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# 1.

Speed, Time and Distance:
Distance Distance
Speed = , Time = , Distance = (Speed x Time).
Time Speed
2. km/hr to m/sec conversion:
5
x km/hr = xx m/sec.
18
3. m/sec to km/hr conversion:
18
x m/sec = xx km/hr.
5
4. If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is a : b, then the ratio of the
1 1
the times taken by then to cover the same distance is : or b : a.
a b
5. Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x km/hr and an equal distance at y km/hr. Then,
2xy
the average speed during the whole journey is km/hr.
x+y
1. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a pole or standing man or a signal post is
equal to the time taken by the train to cover lmetres.
2. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a stationery object of length b metres is the
time taken by the train to cover (l + b) metres.
3. Suppose two trains or two objects bodies are moving in the same direction at u m/s
and v m/s, where u > v, then their relative speed is = (u - v) m/s.
4. Suppose two trains or two objects bodies are moving in opposite directions at u m/s
and v m/s, then their relative speed is = (u + v) m/s.
5. If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in opposite directions at u m/s
and v m/s, then:
(a + b)
The time taken by the trains to cross each other = sec.
(u + v)
6. If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in the same direction at u m/s
and v m/s, then:
(a + b)
The time taken by the faster train to cross the slower train = sec.
(u - v)
7. If two trains (or bodies) start at the same time from points A and B towards each other and
after crossing they take a and b sec in reaching B and A respectively, then:
(A's speed) : (B's speed) = (b : a)
1. Principal:
The money borrowed or lent out for a certain period is called the principal or the sum.
2. Interest:
Extra money paid for using other's money is called interest.
3. Simple Interest (S.I.):
If the interest on a sum borrowed for certain period is reckoned uniformly, then it is called simple
interest.
Let Principal = P, Rate = R% per annum (p.a.) and Time = T years. Then
PxRxT
(i). Simple Intereest =
100
100 x S.I. 100 x S.I. 100 x S.I.
(ii). P = ;R= and T = .
RxT PxT PxR
Cost Price:
The price, at which an article is purchased, is called its cost price, abbreviated as C.P.
Selling Price:
The price, at which an article is sold, is called its selling prices, abbreviated as S.P.

P. Profit and loss If selling price is more than cost price. = 135% of C. loss occurs.. Gain Percentage: (Gain %) Gain x 100 Gain % = C. 10 10 13. is greater than C.P.P.P.P. Cost Price: (C.P.) 2. Cost Price: (C.) 3. Gain = (S.P. = 65% of C.) (100 + Gain %) SP = x C. Cost price and selling price Cost price (CP) is the price at which an article is purchased.P. IMPORTANT FORMULAE 1.P. 12. and the other at a loss of x %.Profit and Loss1. Selling Price: (S.Loss %) SP = x C. the seller is said to have incurred a loss.) .P. Profit or Gain: If S.P. 6. Gain % = (True Value) .P. In case of profit.P.(C. If an article is sold at a gain of say 35%. (100 .P. profit(gain) occurs.) . Loss or gain is always reckoned on C.P. When a person sells two similar items.) 100 C.P. 35% then S. is less than C.P. (100 + Gain %) 9..P. 2. = x S.) (100 . If an article is sold at a loss of say. then Error %. Loss: If S.) 100 C. 4. then the seller always incurs a loss given by: Common Loss and Gain % 2 x 2 Loss % = = . 100 8. Loss Percentage: (Loss %) Loss x 100 Loss % = C.P. one at a gain of say x%. Selling price (SP) is the price at which an article is sold. then S.P.(Error) x 100 Important Formulas (Part 1) .P 100 7.P. 5.P.(S. Loss = (C. If a trader professes to sell his goods at cost price.P. = x S. . the seller is said to have a profit or gain.Loss %) 10. If selling price is less than cost price. 11.P. but uses false weights. Selling Price: (S.

profit percentage=profit×100cost priceprofit percentage=profit×100cost price selling price=cost price+cost price×profit percentage100=cost price(100+profit percentage)100selling price=cost price+cost price×profit percentage100=cost price(100+profit percentage)100 cost price=100×selling price100+profit percentagecost price=100×selling price100+profit percentage Example: If an object is sold at a profit of 20%.selling price selling price = cost price .20%. loss percentage=loss×100cost priceloss percentage=loss×100cost price selling price=cost price−cost price×loss percentage100=cost price(100−loss percentage)100selling price=cost price−cost price×loss percentage100=cost price(100−loss percentage)100 cost price=100×selling price100−loss percentagecost price=100×selling price100−loss percentage . selling price =120%=120% of cost price In case of loss. Profit percentage and loss percentage Profit percentage and loss percentage are always calculated on cost price unless otherwise stated.profit = selling price – cost price selling price = cost price + profit cost price = selling price . In case of profit.loss cost price = selling price + loss 3. loss = cost price .profit In case of loss.

(b) If the formula evaluates to a -ve value. there is a net profit percentage of 20%20% Example 2: Two objects are sold at the same price.e. one at a profit of 40%40% and another at a loss of 16%16%. Then he always incurs a net loss . 100(40−16)+2×40×(−16)200+40−16=5%100(40−16)+2×40×(−16)200+ 40−16=5% i.e..x%. there is a net profit percentage of 5%5% Example 3: Two objects are sold at the same price. one at a loss of 10%10% and another at a loss of 28%28%.2) %x% and another at a loss of x%. there is a net loss percentage of 10%10% Example 4: Two objects are sold at the same price. 100(−10−28)+2×(−10)×(−28)200−10−28=−20%100(−10−28)+2×(−10 )×(−28)200−10−28=−20% i. 100(20−28)+2×20×(−28)200+20−28=−10%100(20−28)+2×20×(−28)2 00+20−28=−10% i.e.x2%. use -sign for x1x1 and/or x2x2 as applicable. one at a profit of x (4. Then. one at a profit of x1%x1% and another at a profit of x2%.. Then.e. one at a profit of 10%10% and another at a profit of 32%32%..1) Suppose a person sells two objects at the same price. Selling at same price (4. Then.Example: If an object is sold at a loss of 20%20% selling price =80%=80% of cost price 4. 100(10+32)+2×10×32200+10+32=20%100(10+32)+2×10×32200+10+3 2=20% i. it means there is a net loss View Proof Example 1: Two objects are sold at the same price.. net profit percentage =100(x1+x2)+2x1x2200+x1+x2=100(x1+x2)+2x1x2200+x1+x2 Note: (a) for loss. there is a net loss percentage of 20%20% Suppose a trader sells two objects at the same price. Then. Then. one at a profit of 20%20% and another at a loss of 28%28%.

View Proof Example 1: 99 books are purchased for Rs. Find profit/loss percent. there is a profit of 50%50% Example 2: If cost price of 2020 apples is equal to selling price of 2525 apples. 17Rs.84%=(2210)2=4. Then.. 17. it means there is a loss. 11Rs. 17. (9×1715×11−1)100=−8011%=−7311%(9×1715×11−1)100=−8011%=−731 . it means there is a loss. one at a loss of 22%22% and another at a loss of 22%22%. Find profit/loss percent. profit percentage =(m1n2m2n1−1)100=(m1n2m2n1−1)100 Note: If the formula evaluates to a -ve value. 10Rs. 17Rs.e. net profit percent =2%=2% Example 2: 99 books are purchased for Rs. what is the profit/loss percentage? (15−10)10010=50%(15−10)10010=50% i. 11 and 1515 books are sold for Rs. net loss percentage =(2210)2=4. (9×1715×10−1)100=2%(9×1715×10−1)100=2% i.If cost price of xx articles is same as selling price of yy articles..e.e.A trader purchases m1m1 articles for n1n1 and sells m2m2 articles for n2n2 Then.84% Important Formulas (Part 3) .expressed as net loss percentage =(x10)2=(x10)2 View Proof Example: Two objects are sold at the same price. there is a loss of 20%20% 2.Profit and Loss 1. 10 and 1515 books are sold for Rs.. profit percentage =(x−y)100y=(x−y)100y Note: If the formula evaluates to a -ve value. View Proof Example 1: If cost price of 1515 apples is equal to selling price of 1010 apples. what is the profit/loss percentage? (20−25)10025=−20%(20−25)10025=−20% i.

(11×1110×10−1)100=21%(11×1110×10−1)100=21% i. 1600=4100(100−20)200+25−20=Rs. net loss percent =7311%=7311% Example 3: 1111 books are purchased for Rs.250 0 cost price of the cycle which was sold at profit =4100(100−20)200+25−20=Rs. A sells an object to B at a profit of y1%.y2y1. If both the cycles are sold at the same price. he sells one at a loss of 20%20% and other at a gain of 25%. 10 and 1010 books are sold for Rs.1% i. Find profit/loss percent. View Proof Example 1: Kiran sells a book to Rahul at a gain of 10%10% and Rahul agains . then cost price of the article which was sold in profit =x(100−l)200+p−l=x(100−l)200+p−l cost price of the article which was sold in loss =x(100+p)200+p−l=x(100+p)200+p−l View Proof Example John purchases two cycles for Rs. Then.25%. 11Rs.Rs. 11. net profit percent =21%=21% 3. 10Rs. cost price of Dcost price of D =cost price of A(100+y1100)=cost price of A(100+y1100) (100+y2100)(100+y3100)(100+y2100)(100+y3100) Note: for loss. 4100. 4100. If each item was sold at the same price.A person buys two articles for x. B sells it to C at a profit of y2%y2% and C sells it to D at a profit of y3%y3%.x. 160 0 (or alternatively. 4100−2500=16004100−2500=1600) 1.2500=4100(100+25)200+25−20= Rs. find the cost price of each cycle.. use -sign for y1. He sells one at a profit of p%p% and the other at a loss of l%l%.. cost price of the cycle which was sold at loss =4100(100+25)200+25−20= Rs.e.y2 and/or y3y3 as applicable.y1%.e.

20%.sells it to Justin at a gain of 15%15%. Hide Proof Suppose he purchases nn objects of each type and sells the 2n2n objects. Cost price of nn objects of first type =nx=nx Cost price of nn objects of second type =ny=ny Total cost price =nx+ny=nx+ny Total selling price =2nz=2nz profit percentage =[2nz−(nx+ny)]100nx+ny=[2z−(1x+1y)]1001x+1y=⎛⎜ ⎜ ⎜⎝2z1x+1y−1⎞⎟ ⎟ ⎟⎠100=(2xyyz+xz−1)100=[2xyz(x+y)−1]100=[2nz− (nx+ny)]100nx+ny=[2z−(1x+1y)]1001x+1y=(2z1x+1y−1)100=(2xyyz+xz−1)100=[ 2xyz(x+y)−1]100 .1320Rs. profit percentage =[2xyz(x+y)−1]100=[2xyz(x+y)−1]100 Note: If the formula evaluates to a -ve value. it means there is a loss. He again purchases the same number of objects at yy objects for a rupee.A trader purchases a certain number of objects at xx objects for a rupee. what is the cost price of the book for Kiran? Cost price for Kiran ×(110100)(115100)=253×(110100)(115100)=253 ⇒⇒ Cost price for Kiran =200=200 Example 2: Kiran sells a book to Rahul at a gain of 10%10%.253Rs.1320 to Justin. If Manju pays Rs. Rahul sells it to Justin at a loss of 25%25% and Justin agains sells it to Manju at a loss of 20%. what is the cost price of the book for Kiran? Cost price for Kiran ×(110100)(75100)(80100)=1320×(110100)(75100) (80100)=1320 ⇒⇒ Cost price for Kiran =2000=2000 2.253 to Rahul. If Justin pays Rs. He mixes them and sells each at zz objects for a rupee. Then.

f=80f=80 and t−f=20t−f=20 ... 100(1000−800)−1000×15800=614%100(1000−800)−1000×15800=614% i.x%. Let t=100. Then. Let t=100.t=100. it means there is a net loss View Proof Example 1: A trader sells his goods at 20%20% profit. Then. Find his overall profit/loss percentage. required profit percentage =40%=40% Example 5: A trader sells his goods at 10%10% loss.e. He uses a weight of 450450 gm instead of 500500 gm. Find his overall profit/loss percentage. He uses a weight of 450450 gm instead of 500500 gm. Find his overall profit/loss percentage. net profit percentage =100(t−f)+txf=100(t−f)+txf Note: (a) for loss. Using false weights (1. 100(500−450)+500×20450=3313%100(500−450)+500×20450=3313% i. 100(500−450)−500×25450=−1623%100(500−450)−500×25450=−1623% i. required profit percentage =614%=614% Example 4: A trader sells his goods at 5%5% profit. Find his overall profit/loss percentage.e.e. he gains the same amount. a person loses a certain amount. If the article is sold at a price of s2s2. He uses a weight of 800800 gm instead of 11 kg.1) If a trader uses faulty measure of ff units instead of tt units and sells his goods at a profit of x%. cost price=s1+s22 1.e.s1..t=100. required loss percentage =1623%=1623% Example 3: A trader sells his goods at 15%15% loss. required profit percentage =3313%=3313% Example 2: A trader sells his goods at 25%25% loss. He uses 20%20% less weight. Then.. use -sign for xx (b) If the formula evaluates to a -ve value. f=75f=75 and t−f=25t−f=25 100×25+100×575=1212%=40100×25+100×575=1212%=40 i.If an article is sold at a price of s1. He uses 25%25% less weight.3. Find his overall profit/loss percentage.

its area is increased by (x2100+2x) %(x2100+2x)% .t=100. Find his overall profit/loss percentage. but professes to sell his goods at cost price. its area is increased by (x2100+2x)%(x2100+2x)% If radius of a circle is increased by x%x%. f=80f=80 and t−f=20t−f=20 100×2080=25%100×2080=25% i..e.100×20−100×1080=1212%100×20−100×1080=1212% i. But he uses a weight of 9595 gm instead of 100100 gm.. required profit percentage =5519%=5519% Example 2: A trader professes to sell his goods at cost price. But he uses 20%20% less weight.e. Find his overall profit/loss percentage.. He uses 25%25% less weight. required loss percentage =20%=20% (1.e.t=100. it means there is a net loss View Proof Example 1: A trader professes to sell his goods at cost price.e. Let t=100. 100(100−95)95=5519%100(100−95)95=5519% i. Then. required profit percentage =25%=25% If each of side of a rectangle or any two dimensional shape is increased by x%x %. f=75f=75 and t−f=25t−f=25 100×25−100×4075=−20%100×25−100×4075=−20% i.. Then. net profit percentage =100(t−f)f=100(t−f)f Note: If the formula evaluates to a -ve value.2) If a trader uses faulty measure of ff units instead of tt units. Let t=100. required profit percentage =1212%=1212% Example 6: A trader sells his goods at 40%40% loss. Find his overall profit/loss percentage.

what is the percentage increase in its area? Circumference of the circle is increased by 50%50%. radius. . each side is increased by 100% 100% (because each side is doubled) percentage increase in its area =(1002100+2×100)%=300%(1002100+2×100)%=300% Example 22 If circumference of a circle is increased by 50%50%.  Centroid divides each median into segments with a 2:12:1 ratio  Area of a triangle formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of a given triangle is one-fourth of the area of the given triangle. Example 11 If each side of a triangle is doubled.  Centroid is the point where the three medians of a triangle meet.  The line joining the midpoint of a side of a triangle to the positive vertex is called the median.  The median of a triangle divides the triangle into two triangles with equal areas. Since circumference of the circle is 2πr2πr. what is the percentage increase in its area? Here. rr is increased by 50%50%. percentage increase in its area =(502100+2×50)%=125% Important properties of Geometric ShapesProperties of Triangle  Sum of the angles of a triangle =180°=180°  Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.  An equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are equal.

 opposite sides of a rectangle are parallel. Square  All four sides of a square are congruent.  The diagonals of a square bisect each other at right angles.  All angles of a square are 9090 degrees.  opposite sides of a rectangle are congruent.  The diagonals of a square are equal.  Opposite sides of a square are parallel. Properties of QuadrilateralsRectangle  The diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other.  opposite angles of a rectangle are congruent.  In isosceles triangle. Parallelogram  The opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal in length.  The opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent (equal measure). all three internal angles are congruent to each other.  In an equilateral triangle.  All four angles of a rectangle are right angles. all three internal angles are each 60°60°  An isosceles triangle is a triangle with (at least) two equal sides. . In an equilateral triangle.  The diagonals of a rectangle are congruent.  A square is a special kind of rectangle where all the sides have equal length. altitude from vertex bisects the base.

area of the square will be greater than area of the rhombus (In the special case when each angle of the rhombus is 90°90°.  Of all the parallelogram of given sides. the angle between the two . the sum of their angles =180°=180° (equal in size). Angle between hands of a clock When the minute hand is behind the hour hand. the parallelogram which is a rectangle has the greatest area.  A square is a rhombus and a rectangle.  If each angle of a rhombus is 90°. it is a square.  The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles. rhombus is also a square and therefore areas will be equal).  Opposite internal angles of a rhombus are congruent (equal in size).  Any two consecutive internal angles of a rhombus are supplementary.  A parallelogram and a rectangle on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. i. More Properties of Quadrilaterals  Sum of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is 360360 degrees.90°. Rhombus  All the sides of a rhombus are congruent.  Opposite sides of a rhombus are parallel.e.  Each diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of the same area. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.  Each diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of the same area.  If a square and a rhombus lie on the same base.

the angle between the two hands at MM minutes past HH 'o clock =30(M5−H)−M2 degree=30(M5−H)−M2 degree The two hands of a clock will be in the same straight line but not together between HH and (H+1)(H+1) o' clock at ⎩(5H−30)1211 minutes past H. when H<6 .hands at MM minutes past HH 'o clock =30(H−M5)+M2=30(H−M5)+M2 degree When the minute hand is ahead of the hour hand. when H>6 (5H+30)1211 minutes past H. when H>6 (5H+30)1211 minutes past H. when H<6{(5H−30)1211 minutes past H.