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GEA Aircooled Systems

engineering for a better world GEA Heat Exchangers

The HX-Factor, your additional value: combined
expertise and excellence in heat transfer
Efficiency and sustainability are standards. But GEA Heat Exchangers

(abbreviated “HX”, which stands for heat exchange) offer you more.

Because we have the HX-Factor. At HX, we all have it. Every team.

Every colleague. It can be found in all products and services. It makes

the difference. It assures you of added value in heat exchange.

By engineering services based on market experience and expertise.

By a sensitivity that leads to the right decision, even in the most

complex projects. By reliability in all situations. By the enjoyment of

difficult challenges. By commitment, far-sightedness, and precision.

All that is our HX-Factor. Experience it. Use it.


GEA developed and pioneered the direct air-cooled steam condensation system and became the world leader in this field. as well as in the design and manufacture of finned tube heat transfer equipment. Large contracts for the power industry were awarded to GEA Aircooled Systems in the early 1970’s. A total technology transfer from the parent company to GEA Aircooled Systems has been effected and successfully implemented. GEA Aircooled Systems has access to all the resources and know-how of the GEA Group. This necessitated the acquisition and subsequent extension of local manufacturing facilities. which were essentially imported from the parent company.GEA Aircooled Systems The GEA parent company was founded by Mr. with substantial thermodynamic and mechanical design expertise. Initially. Roodekop. To supplement and complete this specialised engineering and product range. cleaning of heat exchangers. GEA Nilenca. which specialises in refurbishment of heat transfer equipment. GEA Aircooled Systems functioned as an engineering and sales office for the group’s products and services. manufacturing and contract management capabilities. Initially the company specialised in the manufacture of dust removal systems. air-treatment. an evaporative cooling tower division was established. Over the years the company’s activities expanded into fields of thermal and energy technologies. GEA Aircooled Systems has become an integral part of GEA Heat GEA Group headquarters. site erection work. from which the abbreviation GEA was derived. etc. GEA Aircooled Systems’ service department evolved into a separate company. Otto Happel senior at Bochum. and further contracts for the petro-chemical industry. resulting in a rapid expansion of the South African operation. South Africa [3] . GEA Aircooled Systems. GEA Aircooled Systems. GEA founded its South African company. In 1971. rendering GEA Aircooled Systems largely independent. as well Düsseldorf. Exchangers. food and process engineering. Germany as engineering. Germany. Its name: Gesellschaft fur Entstaubungs-Anlagen (company for dust-removal-plants). refrigeration and environmental technology. Nonetheless.

using the latest AutoCAD and Autodesk Inventor draughting software. Engineering and Quality GEA Aircooled Systems is well The Quality Management System of GEA Aircooled Systems has been assessed and complies acquainted and experienced in the with the requirements of BS EN ISO-9001 for design. delivery. [4] www. Heat Transfer Research Inc. GEA’s in-house heat exchanger and cooling tower design software. following codes and guidelines: ASME VIII GEA Aircooled Systems relies on the most advanced computer equipment and software for: PD 5500 Thermal design AD-2000 (AD Merkblätter) Mechanical design TEMA Preparation of the general outline drawings / fan selection and noise level prediction API 660 Cost price estimation API 661 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Vibration analysis for shell-and-tube heat exchangers The following thermal and mechanical engineering design software is available in-house and is constantly upgraded: Thermal design software: HTRI. erection design and manufacturing of the and commissioning of heat exchanger plant and equipment. manufacturing. for the thermal design of all types of shell-and- tube heat exchangers as well as air-cooled heat supply. Mechanical design software: OPTIVESSEL – ASME VIII + PD5500 (SA) COMPRESS – ASME VIII (USA) FINGLOW – ASME VIII + PD5500 (UK) Our in-house drawing office facilities employ state-of-the-art computer technologies. (USA).com .

In a competitive market where emphasis is placed on environmental aspects and management of resources. full scale models are constructed. This enables us to offer customised cooling systems on request. Examples include thermal and fluid-dynamic analysis of column-top air-cooled condensers for petro-chemical plants. experimental investigations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Where possible.Research and Development GEA is committed to ongoing research activities and programmes to provide its clients with state-of-the-art products. continuous research is required to ensure technically and economically optimised engineering solutions. [5] . as well as the effect of wind on the cooling system’s performance. Such investigations not only constitute advances for GEA but also assist our clients in gaining a better understanding of the products being procured. 5 millisecond intervals In South Africa. GEA has an in-house research and development department at its headquarters in Germany. Fans of up to 10 m in diameter can be installed in a test Droplet impact on a T-shaped slat at rig to investigate the air-flow through the heat exchanger configuration. evaporative cooling systems and dry cooling systems for power stations. Investigations into the performance of axial flow fans and the air-flow distribution in cooling systems assist us in the accurate prediction of their performance. dedicated to the technological development of heat exchanger products offered by the GEA group of companies. GEA co-operates with universities and engineering consultants to investigate and improve the performance of our product range. Research techniques applied by GEA include theoretical analysis. Model tests in wind tunnels and CFD modelling are used to determine the operating characteristics of cooling systems in the vicinity of buildings and structures.

The current shareholders of GEA Aircooled Systems are GEA TE. GEA Aircooled Systems currently qualifies as a DTI Level 3 contributor and has qualified as a BEE (Black Economic Empowerment) supplier in line with the requirements of ESKADAAT 6 Revision 4. Komec Investments and an employee share scheme (ESOP). BEE GEA Aircooled Systems is a proud contributor to South Africa’s BBBEE (Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment) program. Nozala Investments. Tanguliza . [6] www.

A designated clean area for the manufacture of feedwater heaters – using the latest technology for internal bore welding of tubes to tubesheets – is in place. stainless steel and various exotic materials.5 m x 4 m Niles Vernon boring mill – 2. These products are manufactured in carbon steel.5 t each 1 x overhead crane double hoist – Capacity: 2 x 6.In-house facilities The GEA Aircooled Systems manufacturing operation is split into two distinct areas of manufacture. Plate rolling machine The second manufacturing area is used to manufacture specialised galvanised air-cooled condenser bundles for direct steam condensing systems for the local and export markets. The Standard Products shop caters for the manufacture. total 70 t 7 x DEMAG overhead cranes – Capacity: 8 t to 12. pressure vessels and distillation columns for the petro-chemical.8 m diameter 3 x McElroy finning machines for spirally wound and embedded finned tubing 6 x Edelhoff finning machines for hot dip galvanized finned tubing 2 x DEMAG overhead cranes – Capacity: 35 t each. Undercover manufacturing area – 14 863 m2 Total plot area – 21 518 m2 Maximum crane capacity – 70 t Hydraulic plate rolls with capacities up to 110 mm thick x 3 000 mm wide CNC profile cutting up to 250 mm thick CNC plasma profile cutting up to 160 mm thick 2 x Quickmill CNC drilling machines – 3 m x 6 m Numerically controlled drilling Kiheung CNC milling machine – 1. repair and reconditioning of shell-and-tube heat exchangers as well as air-cooled heat exchangers. mining and power industries.3 t (galvanising plant) 1 x DEMAG overhead crane – Capacity: 25 t McElroy finning machine [7] .

com . commissioning and shut-down services • Refurbishment of heat exchangers and cooling towers Our products are backed by the following commitment: • High quality standards and products • Design and engineering innovation • On-time manufacturing • Excellence in customer service • Professionalism and ethical business practice • Proficient management [8] feedwater heaters and surface condensers • Distillation columns • Pressure vessels • Cooling towers (mechanical and natural draft) • Bulk air coolers • Performance testing of heat exchangers and cooling towers • In-house engineering and design including optimisation and lifecycle costing • Site services. Products and services GEA offers customised solutions – quality products and services especially tailored to meet your specific needs in the following categories: • Air-cooled heat exchangers for any application • Finned tube heat exchangers such as oxygen coolers and compressor intercoolers • A large variety of finned tubes • Direct air-cooled condensers for steam turbines • Indirect condensing systems for steam turbines • Shell-and-tube heat exchangers including recuperators. waste-heat boilers. installation.

ambient temperatures. etc.Finned tubes GEA manufacture various types of aluminium. stainless steel and galvanized carbon steel finned tubes. according to the customer specifications for working temperatures. copper. corrosive atmospheres. Finned tubes FINNED TUBE TYPES AND THEIR APPLICATION Bi-metallic Embedded Wrap-on Wrap-on Hot-dip extruded “G” “L” double “L” galvanised Maximum working temperature 350°C 400°C 130°C 130°C 400°C Maximum working temperature according to API 661 6th Edition 2006 300°C 400°C 130°C 130°C 360°C Atmospheric corrosion resistance Excellent Poor Acceptable Medium Excellent Mechanical resistance Excellent Poor Acceptable Medium Excellent Fin material Aluminium Aluminium / Copper / Copper / Steel Copper / Aluminium Aluminium Stainless steel Tube material Any metallic Any readily Any metallic Any metallic Steel material machinable material material material Image Application High efficiency High efficiency Standard fin for As for “L” fin Excellent thermal fin with complete fin for high low temperature with better performance protection of base temperature with some corrosion corrosion with complete tube against application protection of base protection corrosion corrosion tube for base tube resistance [9] .

one of the most important design criteria is to ensure that air is allowed to freely enter and leave the system. ensuring maximised heat transfer. hail. Air-cooled heat exchangers GEA offers a range of different air-cooled heat exchanger configurations in order to meet the specific requirements of both the process and the site location. ensures better air distribution and less hot air recirculation. snow and rain. Plug type header box D-type header Plug type header Removable cover plate header [10] . Induced draft air-cooled heat exchanger Forced draft layout Induced draft layout Better access for maintenance to Protection of finned surface against fans and fan drive systems. Fans wind. Fan/ operate in a cold ambient air plenum chamber configuration Whatever the configuration.

Fan drive systems include conventional v-belts. toothed High Torque Drive (HTD) belts and gear drives linked to electric motors. variable louvres or Variable Speed Electric Drives (VSD).Fan blades are generally made of either aluminium or Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP). integral v-belts. Pressure distribution on the blades of a fan in an air-cooled heat exchanger [11] . Air-flow control can be realised using variable pitch fans.

at the same time offering optimised solutions. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers As technologies of the various process industries advance. internal bore welding. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers GEA has the in-house capability to design and manufacture shell-and-tube heat exchangers for the petrochemical. mining and power generation industries. HP heater [12] www. and non-destructive testing – with highly flexible manufacturing capabilities – allows GEA to fully meet clients’ requirements. The combination of technical advances in the fields of . Surface condensers A surface condenser is the commonly used term for a water-cooled shell. more sophisticated heat exchangers with improved performance. installed on the exhaust steam side of a steam turbine. heat treatment. GEA supplies surface condensers for vacuum condensing applications. explosion welding. Tubesheet type feedwater heaters are Tube to tubesheet attachments could be by conventional welding. Large shell-and-tube heat exchanger with removable bundle HP and LP feedwater heaters GEA Aircooled Systems has collaboration agreements with TEI (USA) and EON (Germany) for the design and manufacture of feedwater heaters. they tend to use larger.and-tube heat exchanger. etc.

SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER TYPES Front end Stationary Shell types Rear end head types Head Types A E L Channel and One pass Fixed removable cover shell tubesheet like “A” stationary head F M Two pass Fixed shell with tubesheet B longitudinal like “B” baffle stationary head Bonnet integral covers N G Fixed Split flow tubesheet like “N” stationary head P C H Outside packed Surface condenser for vacuum steam Channel Double split floating head integral with flow condensation tubesheet and removable S cover (removable J Floating tube cover only) head with Divided backing device flow N Channel T integral with Pull through tubesheet and K floating removable head cover Kettle type reboiler U U-tube D bundle Special high X pressure closure Cross W flow Externally sealed floating Waste heat boiler for a petrochemical plant tubesheet [13] .

Non-condensable gasses are drawn off above this point by vacuum equipment. The steam enters the counterflow finned tube bundles from below and rises in the finned tubes to a point where the condensation is complete. Air cooled condensers (ACC) The GEA air-cooled condenser consists of finned tube bundles grouped together into fan modules and mounted in an A-frame configuration on a concrete or steel support structure. Matimba ACC during construction The steam side of an air cooled condenser operates as follows: steam from the steam turbine enters the finned tube bundles from the top of the A-frames. The condensate drains to a condensate tank by gravity and is then piped back to the feedwater system. The largest fraction of the steam is condensed in the parallel flow modules (condenser) and the remaining steam is ducted to the lower headers of the counterflow finned tube bundles (dephlegmator).com . Fans mounted below the A-frames draw in air from below and force it through the finned tube bundles. Elgen power station at BHP Billiton’s Samancor plant [14]

Windwall Majuba ACC Counterflow module Parallel flow module Forced draft fan Steam in Air removal system Medupi ACC during construction Condensate tank (Feb 2012) with Matimba Power Station in the background [15] .

or where gaskets are prone to chemical . Special designs are also available for evaporators and for liquids containing a high proportion of undissolved solid matter. Used in high pressure and/or high Plate and frame heat exchangers temperature applications. [16] www. which are brazed together in a high vacuum furnace. Other heat exchangers & pressure vessels Plate and frame heat exchangers GEA offers its clients the following diverse range of plate heat exchanger systems: Gasketed plate heat exchangers: A whole range of different plate types are used for cooling and heating liquids and for condensing Brazed plate heat exchangers: These compact units consist of profiled stainless steel plates.

Germiston. Inter/After coolers All types of finned tubes for compressor inter.and after-coolers are produced at GEA Aircooled Systems’ factory in Roodekop.Plate and shell heat exchangers GEA also offer plate and shell heat exchangers. These heat exchangers employ a welded plate pack inside a shell. Typical column in the workshop Operating principle [17] . Plate and shell heat exchanger The inter. Oxygen coolers GEA Aircooled Systems has been granted a provisional patent for the manufacturing process of copper finned tubes suitable for 100% oxygen duty. Pressure vessels and columns GEA has the in-house capabilities to design and manufacture pressure vessels as well as distillation columns. The petrochemical industry is a major client for this type of Oxygen cooler equipment./ after-coolers are typically manufactured using Cu-Ni tubes with Cu fins and Cu-Ni tubesheets because of the water vapour condensing on the air side of these devices. This type of design offers the high heat transfer rate of plate and frame heat exchangers without the pressure limitations of the plate and frame heat exchanger designs.

com . make use of fans to generate the air flow through the tower. In a natural draught cooling tower. the natural buoyancy of the hot air moves the air up- wards through the tower. drawing in fresh cool air through the air inlet at ground level. Belle Vue Power Station – The relative flow direction of the water and the air streams can be arranged in either cross mechanical draught cooling towers or counterflow. hot water from a plant is brought into contact with ambient air. Mechanical draught cooling towers on the other hand. Fan diameters of up to 10 m and more are commonly used. Energy is transferred from the water to the air by evaporation (mass transfer) and convection (heat transfer).5 to 2 m3/hr per MW of heat rejection or 1% to 2% of the circulating water flow rate. Evaporative cooling systems can achieve lower re-cooled water temperatures than dry cooling systems. Depending on the cooling load. The tower shell is usually constructed in reinforced concrete and can be as high as 200 m. On-line refurbishment of natural draught cooling tower Evaporation rates are approximately 1. multiple cells. Therefore no fan is required. [18] www. Cooling towers and BACs Cooling systems utilising water evaporation are usually the most cost effective heat rejection systems. each with its own The cooled water is then returned to the plant. In a cooling tower. can be employed.

<10 hrs). ppm 70 120 300 No limitation Max TSS (short term. Typical bulk air cooler MAXIMUM COOLING WATER TSS (Total Suspended Solids) Cross fluted Vertical fluted Trickle film fill film fill type fill Splash fill Max TSS (continuous). in which cold water from a refrigeration unit is used to cool the incoming air and to provide a stream of cold air into the mine. ppm 100 200 500 No limitation [19] .Bulk Air Coolers (BACs) are often employed to provide large quantities of cold air in mines. A BAC is functionally an inverted cooling tower.

Fax: +27 (0)11 866 4040 gas@gea. All rights reserved. www. www. South Africa Aberdein St. © GEA Heat Exchangers. Roodekop. Fax: +27 (0)11 865 2200 Phone: +27 (0)11 866 4000. the company is one of the largest providers of innovative equipment and process technology. GEA Group is listed in the STOXX® Europe 600 Index. gnl@gea. South Africa Phone: +27 (0)11 861 . Germiston.geanilenca. Founded in 1881.Excellence Passion Integrity Responsibility GEA-versity GEA Group is a global engineering company with multi-billion euro sales and operations in more than 50 GEA Heat Exchangers GEA Aircooled Systems (Pty) Ltd GEA Nilenca (Pty) Ltd Aberdein St.