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Growth of ESP
What is ESP
The origin of ESP
Key notions about ESP
Characteristics of ESP
Types of ESP
How general English is different from ESP
Need analysis
Principles of need analysis
Vocabulary word

Growth of ESP:

From the early 1960's, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has
grown to become one of the most prominent areas of EFL teaching today.
Its development is reflected in the increasing number of universities
offering an MA in ESP (e.g. The University of Birmingham, and Aston
University in the UK) and in the number of ESP courses offered to
overseas students in English speaking countries. There is now a well-

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established international journal dedicated to ESP discussion, "English for
Specific Purposes: An international journal", and the ESP SIG groups of
the IATEFL and TESOL are always active at their national conferences.
In Japan too, the ESP movement has shown a slow but definite
growth over the past few years. In particular, increased interest has been
spurred as a result of the Mombusho's decision in 1994 to largely hand
over control of university curriculums to the universities themselves. This
has led to a rapid growth in English courses aimed at specific disciplines,
e.g. English for Chemists, in place of the more traditional 'General English'
courses. The ESP community in Japan has also become more defined,
with the JACET ESP SIG set up in 1996 (currently with 28 members) and
the JALT N-SIG to be formed shortly. Finally, on November 8th this year
the ESP community came together as a whole at the first Japan
Conference on English for Specific Purposes, held on the campus of Aizu
University, Fukushima Prefecture.

What is ESP?

As described above, ESP has had a relatively long time to mature and so
we would expect the ESP community to have a clear idea about what ESP
means. Strangely, however, this does not seem to be the case. At the
Japan Conference on ESP also, clear differences in how people
interpreted the meaning of ESP could be seen. Some people described
ESP as simply being the teaching of English for any purpose that could be
specified. Others, however, were more precise, describing it as the
teaching of English used in academic studies or the teaching of English for
vocational or professional purposes.
At the conference, guests were honored to have as the main
speaker, Tony Dudley-Evans, co-editor of the ESP Journal mentioned
above. Very aware of the current confusion amongst the ESP community
in Japan, Dudley-Evans set out in his one hour speech to clarify the

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lexis. Adeel Raza Page 3 . in particular.. a different methodology from that of General English 3. ESP may use. The division of ESP into absolute and variable characteristics. ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learners 2. study skills. register. either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. Variable Characteristics 1. This is a similar conclusion to that made by Hutchinson et al. although he has improved it substantially by removing the absolute characteristic that ESP is "in contrast with 'General English'" (Johns et al. ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students. giving an extended definition of ESP in terms of 'absolute' and 'variable' characteristics (see below). It could. Absolute Characteristics 1. is very helpful in resolving arguments about what is and is not ESP. we can see that ESP can but is not necessarily concerned with a specific discipline. nor does it have to be aimed at a certain age group or ability range. Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language systems The definition Dudley-Evans offers is clearly influenced by that of Strevens (1988). be for learners at secondary school level 4. From the definition. however. 5. discourse and genre. ESP makes use of underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves 3.meaning of ESP. 1991: 298). ESP is centered on the language appropriate to these activities in terms of grammar. ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners. in specific teaching situations. "ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner's reason for learning. ESP should be seen simple as an 'approach' to teaching. and has included more variable characteristics. (1987:19) who state. or what Dudley-Evans describes as an 'attitude of mind'. ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines 2.

If language in different situations varies. This idea was taken one step farther. most notably the economic power of the United States in the post-war world. In other words. Whereas traditional linguists set out to describe the features of language. Notably. given the particular context in which English is used.. Second. Selinker and Trimble as a few of the prominent descriptive EST pioneers. revolutionary pioneers in linguistics began to focus on the ways in which language is used in real communication. needs and demands of people other than language teachers (Hutchinson & Waters. The final reason Hutchinson and Waters (1987) cite as having influenced the emergence of ESP has less to do with linguistics and everything to do Adeel Raza Page 4 . Hutchinson and Waters (1987) note those two key historical periods breathed life into ESP. a great deal about the origins of ESP could be written. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) identify Ewer and Laborer. in the late 1960s and the early 1970s there were many attempts to describe English for Science and Technology (EST). the variant of English will change. age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific. p. 1987).The origin of ESP: Certainly. The general effect of all this development was to exert pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods. Swales. Whereas English had previously decided its own destiny. the end of the Second World War brought with it an " . Hutchinson and Waters (1987) point out that one significant discovery was in the ways that spoken and written English vary. it now became subject to the wishes.. and focus on the learner (Hutchinson & Waters. technical and economic activity on an international scale · for various reasons. 1987. 6). Hence. The language of this knowledge became English. then tailoring language instruction to meet the needs of learners in specific contexts is also possible. First. a revolution in linguistics. the Oil Crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-rich countries. there are three reasons common to the emergence of all ESP: the demands of a Brave New World. the role [of international language] fell to English" (p. The second key reason cited as having a tremendous impact on the emergence of ESP was a revolution in linguistics.7).

use different skills. and analysis of this discourse. theorists Dudley-Evans and St John (1998) modified Strevens' original definition of ESP to form their own. more attention was given to the ways in which learners acquire language and the differences in the ways language is acquired.  related in content (i. Absolute and Variable Characteristics of ESP Ten years later. Therefore. the catchword in ESL circles is learner-centered or learning-centered. He defined ESP by identifying its absolute and variable characteristics. c) characteristics of ESP courses.. in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines. and d) the meaning of the word 'special' in ESP. focus on the learners' needs became equally paramount as the methods employed to disseminate linguistic knowledge.psychology. four key notions will be discussed. Key Notions About ESP In this discussion. etc. lexis. Adeel Raza Page 5 . enter with different learning schemata. Rather than simply focus on the method of language delivery. b) types of ESP. semantics. To this day. Absolute characteristics: ESP consists of English language teaching which is:  designed to meet specified needs of the learner.  In contrast with General English.e. Designing specific courses to better meet these individual needs was a natural extension of this thinking. They are as follows: a) the distinctions between the absolute and variable characteristics of ESP. occupations and activities. Let us begin with Strevens.  centered on the language appropriate to those activities in syntax. Strevens' (1988) definition makes a distinction between four absolute and two variable characteristics: I. Learners were seen to employ different learning strategies. and be motivated by different needs and interests. discourse.

but is not necessarily:  restricted as to the language skills to be learned (e. skills. Variable Characteristics  ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines. It could. Adeel Raza Page 6 . Absolute Characteristics  ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner.g. and register). be for learners at secondary school level. 4-5). however. Anthony (1997) notes that there has been considerable recent debate about what ESP means despite the fact that it is an approach which has been widely used over the last three decades.1-2). At a 1997 Japan Conference on ESP.  ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves.  ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners. II. reading only).II. John postulate is as follows: I. Variable characteristics: ESP may be.  Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system. either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation.  Not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology (pp. Dudley-Evans offered a modified definition.  ESP may use. lexis. pp.  ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students. in specific teaching situations.  ESP is centered on the language (grammar. a different methodology from that of general English. but it can be used with beginners (1998. discourse and genres appropriate to these activities. The revised definition he and St.

such restricted repertoires are not languages. Anthony (1997) notes that. ESP is likely to be used with adult learners although it could be used with young adults in a secondary school setting. As for a broader definition of ESP. it is not clear where ESP courses end and general English courses begin. the language of international air-traffic control could be regarded as 'special'. Furthermore. or in contexts outside the vocational environment.. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) theorize. The second type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. Knowing a restricted 'language' would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in novel situation. "ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner's reason for learning" (p. The language used by air traffic controllers or by waiters are examples of English as a restricted language. just as a tourist phrase book is not grammar. Types of ESP David Carter (1983) identifies three types of ESP:  English as a restricted language  English for Academic and Occupational Purposes  English with specific topics. in the sense that the repertoire required by the controller is strictly limited and can be accurately determined situation ally. In the 'Tree of ELT' (Hutchinson & Adeel Raza Page 7 .. They assert that ESP is not necessarily related to a specific discipline.Dudley-Evans and St. However. Mackay and Mountford (1978) clearly illustrate the difference between restricted language and language with this statement: . numerous non-specialist ESL instructors use an ESP approach in that their syllabi are based on analysis of learner needs and their own personal specialist knowledge of using English for real communication. as might be the linguistic needs of a dining-room waiter or air-hostess. 19). John have removed the absolute characteristic that 'ESP is in contrast with General English' and added more variable characteristics.

b) purpose-related orientation. This type of ESP is uniquely concerned with anticipated future English needs of. An example of EOP for the EST branch is 'English for Technicians' whereas an example of EAP for the EST branch is 'English for Medical Studies'. However. Perhaps this explains Carter's rationale for categorizing EAP and EOP under the same type of ESP. and c) English for Social Studies (ESS). b) English for Business and Economics (EBE). attending conferences or working in foreign institutions. Rather it is an integral component of ESP courses or programs which focus on situational language. This situational language has been determined based on the interpretation of results from needs analysis of authentic language used in target workplace settings. I argue that this is not a separate type of ESP. the means taken to achieve the end is very different indeed. it is also likely that in many cases the language learnt for immediate use in a study environment will be used later when the student takes up. Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches: English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). scientists requiring English for postgraduate reading studies. for example. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) do note that there is not a clear-cut distinction between EAP and EOP: "· people can work and study simultaneously. He states that there are three features common to ESP courses: a) authentic material. ESP is broken down into three branches: a) English for Science and Technology (EST). I contend that EAP and EOP are different in terms of focus on Cummins' (1979) notions of cognitive academic proficiency versus basic interpersonal skills. or returns to. Carter notes that it is only here where emphasis shifts from purpose to topic. However. despite the end purpose being identical. Adeel Raza Page 8 . 16).Waters. This is examined in further detail below. and c) self- direction. 1987). a job" (p. It appears that Carter is implying that the end purpose of both EAP and EOP are one in the same: employment. The third and final type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English with specific topics. Characteristics of ESP Courses The characteristics of ESP courses identified by Carter (1983) are discussed here.

Carter (1983) cites student simulation of a conference. The students were encouraged to conduct research using a variety of different resources. and then employed their newly acquired skills during a fieldtrip to a local community centre where they were partnered up with English-speaking residents.. involving the preparation of papers.If we revisit Dudley-Evans' (1997) claim that ESP should be offered at an intermediate or advanced level. suffice it to say at this juncture that use of authentic content materials. The Meaning of the Word 'Special' in ESP One simple clarification will be made here: special language and specialized aim are two entirely different notions. including market research. a large component of the student evaluation was based on an independent study assignment in which the learners were required to investigate and present an area of interest. such as listening with empathy. self-direction is characteristic of ESP courses in that the “. though. 1983. Carter (1983) also adds that there must be a systematic attempt by teachers to teach the learners how to learn by teaching them about learning strategies. is that ESP is concerned with turning learners into users" (Carter. English for business courses have involved students in the design and presentation of a unique business venture. The students have presented all final products to invited ESL classes during a poster presentation session. p. They practiced listening skills. and how they will study. In order for self-direction to occur. pamphlets and logo creation. are indeed a feature of ESP. It was Perren (1974) who Adeel Raza Page 9 . point of including self-direction . and writing. Rather. students attended a seminar on improving your listening skills.. to teach high-ability learners such as those enrolled in the health science program about learning strategies? I argue that it is not. the learners must have a certain degree of freedom to decide when. Finally. Is it necessary. note taking.. Closer examination of ESP materials will follow. including the Internet. use of authentic learning materials is entirely feasible. particularly in self- directed study and research tasks. For Language Preparation for Employment in the Health Sciences. For our health science program. what. what is essential for these learners is learning how to access information in a new culture.. At Algonquin College. modified or unmodified in form. reading. Purpose-related orientation refers to the simulation of communicative tasks required of the target setting. 134).

researchers and teachers. On the other hand. Linguists. and to highlight the role and importance of English for the undergraduate students in Pakistani institutions. Consequently. students. not the nature of the language they learn (Mackay & Mountford. publishers in the context of English Language Teaching (ELT). The present context of globalization has multiple effects on the lives of people across the globe. we can better understand the idea of a special language.noted that confusion arises over these two notions. teaching and using English cannot be understated. textbook writers. 1978). (ii) English has many varieties (iii) English is the language for research. the focus of the word 'special' in ESP ought to be on the purpose for which learners learn and not on the specific jargon or registers they learn. 4). Mackay and Mountford (1978) state: The only practical way in which we can understand the notion of special language is as a restricted repertoire of words and expressions selected from the whole language because that restricted repertoire covers every requirement within a well-defined context. teachers and others need to have greater clarity about the nomenclatures used in regard to the teaching and learning of English. This article attempts to present the distinctions in the nomenclatures. Consequently. and (iv) Within the next decade there will be more non-native speakers of English than the native speakers (that is. If we revisit Mackay and Mountford's restricted repertoire. task or vocation (p. In addition to that. Why is English an international language? Adeel Raza Page 10 . trade and commerce. a specialized aim refers to the purpose for which learners learn a language. and higher education. those whose mother tongue is English). are all agreed that (i) English is an international language (EIL) and has to be taught as such. the role/importance of English at the undergraduate level of education in Pakistan cannot be minimized. And for all those countries where English is not the first language the significance of learning.

A noted Pakistani researcher. terms papers.. Dr Tariq Rahman mentioned in one his books (2000) that English is in demand by students. lectures.. until the early 2000 A.. critical reading. The CNN and BBC are in English . (and by Edge also in 2004). nearly 90 per cent of research articles (in most subjects) are in English. people with inadequate proficiency in English need to be taught to handle specific jobs.g. etc.. etc). Such a course includes the teaching of such skills as critical thinking. their parents and aspiring members of the salariat because it is the language of the elitist domains of power not only in Pakistan but also internationally. 80% of the electronically stored information is in English . English teachers would be required in Iraq to help with the reconstruction work by facilitating the policies that the tanks were sent to impose. Adeel Raza Page 11 .. As mentioned in an article by Hadley in 2004. announcements. increasing numbers of students take the IELTS and TOEFL exams each year in more than 110 countries . How ESP is different from general English? The most important difference lies in the learners and their purposes for learning English. USA being looked upon as a superpower was worth immolating in terms of its culture and language. It is an international language because it was considered to be the language of political. critical analysis. In some cases. participation in group discussions.. between 80 85% motion pictures are in English. In many contexts it has been felt that students require adequate English language skills in order for them to cope with the academic demands of their study programmed. the war itself created a lucrative opportunity for all those involved in the game of teaching and learning English. making oral presentations. He presented data from David Crystals 1997 book that One-third of the worlds newspapers are published in English dominant countries.. 180 nations have adopted the recommendations of the Civil Aviation Organization about English terminology .. economic and military power... reports. The Iraq war (2003) was looked upon by many people as an economic opportunity in more ways than one. One can add to it by saying that ESP concentrates more on language in context than on teaching grammar and language structures. Hence a course of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) is designed and taught to them.. Hence..D. listening for global and specific comprehension (e. It covers subjects varying from accounting or computer science to tourism and business management. talks. writing essays. In addition.

A Valuable Tool for Designing and Maintaining Effective ESP Curriculum Surveys are usually in the form of a questionnaire.g. ESP is often divided into EAP (English for Academic Purposes) and EOP (English for Occupational Purposes). or a share market analyst or a technical writer? While there will be some similarities in the use of common vocabulary there will be great dissimilarities in the way they use words. questionnaires. Such differences are mainly due to the types of communication they have to achieve which make different demands on their knowledge and skills in English. Thus professionals such as air traffic controllers.g. or social science or science and technology student would be exactly alike? Or would someone in the tourism industry have a similar manner of using English as an air traffic control. During this phase we'll also determine the best platform and operating system for satisfying your needs. A Adeel Raza Page 12 . These methods will include object methodology as it applies. However. and prototyping are some of the most successful methods. and brick-laying). English for doctors. Do you think the requirements for English of a medical. We use whatever it takes to ferret out the needs of you and your users. English for tourism.In such cases English is taught for specific purposes so that the concerned employees can perform their job requirements efficiently. or those who work in laboratories or in the mining / drilling /space stations often require knowledge of English that is very specific to the kind of work they are doing (English for Occupational Purposes). phrases. Learners in the ESP classes are usually adults who are generally aware of the purposes for which they will need to use English. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has a wide scope and superimposes other nomenclatures such as EOP and EAP. nursing. Needs Analysis: This is the requirements definition part of the problem. Interviews. lawyers) and vocational English (e. expressions in writing or speaking to get on with their jobs. Further sub-divisions of EOP are sometimes made into business English. aviation. An article on ESP available on the Internet says: ESP (English for Specific Purposes) course aims are determined by the needs of a specific group of learners. professional English (e.

e. administrative). personal library. making a note of the conversation and any action taken in response. If you take it a step further. This way. Analysis of statistics. monthly.). Informal interviews are often done as you greet people entering the library or check materials out. and/or managers annually to ask if the library. administrators. research. other library. the types of information sought (factual. gathering statistics on every aspect of their operations - circulation. records Libraries have always been faithful record keepers. in- depth. you've already initiated done a needs assessment. etc. is currently meeting their needs and how things could be better. administrator. for example. Formally. 2. nurse. reviews. Underlying Principles of Needs Analysis The following list gives the principles of Needs Analysis as originally defined. etc. Interviews: Interviews may be formal or informal. annually). you may visit department chairs. Analyze these records regularly to see what they tell you about the needs of your institution.  User’s need based requirements are complex and can conflict  User’s need based requirements build a bridge from the business case to the design  User’s need based requirements help to identify trade-offs that need to happen in the design process (i. and ask them if they have found what was needed. You probably already analyze interlibrary loan requests to determine titles to which you should subscribe. reference. acquisitions. clinical.). interlibrary loan. the frequency of the need (daily.comprehensive survey of the information needs of your institution would seek information on the types of information users (physician. not found. 3. Other surveys may be on a more narrow aspect of service. et c. consultation with colleague. where a design cannot resolve the user’s need based requirement conflicts) Adeel Raza Page 13 . and where the information is currently found (hospital library.

 Create test statements to validate the user’s need based requirements.  Formulate and ask questions to do with the business plan that provide an indication of the human aspects of the system. the concept and the implementation  Prior to freezing your design.  User’s need based requirements are there to unify the multi- disciplinary design team.  Ensure that all users’ need based requirements are derived as low level user requirements before being transposed into system requirements. including the relative merit of functionality. validate your user’s need based requirements with users  Accept that there still may be contradictory requirements  Understand the nuances of the requirements and ensure that these are reflected in the precise wording of the requirements  Keep asking your users until you have a true understanding of their requirements  Elegant design can only be created from understanding the nuances of the requirements Adeel Raza Page 14 .  Word your requirements precisely and ensure that you cover all categories of human-related requirements.  Cross-relate these requirements to each other and to the imp actors on the activity. enabling them to meet their business case.  Always express these findings from the user’s perspective.  Allocate sufficient time during the development process to check and validate your user’s need based requirements.

abyssal Relating to ocean depths from 2000 to 5000 meters 2. Vocabulary words: I have selected following vocabulary words related to the field of we ecology which is branch of biology which deals with the study of environment. alternative energy Energy derived from sources that do not use up natural resources or harm the environment 5. association A formal organization of people or groups of people 8. arboreal Of or relating to or formed by trees 7. 1. anthropogenic Of or relating to the study of the origins and development of human beings 6. aerial Existing or living or growing or operating in the air 3. alliance The state of being allied or confederated 4. bioclimatic Of or concerned with the relations of climate and living organisms Adeel Raza Page 15 .

colonize Settle as a colony. bionomics 1. 9. biodegradable Capable of being decomposed by e. of countries in the developing world 15. competition A business relation in which two parties compete to gain customers 17. the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment 13. climax The highest point of anything conceived of as growing or developing or unfolding 14. community A group of people living in a particular local area 16. biome A major biotic community characterized by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate 12.g. is usually caused by climate change or by destructive use of the land Adeel Raza Page 16 . biodiversity The diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole) 11. bacteria 10. desertification The gradual transformation of habitable land into desert.

ecosystem A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment 24. ecoterrorism violence carried out to further the political or social objectives of the environmentalists 25. disforest Remove the trees from 19. intolerant unwilling to tolerate difference of opinion Adeel Raza Page 17 . 18. ecology The environment as it relates to living organisms 23. dominance Superior development of one side of the body 22. ecotourism tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature 26. doe Mature female of mammals of which the male is called `buck' 21. dispersion Spreading widely or driving off 20. intertidal of or relating to the littoral area above the low-tide mark 27.

Overturn Adeel Raza Page 18 . Ordination The status of being ordained to a sacred office 37. litter the offspring at one birth of a multiparous mammal 32. most living organisms would perish 35. 28. often unethically. Nuclear winter A long period of darkness and extreme cold that scientists predict would follow a full-scale nuclear war. lentic of or relating to or living in still waters (as lakes or ponds) 30. Opportunistic Taking immediate advantage. of any circumstance of possible benefit 36. littoral of or relating to a coastal or shore region 33. lacustrine of or relating to or living near lakes 29. limnology The scientific study of bodies of fresh water for their biological and physical and geological properties 31. lotic of or relating to or living in actively moving water 34. a layer of dust and smoke in the atmosphere would cover the earth and block the rays of the sun.

Pyrogenic Produced by or producing fever 46. Timberline Adeel Raza Page 19 . Turn from an upright or normal position 38. Ozone layer A layer in the stratosphere (at approximately 20 miles) that contains a concentration of ozone sufficient to block most ultraviolet radiation from the sun 41. Provincialism A lack of sophistication 45. Ozone hole An area of the ozone layer (near the poles) that is seasonally depleted of ozone 40. Productivity The quality of being productive or having the power to produce 44. can be produced by electric discharge in oxygen or by the action of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen in the stratosphere (where it acts as a screen for ultraviolet radiation) 39. a strong oxidizing agent. Preservationist Someone who advocates the preservation of historical sites or endangered species or natural areas 43. Ozone A colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water. Ozonosphere A layer in the stratosphere 42.

Sublittoral Of or relating to the region of the continental shelf (between the seashore and the edge of the continental shelf) or the marine organisms situated there Lesson Plans: To teach these vocabulary words. Tolerant Showing respect for the rights or opinions or practices of others 49. Lesson plan 1: Name The Institution: Vista college of science & commerence Mailsi (Vehari) Number of the students: There were 12 students in the class. Trophic Of or relating to nutrition 50. These are. Class: Adeel Raza Page 20 . I have made two lesson plans. Tolerance The power or capacity of an organism to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions 48. Line marking the upper limit of tree growth in mountains or northern latitudes 47.

Bsc (zoology/ botony/ chemistry) Presentation: 25 vocabulary words related to ecology. their meanings and details Time Frame: Total time = 45 minutes i) Time for introduction and explanation of words = 35 minutes ii) Time for class discussion = 10 minutes Lesson plan 2: Name The Institution: Vista college of science & commerence Mailsi (Vehari) Number of the students: There were 12 students in the class. Class: Bsc (zoology/ botony/ chemistry) Presentation: Next 25 vocabulary words related to ecology. their meanings and details Time Frame: Total time = 60 minutes i) Time for introduction and explanation of words = 35 minutes ii) Time for class discussion = 10 minutes iii) Time for activity = 15 minutes Adeel Raza Page 21 .

Did you enjoy from these activities? 2. 1. Did you like my method of teaching? 5. Can ESP help you to improve your vocabulary related to your subjects? Conclusion: According to my conclusion if one is going to teach courses of English (or any other language for that matter) for specific purposes. one Should be clear just how the notions English (or language) and purpose Are to be defined. that these matters have been given the consideration they deserve. There has been a good deal of attention given to the description of areas of language use and the needs of learners. Did you like to learn these words? 3. I do not think. Is there should ESP in Pakistan’s institutions? 4. There are others who insist on the importance Of needs analysis without investigating the educational implications Adeel Raza Page 22 . and what exactly it means to be specific. Is there should ESP as a subject at graduation level in science classes? 6. There are those who talk of the lack of research in ESP as if this were simply a matter of amassing quantities of data about the superficial features of varieties of language use without enquiring into what the nature of language use might be. on the whole. but much less attention given to the crucial prior question of what exactly it is that is being described.Production: An activity based on short questions Feed back of the students: To check the feedback of the students I have asked following questions from them.

Adeel Raza Page 23 .Of such insistence.