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**APPLICATION OF EFFECTIVE STRESS METHODS FOR OFFSHORE
**

SEISMIC DESIGN IN COHESIONLESS SEAFLOOR SOILS

**by W.D. Liam Finn, University of British Columbia, Geoffrey R.
**

Martin, Fugro Inc., and Michael K.W. Lee, Golder Brawner Associates

@ Copyright 1978, Offshore Technology Conference

This paper was presented at the 10th AnnualOTC in Houston. Tex.• May 8-11,1978. The material is subject to correction by the author. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

**The build up of pore water pressures in satu- Although earthquake induced pore-water pres-
**

rated cohesionless soils during earthquake loading sures in saturated cohesionless soils have a signi-

is of major significance in offshore design pro- ficant effect on the design of a number of offshore

blems. Progressive pore water pressure increases structures such as gravity platforms, single point

can lead to significant degradation of soil stiff- mooring systems and pipelines, in this paper atten-

ness and potential liquefaction. Degradation of tion is primarily focussed on pile supported plat-

soil stiffness can have a major effec:t~on'soil forms. The soil-pile-structure interaction problem

pile-structure interaction analyses while lique- during earthquakes has received considerable atten-

faction can lead to foundation stability problems tion in recent years (Arnold et aI, 1977; Marshall

and slope failures. et aI, 1977; Berger et aI, 1977; Matlock et aI,

1978a,b) and the studies'show that the nature of

The re~ent development of basic equations the ground motion input and the mechanisms of soil

relating shear stress, shear strains and pore water coupling clearly play an important role in deter-

pressure in saturated cohesionless soils during mining platform design loads.

cyclic loading, has enabled progressive pore water

pressure increases tQbe coupled with seismic The dynamic response of an offshore platform,

response analyses of soil deposits resulting in a with given structural characteristics to earthquake

dynamic effective stress method of-analysis. As- loading depends on the interaction between the

the physical behaviour Qf sands are a function of structure and the foundation soils. Not only are

effective stress, thisdevelopment~provides the the inertia forces generated in the structure

means for more accurate computations of stiffness through the interaction mechanism but the basic

degradation and liquefaction potential. dynamic characteristics of the structural founda-

tion system, such as the fundamental period and

Emphasis is -placed on potential applications damping, are significantly influenced by it.

of the effective stress methodology to the problem

of soil-pile-stru~ture_interactionproblems during The modelling of the interaction mechanism is

earthquakes, where degradation effects influence an evolVing art and is in a rudimentary state at

the magnitude of soil coupling elements and free present. The various components of the modelling

field input motions. As background to the problem, process, according to present practice (Matlock

the nature of the current API cyclic p-y curves for et aI, 1978a,b; Stockard, 1976) are illustrated in

sands is discussed, and difficulties in applying Fig. 1 for the case of an offshore platform on a

these curves to earthquake analyses are outlined. pile foundation. The piles are modelled by a

lumped mass system connected by elastic elements.

The principles of the effective stress meth- The free-field motions are determined by an appro-

odology are briefly outlined, and the advantages priate response analysis and are applied to the

over commonly used total stress methods are dis- piles through interaction elements, which range

cussed. The practical applications of the effec- from simple Kelvin-Voigt models through non-linear

tive stress approach are illustrated with reference hysteretic gap elements capable of allowing for

to the free field response of a seafloor soil gaps between the piles and the supporting soils

profile to earthquake ground shaking, the analysis (Matlock et aI, 1978a).

of liquefaction and the degradation of soil stiff-

ness.- The significant influence of factors such as The interaction between pile and soil is

the permeability and confinement of sand layers on illustrated in more detail in Fig. 2. Broadly

earthquake response and stability calculations are speaking, the interaction may be viewed as having

demonstrated. three zones. Near the surface the interaction is

dominated by relative displacements between pile

References and illustrations at end of paper. and soil. In this region, generally less than 10

521

and other specific sites effective and practical treatment of the degrada. the pile deflections. there. The idealized example enables the degradation and pore. resistance. free field input motions and the nature of the but maximum resistance values for progressively interaction elements. cases. complex. would have occurred. a passive failure zone develops ground deformations and the strains and degradation near the pile head when the lateral pressure reaches of stiffness are genera~ly small. could produce different curves depending on the tion of soft clays under cyclic loading has been relative density and drainage characteristics of developed by Idriss et al (1976) and incorporated sands at the site. The water table was main- fore. It must also be recognized that the API tion in stiffness under earthquake motions. The reason for the degradation of resistance under earthquake loading taking the ef£ect of under cyclic loading in the Mustang Island tests is degradation in stiffness into account and. cyclic loading tests. The_ simulate conditions which would exist at an off- results also proVide guidance in the selection of shore location so that the degradation could the parameters defining the interaction elements possibly be attributed to the effect of a build-up themselves. p. Rather. Pu' and the deflection of the pile measured Only in this case can the mobilized lateral soil in pile diameters. the effective stress the short drainage path to the surface would have analysis provides the means for computing the prevented progressive pore water pressure accumu- magnitude and distribution of free field excess lation. The effective stress-free field curves. In-between these the maximum passive value. An Mustang Island test site. increasing load amplitudes. y. pressures around the pile only so long as the Curves for both static and cyclic loading are given free field motions do not create significant pore- by the American Petroleum Institute (API-1977) in water pressures in the foundation sands indepen- terms of the ultimate passive resistance of the_ dently of the relative soil-pile displacements.in follow the pattern of field cyclic loading tests 522 . where the maximum resistance was approxi- ness of the soil and its u~_t_~ate st~~ngth. in a computer program. insures that realistic free-field motions are tained above ground surface during loading to input to the interaction elements in Fig.pile diameters. The radial tance of a sand. effective lateral resistance to pile deflection is water pressure generation features to be illustra. Under cyclic offshore platforms is the selection of parameters loading. hence enabling liquefaction potential of the sand in the passive failure zone. The lateral resistance of static curves from a depth of about 4D to the the ground to pile deflection depends on the stiff. DCHARM. increase with depth. Analysis of the test data for increasing load incre~ ments enabled the form of the p-y curve to be A major difficulty in seismic analysis of defined (Reese. soft curves reflect the local site conditions at the clays and saturated cohesionless soils. or less. assessments for a wide variety of offshore problems. the tendency RECOMMENDED PRACTICE to build up high pore water pressures may be counteracted by radial drainage and. the test data indicated that the p-y to properly define the interaction elements and the curves showed progressive degradation compared to free field input motion. such as the existing API p-y quake problem. and the It is important to recognize that the API degradation may influence significantly both the cyclic p-y curves do not represent loading paths. 1974). This program-makes possible the computation of free field motions. D being the pile diameter. The slow cyclic load rate and less sands. The mately 1/3 of the static resistance. considerable degradation in soil stiffness and lateral resistance that is based on stiffness may occur depending on the magnitude of field data from tests conducted on Mustang Island. transition from one kind of interaction to another. 1974).API . it is believed that the degrada- pore-water pressures during and subsequent to an tion can be attributed to structural rearrangement earthquake. to pile deflection. at pile deflections two zones of interaction is a zone of gradual of approximately 3D/BO. Pu. However. However. in pore water pressure. mobilized by soils in the upper ten pile diameters ted. it is The objective of the present paper is to pro. Cox and Koop. An empirical approach to_ Texas (Cox. stiffness and strength of many offshore soils degrade considerably under cyclic loading. Actu~l hysteretic loading paths during cyclic loading may be quite Two classes of soils show significant degrada. APPLICATION OF API OR CYCLIC p-y CURVES IN For the purpose of general background. sand. Use of an piles in sand at an offshore platform site. to the analysis of earthquake loading of response methodology is then described. Rees and Grubbs. is drainage will effectively reduce the pore-water conventionally given by means of a p-y curve. In addition. not completely clear. The local field of significant strains around the pile to this depth may tend to generate STIFFNESS DEGRADATION IN SANDS . believed that no significant build up in pore water vide a similar capability to that of DCHARM for the pressure due to the local cyclic shear straining analysis of sites underlain by saturated cohesion. assessing the amount of degradation for cyclic loading is set out in the recommended practice The lateral stiffness of sand and the ultimate manual of the American Petroleum Institute (1977). 1. although measure- ments of pore water pressure were not made. Under large At depth the pile deflections will follow the lateral loads. The p-y curves for cyclic resistance to pile-displacement be expected to loading incorporate an allowance for aegradation. surface. by surface drainage also. a brief EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS commentary on the API p-y curves for cyclic loading is initially presented to put the present code There are some serious problems in applying - requirements (developed primarily for wave loading p-y curves developed from field or laboratory problems) in perspective with respect to the earth. in many The relationship between the lateral resis. high pore water pressures. Pu.

It leads sands. it is called dynamic effec. The results of such an analysis pressures. Furthermore. In fundamental due to local interaction effects included in the studies of effective stress-strain relations for API code must be considered in design. The resistance to deformation at any T Gmo Y / (1 + Gmo y/T mo ) (1) point in the sand deposit is a function of effec- tive stress which in turn depends on the contem- Unloading or reloading from any state is poraneous rates of generation and dissipation of described by the Masing criterion (Masing.reflected in the API p-y curves. pore water pressure. is inherent in DESRA. Newmark and Rosenblueth. Finn and Seed. In the special case under consideration. the shear lateral resistance is lost down to a certain depth. to be alter significantly the xesponse to a given deter. all the intergranular or effective stresses have been eliminated from the system. 1972). is loading curve T = fey). method of dynamic effective stress response tive stress response analysis. The increase in pore water pressure during the volumetric compaction is retarded because the each time interval of integration of the equations water cannot drain instantaneously to accommodate of motion is computed using parameters which des- the volume change. Seed and Idriss (1969) and Hardin and to increased natural periods of vibration and may Drnevich (1972) showed the shear modulus. Finn and occurs. then on unloading generated by the earthquake cause slip at grain to from (Tr> Yr)' the unloading path is given by grain contacts. If surface drainage can occur the pore S~~d. (4) changes in effective mean normal may be used to improve estimates for the parameters stress. The degradation of lateral the shear strain. 1971). Therefore. at least for loose to medium dense sands. In this state the Hysteretic damping. 1975) and th~ strains in turn depend on the water pressures due to dynamic loading are even- stiffness and damping characteristics of the sand tually dissipated from the system. The Bnalysis is based Finn. the important factors that must be which the degradation in stiffness and lateral considered when computing the response of saturated resistance may be estimated for saturated sands sand layers to a given earthquake are: (1) The under free field cyclic loading. 1975) and the effective stresses to the pore water and the pore effective stress regime in the soil is modified water pressure increases. would lead to volumetric compaction at the r f(_ _ r) (2) typical shear strain levels that are generated in 2 2 sand during earthquakes (Martin. 1971). The method has been incorporated into a DYNAMIC EFFECTIVE STRESS RESPONSE ANALYSIS computer program. modulus and the resistance to deformation. 1969. and (5) damping. (3) contem- effect of progressive-build-up in pore water pres. seismic excitation is continuously diminishing the face layers of sand liquefy and essentially all level of effective stress and. accordingly for the next time interval. represented by the area of sand has no significant shearing resistance ang the hysteresis loop. a function of the mean normal effective stress and ministic earthquake. Silver and Seed. A method of analysis will now be presented by In summary. using the Newmark (1959) method. The dynamic res. initial shear modulus in situ. During an earthquake pore water pressure The volume changes and thus the pore water gradients are developed in the soil and under these pressures that develop during an earthquake depend gradients a redistribution of pore water pressure on the seismic shear strains (Martin. Viscous deforms like a liquid. This implies that Dynamic shear stresses and shear strains if the loading curve is T = fey). the pore water pressures increases in pore water pressure on soil properties developed during the earthquake may increase until in the non-linear analysis of dynamic response. DESRA-1. Lee and Martin (1977) have presented a on effective stress-es. by Lee and Finn (1977). in dry T-T y-y sands. ~nalysis which tak~s all of these f~ctors into account. linear equations of motion are integrated directly cult problem of soil dynamics. Therefore. Liquefaction is said to damping may also be included. The additional the sand undergoes simple shear deformations and so reduction in lateral stiffness" due to degradation the stiffness at any time may be expressed as a caused by free-field motions over and above that function of the shear modulus. In saturated sands the progres- resistance increases with increasing pore water sive development of pore water pressure during pressure and reaches its ultimate value when sur. layers. 1975. slips and the reduction in pore water volume due to Hardin and Drnevich. defining interaction elements for soil-pile or soil-structure interaction. In saturated sands. as used in increased pore water pressure and drainage. G. This intergranular slip. The reduc- tion in effective stress leads to a structural tion in effective stresses results in a reduction rebound in the sand skeleton to absorb the differ. 1926. therefore. 1967). the problems to be discussed later. The initial ponse. The response of a saturated sand deposit to It is a non-linear method in which the non- earthquake motions is a very important and diffi. The corresponding reduc. dominated by the effects of the progressive pore is given by the hyperbolic relation water pressure increases that develop during an earthquake. Finn and Seed. three types of effective stress analyes are con- 523 . DESRA includes the effects of both shear strain and progressive In the extreme case. called the skeleton curve. have occurred (Seed and Idriss. (2) the variation free-field motions can be computed taking the of shear modulus with shear strain. poraneous generation and dissipation of pore water sure into account. in shear moduli which are functions of the mean ence in volume between the compaction due to grain normal effective stress (Seed and Idriss. Consequently the relaxing san~ cribe the volume change and rebound characteristics skeleton transfers some of its intergranu~ar or of the soil (Martin.

7 and liquefaction is indicated when in lateral resistance to pile deflection. 7 at a for all three conditions of drainage. the very high pore water pressures near the permeability of the layer. The distribution of pore surface and at a depth of 35 ft is shown in Fig. If the permeability of 524 — . To give an deflection needs to. less than k = 0. The Df 35 ft. The The higher the permeability. It pore water pressures increase to give liquefaction is clear that at t = 4 sees liquefaction for all all lateral resistance is lost in the liquefied practical purposes is about to occur for the case part of the sand. pore-water :ive stress analysis. In this case. transfer of seismically induced pressures and the :ive density Dr = 45% and the distribution of shear higher the susceptibility of the upper level of the nodulus. redistribu. “with drainage”. and liquefaction >ther programs for dynamic response ‘ofsoils has. When the a pore water pressure curve touches this line. the pore water on pore water pressures during the earthquake is ~ressure is allowed tQ redistribute and be dissi.\idered.003 ftlsec which is representative of”medium depending on the drainage conditions..003 ft\sec).~.1 g. relative displacement at t = 4 sees. further increased to 0. both the hysteretic and viscous damping are shown in The pronounced increase in pore water pres- Fig. It”may be time t = 4. The cases are described for brevity Drainage begins to have an appreciable effect 1s. cm/see). and Qn pore-water pressures and dynamic response when ‘redistribution only”.5 sees. “no redistribution”. the ability of the time during the earthquake is shown in Fig. The case of “no redistribution” would corres. in the The development of pore water pressure with stiffness of the sand.0 sec when the pore water pressures are seen by comparing Figs. effective length of pile foundations and changes the dynamic characteristics–of the offshore struc- When the site is analysed by total stress . 5 aa total equivalent viscous damping as a sures throughout the upper levels of the saturated function of shear strain. does not occur.0003 ft/sec (0. If a mud layer prevents drainage of the sur- MAMPLE PROBLEMLn.. Depending on the drainage conditiana~ degradation in stiffness during shaking is indica- liquefaction occurs at times-ranging from about 5. a total stress and three-kinds of effec.0003 ftlsec (Finn. with depth is given in Fig. ]een presented by Finn. This leads to an increase in the of “no redistribution”. 7 showing the vertical distribution of of pressure occur~ Together””w”ithdrainage through pore water pressure at the same time.of 0. about 50%-70% of the initial overburden pressure. the pile may occur under combined dynamic and mated by the equivalent cycle method in conjunction static loads as the axial load transfer capacity of with the liquefaction resistance curves in Fig. pond to the limiting case of very low permeability.. 9 which shows the vertical distribution of earthquak-e. -“ . In particu- the surface. 6 and 8 that the shear high but liquefaction has not yet occurred. in conjunction sure gradients in the pore water and redistribution with Fig.. redistribution” apply as a limiting case. The variation in shear modulus most of the effective lateral resistance to pile tiithshear strain is showriin Fig. Yong :ases depend on the magnitude OE the permeability. 5 that port~on of the pile in the liquefied sand (Seed and Idriss.. a dynamic effective stress analy-” the layer is low. the combined effects Qf pare- The DESRA method can also he used in the total water pressure re-distribution and the accompanying )tress mode hy ignoring the effect of pore water change in dynamic response lead to more xapid >ressure. ted by the reduction in the shear modulus with 8. the shear modulus has decreased from 30%-50%. thirdly. secondly.. the more rapid the Site consists of 100 ft of uniform sand at a rela”. tion is permitted but drainage acros~-the surface . additional axial deflections of analysis and the liquefaction potential is esLi. These high pare water pressures the hysteretic damping inherent in the method to can lead to a serious loss of lateral resistance in take account of any viscous effects due to the the critical upper limits of the sand deposit where ?resence of water.01 tis is carried out without allowing any redistri. 8 water pressu-reswith depth are shown in Fig.03 ft]sec. and Leer 1977)”. ~. Furthermore . 6 for sand to resist foundation pressures or the lateral the three different drainage conditions at a depth deflectionof piles is seriously impaired. The earthquake motiQns generate pres. indication of the total damping in the system. sand leads to-a significant reduction in the mean normal effective stress and.. about 4 sees is obtained. 1971) a time to liquefaction of layer is lost. For modulus degrades with increasing pore water pres.. The amount of drainage depends on the lar. For the drainage case presented (k = 0.be generated...3 was analysed induced pore water pressure gradients leads to >y the dynamic effective.. 3. Thus . 4. ““ k = 0.PICAL W.stress method using the increased pore water pressures in the upper levels ~irst 10 sees of the El Centro earthquake of 1940 of the sand where the effective stresses are low.” Viscous submerged sand to high pore water pressu~es and kmping of 2% critical was included in addition to even liquefaction. Martin and Lee (1978). Thus it can be used for Eour kinds of liquefaction. consequently. . The effects-of the last two the permeability exceeds 0.. scaled to a maximum acceleration. This The line of initial vertical effective stress is= degradation could lead to large unacceptable losses shown in Fig. The degradation in ahear modulus near the pressure ratios of 1. G.A .s prevented. face. First. the results for “no pated by surface drainage and. - these analyses the permeability k waa assumed to be sure.– ture. may vary from sand. . Howeverr if the permeability is malysis. The effect of pore water pressures on the lat- The dynamic analyses provide a clear picttire eral free-field displacements may be seen by study- of what goes on in the saturated sand during an ing Fig. the effect of drainage or redistribution bution or drainage. A comparison of DESRA-1 with pressures dissipate rapidly. Liquefaction is indicated by pore water time. the internal redistribution of pore water pressure which takes place under the seismically The offshore sfte shown in-”Fig. At t = 3 sees when the pore water pressu~e. negligible.

Cox.E..tive displacements for the Reimer.. water pressure increases-and it may be noted that 1977 Offshore Technology Conference. W. Columbia. The corresponding displacements (1974). the method generates. Houston.” The dynamic effective stress analysis provides Proceedings. R. Figs. No. “Inelastic Dynamic Analysis of Tubular Offshore Structures. Finn. Drafting was ‘by Peter Brun and typing by Desiree Cheunp.B. (1976). 2) will be governed by cations of Soil Dynamic-sin Cold Regions.takes into account Proceedings. in programs such as SPASM. “A Study of Soil-Pile-Structure shaking with the. Proc.A. 1. R. and Pyke . Texas. 8. Finn.W. (1977).. Texas. The degradations in 5. Designing. “Liquefaction of. Switzerland. June 1977. However.W. May 1976.. 36. H. pp. Michael K. pile stresses in Layers. tions in soft clay.B. (1926). Engineering Division. required as input motions for dynamic soil-pile.D. 8) occur much”more quickly in Geoffrey R. R. shear modulus (Fig.” Proceedings. and dynamic effective stress analysis. (1972). Bea. the Dynamic Analyses for Saturated Sands.D. — 525 . redistribution” for both surface layers and at a “Simplified Method for Evaluating Soil-Pile depth of 35 ft. water pressure. Liam. 1978b).C..” Journal of-the Geotechnical Engineering Division. Masing. Berger. Idriss.” Journal of the Geotechnical shaking may generate significant pore water pres. displacement time history to the relative displace. ASCE.H.R. Arnold. mended Practice for Planning.M. the displacements become Larger for the effective Texas.. It”is noted Engineering and Soil Dynamics Conference and tha~ absolute ground motion displacements are used Exhibit. Nichael K. I. Liam (1977). ASCE. W. 2nd International Congress of Applied Mechanics. Texas. and Martin. They have maximum values approximately twice Conference. W. REFERENCES bution only”. various drainage conditions for the duration of (1977). and Drnevich. lead to corresponding high relative displacements and an indication of the participa. 10. sures and the degrading effect of these should be pp. 98. that for the other cases. Dallas. “Comparison of program SPASM described by Matlock. relative displacements. 667-692.D. R. “Recom- tion of higher modes of motion. Liam. (1978). Martin. 101. . Geoffrey R. Singh. Houston. (1977).P. 1926. GT5. As sliaki~gcontinues the pore Structure Int-eractionEffects. 1977 Offshore Technology Con- the. and Finn. 12. strong earthquake Cyclic Loading. B. Martin.” Journal of the Soil A dynamic effect-ivestress method has been Mechanics and Foundations Division. California. Mahin. 10 and 11 for the_ca$es of “drainage” and “no 3. gressive build-up in pore water pressure is the “DESRA-1. ASCE. Department of in saturated sands during an earthquake and it also Civil Engineering. The pro. (1977). W. (for example. S. Liam.displacementa.Thawed Sandwich ments computed above. obtained by adding the earthquake base motion 7. Appli- the lower zone (see Fig. considered in addition to the degradation specified 13. K.. Dobry.D. No. 423-438.E. W. Crates. and Grubbs.. water pressure. B. for Liquefaction.” 6th Annual Offshore Technology 12. Houston. GT6. SM7.” Paper significance of pore-water pressure increases is accepted for Proceedings. CONCLUSIONS “Shear Modulus and Damping in Soils: Design Equations and Curves. OTC 2671. Specialty Session.” Another way of indicating the effect of pore Eighth Edition. L. OTC 2908.W. Such comparisons are shown in Texas.” during the dynamic analysis and. R. B. Paper 13008. P. S. Finn. “Behaviour of Soft Clays redistributes and dissipates pore water pressures Under Earthquake Loading Conditions. Lee. Vol.’ Anagnostopoulos. “Field Testing of Laterally Loading for the case of “redistribution” are shown in Fig. G. Texas. “Eigenspannungen und Ver- in the API code. All these effects can be estimated by 11.O. P. E. Beebe.. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Zurich. Doyle. Pasadena. 103.ich takes into account many 1972. festigung beim Messing. Piles in Sand. and structure interaction analyses.” city of foundations and lateral resistance of piles Soil Mechanics Series No. and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms.. and Seed. sand foundations that DCHARM provides for founda. University of British has a significant effect on free-field-displace. April 1977.. October Meeting.C. stress analysis which ignores the effect of pore 1977 Offshore Technology Conference. OTC 2749. G. in the cases-of “drainage” and “redistri.” Proceedings. ments. stress analyses which include the effect of pore 4. P. Idriss. is to compare the r. and Marshall. pp. I.. ASCE Earthquake clearly seen from the above results.” Preprint.R.M.G. R. in loose to (1975). ASCE. Kwok W. “Fundamentals of Liquefaction Under medium dense saturated sands. American Petroleum Institute (1977).N.computed by total Systems in Severe Earthquakes. and these may be 1978. any time on the stiffness of the saril. and Lee. Hardin. 517-533. Vol. June 19-21.D. As earthquake displacement time histories are Proc.R. and response.D.ela. of the important factors that affect the dynamic 9. This work was supported by the National Research Council of Canada under grant NRC 1498 and a grant from Fugro Inc. Paper 9006.. W.W. the Lee. (1977). November 1977. 6. In particular. E. water pressures on the resistance to displacement 2. Finn. It is clear that. Vancouver.W. OTC 2954.” Proceedings. W. A Program for the Dynamic Effective most important variable affecting the bearing capa. “An Effective Stress Model this case.L. Houston. K. Lee.Tuly sands to earthquake-swh.analytical capability for analysing offshore ference. Reese. 1976 Offshore Technology Con- the effect of the resulting pore water pressures at ference. San Francisco. Marshall.surface. V. Yong. presented for computing the response of saturated Vol. No. Stress Response Analysis for Soil Deposits.

May 1976. 526 . Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations “FundamentsJs of Earthquake Engineering. Foo. N. January 1969. I. SM1. RELATIVE DISPLACEMENT OUE TO INTERACTION t BENCSNC MOMENTS DOMINATED 8Y LATERAL INTERACTION LOAOS + ILE DISPLACEMENT AT TIW3 t r ‘- ‘a TRANSITION Fig. SM3. 2 .C. Matlock.” 17. (1969). E.” Journal of the Soil for Structural Dynamics.= _ Division.lyLoaded Piles in Sand.C. and Idriss. No. (1976). (1959).C. M. pp.J.” 6th Annual Offshore Technology Conference. of Soil Liquefaction: Niigata Earthquake. . California. Vol. Hudson.” Lateral Pile Behaviour Under Earthquake Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Loading. . N.May 1967. SM9.” Journal of the Mechanics and Foundations Division.” Accepted No. Engineering Mechanics Division. ASCE. OTC 3310. . 95. Inc. (1971). Englewood Cliffs. (1967).. N. Pasadena.M. No. 20.. “Volume pp. 99-137. pp. of Sail Conditions on Ground Motions During 15.R. Vol.L. May 1978. “Influence June 19-21. Houston. Proc. Seed. Paper 2094.. Silver. pp. Newmark. Bolton and Idriss. I. 97.”. “Analysis Cheang.B. July 1959.C. Lino C. ASCE. and Foundations Division..—— .” Paper accepted for Proceedings.. for publication in the 1978 Offshore Techno.M. SM9. I. Foo. Pile Coupling Under Seismic Loading. September 1971. Vol. (1978a). Reese. 21. and Idrisa. 83-108. and Seed. Vol. H. H. Lino C. logy Conference.. Conference. 1976 Offshore Technology Texas.B.M. “Simulation of. David M. Proc. 97. 85.” Journal of the Soil Mechanics Cheang. Seed. Proc. and Earthquakes. Paper Prentice-lkil. L. Stephen H. Vol. 1978.B. Texas. Matlock. 93. Hudson. “A Method of Computation Liquefaction Potential. Proc. (1978b).. 1249-1273. 1971.C.1. pp. — . Fig. Newmark. “Examples of Soil. 14. Stephen H. Seed. OTC 2672.M. ASCE. (1971).M. 22. and Koop. Houston. “Effects of Pile- 18. Cox. H.— II FREE-FIELD ANALYSIS INERTIAL MOMENTS M(t) ANO SHEAR FORCES FROM STRUCTURE n. 162-163. EM3.D. Changes in Sands During Cyclic Loading. Paper 6347. “Simplified Procedure for Evaluating Soil 16. No.Soil pile platform interaction model for earthquake loading. No. ASCE. Division. Paper ASCE Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics 5233.” of a Seismically Excited Offshore Structure. (1974). 23. 1171-1182. 8354. Conference and Exhibit. Proceedings. W. H. (1971). and 19. and Rosenblueth.Qualitative description of pile-soil interaction under seismic loads. Stockard. 67-94. pp. ASCE. Texas. Soil-Water Interaction on the Dynamic Response “Analysis of Latexal. F. 1 .

.Distribution of pore-water pressure at 4 see.. Gmx(KSF) 0’ -1000 2000 3000 0 ?:. ..Modulus damping relationships used for .>. ....::. . ..7.:.. 0 ....... REDISTRIBUTION ONLY \ “. ..”.) POR Fig. . \ EFFECTIVE STRESS NO REDISTRIBUTION WITH DRAINAGE REDISTRIBUTION ONLY I I 2 3 4 5 6 7 1000 00 TIME (SEC. 20 —’ 20 + 1- k 40 – k 40 ? : a sand k k! 0 0 60 – 60 80 — -— 80 .”......3 A 2973PSF ‘4 1 I I I f 1 Ill 10 I I I I I I Ill 100 I I I I 1111 1000 CYCLES TO LIQUEFACTION Fig. 5 . 100 %%’3%%? Fig. WITH ORAINAGE “’”+. 4 .4 VW’ I 0 782PSF -0 b’ O [720PSF 2 0.Pore-water pressure response at 35 ft..:... ‘“.00 :::: : . .”’ . ...-\ . . .. ..>% EFFECTIVE STRESS ‘“”+. 3 .Cyclic strength curves used for liquefaction analysis. Fig.Soil profile used for response analysis. ‘.. .. .. 0... ..6. “. — NO REDISTRIBUTION “.. Fig. dynamic response analysis. ----.: :..

0.. 60 — EFFECTIVE STRESS ““.:* .05 – + IL . \ “.05 – = 0.. I . AT THE SURFACE 0.10– I I I I 7“ I I I I w I I 1 I I I I I I w x c) 0123456 78910 w 01234567 8910 G AT DEPTH OF 35FT.[0 – .02 0..05 – TOTAL STRESS z x -0.. ~.05 –- 0.)5 Fig. i. 12 .. . wth pore-water pressure distribution twt no surface drainage.08 — .. -0..: TOTAL STRESS -0.05 – o A -0.... // —— TOTAL STRESS . AT THE SURFACE AT THE SURFACE 0... ‘..10— I w I I I I I I I I w 0123456 7891Q c> 2 AT DEPTH OF 35FT. I I I I ‘%. 100 -0. 0. .”3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 ) TIME (SEC. . 80 — . -0. I / — NO REDISTRIBUTION \& ‘“”... WITH DRAINAGE 20 – :— \ I i.: (n 0. d. ....16 – -0. \.08 – -0 o 4 1- L i- U.... “-.10 – EFFECTIVE STRESS 0. —– .. : 0.. ...06 DISPLACE MEN T(FT) I 2 3 6.. 11 .05 – -0..) Fig. I . A u : Q.10 E 0. ..-..08 – -“”’oo~ 1234 7891C 01234567 I I I I I J I I 8910 J I TI ME? SEC!) TIME(SEC.08 — A o —-A -0..04 -0.JO – A ~/EFFECTIVE STRESS 0. : 0..06 -0. 9 .04 0.? ---. .. ‘0. / ~ 40 — “\ ‘. i I . .. WITH DRAINAGE y “. .Comparison of displacement from total and effective stress analysis without pore-water pressure redistribution. o’6~ 0. 8 . I — NO REDISTRIBUTION \. .) Fig.Comparison of displacement from totaland Fig. RE01STR18u T10N0NLy .Displacements at surface and 35 ft. /..C o i “\. .16 – z ..7 8 Fig. TIM:( SEC..Degradation of shear modulus with time of shaking... -0.10– I I I I I I I I I 01 2.05 – i.. EFFECTIVE STRESS !.---. ... .Distribution of displacement at 4 sec.6 – z . 10 .02 0.05 – TOTAL STRESS z + _o. v AT DEPTH OF 35 FT.. depth effective stress analysis with surface drainage.

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