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FRAME DESIGN

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**The basic elements of a framed building are slabs,
**

beams, and columns. The loads are transmitted by roof and

floor slabs and walls to beams to rigid frames and through

columns to the foundations.

Depending on the floor system and framing

arrangement adopted the structure may be idealized into a

series of plane frames in each direction for analysis and design

such a system where two -way floor slabs are used is shown in

figure, the frames in each direction carry part of the load. In

the complete three dimensional frames, torsion occurs in the

beams and biaxial bending in the columns.

Resistance to horizontal loads is provided by: -

1-Braced structures -shear walls, lift shaft and stairs.

2:unbraced structures-bending in the rigid frames.

**In multi-story buildings, the most stable arrangement is obtained
**

by bracing with shear walls in the two directions. Stairwells lift shafts,

permanent partition walls as well as specially designed outside shear

walls can be used to resist the horizontal loading. Shear wall should be

placed symmetrically with respect to the building axes. If this not done

the shear walls must be designed to resist the resulting torque. The

concrete floor slabs act as large horizontal diaphragms to transfer loads

at floor levels to the shear walls. Shear walls in multi-story building are

shown in Fig (1).

Characteristics of R. C. framed buildings

1 -R.C. multi-story buildings are statically indeterminate.

2-the joints are rigid or stiff.

The feature of the rigid joint is that a flexure of one member meeting

at the joint has an effect on the other members.

3 -continuity:-

R.C. framed building usually represent monolithic or continuous

units. A load at one location causes deformation and stress at all other

locations. The characteristic behavior is shown in Fig (2).

**Fig (1) (a) Plan; (b) Rigid transverse frame; (c) Side elevation; (d)
**

Column; (e)T-beam.

.

Frame Analysis The methods of frame analysis that is used may be classified as: - 1-Manual methods such as moment distribution or using solutions of standard frames.Simplified manual methods of analyzing subframes. 2. In rigid frame analysis the sizes for members must be chosen from experience or established by an approximate design before the analysis can be carried out because the stiffnesses depend on member sizes. Only simplified manual methods of frame analysis are dealt with. 3-Computer plane or space frame programs based on the matrix stiffness method of analysis. All methods are based on elastic theory. .

two simplified methods for the analysis of vertical loads are presented. . Simplified method (I) * This is also called "The method of substitute frames". plus the top and bottom columns framing into that particular beam. It involves the division of the complete structural frame into a series of subframes.Simplified methods for analvsis of vertical loads A part from carrying out a full elastic analysis of the complete frame using computer techniques or such a method as moment distribution. except for such a column in a first story where soil and foundation conditions dictate the assumption of hinged joint (see fig.). The far ends of the column being assumed to be fully fixed. each of which consist of one continuous beam.

Each subframe is then analyzed elastically using moment distribution method under the loads arranged in the most unfavorable manner. *This method is explicitly permitted by the ACI 3 18-code in section 8-8 and 8-9. as well as all beam moments.This permits the determination of the moments at the top ends of the bottom columns and bottom ends of the top columns. .

Fig (4) Loading for maximum positive B.Arrangement of loading i-For beams: - 1-The maximum positive bending moment at mid point of any particular span develops when the load is placed on the span under consideration and on alternate span as shown in Fig (4). at M. .M.

. 2-The maximum negative bending moment at any particular support develops when the loads are placed on two spans adjacent to the support under consideration as shown in Fig (5).

(6).ii.for columns (1) Design axial load P on column is obtained from factored loads on all spans as shown in Fig. . The axial force in the columns may be found by taking half the maximum load on all the adjacent spans.

Hence.(2) The moments at top ends of the bottom columns and the bottom ends of the top columns are determined from factored dead load on all spans with full factored live load on alternate spans. two such patterns are required. .

.(3) The maximum negative bending moment at mid point of any particular span develops when the loads are placed on the spans adjacent to the span under consideration as shown in Fig.(8).

(same A. w. 4. M= C.loads are uniformly distributed. with the larger of two adjacent spans not greater than the shorter by more than 20%. provided that: 1.E throughout member length) 6-beams must be in braced frame without significant moments due to lateral forces.Simplified method (II)] In lieu of frame analysis.spans are approximately equal.members are prismatic.there are two or more spans.I.unit live load does not exceed three times unit dead load. 3. = average of 2 adjacent spans for M- . the following approximate moments and shears are permitted by ACI 318 for design of continuous beams. 5. 2. Ln2 Ln= clear span for M+.

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3-The total horizontal shear in all columns of a given story is equal and opposite to the sum of all horizontal loads acting above that story. and axial forces from horizontal loads is based on following assumptions: 1-There is a point of inflection at the center of each girder.Simplified methods for the analysis of horizontal loads PORTAL METHOD The portal method of computing approximate moments. . 2-There is a point of inflection at the center of each columns. Shears.

g. the inflection point is located closer to the bottom and may be assumed to be at a distance h/3 from the bottom.). If the actual conditions are such practically to prevent rotation (foundation on rock. including those of the bottom floor. depending on the conditions of foundation. massive foundations. for relatively small footings on compressible soil. e. it is preferable to deal with the Latter separately. or even lower.. etc. if little resistance is offered to rotation. . 4-The total horizontal shear on each story is divided between the columns of that story so that each interior column carries twice as much shear as each exterior column. the inflection points of the bottom columns are above mid point and may be assumed to be a distance 2h/3 from the bottom. Although the second of these assumptions is commonly applied to all columns.

from which the following equation may be written: Mtop + Mbot = Mleft + M right . The actual computations in this method are extremely simple. This fact is more clarified in Fig. all moments. . Once the column shears are determined from the assumptions mentioned above. l9a. shears and forces are simply computed from statics. (C+) . Each end moment for a given column equals the shear on that column multiplied by half the length of that column. The bending moments being such that tension tends to be produced on the windward face at the base of the column and the Leeward face at the head of the column in any story as shown in Fig (17)The girder and column moments act in opposite directions on a joint. .

. Hence we conclude that for any joint the sum of the column end moments equals the sum of the girder end moments.

Beam: + tension on bottom & Columns: + tension on right side Fig (1 8) sign convention or bending moments. .

In this method. . Story heights and girder spans should be approximately equal and the configuration reasonably symmetrical. no consideration is given to the elastic properties of members.Limitation of portal method This method is considered to be generally satisfactory for buildings of moderate height to width ratio (height/least horizontal dimension < 5)and not over 25 stories high.

Example: Use the portal method to determine all moments. shears and axial forces in the girders and columns of the building frame shown below : .

For the first story : x + 2x+ 2 x + x = 6x =12+24 = 36 :.Solution: 1.column of a given story Then in accordance with assumption 3 . x = 2 KN 2x = 4KN . let x = shear in each exterior column of a given story 2 x = shear in each interior.column shears In accordance with assumption 4. x = 6 KN 2x = 12KN For the second story : 6 x = 12 :.

M Equating column at joint F gives MFE + MFG = MFJ + MFB 12 +M = 6 + 18 :. 3. MEI=2x1.2. M = 12 KN.m .m Since by assumption(l) there is a point of inflection at the center of girder EF :.5=3KN. MEF=MEI+MEA =3+9=12KN. column moments Each end moment for a given column equals the shear on that column multiplied by half the Length of that column. the moment at the A end of column AE.girder moments Eq( + ) is used to determine girder end moments At joint E for example. equals 6 x 1.m .5=9 KN. MFE= MEF= 12 KN.m. For example MAE. etc.

Girder end moments in the roof can be determined in a similar manner. s =2M/L Hence the shear in girder EF is given by SEF=(2x12)/5=4. etc.8 KN SFj=(2x3)/5=1.2 KN. 4 . . Computing across the girders of the first floor in this manner.m . if moments are taken about one of girder gives SxL=2M :. we find that all the end moments in the girders of the first floor equal 12 KN.m. airder shears In Fig 19b.0 KN. each will be found to equal 3.

2 KN. 6. .0 KN.column axial forces The axial forces in the columns can be obtained by summing up.5. FAE=1. the shears applied to girder by the columns .2+4. can be obtained in a similar manner by summing up. one would of course.8=6. etc. girder axial forces While not usually important in design. the shears applied to the column by the girders Thus FEl = 1. include the effects of lateral loads themselves in such a summation. from the top of the column. from one end of the girder.

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