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OTN-EfFECtive Networks

Optical channel Payload Unit (OPU)
Enabling multi-service transport of packet based data and legacy traffic. The OPU OH regulates the mapping and concatenation of the client
signals and provides information on the type of signal transported.
Acterna Test & Measurement Solutions
Payload Structure Identifier (PSI) Payload type code points
a 256 byte multi-frame signal. Hex code Interpretation
The PSI[0] contains the Payload Type (PT) 01 Experimental mapping
02 Asynchronous STM-N mapping
Justification bits (J0, NJ0, PJ0)
03 Bit synchronous STM-N mapping
Introduction they are required for asynchronous
mappings. For synchronous mappings all 04 ATM mapping
JCs are 0 and the PJ0 is a data byte. 05 GFP mapping
06 Virtual concatenated signal
Mapping and concatenation 10 Bit stream with octet timing mapping
Optical Transport Module (OTM) PSI[1] to PSI[255] are mapping and 11 Bit stream without octet timing mapping
Optical Channel (OCh) OTN Multiplexing concatenation specific. 20 ODU mulitplex structure
• To achieve management 55 Not available
Client Client
functionality, overhead is added Multiplexing is defined for 4x ODU1 into ODU2, 4x ODU2 66 Not available
1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080 FAS O’s

Client layer signal 15 16 17
to the client signal which (e.g. GFP, STM-16, into ODU3 and 16x ODU1 into ODU3. Multiplexing to the 80 - 8F Reserved codes for proprietary use
together with the FEC form the 1 FAS OTU ODU1 OH OC-48, Ethernet) next order fills up the payload completely and is performed FD NULL test signal mapping
Optical channel Transport Unit byte interleaved. 2 RES JC
(OTU). OH OPU ODU FE PRBS test signal mapping



Client layer signal 3 RES JC
Client FEC FF Not available

O’s OH

(e.g. layer signal
GFP, Ethernet)
OC-48, STM-16),
O’s OH

(e.g. GFP,Ethernet)
Client layer STM-16),
(e.g. GFP, Ethernet)
JC, NJO and PJO generation by asynchronous mapping process
• The OTU is carried by a single ODU1 OH OC-48, Ethernet)
wavelength as an Optical 4
multiplexing mapping JC [7, 8] NJO PJO
Optical Channel OCh FAS OTU2

Channel (OCh).

OH Client layer signal
00 Justification byte Data byte

Non associated overhead

O’s OH

(e.g. layer signal
GFP, Ethernet)
O’s OH
FEC 0 PT = 0x20

(e.g. GFP,Ethernet)
Client layer STM-16),
Mapping & 01 Data byte Data byte
Optical Supervisory

ODU1 OH OC-48,
GFP, Ethernet)
(e.g. STM-16,
1 Reserved 1
• Adding OH via the OSC ODU1 OH OC-48, Ethernet)
Concatenation 10 Not generated Not generated
(Optical Supvervisory Channel)

Client signal 1x 1x
OPU3 ODU3 OTU3 255 specific 11 Justification byte Justification byte
the OMS and the OTS are 16x ODTUG3 1x MSI
formed. Client signal
Optical Multiplex Section OMS OPU2 1x ODU2
4x 1x
OTU2 17
SDH/SONET Test Client GFP ATM Ethernet ODTUG2 1x 18
Optical Transmission Section OTS 4x Reserved
Client 1x 1x
Fully transparent mapping of client signals, e.g. OC-192/STM-64, 10 GbE LAN/WAN Signal 255
Multiplex structure identifier (MSI)
Optical Multiplex
OCh Forward Error Correction (FEC)
Section (OMS) OCh layer
OMS The FEC enables the correction and detection of errors in an optical link.
• supports connection monitoring OMS layer
and assists service providers in
troubleshooting OTS OTS OTS
Frame Alignment Signal (FAS) Optical channel Transport Unit (OTU)
OTS layer 1 1617 32 3824 3825 3840 4080
OTU row 1 OH Client FEC
• describes optical DWDM connection
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Allows the user to support Section Monitoring (SM).
between two network elements
(NEs) with multiplex functions e.g. General communication channels (GCCO)
OTN layers SONET layers SDH layers 1 FAS MFAS These two fields allow communication between section end points.
OXC, OADM Parity
Optical Channel Information bytes check bytes Information bytes Parity
Path Path check bytes
For further description please refer to the optical channel data unit (ODU). 1 239 255 1 239 255
Optical Multiplex Section Line Multiplexer Section
1st sub-row 16th sub-row
Optical Transmission Section Section Regenerator Section 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Optical Transmission FAS byte 1 FAS byte 2 FAS byte 3 FAS byte 4 FAS byte 5 FAS byte 6 MFAS byte
1 SM GCCO RES 239 bytes of the sub-row are used to calculate the FEC parity check, the result of which is transmitted
Section (OTS) OTU types and capacity 0xF6 0xF6 0xF6 0x28 0x28 0x28 0x00 in bytes (symbols) 240 to 255 of the same sub-row.

• describes transport in optical link OTN type OTU nominal bit rate Client signal
0xFF See ODU - TCMi/PM/SM The Reed-Solomon Code (RS)
between two NEs An OTU row is split into 16 sub-rows each consisting of 255 bytes. The sub-rows are formed
OTU1 255/238 x 2 488 320 kb/s = STS-48/STM-16
byte interleaved.
• used for maintenance and 2.666 057 143 Gb/s
operational functions including OTU2 255/237 x 9 953 280 kb/s = STS-192/STM-64
the monitoring of tasks 10.709 255 316 Gb/s RS can correct up to 8 symbol errors and detect up to 16 symbol errors per sub-row.
between NEs
OTU3 255/236 x 39 813 120 kb/s =
43.018 413 559 Gb/s
STS-768/STM-256 Optical channel Data Unit (ODU) ==> RS can correct up to 512 symbol errors and detect up to 1024 symbol errors per OTU frame.

OTU-LAN 255/238 x 10 312 500 kb/s = 10G LAN*
no fixed stuff 11.049 107 Gb/s (overclocked) Column #
OTU-LAN 255/237 x 10 312 500 kb/s = 10G LAN*
fixed stuff 11.095 730 Gb/s (overclocked) 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Allows the user to support Path Monitoring (PM), Tandem Connection Trail Trace Identifier (TTI)
2 RES TCM TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL Monitoring (TCM) and Automatic Protection Switching (APS). The 64 byte multi-frame TTI signal is similar to the
Row #

* not yet standardized J0 byte in SONET/SDH.
but often used 3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP
Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP-8) Detection Criteria (according to ITU-T G.709/G.798)
OTN Maintenance Interaction 4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES The BIP-8 (8 bit) is computed over the whole OPU
and payload and is inserted into the BIP-8 SM byte
Generation Detection Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM), two frames later. Abbreviation Alarm/Error Detection criteria
Fault Type and Fault TCMi/PM/SM enables signal management across multiple Backward Defect Indication (BDI)
Optical Optical channel Optical channel Fault OOF Out of Frame FAS (bytes 3, 4 and 5) are errored for ³ 5 frames
0 Location channel (FTFL) networks. BDI = 1 indicates OTUk backward defect
channel Transport Unit Data Unit indication field 1 2 3 LOF Loss of Frame If OOF persists ³ 3 ms
LOS-P OCh OTU ODU 1 A 256 byte multi-frame TTIi BIP-8i BDI = 0 otherwise OOM Out of Multiframe MFAS numbers errored for ³ 5 frames
signal providing fault Backward Error Indication (BEI) and
forward direction

LOF Operator ODUk TCM status interpretation LOM Loss of Multiframe If OOM persists ³ 3 ms
status information Backward Incoming Alignment Error (BIAE)
identifier field 9 TCM byte 3, Status OTU
AIS regarding type and 0 0 x 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 for TCM
10 location of the fault. 1 TCM bits 678 These signals carry information on interleaved-bit SM-BIP-8 SM BIP Error Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8
BEIi/BIAEi BDIi STATi covers the OPU and Payload
LOM SAPI 000 no source TC blocks detected in error in the upstream direction.
Operator 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 001 in use without IAE SM-BEI SM Backward Error Indication SM byte 3, bits 1 to 4:

specific field PM Status (STAT) value 0 to 8: BIP error count
16 0 x 00 BEI BDI STAT 010 in use with IAE Three bits indicate the presence of maintenance
011 reserved for future international value 9 to 15: No BIP errors
BIP-8 DAPI signals.
127 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 value 11: BIAE active
SM-BIP-8 standardization
Fault indication codes 31 SM RES
BEI Fault 32 BEI/BIAE BDI IAE RES 100 reserved for future international OTU-AIS OTU AIS PN-11 sequence covers complete OCh
SM-BEI 128 Reserved for future international standardization.
indication field Fault standardization SM-BDI SM Backward Defect Indication SM byte 3, bit 5 = 1 ³ 5 frames
TIM OTU-AIS AIS Definition All bytes are set to 0’s.
SM-TTI indication Operator 101 maintenance signal: ODUk-LCK SM-IAE SM Incoming Alignment Error SM byte 3, bit 6 = 1 ³ 5 frames
backward direction

BDI code specific TCM/ACT SM-BIAE SM Backward Incoming Alignment Error SM byte 3, bits 1 to 4 = ‘1011’ ³ 3 frames
SM-BDI Operator 110 maintenance signal: ODUk-OCI
137 0000 0000 No fault Byte field is used for the activation and
IAE identifier field 111 maintenance signal: ODUk-AIS ODU-PM
SM-IAE 63 deactivation of the TCM fields. For future
138 0000 0001 Signal fail standardization. PM-BIP-8 PM BIP Error Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8
BIAE BIP-8 0000 0010 Signal degrade Path Monitoring (PM) enables the monito- EXP covers the OPU and Payload
PM-BIP-8 Operator ring of particular sections within the net- Reserved for further experimental use. PM-BEI PM Backward Error Indication PM byte 3, bits 1 to 4:
0000 0010 Reserved for OTUk SM BEI/BIAE Interpretation
BEI specific field work and fault location. value 0 to 8: BIP error count
future bits 1234 General communication channels (GCC1, GCC2)
TIM international value 9 to 15: No BIP errors
PM-TTI Fields allow communication between two NEs.
255 0000 0010 standardization 0 ... 8 BIP error ODUk PM status interpretation ODU-AIS ODU AIS PM byte 3, bits 6 to 8 = ‘111’ ³ 3 frames and ODU
PM-BDI BDI Automatic Protection Switching and
PM byte 3, Status except FTFL filled with All-1s
9 ... 15 No BIP error Protection Communication Channel (APS/PCC)
PM-STAT bits 678 Up to eight levels of nested APS/PCC signals ODU-OCI ODU Open Connection Indication PM byte 3, bits 6 to 8 = ‘110’ ³ 3 frames and ODU
11 BIAE, no BIP error
ODU-AIS Operator Identifier Field structure 000 reserved for future international may be present in this field. filled with ‘0110 0110’
PLM G/PCC Geographic/Political country code standardization ODU-LCK ODU Locked Defect PM byte 3, bits 6 to 8 = ‘101’ ³ 3 frames and ODU
The Access Point Identifiers (API) specify the
ICC ITU carrier code Access Point Identifier (API) structure 001 normal path signal Source Access Point Identifier (SAPI) and
filled with ‘0101 0101’
CC Country Code 010 reserved for future international Destination Access Point Identifier (DAPI). PM-BDI PM Backward Defect Indication PM byte 3, bit 5 = 1 ³ 5 frames
Description of terms of OTN maintenance interaction Backward field 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 ICC ITU Carrier Code standardization

Contain information regarding the country of ODU-TC M
Forward field 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IS International Segment 011 reserved for future international origin, network operator and administrative
AIS Alarm Indication Signal LOS Loss of Signal Country code National segment code TCMi-BIP-8 TCM BIP Error Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8
NS National Segment standardization details.
BEI Backward Error Indication LOS-P LOS - Payload G/PCC ICC Null padding
UAPC Unique Acces Point Code covers the OPU and Payload
BDI Backward Defect Indication OCI Open Connection Indication G/PCC ICC Null padding 100 reserved for future international Operator specific TCMi-BEI TCM Backward Error Indication TCM byte 3, bits 1 to 4:
G/PCC ICC Null padding IS character # NS character # standardization For operator specific use.
BIAE Backward Incoming Alignment Error PLM Payload Mismatch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 value 0 to 8: BIP error count
G/PCC ICC Null padding 101 maintenance signal: ODUk-LCK
DEG Degraded Defect PSI Payload Structure Identifier Null CC ICC UAPC Incoming Alignment Error (IAE) value 9 to 15: No BIP errors
IAE Incoming Alignment Error PT Payload Type G/PCC ICC padding CC ICC UPAC 110 maintenance signal: ODUk-OCI IAE = 1 indicates frame alignment error value 11: BIAE active
LCK Locked Defect STAT Status G/PCC ICC CC ICC UAPC 111 maintenance signal: ODUk-AIS IAE = 0 otherwise TCMi-BDI TCM Backward Defect Indication TCM byte 3, bit 5 = 1 ³ 5 frames
LOF Loss of Frame TIM Trace Identifier Mismatch TCMi-BIAE TCM Backward Incoming Alignment Error TCM byte 3, bits 1 to 4 = ‘1011’ ³ 3 frames
LOM Loss of Multiframe TTI Trail Trace Identifier