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Thermal-Mechanical Testing of Single Stage Full

Tension “Swage” Type Connectors Installed on
ACSR Conductor
E. Khansa*, D. Stanton*, A. Maurice**, Z. Peter**
Affiliation: *DMC Power, **Kinectrics Inc.

Abstract - This paper presents the results of secondary compression cycle is performed over the outer
thermal-mechanical cycling test on Single Stage aluminum tube. In the late 1970s, single stage
“Swage Technology” full tension connectors installed connectors (SSC), or one die systems, were introduced
on 795 kcmil ACSR (Aluminum Conductor, Steel to the power delivery industry as a means of facilitating
Reinforced) “Drake” conductor. A total of eight (8) faster installation times. These connector designs
connector samples were thermally aged, in a utilized a collet which encapsulated the steel core of
laboratory environment, at a temperature of 150 °C bimetallic type ACSR conductor. The collet/conductor
while under a mechanical tension equal to 25% of the assembly was inserted into the aluminum connector tube
conductor’s Rated Tensile Strength (RTS). A total of and one (1) compression cycle with a fixed die is applied
four (4) connector samples were installed following to the outer aluminum tube. Images of SSC and
standard “Swage Technology” type connector conventional TSC dead-end connectors are shown in
installation procedure (i.e. without the application of Fig. 1.
inhibitor compound), while another four (4) samples
received the application of inhibitor compound prior
to installation. The collected test results show the
“Swage Technology” samples installed without
compound exhibited greater temperature stability
and significantly higher post aging mechanical
tension performance than samples installed with Two Stage Connector Single Stage Connector
compound. Analysis of the chemical composition of
both the aged and unaged inhibitor is presented in FIG. 1. TYPICAL TSC AND SSC SYSTEMS
addition to x-ray images of sample “Swage” type
connectors. Eliminating the compression cycle of the connector steel
sleeve directly on the ACSR steel strands was successful
Index of terms - swage connectors, single stage in reducing installation times.
connector, thermal aging, thermal-mechanical As transmission lines increased in length and economics
testing, tensile load test, inhibiting compound, drove conductor designs, the number of ACSR
contact resistance, high temperature. conductor sizes increased significantly. Multiple
conductor sizes of this quantity proved very challenging
I. INTRODUCTION for designers of “fixed” tube or extruded tube fittings.
Due to long production time from extruding mills, raw
material inventory cost of processed tubes and the
Conventional crimp type connectors utilize two stage
upfront cost of extrusion dies, a concerted effort was
connector (TSC) systems with a separate strength
made to maximize the number of conductor sizes
holding member, such as a steel eye loop, for dead end
assigned to a given tube size. The effects of this “range
applications and a steel sleeve for splices (i.e. full-
taking” approach yielded considerable differences in the
tension mid-span joints). The steel components are
area of reduction of a particular fitting size. This meant
subjected to an initial compression cycle with a
the smallest conductor size yielded the lowest
hydraulic tool and corresponding fixed die and a
compression ratio or area of reduction.

2. 4. inside FIG. . A comparison of resulting connector cross sections from flex die and fixed die crimps are seen in Fig. 4.Percent compression. These tubes have well established geometric tolerances for the outside diameter. they acknowledged that 4% of all splices were in “very poor” condition heading towards failure with an additional 25% of all installed splice classified as Swaged core Swaged cond. 5. The need for repeatable and reproducible low contact resistance connection systems has never been more critical then today. 360° DEGREE SWAGE TECHNOLOGY FLEX DIE diameter. 5. This reinforces the need for reliable FIG. This forces the material under the die to move inwards radially to the axis of the connector tube. in a recent publication by Avista Utilities. questionable [2]. “Swage compression is critical in creating residual radial forces Technology” incorporates a 360⁰ flexible die technology necessary for establishing and maintaining low contact as seen in Fig. 3. 2. 360° RADIAL FORCES APPLIED BY SWAGED DIE VS. where power VERTICAL FORCES APPLIED BY FIXED DIE transmission can be limited by the connector resistance and disruptions can occur owing to mechanical failures [1]. This flexible die applies the forces resistance between the connector tube and conductor generated from the hydraulic tool radially and surface. or percent compression. symmetrically around the connector tube as seen in Fig. Additionally. 3. The 360° flexible die provides symmetrical motion regardless of the initial positioning of the tube in the swaging tool. Increasing demands on power grids has led to increased line temperatures and consequently. Fixed die core Fixed die cond. a higher number of both SSC and TSC connector failures. links in the electricity delivery network. and wall thickness. is a means for II. DOE) 2015 Swage Technology Fixed Die Crimp quadrennial assessment report. as seen in Fig. FIG. The swaging motion also eliminates the losses created by moving material tangentially to the connector tube as seen in the fixed die crimp in Fig.S. 4. SWAGE TECHNOLOGY SYSTEM determining the compression ratio of a particular connector/conductor assembly. Small variances in each of these three (3) parameters can lead to significant compression ratio variances along the axis of the connector tube. as other fixed die compression systems. These facts were recently amplified in the United States Department of Energy’s (U. PERCENT COMPRESSION CALCULATION Typical SSC crimp connectors used for ACSR conductor are manufactured from tubes produced through extrusion or drawing process. A symmetrical swaging motion can produce as much as twice the area of reduction. Achieving higher percent Unlike conventional fixed die crimp systems. COMPARISON OF CROSS SECTIONS OF FLEX DIE AND testing of SSC and TSC connectors which more closely FIXED DIE COMPRESSION reflects stresses encountered during modern-day service. The report characterized compression connectors for overhead lines as the weak FIG.

C. 6]. III. 8. be discussed. ANSI C119.4 Class “AA” was performed on Swage Technology SSC connectors installed on 2156 ACSR Bluebird. In order to investigate the effects of applying compound 2007 for 1000 hours [7]. FIG. THERMAL-MECHANICAL CYCLING TEST A Current Cycling Test as per ANSI C119. 7 and Fig. A. measurements. 6 FLARE OUT OF CONDUCTOR BEHIND SWAGED AREA LONGITUDINAL SECTION IN SWAGED CONNECTOR B. met ANSI C119. as seen in Fig. 5. ANSI C119. 8. Recently. two test (2) assemblies were inhibitor compound present at the electrical interface and established: one (1) assembly with inhibitor compound one (1) without inhibitor compound.4. The Corrosion and a second assembly without inhibitor compound. In September 2015. Contact Resistance Performance IV. This key design feature increases system sheer forces FIG. two (2) assemblies is presented later in this paper.4 CLASS “AA” RESISTANCE GRAPH AT Corrosion Tests were performed in parallel on two (2) 175⁰C RISE . 7.4 CLASS “AA” TEMPERATURE GRAPH AT which lead to increased mechanical holding strength and 175⁰C RISE . A Tests simulated an accelerated aging process by discussion of the contrast in performances between the exposing both sets of connectors to salt spray conditions. Temperature and contact resistance closely emulate real line conditions. The final difference in measured contact resistance Notable changes in performance of Swage Technology between samples from the two (2) sets was negligible connectors under Thermal-Mechanical Testing will also [8]. DMC initiated a research project to evaluate the performance of single stage swaged connectors installed on ACSR conductor under tension . Corrosion Protection FIG. Mechanical Holding Strength Swage Technology connectors incorporate a flaring and locking design behind the swage area as seen in Fig. One (1) set was swaged with in full tension applications.4 requirements [9]. some tests additional aging up to one thousand (1000) total cycles began incorporating tension in thermal cycling to more was completed. Five hundred (500) Traditional thermal cycle aging is performed under static cycles were completed as per the standard and an conditions as per ANSI C119.4 without the use of the inhibitor compound to verify their mechanical strength [4. Maximum load tests were successfully performed on different sizes of ACSR connectors as per ANSI C119.CYCLES 500 TO 1000 sets of Drake swaged connectors as per ASTM B117. 6. USE OF OXIDE INHIBITING COMPOUND Compounds have been typically used for three (3) primary purposes: increasing mechanical holding strength. The performance of these three (3) parameters when installing Swage Technology connectors without inhibitor compound were evaluated in previous testing as briefly described below. protection from corrosion and lowering contact resistance [3].CYCLES 500 TO 1000 eliminates the need to rely on the grit found in typical inhibitors for increased mechanical strength.

This temperature The assemblies were installed to form a span was maintained for a period of two (2) hours (i. B. 10. The four (4) test connectors in each assembly were spaced such that the effective length of conductor between them was approximately the same. Thermocouples were drilled and peened into each connector at a distance of 2 in from their ends. 26/7 ACSR (Drake).e. DC resistance measurements for each connector shown schematically in Fig. A dead-end connector installed for testing is shown in Fig. A temperature plot for a typical located parallel to each other as shown in Fig. Strength (RTS) of 31. The primary purpose of this test was to study the mechanical and electrical effects of repeated high temperature cycling on connectors while under tension. No other preparation of the body of each connector was used for the voltage drop conductor or connector was performed. Both test assemblies were instrumented with numerous assemblies were allowed to cool until the maximum thermocouples and a load cell to monitor sample thermocouple reading did not vary by more than 2°C temperatures and tensions during the thermal-cycling over a ten (10) minute period. This was performed in order to remove circumference at a distance of 1 in from the connector surface oxidation or other surface contaminants prior to entrance (i. .100 heating and cooling cycles. The conductor on both assemblies was wire equipotential point on the stranded conductor was brushed loosely in the contact area with the aluminum created by twisting a pair of copper wire around the connector sleeve. A target temperature of 150°C measured on the 795 kcmil ACSR conductor surface was chosen for the study. A secondary objective was to compare the performance of the swage connectors installed with and without oxide inhibitor compound. A single thermal cycle was completed by heating the FIG. 10. TEST PROTOCOL A thermal cycling test was designed and carried out under controlled ambient conditions in Kinectrics’ Mechanical Test Laboratory. round The test setup consisted of two (2) assemblies each with galvanized strands. Since no published industry standard currently exists for thermal cycling of overhead transmission connectors while under mechanical tension. The complete test consisted of a total of 1. consisting of twenty-six (26) round A. test program. Tension and temperature splices) and two (2) single stage swaged dead-ends data collection was done automatically throughout each installed on 795 kcmil Drake ACSR conductor. mouth). 9. The installation.and high temperature operation at Kinectrics Inc. The conductor used for this test was 795 kcmil. This meant each splice had two (2) thermocouples and each dead-end had one (1) thermocouple.150 A of AC current. TEST SETUP aluminum strands and seven (7) regular strength. Both thermal-mechanical cycle is shown in Fig. 11. The two (2) assemblies were soaking period) before allowing the assemblies to cool electrically connected in series and physically were by natural convection. SCHEMATIC OF TEST SPAN ASSEMBLIES conductor surface from ambient temperature to 150°C by applying 1. This is cycle. The contact and conductor surface. The second assembly received resistance measurements were made across each the application of inhibitor compound prior to connector connector entrance between equipotential points. A bronze bolt screwed into the connector installation. 9.e. measurements at the connector end. general procedural guidelines were incorporated from CIGRE FIG. 6.500 lb.e. One (1) assembly was were recorded every ten (10) cycles up to a total of one installed without the application of oxide inhibitor hundred (100) cycles and at twenty-five (25) cycle compound between the electrical interface of connector intervals until completion of the test. approximately 130 ft long. TYPICAL DEAD-END CONNECTOR INSTALLED FOR Guide B426 to conduct this thermal-mechanical testing THERMAL-MECHANICAL TESTING [10]. The conductor has a Rated Tensile two (2) single stage swaged full-tension joints (i.

FIG. 13 and Fig. This load was allowed to decrease during the heating cycles as demonstrated in Fig. C. TYPICAL TEMPERATURE AND TENSION DURING THERMAL CYCLE The tension in each assembly was increased to 25% of FIG. 13.100 FIG. 11. Two (2) measurements were taken on each splice to evaluate both electrical connections with the ACSR conductor. 15 and Fig. DC resistance measurements for each connector were recorded every ten (10) cycles up to a total of one hundred (100) cycles and at twenty-five (25) cycle intervals until the completion of the test. 14. Since some creep was taken out from the conductor during the test and due to slight variation of ambient temperature during the curse of the test program. TEMPERATURES OF SPLICES WITHOUT INHIBITOR cycles have been presented in Fig. the maximum tension measured at ambient temperature was monitored and adjusted within 2% RTS throughout the test. 16. are presented in Fig. FIG. TEMPERATURES OF SPLICES WITH INHIBITOR the conductor’s RTS while at ambient temperature. 12. corrected to 20°C. TEST DATA The temperature measured by the thermocouples at the end of the two (2) hour soaking period at 150°C was recorded as the steady state temperature for each respective electrical connection. The steady state temperatures measured on all connectors (with and without inhibitor compound) throughout the 1. TEMPERATURES OF DEAD-END CONNECTORS . Fig. 12. 14. 11. The contact resistance measurements.

FIG. DC RESISTANCE OF DEAD-END CONNECTORS Dead-end #2. TAB. horizontal tensile machine. X- separated in such a way that each connector had ray images of the six (6) samples are presented in Fig. Core remained intact. DC RESISTANCE OF SPLICE CONNECTORS Discussion of the temperature and contact resistance measurement results is presented in Section VI. Dead-end #3. no Inhibitor (102. 18 to Fig. 15. Two testing (i. 32.2% RTS) connector. RESULTS OF MAXIMUM LOAD TESTS Sample ID Failure Load Comment FIG. The end-blocks had all strands . A series of maximum load tests (i.e.4. V.9% RTS) Steel core tensile failure. dead-end connector and one (1) splice connector were removed from each assembly for digital radiography A.e. 1.e. The samples were then installed in a hydraulic. The results of the four (4) maximum load tests are seen in Fig. 17 and Tab. Maximum Load Tests imaging (i. 29. pulled out of with Inhibitor (94.100 cycles. 1. Splice #3. 31. tensile load tests).6% RTS) of connector. 17.100 thermal-mechanical cycles. approximately equal length of conductor attached to it. digital radiography imaging and chemical The purpose of the digital radiography imaging on analysis of the inhibitor compound in new and thermally connectors was to identify if the steel core slipped (moved) after the thermal-mechanical cycling. representation of mid-span condition). POST CYCLING TESTS On completion of 1. Clause 7 “Mechanical Test Procedures” [11]. imbedded in epoxy resin to assure that all strands are equally loaded during the tensile test (i. One (1) aged condition were performed to gather additional information. Digital Radiography Imaging evaluation. 23. x-ray imaging). Splice #2.e. 16. no Inhibitor (101. 2 with inhibitor and 2 (2) additional connectors in new condition were also without inhibitor). The free conductor ends were terminated with laboratory type end-blocks. RESULTS OF MAXIMUM LOAD TESTS assemblies were removed from the test span for further B. 17.930 lb Aluminum broke at entrance of conductor.4% RTS) Steel core tensile failure. The samples were One (1) dead-end connector and one (1) splice connector positioned for the x-rays in order to observe the were removed from each assembly for maximum load condition inside the connector after 1. Aluminum broke at entrance of connector. both FIG. The connector samples were supplied to create a reference image for comparison. 4 total connectors. The minimum exposed length of conductor (12 ft) and maximum loading rate (1/4 in/min/ft of exposed conductor) met the procedural requirements of ANSI C119.410 lb Aluminum broke at entrance of conductor.678 lb Aluminum broke at entrance of connector.525 lb Core remained intact. south end pulled out with Inhibitor (55.

SPLICE #1 AFTER CYCLING.100 cycles. No slippage or other mechanical FITR analysis was used to measure the absorptivity of changes were observed between the splice connector in the organic content of the inhibitor compound across a new condition and the splice installed without inhibitor range of wavelengths.0 Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). FIG. Chemical Analysis of Inhibitor Compound No slippage or other mechanical changes were observed between the dead-end connector in new condition and The following five (5) tests were performed on a sample the dead-end connectors after 1. the gain of electrons and a sign of degradation) of the inhibitor compound occurs.e. NO INHIBITOR FIG. 18. SPLICE #4 AFTER CYCLING. AS-NEW FIG.5 in to 1. the infrared spectra response . iv)Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission This slippage ranged from approximately 0. If oxidation (i. Small voids of inhibitor in new condition and on a sample of aged or separation of the inhibitor were visible near the steel inhibitor extracted from dead-end #2 and splice #2: core. NO INHIBITOR C. splice sample installed with inhibitor after 1. 19. i) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FITR). 22. SPLICE CONNECTOR. amplitude of the response to the infrared spectra are directly proportional to any change in the molecular structure of the organic content. AS-NEW FIG. in. 23. WITH INHIBITOR FIG. Changes in the intensity and after cycling. DEAD-END #1 AFTER CYCLING.100 cycles. 21. Slippage of the steel core strands was observed on the iii) Dropping Point. 20. No movement of the aluminum strands was detected on the connector. DEAD-END CONNECTOR. DEAD-END #4 AFTER CYCLING. ii)Rheometry. and v) Worked Penetration. WITH INHIBITOR FIG.

the but strict correlation of the results cannot be drawn to dead-end connectors with inhibitor exceeded the the condition of the contact interface. However. These elements may be attached to temperatures for both types of installation were fairly more volatile species in the mixture and may be similar. This is demonstrated for dead-end connectors in evaporated or burned off through cycling. Rheometry was not compound measure the benefits in low contact force possible on the aged inhibitor sample due to the presence mechanical connectors or compression connectors with of large particles.7 % Iron Content [ppm] 169 1. This was necessary to obtain inhibitor exhibited slightly lower temperatures.2 . RESULTS OF INHIBITOR TESTING inhibitor compared to the as-new sample. 24.8 % [mm/10] Dropping Point [°C] >300 >300 N/A Aluminum Content 150. However. The of inhibiting compound at the interface of connector and increase in iron content can likely be attributed to conductor showed better thermal stability throughout the transfer from the steel core of the conductor. The measured contact of this paper would be necessary to determine the root resistances across connector entrances support this cause.s] 0. 12 and for splices in Fig. N/A The results of the remaining tests on the inhibitor are VI. No measurable change in the dropping point of the inhibitor was noted and the results Many previous studies present the benefits of using of the Worked Penetration showed a slight stiffening of inhibitor compound during the installation of the aged inhibitor compared to the as-new sample.2 . a large enough volume of inhibitor to perform the the contact resistances were fairly similar for connectors testing.of the organic molecular structure would be altered. the connectors installed with the application in the chemical composition of the aged inhibitor.4 % [ppm] Nickel Content [ppm] 151. After approximately 200 thermal cycles.000 11. the temperature of the connectors and mechanical stresses. it is hypothesized that towards end of the thermal cycling may lead to slight separation of the test program.100 thermal cycles the measured nickel and silicon. towards the end of the 1. 2. RESULTS OF FITR ANALYSIS Plastic Viscosity [Pa. 13 and Fig. these tests provide some installed using inhibitor increased during the lab aging information as to the aging of the inhibitor compound process. the Consequently. Several thermal-mechanical cycling test.280 657.4 % Yield Point [Pa] 25. 24. This compression connectors.500 356 . 2. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS presented in Tab. 15 and Fig. Percentage Inhibitor Aged Parameter Difference As-New [A] Inhibitor [B] Aged Inhibitor vs. After the interface would have been subjected to higher thermal initial thermal cycles. It must also be noted that the aged inhibitor sample was At the beginning of the thermal-mechanical cycling. Splices installed with inhibitor exceeded the . 14.4. For this reason the temperature of the dead-end connectors installed without inhibitor. as presented in Fig. lower percent compression ratios. thus resulting in a non-homogeneous (i. presence of suspended particulates in the inhibitor. 16. most comparative may indicate that no significant loss of water content of studies of contact resistance with and without inhibitor the inhibitor compound occurred. The FITR analysis showed minimal signs of oxidation of the aged TAB. The inhibitor compound located at the contact installed with and without inhibiting compound. Due to the Fig. the inhibiting compound applied initially was no longer present at the contact interface (or at least components. Significant changes of certain key elements were noted Generally.75 .e. It should be noted that hypotheses can account for the decrease in aluminum. area of reduction. hypothesis. Thus. not at the amount to significantly influence the measured uneven) mixture. N/A FIG.400 .98. The chemical analysis tests shall not be discussed in results of the FITR analysis on the aged and as-new subsequent sections.000 63. the extracted mostly from the cavity in the connector connectors (splices and dead-ends) installed with surrounding the steel core. inhibitor samples are shown in Fig.92.99. More investigation beyond the scope temperatures and resistances). As-New Inhibitor [(B-A)/A] ¼ Worked Penetration 293 279 .9 % Silicon Content [ppm] 26.

K-419340-RC-0001-R00. It is believed that the remaining connectors would exhibit Class “AA” 500-1000 Bluebird”. 13. “Evaluation of Different Types of values measured on connectors without inhibitor after Contact Aid Compounds for Aluminum to approximately 500 cycles. the Copper Conductors Designed for Normal suggestion would be to not use inhibitor compound when Operation at or Below 93°C and Copper-to- installing single stage swaged connectors on ACSR Copper Conductors Designed for Normal conductor when operation at elevated temperature is Operation at or Below 100°C”. the connectors ACSR Bluebird”. These are presented in Fig. [8] Z. increased contact resistance and [11] ANSI 119. Report No. Report No. “Sustained and Maximum Load Test on both. 12 and Fig. T&D World. Kinectrics North without inhibitor before and after thermal cycling. 16. Kinectrics North America Inc.. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The thermal aging process for connectors installed with The authors acknowledge the contributions of Dr. based on the Aluminum-To-Aluminum or Aluminum-To- results of the thermal-mechanical cycling test. “ANSI C119. G. It is thought this may have Aluminum Connectors and Conductors”. A summary of results is presented in Tab. inhibitor was accelerated dramatically after exceeding the Pereira for his assistance in the analysis and temperature of connectors without inhibitor. The contact resistance and temperature of Avista Utilities. The reason for this under these conditions. CHMT. 18 to Fig. The radiography imaging of October 2012 connectors installed with and without inhibitor also [7] ASTM B117-07. October As presented earlier. Peter.Chapter 3”.. IEEE been a result of a loss of inhibitor. R. 23. the aging process. a shifting or Trans.. Peter. “Sustained and Maximum Load Test on mechanical effects of the accelerated laboratory aging ACSR Drake”. October Fig.4-2011. “Salt Fog Test on Swaged Connectors No internal differences were noted in connectors installed Installed on ACSR Drake”.4 Heat Cycling Test. process. Report No. K-419340-RC-0006- connector installed with inhibitor supports the measured R00. the temperature of the [1] US Department of Energy. [9] Z. with inhibitor is attributed to the higher temperatures “Guide for Qualifying High Temperature reached during thermal-mechanical cycling. 17. “Before The Lines Fall Down”. the remaining tensile strength of the 2012 connectors was measured in order to understand the [5] Z.temperature of splices installed without inhibitor after expected. Whicker. Kinectrics North America Inc. K-419340-RC- 0007-R00. 2007 tensile strength. August 2010 connectors installed with inhibitor as measured by increased temperature. Therefore. Kinectrics similar results if subjected to tensile testing. 15 and Fig. February 2013 The loss of mechanical strength of connectors installed [10] CIGRE Guide 426. Braunovic. “Standard Practice for provided additional information regarding remaining Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus”. Peter.26. Peter. K-419340-RC-0003-R00. approximately 150 thermal cycles. 2011 . September 2015 to the increase in the contact resistance presented in Fig. The movement observed on the steel core of the other splice America Inc. The Conductors for Use on Overhead Transmission accelerated aging process was more severe on the Lines”.. significantly higher temperatures than the connectors without inhibitor. The results demonstrated that the connectors 2012 without inhibiting compound retained the full tensile [6] Z. [2] D. “2015 Quadrennial reference conductor. January 2010 connectors installed with inhibitor stabilizes to similar [3] M. the dead-end connectors. noticed for connectors installed without inhibitor.. The degradation of the contact interface was not ACSR Linnet”. can cause the assembly to reach difference could be that the splices have smaller thermal “end-of-life” conditions earlier than without the use of capacitance and initially run at higher temperatures than inhibitor. the REFERENCES temperature of connectors with inhibitor reached. 1992 movement in the contact interface or a combination of [4] Z. “Connectors for Use Between lower remaining tensile strength. the thermal aging process would be accelerated for the splice connectors. Peter. As presented interpretation of the post cycling chemical tests on the in Fig. Report No. North America Inc. and in some cases even exceeded. February 2013 loss of mechanical strength for connectors with inhibitor. Therefore. Transmission & consequence of the aging contact interface and correlates Distribution Components. Working Group B2. Contrary to this. This increase in temperature is the Technology Review . the connectors with inhibitor reach inhibitor compound. Kinectrics North America with inhibitor had significantly less tensile strength after Inc. During certain thermal cycles. The results support that the use of inhibitor. 1 and Report No. K-419340-RC-0002-R00. “Sustained and Maximum Load Test on strength of the conductor.