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# Professor  Abdulnaser  Sayma

a.sayma@city.ac.uk

MEM305 – Gas Turbine Engineering
Revision Questions

1. Sketch   the   T-­‐S   diagram   for   a   gas   turbine   simple   cycle   and   write   and
equation  for  the  cycle  efficiency.
2. What   are   the   two   parameters   that   influence   the   simple   ideal   cycle
efficiency?
3. State  4  assumptions  made  to  define  a  gas  turbine  simple  ideal  cycle.
4. State   the   parameter   that   affect   the   specific   power   for   a   simple   ideal   gas
turbine  cycle?
5. Sketch, using a block diagram, a gas turbine cycle with both reheat and heat
exchange (recuperated cycle) showing the number of all stations along the
flow path and draw the T-S diagram assuming ideal cycle.
6. Define the combustion efficiency.
7. Draw a schematic (block) diagram of the cycle for gas  turbine  that  has  a  two
stage   intercooled   compressor   and   a   two-­‐stage   turbine   with   re-­‐heat   in
between  the  two  stages.  The  compressor  and  turbine  efficiencies  are  90%
and   there   are   no   pressure   losses   in   the   heat   exchanger   and   combustion
chambers.   The   engine   has   two   shafts   where   the   high-­‐pressure   turbine
drives   the   high-­‐pressure   compressor   while   the   low-­‐pressure   turbine
drives  the  low-­‐pressure  compressor  and  generator.
8. Sketch  the  T-­‐S  diagram  for  the  above  cycle.
9. Draw a schematic (block) diagram of the cycle for a  gas  turbine  has  a  single
stage   axial   compressor   and   a   two-­‐stage   turbine   with   re-­‐heat   in   between
the   two   stages.   The   compressor   and   turbine   efficiencies   are   90%   and
there   are   no   pressure   losses   in   the   combustion   chambers.   The   first
turbine   drives   the   compressor   while   the   second   free   turbine   drives   a
generator.
10. Sketch  the  T-­‐S  diagram  for  the  above  cycle.
11. For the cycle above, develop an expression of cycle efficiency as a function of
station temperatures.
12. Sketch  a  block  diagram  for  a  combined  cycle  power  plant.
13. Sketch a schematic diagram of an integrated gasification combined cycle
power (IGCC) plant based on a gas turbine labelling all components, and
explain its basic principle of operation indicting how it can be used for carbon
capture and storage (CCS).
14. What   is   the   polytropic   efficiency?     Sketch   its   variation   with   pressure   ratio
for  a  compressor  and  a  turbine  compared  to  the  isentropic  efficiency.
15. Define  the  effectiveness  of  a  heat  exchanger.
16. Draw   a   T-­‐S   diagram   the   process   of   two-­‐stage   compression   with   full
intercooling.
17. What  are  the  factors  that  limit  the  maximum  turbine  inlet  temperature?
18. Using   control   volume   around   a   jet   engine,   derive   a   formula   for   the   total
thrust.   What   are   the   conditions   when   the   engine   delivers   momentum
thrust  only?
19. Define the propulsive efficiency and derive a formula for it.
20. What is the difference between the thermal efficiency and propulsive
efficiency of a propulsion engine?
21. Define the specific thrust and the specific fuel consumption.

Derive an equation for the power required to drive an axial flow compressor using the energy equation. 26.   corrected   speed   and   efficiency. Sketch a block diagram for a three-shaft turbofan engine with a mixed exit nozzle. 36.  Use  on  or  two  graphs. Briefly discuss their advantages and disadvantages over tubular combustors. Sketch a cross section through a typical can combustor and explain briefly the combustion process for liquid and gaseous fuels. 32. Annular combustors are currently the preferred type for large aircraft engines.sayma@city. Draw the T-S diagram for the cycle of this engine. Sketch the Temperature entropy diagram for the axial compressor stage in above showing the total temperatures at inlet and outlet of the rotor and outlet . 39. Sketch a T-S diagram for an intake duct of a jet engine for the general case.   pressure   ratio. Sketch an axial compressor stage labelling basic components and showing the direction of the flow into and out of the stage and axis of rotation showing the variation of pressure and velocity along the compressor axis. List and briefly explain three methods used to reduce Nitric Oxides (NOx) emissions in industrial gas turbines. 38. State the main reasons that axial compressors are commonly used in large gas turbine engines used for propulsion and power generation. Sketch the variation of pressure and flow velocity along a multistage axial compressor. 28. Sketch the T-S diagram for a converging propulsive nozzle for the cases with choking and non-chocking nozzles 24. 31. What is the work done factor for a multistage axial compressor and how does it vary along the compressor? 40. Sketch   a   typical   compressor   characteristic   map   showing   the   relation   between   corrected   mass   flow. Sketch the arrangement for a two-spool high bypass ratio turbofan engine. 41. 33.     Professor  Abdulnaser  Sayma       a. 43.ac. 37. Define the bypass ratio for a turbofan engine. Explain two main reasons for the continuous trend towards increasing the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine and explain two of the resulting problems from increasing the bypass ratio. Derive an expression for the critical pressure and critical temperature for a converging propulsion nozzle given that: ! ! ?! ?! !!! ?−1 ! !!! = = 1+ ?!   ? ? 2 25. 42. List 5 criteria used to characterise combustion performance. 29. 23.uk     22. 30. Why are diffuser vanes are not used in some turbocharger compressors and what is their effect on design and off-design performance? 35. Some centrifugal compressors such as those used in turbochargers do not use diffuser vanes. 27. Explain how the diffusion process happens in these compressors. Define the degree of reaction for a compressor stage and explain briefly how it is used to characterise performance. 34. Write   the   formula   for   the   corrected   mass   flow   rate   and   corrected   speed   used  in  turbomachinery  characterisation  and  define  the  symbols  used.

What is the effect of increasing stage loading on a multi-stage axial turbine design and performance? 54. Show using the first law of thermodynamics the relation between total temperature at the inlet and exit of the stator. 44. 50.  If  two  compressors   have   the   same   specific   speed   and   pressure   ratio. Sketch the velocity triangles at the inlet and outlet of a transonic compressor rotor explaining the mechanism of flow turning.sayma@city. show that the pressure ratio for a centrifugal compressor with inlet station 1 and outlet station 3 is given by: ! ?!" ?! ?!! − ?!! !!! = 1+ ?!" ?!" 52. Using the definition of the compressor isentropic efficiency. Define  the  specific  speed  for  a  centrifugal  compressor. What is the effect of increasing the flow coefficient on a multi-stage axial turbine design and performance? 55.   Compressor   A   is   twice   the   size   of   compressor   B.     Professor  Abdulnaser  Sayma       a. in words what is meant by the degree of reaction in a turbine stage. A  micro-­‐gas  turbine  is  to  be  designed  to  provide  propulsion  for  a  model   aircraft.   The   gas   turbine   is   required   to   provide   1   kW   power. A   gas   turbine   is   to   be   designed   for   the   propulsion   of   a   civil   aircraft   providing   10   MW   of   power.   Choose   a   suitable   compressor   (Axial  or  centrifugal)  estimating  the  number  of  stages  and  pressure  ratio   and  state  three  main  reasons  for  your  choice.   Choose   a   suitable   compressor   (Axial   or   centrifugal)   estimating   the   number  of  stages  and  state  three  main  reasons  for  your  choice. Why radial turbines typically have zero relative flow angle at inlet? .   You   are   required   to   make   a   selection   of   a   suitable   compressor   for   the   gas   turbine. Explain   briefly   using   sketches   the   process   of   rotating   stall   in   an   axial   flow   compressor. 47. What   is   the   slip   velocity   in   a   centrifugal   compressor   and   how   can   it   be   reduced? 49. List  and  briefly  explain  four  loss  mechanisms  in  a  compressor. 53. Why blade cooling is used in modern turbine blades of a gas turbine? State and explain using suitable sketched three types of turbine blade cooling.   You   are   required   to   make   a   selection   of   a   suitable   compressor   for   the   gas   turbine. Explain. show that the stagnation temperature drop in an axial turbine stage is given by (stations 1 and 3 are stage inlet and exit): !!! ?!! ! Δ?! = ?! ?!! 1− ?!! 56. 46. and pressure temperature relation for an isentropic compression.uk     of the stator. 45. 51.   which   compressor   would   have   the   higher   rotational  speed? 48. 57. Using the definition of the total-to-total isentropic efficiency of an axial turbine and isentropic pressure temperature relations.ac.