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STEPS INVOLVED IN THE DESIGN OF STEAM TURBINES

1. Perform thermodynamic and axial thrust calculations to decide diameters and axial length
of blading.
2. Perform rotor dynamic calculation and suggest any change of lengths and diameters to
repeat step one.
3. Select suitable turbine extensions and diameters to meet above blading geometry.
4. Select suitable materials to meet steam parameters.
5. Select suitable governing system and protection system. 6. Prepare ordering /
manufacturing documents incorporating above selections.

TURBINE BLADES
Blades are the heart of a turbine, as they are the principal elements that convert the energy of
working fluid into kinetic energy. The efficiency and reliability of a turbine depend on the proper
design of the blades. It is therefore necessary for all engineers involved in the turbines
engineering to have an overview of the importance and the basic design aspects of the steam
turbine blades, Blade design is a multi-disciplinary task. It involves the thermodynamic,
aerodynamic, mechanical and material science disciplines. A total development of a new blade is
therefore possible only when experts of all these fields come together as a team. The number of
turbine stages can have a great effect on how the turbine blades are designed for each stage. The
number of stages depends upon the load we have and the quantity of power we required. Too
many stages may also develop bending moment and high torque which in turn the reason of
failure of the entire unit of the plant.

Efficiency of the turbine is dependent on the following parameters.
1. Inlet and outlet angle of the blade
2. Surface finishing of the blade
3. Profile of the blade

BLADE MATERIAL AND BLADE TYPES:

A. erosion and corrosion resistance. ductility. 7. The capacity for being welded. and damping. 4. The ability to produce blade sections free from flaws. The A-286 material is a nickel-based super alloy that is generally used in hot gas expanders with stage temperatures between 900 and 1150°F (482 and 621°C). The Haynes Stellite Number 31 is used at stage temperatures between 900 and 1200°F (482 and 649°C). where its higher yield. Ease of machining 3. Another blade material is titanium. X20 and x22 are the material specification which contains the alloying elements in given percentage. It is used within a Brinell hardness range of 207 to 248 to maximize its damping and corrosion resistance. Its high strength. and Haynes Stellite Alloy Number 31 and titanium alloy. . 5. endurance limit. The Haynes Stellite Alloy Number 31 is a cobalt-based super alloy and is used on jet expanders when precision cast blades are needed. Blades are made of alloy steel which mainly contains carbon. Proper selection of blade material plays a n important role in blade design. 6. chromium. The 403-stainless steel is essentially the industry’s standard blade material and. on impulse steam turbines. toughness.Among the different materials typically used for blading are 403 stainless steel. The factors that influence the selection of blade materials are: 1. low density.286. 422 stainless steel. The 422- stainless steel material is applied only on high temperature stages (between 700 and 900°F or 371 and 482°C). Method of manufacture 2. it is probably found on over 90 percent of all the stages. It is used because of its high yield strength. Ease of forging easily. and good erosion resistance make it a good candidate for high speed or long-last stage blading. Ductility both allow of rolling of shapes. molybdenum X20 and x20 are the material specification which contains the alloying elements in given percentage. creep and rupture strengths are needed. Condition of operations. nickel. endurance.

where its higher yield. Reduction in area:  50% min BHN: 270. chromium. nickel.  Tensile strength: 95 kgf/mm2  0. 422 stainless steel. TYPES OF BLADES: Blades are classified on the basis of following application 1) Pressure at stages . The 403-stainless steel is essentially the industry’s standard blade material and. 8. Another blade material is titanium. A-286. and good erosion resistance make it a good candidate for high speed or long-last stage blading. creep and rupture strengths are needed. endurance. 10. Blades are made of alloy steel which mainly contains carbon. The Haynes Stellite Number 31 is used at stage temperatures between 900 and 1200°F (482 and 649°C). 9.  Elongation. Suitable tensile strength at high temperature. It is used within a Brinell hardness range of 207 to 248 to maximize its damping and corrosion resistance. molybdenum X20 and x20 are the material specification which contains the alloying elements in given percentage. low density. ductility. Cost MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: All the Among the different materials typically used for blading are 403 stainless steel. Resistance to creep. erosion and corrosion resistance. toughness. The A-286 material is a nickel-based super alloy that is generally used in hot gas expanders with stage temperatures between 900 and 1150°F (482 and 621°C). it is probably found on over 90 percent of all the stages. and Haynes Stellite Alloy Number 31 and titanium alloy.2 Yield stress: 70 kgf/mm2  Impact: 05 kg/mm2 . Its high strength. The 422-stainless steel material is applied only on high temperature stages (between 700 and 900°F or 371 and 482°C). The Haynes Stellite Alloy Number 31 is a cobalt-based super alloy and is used on jet expanders when precision cast blades are needed. (l=5d ):  15% min. and damping. It is used because of its high yield strength. endurance limit. on impulse steam turbines.

HIGH PRESSURE BLADES . Different kinds of roots of blades used are:  T-root  Double T-root  Fork root  Firtree root  Dove tail root c) Shroud: The dampening element which reduces the vibration the vibration occurs in the blade which forms due to the flowing of high pressure steam through the blades. HP BLADES (high pressure blades)  IP BLADES (intermediate pressure blades)  LP BLADES (low pressure blades) 2) Their function in the turbine Steam turbine moving blades  Blades from the bar stock o blades o Curved blades o Twisted profile blades o Drawn profile blades  Forged blades  Original forging  Precision forging blades CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF BLADES: High pressure blades is mainly divided into three parts a) Profile: The profile which converts thermal energy of steam into kinetic energy and with certain efficiency depending on the shape of profile. b) Root: The root which fixes into the turbine rotor which gives the proper anchor to the blade and transmitting the kinetic energy of blade to the rotor. This dampening element may be integral with the blade or that may be separate element mounted between the blades.

These blades are mounted in the starting stage of turbine rotor. The number of stages of high pressure blades can be determined by designing. 1. The constructional features of high pressure blades are different from LP blades. this curve is called the camber line. Further understanding of blade require following terminologies to be known. 3.High pressure blades are designed on the pressure it can sustain. Setting Line: The angle which line makes with the periphery of the profile is called setting angle or profile angle. Bitangent Line: The line joining the inlet and outlet edges of the profile is called bitangent line. The line joining these two points is called chord and the length of these point is called chord length. 4. This line is intersecting at the two points A and B of the profile. Pitch: . Camber Line: If circles are drawn tangential to the suction side and pressure side profiles of a blade and their centres are joined by a curve. 2.

The nozzles are so positioned that when they release jets of stream. It should be designed such that the material in the blade root as well as the rotor / stator claw and any fixing element are in the safe . they can increase or decrease the rate of rotor spin. which are reequipped with concave panels called buckets. These stages are therefore more accurately. Though the theoretical impulse blades have zero pressure drop in the moving blades.Pitch is the circumferential distance between any point on the profile and an identical point the next profile. Therefore. Hp Blade Roots: The root is a part of the blade that fixes the blade to the rotor or stator. In impulse blades nozzles direct the steam towards the rotors. the heat drop of the stage is distributed almost equally between the guide and moving blades. The nozzles are able to project a jet of steam that spins the rotor at a loss of roughly 10 percent energy. though less widely. for the flow to take place across the moving blades. CLASSIFICATION OF PROFILE There are two types of profile one is impulse and other is reaction Impulse profile: In impulse type of profile the entire heat drop of steam take place in stationary blades only. Its design depends upon the centrifugal and steam bending forces of the blade. The steam nozzles are attached to the rotor blades on opposite sides. they propel the rotor in a spinning motion that keeps it rotating as long as the steam expelled from the jet of the nozzle. described as low-reaction stages. the impulse stages in practice have a small degree of reaction. practically. As the jets change their position. there must be a small pressure drop across the moving blades also. Reaction profile: In the reaction type of blades.

It depends on the capacity of the turbine for which these blades are to be manufactured. VELOCITY TRIANGLES When studying turbines so called velocity triangles are very often used in order to get an understanding of how the flow interacts with the blades. LK blades have 3-fork roots for all sizes. SK blades have 4-fork roots for all sizes. Beyond this size. The roots of the LP blades of preceding stages are of T-roots  SK BLADES: SK blades have large blade width in compare to its profile. It was found that machining this T-root with side grip is more of a problem. It has to be machined by broaching.limits to avoid failure. Lp Blade Roots: The roots of LP blades are as follows:  2 blading: The roots of both the LP stages in –2 type of LP blading are T-roots. Lp Blade Profile: The LP blade profiles of moving blades are twisted and tapered. The fork root has a higher load- carrying capacity than the T-root.2. The fluid enters the stationary part of the stage.  3 blading: The last stage LP blade of HK.  HK BLADES: HK blades have equal blade width and profile. where modified profiles are used. LP blades are manufactured machining and forging. The typical roots used for the HP moving blades for various steam turbine applications are shown in the following figure. The roots are T-root and Fork-root. HK blades have 4-fork roots unto 56 size. HK blades have 3 fork roots. and the broaching machine available could not handle the sizes of the root. SK and LK blades have a fork-root. where it is usually accelerated to some degree in the absolute frame of . the stator. These blades are used when blade height-to-mean stage diameter ratio (h/Dm) exceeds 0. Generally for small capacity steam turbine these blades are manufactured by machining but some LP blades are manufactured by forging and form a twisted shape.

the rotor. In Figure 1-2 velocity triangles for a typical turbine stage have been drawn. Adding the blade speed and relative velocity vectorially yields the absolute velocities: C = U +W The angles corresponding to velocity vectors are measured from the tangential plane which is common in Russian and German literature. Here the flow normally experiences acceleration in the relative frame of reference. The approximation greatly simplifies the mathematical derivations of expressions relating the shape of the triangles to different key parameters defining the stage. many steam turbines can be of so called impulse design. This is a reasonable approximation since in reality the axial velocity generally varies very little through the stage in comparison to the other velocity components. In Figure 1-3 below an arbitrary blade with definitions can be seen: . that is all the acceleration occurs in the stator. some of the common parameters used to describe blades geometrically will be presented. It then enters the rotating part of the turbine.reference. In the figure above the axial velocity is constant through the stage as seen from the velocity triangles having equal height. Blade geometry In this section. For example. For most gas turbine stages the fluid will accelerate to some extent in both rotor and stator part but there are turbines which behave differently.

The difference between metal and flow angle at inlet is called incidence and at outlet deviation: KEY PARAMETERS In order to define a gas turbine. Defined as the blade speed divided by the square root of two times the isentropic static to static enthalpy drop: . stage the following set of parameters are often used: Stage loading is a quantity often used in gas turbine practice and defined as the total enthalpy drop divided by the square of blade speed: Velocity ratio can be seen as the inverse of stage loading and it is often used when studying steam turbines.

Flow coefficient is defined as the axial component of the absolute speed divided by the blade speed: Flow capacity is defined as the mass flow times the square root of total temperature divided by the total pressure: Stage reaction enthalpy based: Stage reaction pressure based: For an isentropic process (26) and (27) are equal. This can be derived using Gibbs equation (9) with Tds = 0 yielding dh = vdp. Using the result in (26) and assuming constant specific volume (and hence constant density): .

The first one is the Laval number defined as the local velocity divided by the so-called Laval velocity: Using the steady flow energy equation for an arbitrary adiabatic channel between static and stagnation states yields: For a perfect gas with constant p c equation (30) can be rewritten: The velocity can be expressed: A critical speed is defined when the Mach number is unity: This critical speed can also be expressed using (32) and equated to (33) .Both definitions of stage reaction are used in the literature and differ typically a couple of percent but they give the same type of information. Two dimensionless quantities are very often used when studying the velocity near the surface of a blade.

For a more thorough explanation see Anderson [12]. also known as the characteristic Mach number. The second dimensionless quantity often used is the Mach number defined as the local velocity divided by the speed of sound: Equation (15) can be rewritten between static and stagnation conditions: Making use of equation (31) and (37) the left-hand side of equation (38) can be expressed: .Simplifying the above expression yields: Solving for Tcr and inserting into (34): The ratio of the local speed and the critical speed yields the Laval number.

as in Figure 1-2.2. The isentropic Laval number is also often quoted in the same context. Many different philosophies regarding the choice exist and designs with degree of reaction far removed from 50 percent can have high efficiency. Looking at a simplified stage as the one illustrated in Figure 1-2. Corresponding to this change is the velocity distribution that will vary in the opposite way.e. Looking at a general stage this will mean that the static pressure increases with radius.By inserting the right-hand side of equation (39) into equation (38) an expression for the so called isentropic Mach number can be derived: Equation (40) expresses a Mach number often used when studying velocity distributions along a blade surface. It is defined neglecting the influence of friction or viscosity and heat transfer present in the boundary layer i. A low degree of reaction corresponds to a larger part of the acceleration taking place in the stator than in the rotor. at conditions present for an isentropic process. it is . As outlined in section 1. A common choice is the 50 percent reaction design implying symmetrical velocity triangles. whenever the flow has a whirl component there must be a pressure gradient for the condition of radial equilibrium to be fulfilled. The exact choice of reaction is not that critical when considering the efficiency of the stage. When designing a stage. a high degree of reaction results in the reverse situation. mathematical expressions linking degree of reaction and angles can be derived. DEGREE OF REACTION The degree of reaction describes how the expansion is divided by the stator and rotor blade. The reaction varies along the span because of varying static pressure and static temperature. Consequently.

The gas flowing along the suction side will generally be accelerated to a high speed creating a low-pressure zone. . This force means a net imbalance of pressure that is different pressures on either side of the blade hence the names pressure and suction side.important to check how the degree of reaction varies with radius in order to achieve good efficiency since a too low value in the hub or too high value in the tip tend to be detrimental. When making an aerodynamic assessment the suction side is of special interest because it is normally more sensitive from an aerodynamic point of view than the pressure side. the flow at the suction and pressure side must join at the trailing edge of the blade fulfilling the Kutta-condition [12]. However. As flow is deflected by the blade an equal but opposite force is exerted on the blade. A schematic velocity distribution is displayed in Figure 1-4 showing the velocity plotted versus a surface coordinate for both suction and pressure side. This means that the flow on the suction side will experience some diffusion which if taken too far can lead to separation. VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION AND CURVATURE An important part of evaluating the aerodynamic performance of a blade is to study the velocity distribution along the surface.