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konstruksi kapal

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Section 3

Design Principles

A. General For curved plate panels and/or plate panels having aspect

ratios smaller than b/a = 2,24, the thickness may be reduced

as follows:

1. Scope

t =

This Section contains definitions and general design crteria

for hul structural elements as well as indications concerning

C = constant, e.g. C = 1,1 for tank plating

structural details.

f1 =

2. Permissible stresses and required sectional

properties

f2 =

In the following Sections permissible stresses have been

stated in addition to the formulae for calculating the section r = radius of curvature

moduli and cross sectional areas of webs of frames, beams, a = smaller breadth of plate panel

girders, stiffeners etc. and may be used when determining

the scantlings of those elements by means of direct strength b = larger breadth of plate panel

calculations. p = applicable design load.

The required section moduli and web areas are related on tK = corrosion addition according to K.

principle to an axis which is parallel to the connected plating.

The above does not apply to plate panels subjected to ice

For profiles usual in the trade and connected vertically to pressure according to Section 15 and to longitudinally framed

the plating in general the appertaining sectional properties side shell plating according to Section 6.

are given in tables.

Where webs of stiffeners and girders are not fitted vertically 4. Fatigue strength

to the plating (e.g. frames on the shell in the flaring fore

body) the sectional properties (moment of inertia, section Where a fatigue strength analysis is required or will be

modulus and shear area) have to be determined for an axis carried out for structures or structural details this shall be

which is parallel to the plating. in accordance with the requirements of Section 20.

For bulb profiles and flat bars the section modulus of the

inclined profile including plating can be calculated simplified

by multiplying the corresponding value for the vertically B. Upper and Lower Hull Flange

arranged profile by sin where is the smaller angle

between web and attached plating.

to zo below the strength deck at side and up to zu above base

For bulb profiles and flat bars in general needs only be line are considered to be the upper and lower hull flange

taken into account where is less than 75. respectively.

Furthermore, with asymmetric profiles where additional 2. Where the upper and/or the lower hull flange are

stresses occur according to L. the required section modulus made from normal strength hull structural steel their vertical

is to be increased by the factor ksp depending on the type extent zo = zu equals 0,1 H.

of profile, see L.

On ships with continuous longitudinal structural members

above the strength deck a fictitious depth H' = eB + e'D is

3. Plate panels subjected to lateral pressure to be applied.

The formulae for plate panels subjected to lateral pressure eB = distance between neutral axis of the midship

as given in the following Sections are based on the section and base line [m]

assumption of an uncurved plate panel having an aspect

ratio b/a 2,24. e'D see Section 5, C.4.1

3-2 Section 3 - Design Principles C, D

flange respectively made from higher tensile steel of one

quality is not to be less than:

z = e (1 S n @ k)

the neutral axis of the midship section. For ships

with continuous longitudinal structural members

above the strength deck, see Section 5, C.4.1

Fig. 3.1 Unsupported span R

n =

1. Definitions

Where two different steel grades are used it has to be

observed that at no point the stresses are higher than the For determining scantlings of beams, stiffeners and girders

permissible stresses according to Section 5, C.1. the terms "constraint" and "simple support" will be used.

are rigidly connected to other members by means of brackets

C. Unsupported Span or are running throughout over supporting girders.

1. Stiffeners, frames stiffener ends are sniped or the stiffeners are connected to

plating only, see also 3.

between two supporting girders or else their length including 2. Brackets

end attachments (brackets).

2.1 For the scantlings of brackets the required section

The frame spacings and spans are normally assumed to be modulus of the section is decisive. Where sections of

measured in a vertical plane parallel to the centreline of the different section moduli are connected to each other, the

ship. However, if the ship's side deviates more than 10 from scantlings of the brackets are generally governed by the

this plane, the frame distances and spans shall be measured smaller section.

along the side of the ship.

2.2 The thickness of brackets is not to be less than:

Instead of the true length of curved frames the length of

the chord between the supporting points can be selected.

t =

c = 1,2 for non-flanged brackets

The unsupported span R of corrugated bulkhead elements

= 0,95 for flanged brackets

is their length between bottom or deck and their length

between vertical or horizontal girders. Where corrugated

k1 = material factor k for the section according to

bulkhead elements are connected to box type elements of

Section 2, B.2.

comparatively low rigidity, their depth is to be included

into the span R unless otherwise proved by calculations.

tK = corrosion addition according to K

3. Transverses and girders

tmin = 5 + tK mm

The unsupported span R of transverses and girders is to be

determined according to Fig. 3.1, depending on the type tmax = web thickness of smaller section.

of end attachment.

For minimum thicknesses in tanks and in cargo holds of

In special cases, the rigidity of the adjoining girders is to bulk carriers see Section 12, A.7., Section 23, B.5.3 and

be taken into account when determining the span of girder. Section 24, A.13.

Section 3 - Design Principles E 3-3

2.3 The arm length of brackets is not to be less than: 4. Corrugated bulkhead elements

R = [mm] corrugated bulkheads are properly transmitted into the

adjacent structure by fitting structural elements such as

carlings, girders or floors in line with the corrugations.

Rmin = 100 mm

Note

ct =

Where carlings or similar elements cannot be fitted in line

with the web strips of corrugated bulkhead elements, these

web strips cannot be included into the section modulus at

ta = "as built" thickness of bracket [mm]

the support point for transmitting the moment of constraint.

$ t according to 2.2

Deviating from the formula stipulated in Section 11, B.4.3

W = see 2.2 the section modulus of a corrugated element is then to be

k2 = material factor k for the bracket according to determined by the following formulae:

Section 2, B.2.

W= [cm3]

The arm length R is the length of the welded connection.

Note

E. Effective Breadth of Plating

For deviating arm length the thickness of brackets is to

be estimated by direct calculations considering sufficient

safety against buckling. 1. Frames and stiffeners

2.4 The throat thickness a of the welded connection is as effective breadth of plating.

to be determined according to Section 19, C.2.7.

2.5 Where flanged brackets are used the width of flange 2. Girders

is to be determined according to the following formulae:

2.1 The effective breadth of plating em of frames and

girders may be determined according to Table 3.1 considering

b = [mm] the type of loading.

b is not to be taken less than 50 mm and need not be taken

effective breadth of one-sided or non-symmetrical flanges.

greater than 90 mm.

2.2 The effective cross sectional area of plates is not

to be less than the cross sectional area of the face plate.

3. Sniped ends of stiffeners

Stiffeners may be sniped at the ends, if the thickness of Table 3.1 Effective breadth em of frames and girders

the plating supported by stiffeners is not less than:

R/e 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

t = [mm] em1/e 0 0,36 0,64 0,82 0,91 0,96 0,98 1,00 1,00

em2/e 0 0,20 0,37 0,52 0,65 0,75 0,84 0,89 0,90

p = design load [kN/m2] em1 is to be applied where girders are loaded by uniformly

distributed loads or else by not less than 6 equally spaced

R = unsupported length of stiffener [m] single loads.

em2 is to be applied where girders are loaded by 3 or less

a = spacing of stiffeners [m] single loads.

ReH = minimum nominal upper yield point of the plating Intermediate values may be obtained by direct interpolation.

material [N/mm2] according to Section 2, B.2 R= length between zero-points of bending moment curve,

i.e. unsupported span in case of simply supported girders

c = 15,8 for watertight bulkheads and for tank

and 0,6 x unsupported span in case of constraint of both

bulkheads when loaded by p2 according to ends of girder

Section 4, D.1.2

e= width of plating supported, measured from centre to

= 19,6 otherwise, centre of the adjacent unsupported fields.

3-4 Section 3 - Design Principles F

2.3 Where the angle between web of stiffeners or else t = nominal plate thickness [mm]

of girders and the attached plating is less than 75E the

required section modulus is to be multiplied by the factor = ta tK [mm]

1/sin .

ta = plate thickness as built [mm]

2.4 The effective width of stiffeners and girders subjected

tK = corrosion addition according to K. [mm]

to compressive stresses may be determined according to

F.2.2, but is in no case to be taken greater than the effective

x = membrane stress in x-direction [N/mm2]

breadth determined by 2.1.

y = membrane stress in y-direction [N/mm2]

3. Cantilevers = shear stress in the x-y plane [N/mm2]

Where cantilevers are fitted at every frame, the effective

Compressive and shear stresses are to be taken positive,

width of plating may be taken as the frame spacing.

tension stresses are to be taken negative.

Where cantilevers are fitted at a greater spacing the effective

Note

breadth of plating at the respective cross section may

approximately be taken as the distance of the cross section

If the stresses in the x- and y-direction contain already the

from the point on which the load is acting, however, not

Poisson - effect, the following modified stress values may

greater than the spacing of the cantilevers.

be used:

in order to apply the stress reduction according to the

F. Proof of Buckling Strength

following formulae:

x=

1. Definitions

, = stresses containing the Poisson-effect

= aspect ratio of single plate field

Where compressive stress fulfils the condition

= Fy* < 0,3 @ Fx*, then Fy = 0 and Fx = Fx*.

n = number of single plate field breadths within the Where compressive stress fulfils the condition

partial or total plate field Fx* < 0,3 @ Fy*, then Fx = 0 and Fy = Fy*.

Fx = Fx* and Fy = Fy*.

long. stiffeners according to Table 3.2

e = reference stress

= [N/mm2]

E = Young's modulus

longitudinal : stiffiner in the direction of the length a

transverse : stiffiner in the direction of the length b = [N/mm2] for steel

Fig. 3.2 Definition of plate fields subject to buckling = [N/mm2] for aluminium alloys

Section 3 - Design Principles F 3-5

to adjacent structures * :

Each term of the above condition shall not exceed 1,0.

1,05 for flat bars

The reduction factors x, y and are given in Table 3.3

1,10 for bulb sections and/or 3.4.

(e.g. bottom transverses)

The exponents e1, e2 and e3 as well as the factor B are

calculated or set respectively:

* Exact values may be determined by direct calculations.

ReH = nominal yield point [N/mm2] for hull structural

steels according to Section 2, B.2. and factor B plane curved

S = safety factor

e2 1,25

= 1,1 in general

e3 1 + x @ y @ 2,0

= 1,2 for structures which are exclusively exposed

to local loads

B

x and y positive 0

= 1,05 for combinations of statistically independent

(compression stress)

loads

B

For constructions of aluminium alloys the safety factors x or y negative 1

are to be increased in each case by 0,1. (tension stress)

=

The effective width of plating may be determined by the

following formulae:

K = buckling factor according to Tables 3.3 and

3.4. bm = for longitudinal stiffeners

In general, the ratio plate field breadth to plate thickness am = for transverse stiffeners

shall not exceed b/t = 100.

see also Fig. 3.2.

2. Proof of single plate fields The effective width of plating is not to be taken greater than

the value obtained from E.2.1.

2.1 Proof is to be provided that the following condition

is complied with for the single plate field a @ b:

3-6 Section 3 - Design Principles F

Load case Buckling factor K Reductions factor

ratio

K = x = 1 for # c

x = for > c

K =

c =

K = c =

y =

K =

c =

R = for < c

K = R = 0,22 for $ c

F = $0

= 2 0,5 1# #3

K =

loads

c1 = $ 0 for due

in extreme load cases

(e.g. w. t. bulkheads)

K =

H = $R

T =

K =

x = 1 for # 0,7

K =

K =

Section 3 - Design Principles F 3-7

Load case Buckling factor K Reductions factor

ratio

K =

K =

K =

= 1 for # 0,84

K = K @ r

= for > 0,84

K = K according to line 5

r = Reductions factor

K = 1,28

x = 1 for # 0,7

x = for > 0,7

K =

K = 6,97

K =

x = 1 for # 0,83

K = 4

K =

x =

K =

for > 0,83

K = 6,97

K =

K =

plate edge simply supported

plate edge clamped

3-8 Section 3 - Design Principles F

Aspect ratio

Load case Buckling factor K Reduction factor

b/R

K =

x =

for 0,4 < #1,2

K =

pe = external pressure

[N/mm2]

y = 1 2)

for # 0,25

K =

y =

for 0,25 < # 1

y = 0.3 / 3

K = for 1 < # 1,5

y = 0.2 / 2

for > 1,5

K =

as in load case 1a

K =

= 1

K =

for # 0,4

=

K = for 0,4 < # 1,2

=

K =

for > 1,2

plate edge simply supported

plate edge clamped

1)

For curved plate fields with a very large radius the -value need not to be taken less than derived for the expanded plane field.

2)

For curved single fields. e.g. the bilge strake, which are located within plane partial or total fields, the reduction factor may be taken as follows:

Section 3 - Design Principles F 3-9

Note a $

The effective width e' m of stiffened flange plates of girders e' m = n @ <

may be determined as follows:

em

Stiffening parallel to web of girder : n = 2,7 @ #1

a

e = width of plating supported according to E.2.1

For b $ em or a < em respectively, b and a have to be

exchanged.

am and bm for flange plates are in general to be determined

for = 1.

y y

x(y) = x1 1

e 3 + c1 4c2 2 e (1 + c1 2c2 )

x2

c1 = 0 # c1 # 1

x1

c2 =

1.5 "

e

(

em1 + e"m2 0.5 )

x1, x2 = normal stresses in flange plates of adjacent

girder 1 and 2 with spacing e.

" '

em1 = proportionate effective width of em1 and em1

b < respectively of girder 1 within the distance e

e' m1

e' m = =

em1

n = integral number of the stiffener spacing b inside "

em2 '

= proportionate effective width of em2 and em2

the effective breadth em according to Table

respectively of girder 2 within the distance e

3.1 in E.2.1

e' m 2

=

= int e m2

Stiffening perpendicular to web of girder: Scantlings of plates and stiffeners are in general to be

determined according to the maximum stresses x(y) at

girder webs and stiffeners respectively. For stiffeners under

compression arranged parallel to the girder web with

spacing b no lesser value than 0,25 @ ReH shall be inserted

for x(y=b).

linearly.

proof of sufficient buckling strength as for single plate fields

is to be provided according to 2.1.

3 - 10 Section 3 - Design Principles F

recommended for the ratio web depth to web thickness and/or

flange breadth to flange thickness:

p = lateral load [kN/m] according to Section 4

flat bars: FKi = ideal buckling force of the stiffener [N]

angle-, tee and bulb sections:

transverse stiffener including effective width

of plating according to 2.2 [cm4]

bi = b1 or b2 according to Fig. 3.3, the larger value

is to be taken.

Ix $

Iy $

3.1 Longitudinal and transverse stiffeners pz = nominal lateral load of the stiffener due to x,

y and [N/mm2]

Proof is to be provided that the continuous longitudinal and

for longitudinal stiffeners:

transverse stiffeners of partial and total plate fields comply

with the conditions set out in 3.2 and 3.3. pzx =

for transverse stiffeners:

pzy =

direction of the stiffener axis [N/mm2]

= x for longitudinal stiffeners cx, cy = factor taking into account the stresses vertical

= y for transverse stiffeners to the stiffener's axis and distributed variable

along the stiffener's length

b = bending stress in the stiffeners

= 0,5 (1 + ) for 0 # # 1

= [N/mm2]

= for < 0

M0 = bending moment due to deformation w of = edge stress ratio according to Table 3.3

stiffener

Ax,Ay = sectional area of the longitudinal or transverse

stiffener respectively [mm2]

= [N @ mm]

1 =

for longitudinal stiffeners:

for continuous longitudinal stiffeners: : m1 = 1,47 m2 = 0,49

Section 3 - Design Principles F 3 - 11

cpy =

: m1 = 0,37 m2 =

: m1 = 0,49 m2 =

w = w o + w1 cy = for n @ b $ 2 a

wo = assumed imperfection [mm],

for long. stiffeners

= for n @ b < 2 a

for transv. stiffeners

cs = factor accounting for the boundary conditions

however wo mm of the transverse stiffener

= 1,0 for simply supported stiffeners

Note

= 2,0 for partially constraint stiffeners

For stiffeners sniped at both ends wo shall not be taken

less than the distance from the midpoint of plating to the Wst = section modulus of stiffener (long. or transverse)

neutral axis of the profile including effective width of plating. [cm3] including effective width of plating

according to 2.2.

w1 = deformation of stiffener due to lateral load p at

midpoint of stiffener span [mm] If no lateral load p is acting the bending stress b is to be

calculated at the midpoint of the stiffener span for the fibre

In case of uniformly distributed load the following values which results in the largest stress value. If a lateral load p

for w1 may be used: is acting, the stress calculation is to be carried out for both

fibres of the stiffeners cross sectional area (if necessary

for longitudinal stiffeners: for the biaxial stress field at the plating side).

w1 = Note

Longitudinal and transverse stiffeners not subjected to lateral

load p have sufficient scantlings if their moments of inertia

for transverse stiffeners: Ix and Iy are not less than obtained by the following

formulae:

w1 =

Ix = [cm4]

cf = elastic support provided by the stiffener [N/mm2]

Iy = [cm4]

cpx =

cx = for a $ 2 b

= for a < 2 b

T = 1,0 for

= for

cfy =

3 - 12 Section 3 - Design Principles F

to the point C [cm6]

T =

g = degree of fixation

KiT = [N/mm2] =

hw = web height [mm]

Aw = web area hw tw

Af = flange area bf tf .

stiffners

3.3.3 Transverse stiffeners

IP = polar moment of inertia of the stiffener related

to the point C [cm4] For transverse stiffeners loaded by compressive stresses

and which are not supported by longitudinal stiffeners, proof

IT = St. Vernants moment of inertia of the stiffener is to be provided in accordance with 3.3.1 analogously.

[cm4]

Table 3.5 Formulas for the calculation of moments of inertia IP, IT, and I

Profile IP IT I

flat bar

profile with

bulb or +

flange for T - profiles:

Section 3 - Design Principles G, H 3 - 13

not to be less than:

I = c@W@R [cm4]

Fig. 3.4 Support of face plates of cantilevers

= 1,5 if both ends are constrained

2.4 Upon special approval the stiffeners at the knuckles

considered [cm3]

may be omitted if the following condition is complied with:

R = unsupported span of the structural member

considered [m]

H. Structural Details [N/mm2]

1. Longitudinal members bf = breadth of face plate [mm]

1.1 All longitudinal members taken into account for be = effective breadth of face plate:

calculating the midship section modulus are to extend over

the required length amidships and are to be tapered gradually be =

to the required end scantlings (see also Section 5, C.1).

tw = web thickness [mm]

1.2 Abrupt discontinuities of strength of longitudinal

members are to be avoided as far as practicable. Where tf = face plate thickness [mm]

longitudinal members having different scantlings are

connected with each other, smooth transitions are to be b =

provided.

construction of continuous longitudinal hatch coamings c =

forming part of the longitudinal hull structure.

longitudinal walls suitable scarphing brackets are to be

cmax = 1

provided.

2 = knuckle angle [E], see Fig. 3.5

2.1 Where transverses and girders fitted in the same plane R = radius of rounded face plates [mm]

are connected to each other, major discontinuities of strength = tf for knuckled face plates

shall be avoided. The web depth of the smaller girder shall,

in general, not be less than 60% of the web depth of the n1 = 1 for un-symmetrical face plates (face plate

greater one. at one side only)

2.2 The taper between face plates with different = 2 for symmetrical face plates

dimensions is to be gradual. In general the taper shall not

exceed 1: 3. At intersections the forces acting in the face n2 = 0 for face plate not supported by brackets

plates are to be properly transmitted.

= # 1,0

2.3 For transmitting the acting forces the face plates are

to be supported at their knuckles. For supporting the face

plates of cantilevers, see Fig. 3.4. for face plates of multi-web girders

3 - 14 Section 3 - Design Principles H

KS =

= 3000 if two or more radial stiffeners are fitted

or if one knuckle stiffener is fitted

according to Fig. 3.5 (a).

n3 =

if one stiffener is fitted according to Fig. 3.5 (b). = for 8 $ > 1,35

3 # n3 # 3000

d = distance of the stiffener from the knuckle [mm] = 0,5 @ + 0,125 for 1,35 $ $ ! 0,25

For proof of fatigue strength of the weld seam in the knuckle,

the stress concentration factor KS (angle 2 according to The welding seam has to be shaped according to Fig. 3.6.

Fig. 3.5 < 35) related to the stress a in the face plate of

thickness tf may be estimated as follows and may be Scantlings of stiffeners (guidance) :

evaluated with case 5 of Table 20.3:

thickness: tb =

height: h = 1,5 @ b.

adequately spaced stiffeners or tripping brackets are to be

provided. The spacing of these tripping elements shall not

exceed 12@ bf.

also F.).

the distance from hole edge to face plate is not less than

0,3 x web depth.

webs are to be avoided as far as possible.

Fig. 3.5 Typical stiffeners of rounded of knuckled face

plates

Section 3 - Design Principles J 3 - 15

3. Knuckles (general) If plate edges are free of notches and corners are

rounded-off, a 20 % higher notch stress K may be permitted.

Flanged structural elements transmitting forces perpendicular

to the knuckle, are to be adequately supported at their A further increase of stresses may be permitted on the basis

knuckle, i.e. the knuckles of the inner bottom are to be of a fatigue strength analysis as per Section 20.

located above floors, longitudinal girders or bulkheads.

or decks, include a knuckle which is formed by two butt-

welded plates, the knuckle is to be supported in the vicinity

of the joint rather than at the exact location of the joint. The

minimum distance d to the supporting structure is to be at

least:

d = 25 +

side slopes in way of floors the welding cutouts have to be

closed by collar plates or insert plates, see Fig. 3.7. In both

cases a full penetration weld is required to inner bottom

and bottom girder.

the calculation of the notch stress FK are given in Figs. 3.8

and 3.9.

normal stresses.

shear loads, the maximum notch stress Kmax of rectangular

openings with rounded corners can approximately be

Fig. 3.7 Knuckles of the double bottom

calculated as follows:

Kmax = + K tv . 12 + 3. 12

J. Evaluation of Notch Stresses

The notch stress K evaluated for linear-elastic material For 1 = tensile stress

behaviour at free plate edges, e.g. at hatch corners, openings

in decks, walls, girders etc., should, in general, fulfill the = K tv . 12 + 3. 12

following criterion:

For 1 = compressive stress

f = 1,1 for normal strength hull structural steel

= m. + c

= 0,9 for higher strength hull structural steel

m, c = parameters according to Fig.3.10

with ReH = 315 N/mm2

R, a = length and height of opening

= 0,8 for higher strength hull structural steel

with ReH = 355 N/mm2. 1 = shear stress related to gross area of section

= 0,73 for higher strength hull structural steel 1 = longitudinal stress (in direction of length R of

with ReH = 390 N/mm2 opening) related to gross area of section

3 - 16 Section 3 - Design Principles K

Fig. 3.9 Notch factor Kt for rectangular openings with rounded corners at uniaxial stress condition (left) and at

biaxial stress condition (right)

Fig. 3.10 Parameters m and c to determine the notch factors of rectangular openings loaded by superimposed longitudinal

and shear stresses

= ratio of smaller length to radius of corner ( R/r These notch factors can only be used for girders with

or a/r) multiple openings if there is no correlation between the

different openings regarding deformations and stresses.

min = 3

Note

K. Corrosion Additions

Because the notch factor and the equivalent stress are always

positive, the sign of 1 governs the most unfavourable

1. The scantling requirements of the subsequent Sections

superposition of the stress components in any of the four

imply the following general corrosion addition tK :

corners. A load consisting of shear only, results in notch

stresses of equal size with two positive and two negative

values in the opposite corners. tK = 1,5 mm for 10 mm

of finite element calculations. For fatigue investigations

the stress increase due to geometry of cut-outs has to be

considered, see Table 20.3.

for > 10 mm

Section 3 - Design Principles L 3 - 17

k = material factor according to Section 2, B.2. tf, bl, b2= flange dimensions [ mm ] as shown Fig. 3.11.

b1 b2

2. For structural elements in specified areas tK is not Wy = Section modulus of section related to the y-y axis

to be less than given in Table 3.6: including the effective width of plating [cm3]

Table 3.6 Minimum corrosion addition Wz = section modulus of the partial section consisting

of flange and half of web area related to the z-z

axis [cm3] (Bulb sections may be converted into

tKmin a similar L-section)

Area

[mm]

2,5

forms the tank top, 1,5 m below tank top1).

forms the tank top, 1,5 m below tank top.

2,0

Horizontal members in cargo oil and fuel

oil tanks.

3,0

deckhouses

to the Notation G and exposed to grab 2,5

operation Fig. 3.11 Asymmetrical profile

1)

tK = 2,5 mm for all structures within topside tanks of bulk

carriers. c = factor depending on kind of load, stiffness of the

sections web and length and kind of support of

For corrosion protection see Section 38. the profile.

3. For structures in dry spaces such as box girders of area load c = 80 can be taken for approximation.

container ships and for similar spaces the corrosion addition A precise calculation may be required, e.g. for

is: longitudinal frames of tankers.

tK = , max. 2,5 mm

This additional stress h is to be added directly to other

stresses such as those resulting from local and hull girder

however, not less than 1,0 mm. bending.

4. Corrosion addition for hatch covers and hatch 2. Correction of section modulus

coamings are to be determined according to Section 17.

The required section modulus Wy according to A.2. is to

be multiplied with the factor ksp according to Table 3.7

Type of Profile ksp

The additional stress h occurring in non-symmetric sections

Flat bars and symmetric T-profiles 1,00

may be calculated by the following formulae:

Bulb profiles 1,03

1,05

Asymmetric T profiles

unsupported span Rf [kN] Rolled angels (L-profiles) 1,15

= p @ a @ Rf [kN] in case of uniformly distributed

load p [kN/m2]

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