness added to adjectives to form abstract nouns is so active that many new nouns in -ness have been formed even though abstract nouns from the same root already exist.. v) eruptive. -ish.. c) cad. enlistment. tenant. curiosity? 13. f) proportion. antiquity. reliability. anxiety. defense....... reflector. non-. radiator. The suffixes -er... priority. speaker... occurrence. p) regard. m) experienced. h) shame. navigator. i) passionate. when she refused to go out with him.. n) kind. f) honour.. de-... l) verbal. SET h) Wine.. CAST 8. illumination. women and song were my brother's . -less. employment. alcoholize . applicant. -ist form nouns that name people or things that do something. 11. Use the suffixes -able. -ant.. entrance. s) dependence. of the election is still not known. fighter. COME g) The . Choose from among the negative prefixes un-... i) death.... e.. excavator.. b) family. objection.. dis-. g) lady..... hospitality. d) affection...unwelcome. 12. according to the example: EXAMPLE: welcome . . sensibility..... a pianist is someone who plays the piano. g) abridged. TAKE f) The . b) active.. . festivity.. -ate. -ance. in-. economist. fascination. able. -y to form adjectives from the following nouns: a) secret. of this disease is marked by a sudden loss of appetite coupled with a feeling of total lethargy. formality.. r) place. -ly.g. e) usual... captivity.e) The annual ..dealcoholize a) competence. of students has decreased by 2o% in the last two years.... FALL i) He felt very .... -ence.... h) likely. -like.. The endings -ment. k) block. arrangement. j) distinct. u) figurative. dramatist.. -or... narrator. oddity.

ability. draughty. difficult. extend. brave. By adding -ous. -en. derive adjectives from the bracketed nouns: a) She waited without complaining. g) a very small kitchen b) a small flat h) a young goose c) a tiny river i) a small crown d) a very young plant j) a small house e) a baby still being suckled k) a very young lamb f) a baby bird l) a little pig 15. taste. deny. g) It was a (moment) occasion. envy. proud. defense. Form abstract nouns with -ness from the following adjectives. -let. name. persuade. By using suffixes form adjectives from the following proper names. sleepy. concern. fury. f) I like the privacy of a (fence) garden. rough. -ent. pity. bore. monster. sincere. lovely. -y. humour. generous. candour. 14. honest. collapse. desire. -ant. -ling. reserve. convince. c) Mary is always (confidence) that she is right. happy. 18. patient. intelligent. relate. according to the model: MODEL: Shakespeare Shakespearean Rembrandt Rembrandtesque Mexico Mexican Bonaparte Bonapartist Wagner Wagnerite . -ette. friendly. Use them to say what each of the following is called: a) a very young cat. permit. power. holy. she was very (patience). d) His behaviour was always (courtesy). anxious. candidness. grace. homesick. sane. Find adjectives coming from the following verbs: instruct. childish. glory. except for the cases where there already exist abstract nouns from the same root: smooth. b) That visit wasn't (pleasure). 16. exclude. construct. willing. solve. -ed. various. private. 17. -ie. fun. avoid. kind. remove. Form adjectives from the following nouns: poison. attract. e) Tommy was particularly (mischief). life. candid. ableness. aim. argue. Here are some of the suffixes used to form diminutives: -kin.

was Bob Dylan.. BEHAVE k) No matter how much people would wish it. seems to be getting worse and worse.............. Pickwick. start work? USE i) There was ice on the pavement which made it very difficult to walk as it was so .. hand in hand...... sky....... .. badly-behaved. + '-ed' part..adv... Compound adjectives may be formed of: . New Hampshire..... + '-ing' part. London. COMPOU0DI0G 20....... do you need to become a doctor? QUALIFY C... San Francisco.. .. Prometheus.. Chicago.......... 19.. STAR d) Thousands of people turned up for the Pop Festival where the big ..: well-dressed....... DIFFICULT g) How are you getting on with your ... EQUAL l) What ..noun + '-ing' part..... Milton. gazing at the ... soul-destroying...... His ... Harrow..... SLIP j) I don't know what's the matter with Tommy lately... Darwin.... SHORT a) There was a lot of . course in Russian? CORRESPOND h) What time do you ... Hemingway... The word in capitals at the end of each of the following sentences can be used to form a word that fits suitably in the blank spaces..... : good-looking..... .: hand-made... Shaw.... Jacob. wrongly-addressed. coffee and other goods. Paris.adj.... pleasant-sounding. RESPONSE f) I hope there won't be too much .... Einstein......... it is very doubtful whether there will ever be true .. Dante... ATTRACT e) I'm afraid you'll have to see Mr... Lenin.. Spencer.. reasons for not getting married.. Oxford... All matters concerning finance are his .. Pound... COUNT..... I still want to one day.. but even so..... Fill each blank in this way..: heart-breaking...... ... ACTIVE b) I can think of .. this morning as work began on the new supermarket.Venezuela.. tongue-tied. ... Calvin. in getting a work permit..... EXAMPLE: During the war there was a great SHORTAGE of sugar.. Marlowe...... c) The lovers stood. Seneca..noun + '-ed' part...

... as well as .................. b) A pupil who behaves badly is said to be . cool-headed 5.......... 21. girl is one who has fair hair........... all the other forms are used both as pronouns and adjectives.. hard-boiled 7. long-winded 8............ discouraged and depressed g........ .... open-handed 9..... whosoever (literary form) .... of a mind wavering between two or more courses of action h... e) We call this a ...cakes are cakes that have been made at home....: broad-shouldered... soft-hearted 2.. ................al oricărui. writer is known by very many people.... c) A .... ... 22. + '-ed' part............ who(m)ever .........oricărui. tender by nature e...... unable to speak. f) A .... g) Jane is .. Except for whoever and whoseever.. k) ... Find in column B the right definition of the compound adjectives in column A: A B a..... because her clothes fit well and look nice........oricine Possessive: whoseever.. Objective: who(m)soever.. first year (as in a first year student) Choose from the list above and add some other adjectives to complete the following sentences: a) A .hand........ long-headed 1... letter is one that has been written with care......numeral + noun: second....adj.... h) A burglar has to be ............. double-minded 6.. job is one that merely breaks your back... j) A ....... long-legged... tongue-tied 4.... clever... tedious or lengthy in speech or argument j) straight-laced 10. house because it is built of bricks. letters cannot be delivered at the right house. of calm judgment i. of strict and rigid principles d... ....... down-hearted 3..... whosesoever . person is someone who cannot speak easily... shrewd and far-sighted c............. d) A ....... i) .............. callous and unfeeling f.. Compound pronouns/adjectives have a more indefinite character than the simple forms: Nominative: whoever.. generous with money b.....

.. and .... using compound relatives......... whatever or whichever in the following sentences: a) I must admit . thus forming a compound noun. b) You may invite Jane and Jack.... câinele trebuie vaccinat...... c) tunsoare.. trebuie să cunosască regulamentul.. b) Fiul meu vitreg este un pasionat al cuvintelor încrucişate....you like... este pe placul lui.... d) Nu mă interesează... Translate into English... he says is true. c) Here you are the three books treating the problems you told me about... Here you are given the first half of some compound nouns. e) Orice spune ea.. Try to find words which could be the other half. i) centură de siguranţă.... e) "What shall we begin with?" " .... WORD FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE THIRD CHOICE School Water Fashion Rain Index Tax 25. e) revărsat de zori.. he meets. k) trecător. Take ...... stating whether they are used as pronouns or as adjectives: a) Oricine ar fi ei.. b) Intreabă de ei pe oricine vezi aici. gândeşte-te înainte de a-i răspunde.. j) cocoşat. 26. f) strângere de mâna. else you like. al oricui este. 24.. paying special attention to the underlined words: a) Oficiul poştal era deja închis când am ajuns acolo.. h) camuflaj....... c) Orice ar spune el.Insert whoever. Translate into English the following sentences. .... d) apă potabilă.. b) maşină de spălat.... Translate the following into English using compound nouns: a) cutremur de pământ.. you want! d) He kisses ...." 23. g) păta de sânge..

.. water. f) The bank robber was .. darling. It felt as smooth as silk......... the material gently.. them". D......... CLIPPI0G 29...c) Pentru un astfel de rol ai nevoie de un machiaj special. me that book on the table next to you? c) In the final minutes of the football match. f) Ne întâlnim la gară la ora 8 fix... fire. top.. the facts... syncope (medial clipping) (MC) and apocope (back-clipping) (BC). mean. I want you to .. with a knife and a gun.. doctor. according to the model: MODEL: specs spectacles BC a) story h) fan b) cinema i) copter c) dorm j) hanky d) max k) cello e) memo l) telly .. 28... CO0VERSIO0 27..... Tom had to …… the responsibility for his family's debts. d) After his father's death.. I simply can't face them!" WIFE: "But. d) Nimic nu este mai frumos decât curcubeul după mai multe zile de ploaie. thought..... Identify the words which were clipped in order to form the contracted forms and identify the type of clipping... stay. You can't go on spending as though you were a millionaire........... face. g) Eşti sigură că ţi-ai lăsat geanta la garderobă? h) Te rog să cureţi argintăria înainte de sfârşitul săptămânii.. Robson .... foot. . i) A înflorit mărul din curtea din spatele casei noastre.... the ball into the back of the net.... I don't want you to face them.. e) Ne-am mutat de curând într-un bloc cu încălzire centrală.. e) She . distinguishing among aphaeresis (fore-clipping) (FC). b) Could you . Illustrate the different functions of the following words: matter... hand. Complete the following sentences using a verb (in an appropriate tense) which denotes a part of the body: a) You have no money. E.. g) HUSBAND: "Don't bring me any more bills... people.

Europe. American. telegram. inflation. Oxford. lunch. star. bike. screen. according to the model. Eponymous words. movie. elegant. Clip the following first names by applying aphaeresis. cavalcade. mail. execute. cable. fog. resistor. motorist. gym. a) Herbert f) Alfred b) Wilhelmina g) Arabella c) Theodora h) Christina d) Octavia i) Dorothy e) Sylvester j) Robert F. vet. e. zoo. lab. cable. BLE0DI0G 32. phone. Cambridge. cast. transfer. Elisabeth > Beth. sport. fish. MODEL: sneet = snow + sleet The choice is made from: breakfast. dump. flu. G. Waterloo Underground. The words in the following groups share a particular sort of origin. stagnation.f) perm m) pants g) vamp n) wig 30. champ. Indian. electronics. beef. automat.g. electricity. dictate. Liz. Baker Street. prefab. parachute. dome. swell. African. guest. a) Amerind i) Oxbridge q) motel b) dumbfound j) avionics r) Eurafrican c) catalo k) smog s) brunch d) dictaphone l) telescreen t) Bakerloo e) electrocute m) stagflation u) beefish f) paratroops n) mailomat v) swellegant g) guestar o) cablegram w) pneudome h) sportcast p) transistor x) motorcade. phone. Find the full form of the following: ad. hotel. bus. Choose the pairs of words forming blends. syncope and apocope. smoke. television. Can you identify the manner in which they have been created? . motor. 33. confound. pneumatic. buffalo. cattle. troop. 31. aviation.

the ninth and tenth months of the zear. b. Each of the following sentences should seem normal enough. 1994:44) 3. d. We arrived at a dusty village in the middle of the desert. duffel. quisling. b) cardigan. the modern meaning of the word in italics is quite different from its earlier meaning. sandwich. hysteria. zeppelin Seminar 6. bourbon. The candidate turned up in a dark blue suit. spa. cologne. The word book is derived from the name of the beech tree. Try to guess the earlier meaning of the word from the context. She is small and slim. buxom. worm (source: Radford et al. a. Miss Marple’s knitting wool cannot be a clue. The word money derives from Latin moneta ‘one who admonishes’ f. In some cases. Find a good etymological dictionary and examine how the meanings of the following words have changed over time: assassin. and the sentence would be quite impossible if the word had retained its original meaning. c. silhouette. liquor. (Trask. cloud. No animals are allowed in the cockpit. e. lynch. The word chapel is derived from Latin cappella ‘cloak’. 2. 1999:272). clue. Etymology is the study of the history of words. magenta.R. leotard. electronics and electricity all derive from Greek electron ‘amber’ (petrified tree rasin) c. the change in meaning of a word can only be understood in terms of associated cultural changes or particular historical events. 1. weired. The word car derives from Latin carra ‘two-wheeled cart’. china. try to explain the changes in the meaning of these words. a. However. . Here are a few examples of such words. cheddar. L. in each case. d. and check your guess in a good dictionary which provides earlier meanings. Consulting a good dictionary. The names of September and October.a) jodhpurs. blarney. bead. limerick. diesel. boycott. mess. the words electron. the word sinister derives from Latin sinister ‘on the left hand side’ g. are derived from Latin septem ‘seven’ and octo ‘eight’ h. champagne. but she has a great deal of poise. The word charm derives from Latin carmen ‘song’. heckle. b. ascot. parasite. treacle. e. saucer.

. y) as wise as ...... death..... Metaphors. a) There’ll be the devil to pay.. s) as tall as.. gold.. John is a mediocre mountain-climber..... she escaped from her escort.. 1994:44) 4... lord........... g) as changeable as ......R. explain the shift in meaning.... v) as obstinate as..... c) as deaf as... A dishevelled old man.. You will need to choose from the following nouns: eel. d) as good as. She’s painted a lovely blues-and yellow miniature... e) as hard as . mutton..................... grave. and give their Romanian equivalents.......... After the break-in................ 5. k..... x) as like as.......... j... .. bald and toothless......... L...... life... Wrapping her cloak tightly about her........................ lion. w) as cool as ......... mule... EXAMPLE: as black as coal = negru ca taciunele a) as bold as. peas........ all of nautical origin........ rock. our vegetarian shop was a shambles........... Consulting a good dictionary...... The Japanese manufacturers make heavy use of automated factories............. m) as quiet as .... post...... nails.. l) as proud as . p) as dead as..... Very often a phrase or expression with a highly specific meaning comes to be used as a metaphor and hence to be used in a much wider sense.... r) as right as.......... weather..... fish... Here are a few examples.... (Trask..... feather. mole.. g..... but he always makes it to the top. Fill in the blanks with the required nouns forming idiomatic comparisons (similes). rain... grass........ k) as thin as ...f. hare... h... j) as slippery as.. o) as green as....... z) as light as. i) as old as ... cucumber.......................... f) as large as. q) as mad as. b) He nailed his colours to the mast..... lath... c) We’re in the doldrums............... huddled in a doorway.. b) as timid as .. hills...... t) as blind as... n) as pale as..... i... h) as drunk as. u) as steady as.... hatter. The ship’s passengers were quarantined for two weeks....... serpent........... peacock..

............... Quantitative hendiadys Fill in the blanks with the required terms to form phrases using paired words............................. x) more or ................. n) the likes and. worse. ready..................................... wide......... then...... fast...............of it 7............ money........... a) part and. less........... 1994:44) 6... cu căţel şi purcel You will need the following words: face.......... dislikes........ g) She took the wind out of his sails............... e) the twist and......... u) heart and ... m) the long and the .. starts.... again.... low..... wholesale...... EXAMPLE: bag and baggage = cu tot calabalacul.... e) The opportunity has gone by the board......................................... (Source: Trask.. d) under lock and............. f) We gave him a wide berth............... h) rough and ................ j) the haves and ...... f) hard and .............. tired.... i) every now and.... p) for better or .. swim................ turn.... t) by fits and ..................................... y) null and ...... later....... parcel........... sound. c) face to ... short........ have-nots......... o) sooner or ................L......... Give the Romanian equivalents of the following impersonal idiomatic phrases: a) it is bad manners k) it goes like clockwork b) it is bad taste l) it gets on one's nerves c) it is a matter of taste m) it affects one very much d) it irks me n) it slips somebody's notice e) it does not pay o) it is anything but pleasant ................. r) retail or ..........d) I didn’t like the cut of his jib..... w) high and ............................ k) sick and ... key.. near.. b) safe and ................ v) sink or ................ ends.................... g) odds and ............. q) by hook or by ... crook...... Give their Romanian equivalents..................... R............ s) not for love... nor...... soul........... void. l) far and .........

sack 1. ‘discomfort’ j. impertinent 10. a thick person.f) it is no fun p) it is just the other way round g) it is a piece of luck q) it is all the same to me h) it is worth (while) r) it would melt the hardest heart i) it is most likely s) it is hard to say j) it is manifestly wrong t) it's no use (to) 8. tide 14. rough texture. ‘unrelated’ e. silly 8. ‘time’ i. fee 11. thick. Can you match each word with its former meaning? a. What is the opposite of: dry. ‘prayer’ k. a rough sea. prove 2. ‘foolish’ d. rough. wade 6. rough area. What are the possible opposites of the words ‘hard’ and ‘high’ in the following phrases? Which has the most contextual variation? . reek 9. ‘feather’ f. 4. On the left is a list of words which have undergone substantial changes of meaning during the last few centuries. ‘understand’ b. strong cigarette. light colours. skill 3. strong. on the right is a list of their former meanings in a different order. 3. light wind. rough calculation. ‘smoke’ n. ‘test’ g. A0TO0YMY 1. Now give the opposite of the following: dry wine. disease 4. rough person. ‘go’ o. ‘livestock’ l. ‘legal matter’ m. thing 7. boon 12. hard? 2. fond 15. Give the opposites of the following: light bag. ‘helpless’ Seminar 7. pen 13. a hard exercise. ‘monk’s costume’ c. frock 5. ‘strong wine’ h.

to detest 5. take one’s time h. according to the model: MODEL: deep -shallow. contract k. to attack 1o. appear g. purchase/buy b. to hurry 4. a. arrive f. Give the antonyms of the following terms. to improve 12. reward l. decrease c. discourage i. fair -unfair weak happiness before right rise easy storm soft illness sincerity native fresh kind white dull remember whole promise like rich perfect little save true shut hate stop north everyone youth war come obedient lengthen high above increase legal good friend late superior new equal beautiful hot find life. Choose from the ones on the right. defend d. to depart 8. oppose j. Find the opposites of the words on the left. to vanish 2. forget . to increase 9. to sell 7. to lend 1. deteriorate/get worse e. to expand 11. to remember 3. to insult 6. high marks hard exam high opinion hard chair high building hard journey high price hard work high temperature hard person high winds hard drugs 5. 6.

inept f. adore 7. prove e. like. zealous d. astonish. If there is another word that has approximately the same meaning. make. to support 14. dictate claim. abhor. enjoy hope. desire g. Underline the word which is closest in meaning to the first three words in each line: a. adore. to punish 13. require. write that too. drop c. crafty. lyre. to encourage 15. prosperous affluent. try. love. borrow n. entreat. SY0O0YMY 8. amaze. steer. fool. request. attempt undertake. construct. dislike.g. ask assure. keen. praise o. WORD OPPOSITE SIMILAR MEANING e. What is the opposite of the following words? Use the negative prefixes un-/ in-/ im-/ dis-. bewilder. rich. sly careful. noble. destitute. increase . artful. eager. hate. mean i. enthusiastic careful. deceive. raise b. stand j. scour. lose. astound favour. cheat swindle. interesting. wish h.m. queer. strong. command. decree. safe unsafe dangerous modest happy complete expensive interesting important perfect friendly polite correct honest certain flexible B. wealthy. hate. beg. cunning. endeavour. loathe vomit. order.

In fact. Charles has some really peculiar ideas sometimes! 10. c...k.. considerate and totally dependable. I could eat a horse! I'm really hungry.? a.. m. b.... lead off 9... consequence reason.. I always get very dizzy when I stand on the top of high buildings. A good friend is someone who is kind. k. What do you mean you can't afford to buy me a drink? Don't be so mean! You've got a lot more money than I have. Choose from the ones below: giddy hopeless immature amiable chatty absurd reliable famished stingy mad disgraceful conscious intentional pensive weird a.debate a. outcome. slow... she's quite likeable. substitute l.. Take those trousers off .. j. impotent.. cannot be continued any longer. You're looking rather thoughtful this morning. Fill in the blanks by choosing from the synonymic series the most adequate terms: controversy ... I wish you'd grow up! You are so childish.. d. weak. powerless stark. feeble..dispute . raised an amendment. aren't you? e....... kill. event... This . b. I didn't mean to break it .you look ridiculous in them! l. i. really... slaughter. Our new boss isn't too bad at all. You are aware of the fact that he's married. We've lost the match! You played like a team of grannies! You were pathetic. The question under .. f.. able m... Can't you see this problem is beyond any .. n. assassinate load. slay.. There is only one way of describing Hitler .. .. Our new neighbours are very talkative.. Give a synonym for each of the underlined words in the following sentences.. result. g. That's the last time I go to a party with Simpson! His behaviour last night was absolutely disgusting..it wasn't deliberate...he was completely insane... o. die. h..

.embody ..... The bombs caused great .arrive at . j. b. to soothe.. When does the train .... to startle... a ghost.. to honour b.contract . to smother d.......... 22) 12.contain .............. agreement ..... q... The ship . Match them to the correct place in the article. chocolates.......... the station? l. to alarm. Years. The USA have signed several .......... a logo e. ..bargain . an assembly. 11... a rebellion (Gold Advanced........ a premonition f.. The two leaders did not reach any .... Through hard work he . o.convention ... a password.. an insurrection.......reach k...... use your dictionary................ a sign.. a symbol.treaty g... a.. If necessary.pact ... to extinguish. to celebrate... in which the writer complains about the use of euphemistic language... in taking a few pills.......... p.000 tons. Military .. The euphemisms have been blanked out. to douse.. a spirit. a phantom. to the airport.. The exhibition . to her reputation... come . Decide which word in each of the following groups is significantly different from the others.. are a permanent danger to the world’s peace.. to commemorate... STOP BEI"G COY .harm .. e....... The box .. some rare manuscripts. i..... Here is a newspaper article..... to frighten c..... success. hold ....injury d..... There is no . to inflame. The two characters .. The two states have signed their first cultural ..... and given below the text. h... damage ... Your statement does a(n) .... all virtues and vices. a mutiny. 45.include n. for delivering food to underdeveloped countries.. and go! m... to commiserate.

..... do away with the following: 10..... A native of the Lake District who describes himself as being ‘nobbut middlin’.... ‘. if he says he’s ‘proper poorly’........ however... and probably others..... g) disadvantaged senior citizen. it turns out that I am a 1... e) Ministry of Defence........ distressing... 13.’... drawing a 3. ‘... 11.. to describe George as a sex maniac might not endear you to Auntie Mabel but she would be proud to hear him referred to as a 9.... 1994.. ‘........ All this is fact.How many euphemisms can you find for each of the following words/phrases? -to kill -to have sex -to die -toilet C........’ or 7 ‘...... for all I care. f) companion animal... please... is approaching a state of collapse and coma.. presumably.. 12....’ (stupid).... i) unemployment benefit........ p..... n) lower income brackets.’ (poor). m) retirement pension.’ (dole)....... working hard to raise vast quantities of vegetables on an allotment and well aware that. or indelicate nature is described in less offensive terms.... I listen to the voice of officialdom.... All this effort to avoid unpleasantness is certain to fail. ‘... ‘Euphemisms are considered overtly squeamish and affected by contemporary writers.. But let us. immortal because I shall never die – I shall merely 5......’ (ill). k) manly man....... 6... do not feel younger because I am called a ‘senior citizen’ Bryan Heath (retired vet) a) withdrawing our services. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica..’ (pet)....... HOMO0YMY 13........’ (Ministry of War). 15.. stay........renting a 4......’ equals ‘being bloody minded’ Again quoting the encyclopaedia: a euphemism is a ‘figure of speech in which something of an unpleasant.. p) have a dialogue (From Headway Advanced. ‘......... h) working the rule. The clichés which pour from the lips of trade union leaders are endless........... 165 ‘. c) pass away.. ‘. especially administrators. These more robust euphemisms may.. l) under the weather.. drawing an old-age pension.......... Examples of gross understatement may also appeal to some of us.. If.... there will be a funeral in the near future...... Mark the correct word: ......49) 13..... unless used for humorous effect. one of these days. ‘.. j) disabled. and. b) leisure garden..’ equals ‘going on strike’ and 8........’ (talk)........ because the euphemism quickly acquires the stigma of the world it replaced..... registered as 2... 14...... I will die – not “pass away” I am an old cripple... I shall die. I...... have read their encyclopaedia..’ For example....’ This may be so among cognoscenti but there is little evidence to show that the masses. o) taking industrial action. d) low IQ.....

Key / quay . Complete the following jokes.which one is a device which causes something else to slow down or stop whether it is a car or a desire? r. Bail / bale . rights? e.which one is a wild animal? f... Beach / beech . Pair / pear ..which one is a place for sleeping on a train or ship? q. soup. Pail/ pale . Ascent / assent . . Cession / session . Have you ever hunted ..which one might continue next week? i. Break / brake .. I always hunt with my clothes on.. Steal / steel .by which do you agree to give up lands.which do you pay on a bus? l... Waiter.... I don't care what it's ... Rain / reign / rein . What is it now? b.a. c.. Complement/ compliment .. Fair / fare .which of them drenches you if you have no umbrella? d.which one is a sweet.. Berth / birth .. Why are black clouds like somebody riding a horse? >Because they both hold the . . sir.which inherits and which is everywhere? k.... Air / heir .which one means a small.. read/red stories/storeys rains/reins bean/been bolder/boulder pane/pain bare/bear allowed/aloud week/weak a. The humour depends on homophones in each one.which one means 'approval'? p. wingless insect that feeds on the blood of human beings and some animals? g... juicy fruit? m.. Cereal / serial ..? >No...which one do you pay to be released from jail? o...which one is used for knives..which one is a tree? c. what do you call this? > It's .which floats more frequently? b. Flea / flee .which one does a boat come alongside? h. Boy / buoy .. Bare / bear .which one is a praise? 14.which one is a vessel for carrying liquids? n. tools? j.....

.. into a wastepaper basket and lived.. A teacher saw two boys fighting in the playground.. he would have given anything in the world to find out the source of this nightmarish chain of events.. sir....... sir? >Man: No... We were fighting quietly.. What is the effect of seven days dieting? > They make one ........ underline them and write the other word beneath.. How can I get rid of my headache? >Hit your head against a window and the .... But... I like the colour it is now... In the text below find 40 words that have homophone-pairs.. j........ . 15..... thanks. Why brood about such minor problems? How could such things be lightening the darkness of his tormenting remorse and doubts that had their root in the inner feeling of guilt that kept haunting him day and night like a horde of covetous locusts? He would have liked to seize the naked truth and throw it out if he couldn't bury it deep down in his soul. Did you hear about the novelist who lived on the ninth floor of a block of flats? >He dropped six ........ Make sure to take into account plurals and 3rd person singular Present Tense..... will disappear... f. The mayor was sitting in his oaken armchair.. .. Fortune Teller: Would you like your palm ... >Stop! You know the school rules ..... as well as Past Tense .. He felt his heart beat violently in his chest and the sweat yield through all the pores of his face.. g.regular verbs and comparatives. mopping his brow with his silk handkerchief. we weren't fighting ..d.. His arms lay on the stationery on his desk without moving as all he could do was just stare at the clock on the mantel above the fireplace.. e.. h. Above all........No fighting ........ What did the small shy stone say? >I wish I was a little .

..players? d) I think we've just had a puncture..... 16......... How do you know that? >Well. What do you think......... PUNS A pun is a play upon words .. a mouse is both an animal and something you use with a computer...... "Sit over there for the .... His friends who had always held him in such high esteem! And yet he had to let them know what a curse that damn loot meant for the bloc. how was your first day at the new school? >Great! The teacher is going to give me a gift.." ...... son. when I arrived. For example.... feeling base and defiled.. c) You have to be rich to play golf.in the road.....in me? > No! Why? I've just swallowed some coins accidentally....... b) Some girls think I'm handsome and some girls think I'm horrible.. although he knew that the confession could not lessen his grief.He knew he had to tell his dear and loyal friends so as not to grow mad..... she pointed to a chair in the corner and said.. >Then why are there so many . Complete these jokes with puns present fork fine pretty ugly atmosphere merry can change charge poor a) Have you noticed any .. He took the glass of beer he had not touched so far.... >How did it happen? There was a ........usually one word with two meanings. Mary? >A bit of both.... e) Well... He had paced beyond the bearable limit of sufferance on his own and now he had to let it leak out and flee from the country lest someone should slay him......

"Father has gone out"....f) Why did the two astronauts decide to leave the restaurant on the moon and return to one on Earth? >They said it had no.. "Not in the least...... It's all part of the service! h) Why did you park your car on the yellow lines? >Because the sign says ". sir.. Is she engaged?" "Engaged?! She's married!" e. he asked.." i) What do you call a happy tin in the USA? >A ... d. b..." "She has also gone out. where he was a frequent..... I'll speak to your mother..." "Impossible... g) I'm going to have to put you in a prison cell for the night...... Young man: "I sent you some suggestions telling you how to make your paper more interesting...FOR PARKING... 17...... sir. "What do you want?'.. "My grandfather lived to be nearly ninety and never used glasses. answered the elephant.. "I'd like to see something new in trunks".. A man knocked at the door of his neighbours' house. "You missed my class yesterday... lots of people prefer to drink from a bottle". c...... my child.... >What's the ." "Well.... I'd like to sit by the fire for a while.... "I wonder if I can see your mother. didn't you?"... Enjoy the following puns based on polysemy and homonymy. not in the least"..... answering the door... the professor asked. but not very welcome visitor." "It's rather cold.." f.. Have you carried out any of my ideas?" Editor: "Did you meet the office boy with a wastepaper basket as you were coming upstairs?" Young man: "Yes.....!. "Never mind.. Officer? Nothing.. I did.. too... answered the student. a... the fire has gone out..... The owner of a luggage shop saw a gigantic elephant standing before the counter.." . little Paul said..........

b) cucumber and vegetable are co-hyponyms. j) disease is a superordinate of tuberculosis. f) chess is a hyponym of game. phonetic and grammatical) in the following fragment from Shakespeare's Macbeth: Clean from my hand? 2o.3." his opponent exclaimed.Editor: "Well. Try to extend these taxonomies upwards and downwards and point out any difficulties or points of interest that arise. In the midst of a heated argument. On the basis of the answers you provided. Which of the following statements are true? a) tennis is a hyponym of sport. this my hand will rather The multitudinous seas incarnadine. . no doubt. 1 Taxonomy is a structure in which we meet more general terms as we ascend to higher levels. try to construct partial taxonomies1. a man rose and shouted with anger: "It's common sense that I want! Nothing else!" "It's common sense that you want. Enter Lady Macbeth." g. d) calf is a hyponym of creature. e) orange and tomato are co-hyponyms. "and therefore your opinion should be disregarded. c) plant is a superordinate of tree. k) swing and toy are co-hyponyms." h. Making the green one red." D. Seminar 8. h) poker is a hyponym of sport. Find archaisms (lexical. "So you want to divorce your wife. but hers are simply terrible. Exercises 1. g) game is a hyponym of sport. Aren't your relations pleasant?" "Mine are. HYPO0YMY 18. he was carrying out your ideas. 8. i) bread is a co-hyponym of milk.

c) I don't mind where you put me. and 24th of January. and put them in the right order. Note: some of the neologisms are colloquial. (Knock). A little water clears us with deed. Formal vs. and the other to a friend. h) I'm coming down to London at the end of the month to go to a conference. Get on your nightgown. 3. Lady. How easy it is then! Your constancy Hath left you unattended. icon. informal (colloquial) English. Retire we to our chamber. jet set. Decide which sentences go with which letter.) Hark! more knocking. I'm sideways. rock and roll. I'll sleep anywhere! d) I have a further request. My hands are of your color. 2. data capture. I hear a knocking At the south entry. Exeunt. 23rd. rice burner. Can you guess the meanings of the following neologisms? If not. Macbeth. Be not lost So poorly in our thoughts. Knock. to awfulize. (Knock. Here are two jumbled letters. golden shares. bubble. joe. 'twere best not know myself. look the words up in a dictionary. some others scientific. Find examples of English 'barbarisms' in Romanian. One is written to a hotel. the shaft. to shoot oneself in the foot. 4. lest occasion calls us And show us to be watchers. DDT. automall. Wake Duncan with thy knocking! I would thou couldst. How does formal English differ from the informal (colloquial) language? Letter to a friend Letter to a hotel a) I would like a single room with a shower. but I shame To wear a heart so white. g) Write soon and let me know. sandwich generation. b) I'm writing to ask you a favour. i) Could I have a bite to eat when I arrive? . To know my deed. e) I would like to make a reservation for the nights of 22nd. f) I hope the above is convenient.

6. s) There's something else I'd like to ask you. ear 1. bannock i. child 5. as I find the front rooms rather noisy? m) Could you put me up for a few days? n) Just a sandwich will do. autumn 4. a. d. l) Could I possibly have a room at the back. to lake (Lower Northern dialect) g. valley 9. please return them starting date and place of purchase. Please vacate this seat should an elderly or infirm person require it. Should the goods not meet with your entire satisfaction. lug (Scottish) . and we will gladly refund you. Match the Standard English words with their dialectal equivalents: Standard Dialectal a. Diners are requested to refrain from smoking in this section of the restaurant. coomb (Wlesh) b. brock (Welsh) e.24th January. q) As I will be arriving quite late. to play 3. say how they may be expressed in a more neutral style. c. backend (Northern dialect) c. pumps 2. In the event of fire. 5. o) I look forward to your reply. proceed to the nearest exit point. badger 6. k) I would be extremely grateful. b. For the following examples of formal style. sandshoes (Scottish) f. p) It's the 22nd . and that you've recovered from the busy Christmas period. bairn (Northern dialect) d. peak 8. tor (Welsh) h. could you possibly put a cold buffet in my room on the 22nd? r) I hope that's right.j) I hope you are all well. cake 7.