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Section 3 - Design Principles A, B 3-1

Section 3

Design Principles

A. General For curved plate panels and/or plate panels having aspect
ratios smaller than b/a = 2,24, the thickness may be reduced
as follows:
1. Scope
t =
This Section contains definitions and general design crteria
for hul structural elements as well as indications concerning
C = constant, e.g. C = 1,1 for tank plating
structural details.
f1 =
2. Permissible stresses and required sectional
f2 =
In the following Sections permissible stresses have been
stated in addition to the formulae for calculating the section r = radius of curvature
moduli and cross sectional areas of webs of frames, beams, a = smaller breadth of plate panel
girders, stiffeners etc. and may be used when determining
the scantlings of those elements by means of direct strength b = larger breadth of plate panel
calculations. p = applicable design load.

The required section moduli and web areas are related on tK = corrosion addition according to K.
principle to an axis which is parallel to the connected plating.
The above does not apply to plate panels subjected to ice
For profiles usual in the trade and connected vertically to pressure according to Section 15 and to longitudinally framed
the plating in general the appertaining sectional properties side shell plating according to Section 6.
are given in tables.

Where webs of stiffeners and girders are not fitted vertically 4. Fatigue strength
to the plating (e.g. frames on the shell in the flaring fore
body) the sectional properties (moment of inertia, section Where a fatigue strength analysis is required or will be
modulus and shear area) have to be determined for an axis carried out for structures or structural details this shall be
which is parallel to the plating. in accordance with the requirements of Section 20.

For bulb profiles and flat bars the section modulus of the
inclined profile including plating can be calculated simplified
by multiplying the corresponding value for the vertically B. Upper and Lower Hull Flange
arranged profile by sin where is the smaller angle
between web and attached plating.

Note 1. All continuous longitudinal structural members up

to zo below the strength deck at side and up to zu above base
For bulb profiles and flat bars in general needs only be line are considered to be the upper and lower hull flange
taken into account where is less than 75. respectively.

Furthermore, with asymmetric profiles where additional 2. Where the upper and/or the lower hull flange are
stresses occur according to L. the required section modulus made from normal strength hull structural steel their vertical
is to be increased by the factor ksp depending on the type extent zo = zu equals 0,1 H.
of profile, see L.
On ships with continuous longitudinal structural members
above the strength deck a fictitious depth H' = eB + e'D is
3. Plate panels subjected to lateral pressure to be applied.

The formulae for plate panels subjected to lateral pressure eB = distance between neutral axis of the midship
as given in the following Sections are based on the section and base line [m]
assumption of an uncurved plate panel having an aspect
ratio b/a 2,24. e'D see Section 5, C.4.1
3-2 Section 3 - Design Principles C, D

3. The vertical extent z of the upper and lower hull

flange respectively made from higher tensile steel of one
quality is not to be less than:

z = e (1 S n @ k)

e = distance of deck at side or of the base line from

the neutral axis of the midship section. For ships
with continuous longitudinal structural members
above the strength deck, see Section 5, C.4.1
Fig. 3.1 Unsupported span R
n =

W(a) = actual deck or bottom section modulus D. End Attachments

W = rule deck or bottom section modulus.

1. Definitions
Where two different steel grades are used it has to be
observed that at no point the stresses are higher than the For determining scantlings of beams, stiffeners and girders
permissible stresses according to Section 5, C.1. the terms "constraint" and "simple support" will be used.

"Constraint" will be assumed where for instance the stiffeners

are rigidly connected to other members by means of brackets
C. Unsupported Span or are running throughout over supporting girders.

"Simple support" will be assumed where for instance the

1. Stiffeners, frames stiffener ends are sniped or the stiffeners are connected to
plating only, see also 3.

The unsupported span R is the true length of the stiffeners

between two supporting girders or else their length including 2. Brackets
end attachments (brackets).
2.1 For the scantlings of brackets the required section
The frame spacings and spans are normally assumed to be modulus of the section is decisive. Where sections of
measured in a vertical plane parallel to the centreline of the different section moduli are connected to each other, the
ship. However, if the ship's side deviates more than 10 from scantlings of the brackets are generally governed by the
this plane, the frame distances and spans shall be measured smaller section.
along the side of the ship.
2.2 The thickness of brackets is not to be less than:
Instead of the true length of curved frames the length of
the chord between the supporting points can be selected.
t =

2. Corrugated bulkhead elements

c = 1,2 for non-flanged brackets
The unsupported span R of corrugated bulkhead elements
= 0,95 for flanged brackets
is their length between bottom or deck and their length
between vertical or horizontal girders. Where corrugated
k1 = material factor k for the section according to
bulkhead elements are connected to box type elements of
Section 2, B.2.
comparatively low rigidity, their depth is to be included
into the span R unless otherwise proved by calculations.
tK = corrosion addition according to K

W = section modulus of smaller section [cm3]

3. Transverses and girders
tmin = 5 + tK mm
The unsupported span R of transverses and girders is to be
determined according to Fig. 3.1, depending on the type tmax = web thickness of smaller section.
of end attachment.
For minimum thicknesses in tanks and in cargo holds of
In special cases, the rigidity of the adjoining girders is to bulk carriers see Section 12, A.7., Section 23, B.5.3 and
be taken into account when determining the span of girder. Section 24, A.13.
Section 3 - Design Principles E 3-3

2.3 The arm length of brackets is not to be less than: 4. Corrugated bulkhead elements

Care is to be taken that the forces acting at the supports of

R = [mm] corrugated bulkheads are properly transmitted into the
adjacent structure by fitting structural elements such as
carlings, girders or floors in line with the corrugations.
Rmin = 100 mm
ct =
Where carlings or similar elements cannot be fitted in line
with the web strips of corrugated bulkhead elements, these
web strips cannot be included into the section modulus at
ta = "as built" thickness of bracket [mm]
the support point for transmitting the moment of constraint.
$ t according to 2.2
Deviating from the formula stipulated in Section 11, B.4.3
W = see 2.2 the section modulus of a corrugated element is then to be
k2 = material factor k for the bracket according to determined by the following formulae:
Section 2, B.2.
W= [cm3]
The arm length R is the length of the welded connection.

E. Effective Breadth of Plating
For deviating arm length the thickness of brackets is to
be estimated by direct calculations considering sufficient
safety against buckling. 1. Frames and stiffeners

Generally, the spacing of frames and stiffeners may be taken

2.4 The throat thickness a of the welded connection is as effective breadth of plating.
to be determined according to Section 19, C.2.7.

2.5 Where flanged brackets are used the width of flange 2. Girders
is to be determined according to the following formulae:
2.1 The effective breadth of plating em of frames and
girders may be determined according to Table 3.1 considering
b = [mm] the type of loading.

Special calculations may be required for determining the

b is not to be taken less than 50 mm and need not be taken
effective breadth of one-sided or non-symmetrical flanges.
greater than 90 mm.
2.2 The effective cross sectional area of plates is not
to be less than the cross sectional area of the face plate.
3. Sniped ends of stiffeners

Stiffeners may be sniped at the ends, if the thickness of Table 3.1 Effective breadth em of frames and girders
the plating supported by stiffeners is not less than:
R/e 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
t = [mm] em1/e 0 0,36 0,64 0,82 0,91 0,96 0,98 1,00 1,00
em2/e 0 0,20 0,37 0,52 0,65 0,75 0,84 0,89 0,90

p = design load [kN/m2] em1 is to be applied where girders are loaded by uniformly
distributed loads or else by not less than 6 equally spaced
R = unsupported length of stiffener [m] single loads.
em2 is to be applied where girders are loaded by 3 or less
a = spacing of stiffeners [m] single loads.
ReH = minimum nominal upper yield point of the plating Intermediate values may be obtained by direct interpolation.
material [N/mm2] according to Section 2, B.2 R= length between zero-points of bending moment curve,
i.e. unsupported span in case of simply supported girders
c = 15,8 for watertight bulkheads and for tank
and 0,6 x unsupported span in case of constraint of both
bulkheads when loaded by p2 according to ends of girder
Section 4, D.1.2
e= width of plating supported, measured from centre to
= 19,6 otherwise, centre of the adjacent unsupported fields.
3-4 Section 3 - Design Principles F

2.3 Where the angle between web of stiffeners or else t = nominal plate thickness [mm]
of girders and the attached plating is less than 75E the
required section modulus is to be multiplied by the factor = ta tK [mm]
1/sin .
ta = plate thickness as built [mm]
2.4 The effective width of stiffeners and girders subjected
tK = corrosion addition according to K. [mm]
to compressive stresses may be determined according to
F.2.2, but is in no case to be taken greater than the effective
x = membrane stress in x-direction [N/mm2]
breadth determined by 2.1.
y = membrane stress in y-direction [N/mm2]
3. Cantilevers = shear stress in the x-y plane [N/mm2]
Where cantilevers are fitted at every frame, the effective
Compressive and shear stresses are to be taken positive,
width of plating may be taken as the frame spacing.
tension stresses are to be taken negative.
Where cantilevers are fitted at a greater spacing the effective
breadth of plating at the respective cross section may
approximately be taken as the distance of the cross section
If the stresses in the x- and y-direction contain already the
from the point on which the load is acting, however, not
Poisson - effect, the following modified stress values may
greater than the spacing of the cantilevers.
be used:

Both stresses Fx* and Fy* are to be compressive stresses,

in order to apply the stress reduction according to the
F. Proof of Buckling Strength
following formulae:

The calculation method is based on DIN-standard 18800

1. Definitions

a = length of single or partial plate field [mm] y=

b = breadth of single plate field [mm]

, = stresses containing the Poisson-effect
= aspect ratio of single plate field
Where compressive stress fulfils the condition
= Fy* < 0,3 @ Fx*, then Fy = 0 and Fx = Fx*.

n = number of single plate field breadths within the Where compressive stress fulfils the condition
partial or total plate field Fx* < 0,3 @ Fy*, then Fx = 0 and Fy = Fy*.

When at least Fx* or Fy* is tensio n stress, then

Fx = Fx* and Fy = Fy*.

= edge stress ratio according to Table 3.3

F1 = correction factor for boundary condition at the

long. stiffeners according to Table 3.2

e = reference stress

= [N/mm2]

E = Young's modulus
longitudinal : stiffiner in the direction of the length a
transverse : stiffiner in the direction of the length b = [N/mm2] for steel

Fig. 3.2 Definition of plate fields subject to buckling = [N/mm2] for aluminium alloys
Section 3 - Design Principles F 3-5

Table 3.2 Correction Factor F1

1,0 for stiffeners sniped at both ends

Guidance values where both ends are effectively connected

to adjacent structures * :
Each term of the above condition shall not exceed 1,0.
1,05 for flat bars
The reduction factors x, y and are given in Table 3.3
1,10 for bulb sections and/or 3.4.

1,20 for angle and tee-sections Where x # 0 (tension stress), x = 1,0.

1,30 for girders of high rigidity Where y # 0 (tension stress), y = 1,0.

(e.g. bottom transverses)
The exponents e1, e2 and e3 as well as the factor B are
calculated or set respectively:
* Exact values may be determined by direct calculations.

Exponents e1 e3 plate field

ReH = nominal yield point [N/mm2] for hull structural
steels according to Section 2, B.2. and factor B plane curved

= 0,2 % proof stress [N/mm2] for aluminium alloys e1 1,25

S = safety factor
e2 1,25
= 1,1 in general
e3 1 + x @ y @ 2,0
= 1,2 for structures which are exclusively exposed
to local loads
x and y positive 0
= 1,05 for combinations of statistically independent
(compression stress)
For constructions of aluminium alloys the safety factors x or y negative 1
are to be increased in each case by 0,1. (tension stress)

= reference degree of slenderness

2.2 Effective width of plating

The effective width of plating may be determined by the
following formulae:
K = buckling factor according to Tables 3.3 and
3.4. bm = for longitudinal stiffeners

In general, the ratio plate field breadth to plate thickness am = for transverse stiffeners
shall not exceed b/t = 100.
see also Fig. 3.2.

2. Proof of single plate fields The effective width of plating is not to be taken greater than
the value obtained from E.2.1.
2.1 Proof is to be provided that the following condition
is complied with for the single plate field a @ b:
3-6 Section 3 - Design Principles F

Table 3.3 Plane Plate Fields

Edge stress Aspect ratio

Load case Buckling factor K Reductions factor

K = x = 1 for # c

x = for > c

K =
c =

K = c =

y =
K =
c =

R = for < c

K = R = 0,22 for $ c

F = $0

= 2 0,5 1# #3
K =

c1 = 1 for due to direct


c1 = $ 0 for due

to bending (in general)

K = c1 = 0 for due to bending

in extreme load cases
(e.g. w. t. bulkheads)

K =
H = $R

T =

K =

x = 1 for # 0,7

K =

x = for > 0,7

K =
Section 3 - Design Principles F 3-7

Table 3.3 Plane Plate Fields (Cont.)

Edge stress Aspect ratio

Load case Buckling factor K Reductions factor

K =

K =

K =

= 1 for # 0,84
K = K @ r
= for > 0,84

K = K according to line 5

r = Reductions factor

with # 0,7 and # 0,7

K = 1,28
x = 1 for # 0,7

x = for > 0,7
K =

K = 6,97

K =

x = 1 for # 0,83
K = 4

K =

x =
K =
for > 0,83

K = 6,97

K =

K =

Explanations for boundary conditions : plate edge free

plate edge simply supported
plate edge clamped
3-8 Section 3 - Design Principles F

Table 3.4 Curved plate field R/t 25001)

Aspect ratio
Load case Buckling factor K Reduction factor

K =

x = 12) for # 0,4

x =
for 0,4 < #1,2

x = for > 1,2

K =

pe = external pressure

y = 1 2)
for # 0,25
K =
y =
for 0,25 < # 1

y = 0.3 / 3
K = for 1 < # 1,5

y = 0.2 / 2
for > 1,5

K =

as in load case 1a

K =

= 1
K =
for # 0,4

K = for 0,4 < # 1,2

K =
for > 1,2

Explanations for boundary conditions : plate edge free

plate edge simply supported
plate edge clamped
For curved plate fields with a very large radius the -value need not to be taken less than derived for the expanded plane field.
For curved single fields. e.g. the bilge strake, which are located within plane partial or total fields, the reduction factor may be taken as follows:

Load case 1b : x = 0,8/2 1,0 ; load case 2: y = 0,65/2 1,0

Section 3 - Design Principles F 3-9

Note a $
The effective width e' m of stiffened flange plates of girders e' m = n @ <
may be determined as follows:
Stiffening parallel to web of girder : n = 2,7 @ #1
e = width of plating supported according to E.2.1
For b $ em or a < em respectively, b and a have to be
am and bm for flange plates are in general to be determined
for = 1.

Stress distribution between two girders:

y y
x(y) = x1 1
e 3 + c1 4c2 2 e (1 + c1 2c2 )

c1 = 0 # c1 # 1

c2 =
1.5 "
em1 + e"m2 0.5 )
x1, x2 = normal stresses in flange plates of adjacent
girder 1 and 2 with spacing e.
" '
em1 = proportionate effective width of em1 and em1
b < respectively of girder 1 within the distance e
e' m1
e' m = =
n = integral number of the stiffener spacing b inside "
em2 '
= proportionate effective width of em2 and em2
the effective breadth em according to Table
respectively of girder 2 within the distance e
3.1 in E.2.1
e' m 2
= int e m2

y = distance of considered location from girder 1

Stiffening perpendicular to web of girder: Scantlings of plates and stiffeners are in general to be
determined according to the maximum stresses x(y) at
girder webs and stiffeners respectively. For stiffeners under
compression arranged parallel to the girder web with
spacing b no lesser value than 0,25 @ ReH shall be inserted
for x(y=b).

Shear stress distribution in the flange plates may be assumed


2.3 Webs and flanges

For non-stiffened webs and flanges of sections and girders

proof of sufficient buckling strength as for single plate fields
is to be provided according to 2.1.
3 - 10 Section 3 - Design Principles F

Note for transverse stiffeners:

Within 0,6 L amidships the following guidance values are = [N @ mm]

recommended for the ratio web depth to web thickness and/or
flange breadth to flange thickness:
p = lateral load [kN/m] according to Section 4
flat bars: FKi = ideal buckling force of the stiffener [N]

FKix = for long. stiffeners

angle-, tee and bulb sections:

web: FKiy = for transv. stiffeners

flange: Ix, Iy = moments of inertia of the longitudinal or

transverse stiffener including effective width
of plating according to 2.2 [cm4]
bi = b1 or b2 according to Fig. 3.3, the larger value
is to be taken.
Ix $

3. Proof of partial and total fields

Iy $

3.1 Longitudinal and transverse stiffeners pz = nominal lateral load of the stiffener due to x,
y and [N/mm2]
Proof is to be provided that the continuous longitudinal and
for longitudinal stiffeners:
transverse stiffeners of partial and total plate fields comply
with the conditions set out in 3.2 and 3.3. pzx =

3.2 Lateral buckling

for transverse stiffeners:

pzy =

a = uniformly distributed compressive stress in the x1 = [N/mm2]

direction of the stiffener axis [N/mm2]
= x for longitudinal stiffeners cx, cy = factor taking into account the stresses vertical
= y for transverse stiffeners to the stiffener's axis and distributed variable
along the stiffener's length
b = bending stress in the stiffeners
= 0,5 (1 + ) for 0 # # 1
= [N/mm2]
= for < 0

M0 = bending moment due to deformation w of = edge stress ratio according to Table 3.3
Ax,Ay = sectional area of the longitudinal or transverse
stiffener respectively [mm2]
= [N @ mm]

1 =

M1 = bending moment due to the lateral load p

for longitudinal stiffeners:
for continuous longitudinal stiffeners: : m1 = 1,47 m2 = 0,49

= [N @ mm] : m1 = 1,96 m2 = 0,37

Section 3 - Design Principles F 3 - 11

for transverse stiffeners:

cpy =
: m1 = 0,37 m2 =

: m1 = 0,49 m2 =

w = w o + w1 cy = for n @ b $ 2 a
wo = assumed imperfection [mm],
for long. stiffeners
= for n @ b < 2 a
for transv. stiffeners
cs = factor accounting for the boundary conditions
however wo mm of the transverse stiffener
= 1,0 for simply supported stiffeners
= 2,0 for partially constraint stiffeners
For stiffeners sniped at both ends wo shall not be taken
less than the distance from the midpoint of plating to the Wst = section modulus of stiffener (long. or transverse)
neutral axis of the profile including effective width of plating. [cm3] including effective width of plating
according to 2.2.
w1 = deformation of stiffener due to lateral load p at
midpoint of stiffener span [mm] If no lateral load p is acting the bending stress b is to be
calculated at the midpoint of the stiffener span for the fibre
In case of uniformly distributed load the following values which results in the largest stress value. If a lateral load p
for w1 may be used: is acting, the stress calculation is to be carried out for both
fibres of the stiffeners cross sectional area (if necessary
for longitudinal stiffeners: for the biaxial stress field at the plating side).

w1 = Note
Longitudinal and transverse stiffeners not subjected to lateral
load p have sufficient scantlings if their moments of inertia
for transverse stiffeners: Ix and Iy are not less than obtained by the following
w1 =
Ix = [cm4]
cf = elastic support provided by the stiffener [N/mm2]

cfx = for long. stiffeners

Iy = [cm4]

cpx =

3.3 Torsional buckling

3.3.1 Longitudinal stiffeners:

cx = for a $ 2 b

= for a < 2 b
T = 1,0 for

= for
cfy =

for transv. stiffeners k =

3 - 12 Section 3 - Design Principles F

T = reference degree of slenderness I = sectorial moment of inertia of the stiffener related

to the point C [cm6]
T =
g = degree of fixation

KiT = [N/mm2] =

For IP, IT, I see Fig.3.3 and Table 3.5.

hw = web height [mm]

tw = web thickness [mm]

bf = flange breadth [mm]

tf = flange thickness [mm]

Aw = web area hw tw

Af = flange area bf tf .

Fig. 3.3 Main dimensions of typical longitudinal

3.3.3 Transverse stiffeners
IP = polar moment of inertia of the stiffener related
to the point C [cm4] For transverse stiffeners loaded by compressive stresses
and which are not supported by longitudinal stiffeners, proof
IT = St. Vernants moment of inertia of the stiffener is to be provided in accordance with 3.3.1 analogously.

Table 3.5 Formulas for the calculation of moments of inertia IP, IT, and I

Profile IP IT I

flat bar

for bulb and angle profiles:

profile with
bulb or +
flange for T - profiles:
Section 3 - Design Principles G, H 3 - 13

G. Rigidity of Transverses and Girders

The moment of inertia of deck transverses and girders, is

not to be less than:

I = c@W@R [cm4]

c = 4,0 if both ends are simply supported

= 2,0 if one end is constrained

Fig. 3.4 Support of face plates of cantilevers
= 1,5 if both ends are constrained

W = section modulus of the structural member

2.4 Upon special approval the stiffeners at the knuckles
considered [cm3]
may be omitted if the following condition is complied with:
R = unsupported span of the structural member
considered [m]

a = actual stress in the face plate at the knuckle

H. Structural Details [N/mm2]

p = permissible stress in the face plate [N/mm2]

1. Longitudinal members bf = breadth of face plate [mm]
1.1 All longitudinal members taken into account for be = effective breadth of face plate:
calculating the midship section modulus are to extend over
the required length amidships and are to be tapered gradually be =
to the required end scantlings (see also Section 5, C.1).
tw = web thickness [mm]
1.2 Abrupt discontinuities of strength of longitudinal
members are to be avoided as far as practicable. Where tf = face plate thickness [mm]
longitudinal members having different scantlings are
connected with each other, smooth transitions are to be b =

Special attention in this respect is to be paid to the

construction of continuous longitudinal hatch coamings c =
forming part of the longitudinal hull structure.

1.3 At the ends of longitudinal bulkheads or continuous

longitudinal walls suitable scarphing brackets are to be
cmax = 1
2 = knuckle angle [E], see Fig. 3.5

2. Transverses and girders max = 45E

2.1 Where transverses and girders fitted in the same plane R = radius of rounded face plates [mm]
are connected to each other, major discontinuities of strength = tf for knuckled face plates
shall be avoided. The web depth of the smaller girder shall,
in general, not be less than 60% of the web depth of the n1 = 1 for un-symmetrical face plates (face plate
greater one. at one side only)

2.2 The taper between face plates with different = 2 for symmetrical face plates
dimensions is to be gradual. In general the taper shall not
exceed 1: 3. At intersections the forces acting in the face n2 = 0 for face plate not supported by brackets
plates are to be properly transmitted.
= # 1,0
2.3 For transmitting the acting forces the face plates are
to be supported at their knuckles. For supporting the face
plates of cantilevers, see Fig. 3.4. for face plates of multi-web girders
3 - 14 Section 3 - Design Principles H

n3 = 3 if no radial stiffener is fitted

KS =
= 3000 if two or more radial stiffeners are fitted
or if one knuckle stiffener is fitted
according to Fig. 3.5 (a).

n4 = 7,143 for >8

n3 =

if one stiffener is fitted according to Fig. 3.5 (b). = for 8 $ > 1,35
3 # n3 # 3000
d = distance of the stiffener from the knuckle [mm] = 0,5 @ + 0,125 for 1,35 $ $ ! 0,25
For proof of fatigue strength of the weld seam in the knuckle,
the stress concentration factor KS (angle 2 according to The welding seam has to be shaped according to Fig. 3.6.
Fig. 3.5 < 35) related to the stress a in the face plate of
thickness tf may be estimated as follows and may be Scantlings of stiffeners (guidance) :
evaluated with case 5 of Table 20.3:
thickness: tb =

height: h = 1,5 @ b.

2.5 For preventing the face plates from tripping

adequately spaced stiffeners or tripping brackets are to be
provided. The spacing of these tripping elements shall not
exceed 12@ bf.

2.6 The webs are to be stiffened to prevent buckling (see

also F.).

2.7 The location of lightening holes shall be such that

the distance from hole edge to face plate is not less than
0,3 x web depth.

2.8 In way of high shear stresses lightening holes in the

webs are to be avoided as far as possible.
Fig. 3.5 Typical stiffeners of rounded of knuckled face

Fig. 3.6 Welding and supporting of knuckles

Section 3 - Design Principles J 3 - 15

3. Knuckles (general) If plate edges are free of notches and corners are
rounded-off, a 20 % higher notch stress K may be permitted.
Flanged structural elements transmitting forces perpendicular
to the knuckle, are to be adequately supported at their A further increase of stresses may be permitted on the basis
knuckle, i.e. the knuckles of the inner bottom are to be of a fatigue strength analysis as per Section 20.
located above floors, longitudinal girders or bulkheads.

If longitudinal structures, such as longitudinal bulkheads

or decks, include a knuckle which is formed by two butt-
welded plates, the knuckle is to be supported in the vicinity
of the joint rather than at the exact location of the joint. The
minimum distance d to the supporting structure is to be at
d = 25 +

but not more than 50 mm, see Fig. 3.6.

On bulk carriers at knuckles between inner bottom and tank

side slopes in way of floors the welding cutouts have to be
closed by collar plates or insert plates, see Fig. 3.7. In both
cases a full penetration weld is required to inner bottom
and bottom girder.

Fig.3.8 Notch faktor Kt for rounded openings

For some types of openings the notch factors Kt for

the calculation of the notch stress FK are given in Figs. 3.8
and 3.9.

They apply to stress conditions with uniaxial or biaxial

normal stresses.

In case of superimposed stresses due to longitudinal and

shear loads, the maximum notch stress Kmax of rectangular
openings with rounded corners can approximately be
Fig. 3.7 Knuckles of the double bottom
calculated as follows:

Kmax = + K tv . 12 + 3. 12
J. Evaluation of Notch Stresses

The notch stress K evaluated for linear-elastic material For 1 = tensile stress
behaviour at free plate edges, e.g. at hatch corners, openings
in decks, walls, girders etc., should, in general, fulfill the = K tv . 12 + 3. 12
following criterion:
For 1 = compressive stress

Ktv = notch factor for equivalent stress

f = 1,1 for normal strength hull structural steel
= m. + c
= 0,9 for higher strength hull structural steel
m, c = parameters according to Fig.3.10
with ReH = 315 N/mm2
R, a = length and height of opening
= 0,8 for higher strength hull structural steel
with ReH = 355 N/mm2. 1 = shear stress related to gross area of section

= 0,73 for higher strength hull structural steel 1 = longitudinal stress (in direction of length R of
with ReH = 390 N/mm2 opening) related to gross area of section
3 - 16 Section 3 - Design Principles K

Fig. 3.9 Notch factor Kt for rectangular openings with rounded corners at uniaxial stress condition (left) and at
biaxial stress condition (right)

Fig. 3.10 Parameters m and c to determine the notch factors of rectangular openings loaded by superimposed longitudinal
and shear stresses

r = radius of rounded corner Note

= ratio of smaller length to radius of corner ( R/r These notch factors can only be used for girders with
or a/r) multiple openings if there is no correlation between the
different openings regarding deformations and stresses.
min = 3

K. Corrosion Additions
Because the notch factor and the equivalent stress are always
positive, the sign of 1 governs the most unfavourable
1. The scantling requirements of the subsequent Sections
superposition of the stress components in any of the four
imply the following general corrosion addition tK :
corners. A load consisting of shear only, results in notch
stresses of equal size with two positive and two negative
values in the opposite corners. tK = 1,5 mm for 10 mm

An exact evaluation of notch stresses is possible by means = mm, max. 3,0 mm

of finite element calculations. For fatigue investigations
the stress increase due to geometry of cut-outs has to be
considered, see Table 20.3.
for > 10 mm
Section 3 - Design Principles L 3 - 17

= required rule thickness excluding tK [mm]. Rf = unsupported span of flange [m]

k = material factor according to Section 2, B.2. tf, bl, b2= flange dimensions [ mm ] as shown Fig. 3.11.
b1 b2
2. For structural elements in specified areas tK is not Wy = Section modulus of section related to the y-y axis
to be less than given in Table 3.6: including the effective width of plating [cm3]

Table 3.6 Minimum corrosion addition Wz = section modulus of the partial section consisting
of flange and half of web area related to the z-z
axis [cm3] (Bulb sections may be converted into
tKmin a similar L-section)

In ballast tanks where the weather deck

forms the tank top, 1,5 m below tank top1).

In cargo oil tanks where the weather deck

forms the tank top, 1,5 m below tank top.
Horizontal members in cargo oil and fuel
oil tanks.

Deck plating below elastically mounted


Longitudinal bulkheads of ships assigned

to the Notation G and exposed to grab 2,5
operation Fig. 3.11 Asymmetrical profile
tK = 2,5 mm for all structures within topside tanks of bulk
carriers. c = factor depending on kind of load, stiffness of the
sections web and length and kind of support of
For corrosion protection see Section 38. the profile.

For profiles clamped at both ends and constant

3. For structures in dry spaces such as box girders of area load c = 80 can be taken for approximation.
container ships and for similar spaces the corrosion addition A precise calculation may be required, e.g. for
is: longitudinal frames of tankers.
tK = , max. 2,5 mm
This additional stress h is to be added directly to other
stresses such as those resulting from local and hull girder
however, not less than 1,0 mm. bending.

4. Corrosion addition for hatch covers and hatch 2. Correction of section modulus
coamings are to be determined according to Section 17.
The required section modulus Wy according to A.2. is to
be multiplied with the factor ksp according to Table 3.7

L. Additional Stresses in Asymmetric Sections Table 3.7 Increase factor ksp

1. Additional stresses for fatique strength analysis

Type of Profile ksp
The additional stress h occurring in non-symmetric sections
Flat bars and symmetric T-profiles 1,00
may be calculated by the following formulae:
Bulb profiles 1,03

Asymmetric T profiles

Q = load on section parallel to its web within the

unsupported span Rf [kN] Rolled angels (L-profiles) 1,15
= p @ a @ Rf [kN] in case of uniformly distributed
load p [kN/m2]