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III SEMESTER

## EE6365 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LABORATORY MANUAL

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CONTENT

7 transformer

8 methods

## 12 Study of DC & AC Starters

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## LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM:

To conduct a direct load test on the given dc shunt motor and to plot the following performance
characteristics: 1) Efficiency vs Output power (2) Torque vs Output power (3) Speed vs Output Power (4)
Line current vs Output Power (5) Torque vs Speed.

## Rated Voltage = Rated Current =

Rated Speed = Power rating =

EXCITATION:

Voltage = Current =

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

## 3 Ammeter (0-2 A), MC 1 each

(0-20 A), MC

4 Rheostat 220 , 1 A
1No
5 Tachometer, DPSTS - 1each

## 6 Connecting wires & Fuse - As Required

THEORY:

Load test on motors are performed to know about the efficiency, torque and speed characteristics,
which enable us to select an appropriate motor for an application. The torque equation of a DC Motor is
given by Ta = 0.159 (xPxZ / A) * Ia N-m, where =Flux per pole (Wb), P= No. of poles, Z= No. of armature
conductors, A = no. of parallel paths. As P, Z, A being constant, the above equation reduces to T a=K Ia. In
a DC Shunt motor as is constant, the torque is directly proportional to armature current.
The speed of a DC motor is given by, N = K (V - IaRa) /. Since is constant, the speed is directly
proportional to (V-Ia Ra). As the load on the motor increases, the drop IaRa becomes negligible as `Ra ' is very
small and the speed is nearly constant.
Hence a DC shunt motor is considered as a constant speed motor. If a DC shunt motor is started on
load, it draws a heavy armature current which in turn will damage the machine itself. Hence DC shunt
motors are always started on no-load condition.

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## PRECAUTIONS: (Not to be included in the Record)

1. Remove the fuse carriers before wiring and start wiring as per the circuit diagram.
2. Check the position of the rheostat as specified in the procedure.
3. The load on motor must be released initially.
4. Fuse calculations: As this is a load test, the required fuse ratings are 120% of the rated current of the
motor.
5. Replace the fuse carriers with appropriate fuse wires after the circuit connections are checked by the
Staff-in-charge.

PROCEDURE:

## 1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keeping the motor field rheostat in its minimum position and the starter in its OFF position the main
supply is switched ON by closing the DPSTS.
3. The motor is started using the three-point starter by slowly and carefully moving the starter handle
from its OFF to ON position.
4. The motor is brought to its rated speed by gradually adjusting the field rheostat and checked with the
help of a tachometer.
5. Under this no load condition, one set of readings namely, applied voltage (VL), armature current (Ia),
field current (If), the two spring balance readings (F1and F2) and motor speed (N) are noted down in
the tabular column.
6. The load on the motor is increased in steps gradually and at each step, all the meter readings and the
motor speed are recorded in the tabular column. The above procedure is repeated until the motor is
loaded to 120% of its rated current.
7. After the experiment is completed, the load on motor is gradually decreased to minimum and the
rheostat is brought back to its original position and then the main supply is switched OFF.
8. After completing the experiment, calculate the Torque, Armature current, Input power, Output
power and Efficiency using the formulae given.
9. The plots of Efficiency vs Output Power, Torque vs Output Power, Line Current vs Output Power
and Speed vs Output Power are plotted in the same graph sheet and also the Speed vs Torque
response is plotted in a separate graph sheet.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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FUSE CALCULATION:

TABULAR COLUMN:

VL IL IF F1 F2 F1 ~ F2 N T Ia I/P O/P %
(V) (A) (A) (Kg) (Kg) (Kg) (rpm) (Nm) (A) (W) (W) (%)

FORMULAE USED:

1. The circumference of the brake drum (c) is measured and the radius of the drum (r) is calculated
using the expression r=c/2, R=r + t/2, t - thickness of the belt, Radius of the drum including
thickness of the belt, R= m.
2. The line current is calculated as IL =Ia+ If
3. The input power to the motor = VL*IL Watt.
4. The torque developed by the motor is given by T= 9.81* R * (F1~F2) N-m.
2NT
5. The output power of the motor = W
60
6. The efficiency of the motor = (Output Power/Input Power )* 100 %

MODEL GRAPH:

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MODEL CALCULATIONS:

RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

## 1. What is the need for a starter?

2. Why a DC shunt motor is called a constant Speed motor?
3. State few applications of DC shunt motor.
4. What is the role of commutator in a DC motor?
5. How to reverse the direction of rotation of DC shunt motor?

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## LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR

AIM:
To find performance characteristics of a DC series motor by conducting the load test

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 DC Series Motor Set up - 1 No. 1

## 5 Connecting wires & Fuse - As 6

Required

THEORY:
It is early observed that at no load the motor current and hence the flux per pole tends to
zero and as a consequence the motor speed tends to increase to infinite. This is a dangerous
situation and the centrifugal force will destroy the armature flux a series motor must never to
allowed to run at no load torque increases the motor speed drops heavily there by the KW load on
the motor of this type of speed torque characteristics and is ideally switched for function, cranes,
etc., Application were as during starting a large accelerating torque is demanded by the load is at

FORMULAE
1. Torque ( T )=S*9.81*R Nm
2. Input Power (Pi) = VL * IL watt
3. Output power (Po) = 2NT/60 watt
4. Efficiency () = Output power / Input power X 100 %
where,
VL Line Voltage
IL Line current

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N Speed in rpm
T Torque in Nm

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

## FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS

PRECAUTIONS:
1. DC series motor should be started and stopped with some load.
2. Brake drum should be cooled with water when it is under load.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the load condition, DPST switch is closed and start using 2-point starter.
3. Ammeter, Voltmeter readings, speed and spring balance readings are noted on initial
condition.

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balance readings and speed of the motor are noted up to 125% of the rated current.
5. The motor is then brought to low load condition then DPST switch is opened.

TABULAR COLUMN:
Circumference of the Brake drum =_________m.
Spring Balance Input Output
Voltage Speed
Current Reading S=S1 S2 Torque Power Power Efficiency
S. No. VL (V) N
I L (A) S1 (Kg) S2 (Kg) (Kg) T (Nm) Pi Po %
(rpm)
(W) (W)
1

Circumference = 2 R =

Radius = R=Circumference / (2 )
= _________m

MODEL CALCULATION

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MODEL GRAPH

RESULT:

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OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF
SELF EXCITED DC SHUNT GENERATOR
AIM:
To obtain open circuit characteristics and load characteristics of a self excited DC shunt
generator and find its critical resistance

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No. Apparatus Range & Type Quantity
1 DC Shunt Generator Set up - 1 No
2 Voltmeter (0-300 V), MC 1 No
(0-2 A), MC
3 Ammeter 1 each
(0-20) A MC
200 /3 A
4 Rheostats 1 each
400 /3 A
5 SPST & DPST switch - 1 No
6 Tachometer - 1 No
7 Connecting wires & Fuse - As Required

THEORY

## A DC generator requires an excitation circuit to generate an induce voltage depending on

whether excitation circuit consumes power for the armature of the machine or from separately
require power supply. Generators may be classified as self excited or separately excited generators
respectively.

The induced emf in DC generators is given by the equation PZN/60A volts. State P,Z,A
are constants the above equation are written as Eg= KN. I f the speed of the generator also
maintained constant then Eg =K but the flux is directly proportional to the current Hence Eg
=K2If.From the above equation it is clear that the induced emf is directly propositional to the field
current. when speed maintained constant,. The plot between the induced emf and the field current is
known as open circuit characteristics of the DC generator.

The induced emf when the field current is zero is known as residual voltage. This emf is due
to the presence of a small amount of flux detained. In the field poles of the generator called residual
flux. Once the OCC is obtained parameters such as critical field resistance, critical speed and the
maximum voltage to which the machine can build up can be determined. If required the OCC at a
different speeds can also be obtained. .Critical speed is minimum speed below which the generator
shunt fails to excite.

FORMULAE:
Eg = V + Ia Ra (V)
Ia = IL + If (A) [for self Excited]
where

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Eg : Generated EMF in V
V : Terminal Voltage in V
Ia : Armature Current in A
IL : Line Current in A
If : Field Current in A
Ra : Armature Resistance in Ohm

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

## OPEN CIRCUIT TEST

PRECAUTIONS:
At the time of starting and stopping the machine,
1. The field rheostat of motor should be in minimum resistance position.
2. The field rheostat of generator should be in maximum resistance position.
3. No load should be connected to generator.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of motor field rheostat, maximum position of generator
field rheostat, DPST switch is closed and starting resistance is gradually removed.
3. By adjusting the motor field rheostat, the motor is brought to rated speed.
4. By varying the generator field rheostat, voltmeter and ammeter readings are taken.
5. After bringing the generator rheostat to maximum position, field rheostat of motor to
minimum position, DPST switch is opened.
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PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat of motor should be at minimum position.
2. The field rheostat of generator should be at maximum position.
3. No load should be connected to generator at the time of starting and stopping.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of DC shunt motor field rheostat and maximum position
of DC shunt generator field rheostat, DPST switch is closed and starting resistance is
3. By adjusting the motor field rheostat, the motor is brought to rated speed.
5. By adjusting the generator field rheostat, the generator is brought to rated voltage
8. Then the generator is unloaded and the field rheostat of DC shunt generator is brought to
maximum position and the field rheostat of DC shunt motor to minimum position, DPST
switch is opened.

TABULATION

## Field Current Armature Voltage

S. No.
If (A) Eo (V)

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Ia = IL + If Eg =V + Ia Ra
S. No. Current Current Voltage
(A) (V)
If (A) IL (A) (V)
1

MODEL CALCULATION

MODEL GRAPH

OC TEST

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RESULT:

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OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF
DC SERIES GENERATOR
AIM:
To obtain open circuit characteristics and load characteristics of a DC series generator and
find its critical resistance

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Sl. No. Apparatus Range & Type Quantity
1 DC Series Generator Set up - 1 No
2 Voltmeter (0-300 V), MC 1 No
(0-2 A), MC
3 Ammeter 1 each
(0-20) A MC
200 / 3 A
4 Rheostats 1 each
400 /3 A
5 SPST & DPST switch - 1 No
6 Tachometer - 1 No
7 Connecting wires & Fuse - As Required

THEORY
In a D.C. series generator the field winding is connected in series with the armature
winding. In this case the armature current flows through the field winding as well as the load. Since
the armature winding and the field winding are in series the armature current is the same as the
field current. The field winding has less number of turns of thick wire and hence its resistance is
low.
Ia = Ise = IL
The load characteristics of a D.C. series generator are plotted with the load current (IL) on
the X-axis and the Voltage (V) on the Y-axis. As in the case of the D.C. shunt generator there are
1. Internal characteristics Induced emf E vs Load current IL. Here the drop is due to
armature reaction.
2. External characteristics Terminal Voltage V vs Load current IL. Here the drop is due
to armature and series field resistance.
The Voltage equation of a D.C. series generator is given by
V = E Ia (Ra + Rse)
The load characteristics are shown in the model graph. It will be noticed that a series
generator has rising voltage characteristic i.e. with increase in load, its voltage is also increased, but

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it is seen that at high loads, the voltage starts decreasing due to excessive demagnetizing effects of
armature reaction. In fact, terminal voltage starts decreasing as load current is increased as shown
by the dotted curve and for a particular high value of load current the terminal voltage is reduced to
zero.

FORMULAE:
Eg = V + Ia Ra (V)
Ia = IL + If (A) [for self Excited]
where
Eg : Generated EMF in V
V : Terminal Voltage in V
Ia : Armature Current in A
IL : Line Current in A
If : Field Current in A
Ra : Armature Resistance in Ohm

## OPEN CIRCUIT TEST

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat of motor should be in minimum resistance position.
2. The field rheostat of generator should be in maximum resistance position.
3. No load should be connected to generator.
4. Generator field should be separately excited.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of motor field rheostat, maximum position of generator
field rheostat, DPST switch is closed and starting resistance is gradually removed.
3. By adjusting the motor field rheostat, the motor is brought to rated speed.
4. By varying the generator field rheostat, voltmeter and ammeter readings are taken.
5. After bringing the generator rheostat to maximum position, field rheostat of motor to
minimum position, DPST switch is opened.

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PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat of motor should be at minimum position.
2. No load should be connected to generator at the time of starting and stopping.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. The DC supply is switched ON and the DC shunt motor (prime mover) is started using the 3-
point starter. The motor is brought to its rated speed by adjusting its field rheostat and the same
is checked with the help of a tachometer.
3. The load DPST is now closed and the loading rheostat is switched on in steps and at each step
the motor speed is maintained constant by adjusting the motor field rheostat and then the
terminal voltage (VL) and the load current (IL) are noted down.
4. The procedure is continued until the load current is equal to 120% of the rated current of the
generator. After the experiment is completed the load on the generator is gradually decreased to
minimum, bring motor field rheostat to minimum position and then the supply is switched OFF.
5. The resistances of the armature and the series field winding of the generator are found by giving
low voltage supply and connecting a voltmeter and ammeter.
6. The external and internal characteristics of the given DC series generator are plotted.

TABULATION

## Field Current Armature Voltage

S. No.
If (A) Eo (V)

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6

## Load Current Terminal Voltage Ia *(Ra+Rse) Eg =Vt + Ia (Ra+Rse)

S. No.
IL= Ia = If (A) Vt (V) (V) (V)

MODEL CALCULATION

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MODEL GRAPH

## OC TEST & LOAD TEST

RESULT:

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SPEED CONTROL OF A DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM:

## To control the speed of the given D.C. shunt motor by

i) Armature - control method and
ii) Field/Flux - control method and plot the corresponding characteristics

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

Rated output =
Rated voltage =
Rated armature current =
Rated field current =
Rated speed =

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No. Apparatus Range & Type Quantity
1 DC Shunt Motor Set up - 1 No
2 Voltmeter (0-300 V) MC 1 No
(0-2 A) MC
3 Ammeter 1 each
(0-5 A) MC
(50 /8 A)
4 Rheostats 1 each
(200 /3 A)
5 Tachometer - 1 No
6 DPSTS - 1 No
7 Connecting wires & Fuse - As Required

THEORY:

The speed of a dc shunt motor can be expressed as N (Eb/). From the above relation, it is clear that
the motor speed is directly proportional to the back emf (Eb) in the armature and is inversely proportional to
the flux . In armature control method, the motor speed is controlled by adjusting the back emf (armature
voltage), keeping the flux constant. In the field control method, the flux (field current) is varied keeping the
back emf constant. These methods are widely used for controlling the speed of shunt as well as compound
motors.
The armature control method is generally used for varying the speed below the rated speed of the
machine. Flux control or Field control method is used for varying speeds above the rated speed of the
machine.

## PRECAUTIONS: (Not to be included in the record)

1. Remove the fuse carriers and start wiring as per the circuit diagram.
2. Fuse rating calculation: Since this is no load test, the required fuse rating is only 20% of the rated
current of the motor.
3. Before switching ON the supply, the armature rheostat is kept at maximum resistance position and
field rheostat at minimum resistance position.
4. Replace the fuse carriers with appropriate fuse wire after the circuit connections.

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PROCEDURE:

## 1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keeping the armature rheostat in maximum resistance position and the field rheostat in minimum
resistance position, the main supply to the circuit is switched ON.
3. The motor is started using 3-point starter by slowly and carefully moving the starter handle from its
OFF to ON Position.
4. Armature rheostat is decreased slowly and brought to minimum resistance position.
5. Speed of the motor is adjusted to rated speed (1500 rpm) by increasing the field resistance.

## (i)ARMATURE CONTROL METHOD:

1. Now one set of readings namely the field current (If1), Armature voltage (Va), armature current (I a)
and the motor speed (N) are noted down in the tabular column.
2. Keeping the field current constant at the above value (If1) the armature rheostat is gradually
increased in steps & at each step the armature voltage (Va), armature current(Ia) & the corresponding
speeds are noted down.
3. This procedure is continued until the armature rheostat is brought completely to its maximum
resistance position.
4. Now by adjusting the field rheostat, the field current is set to another fixed value (If2)
5. Armature rheostat is brought back to minimum resistance position and the steps 5-7 are repeated and
another set of readings are tabulated.
6. After the experiment is completed, armature rheostat is brought back to maximum resistance
position is brought to minimum resistance position and the main supply is switched OFF.
7. After completing the experiment, Eb is calculated.
8. Using the data, plot of Speed vs Armature voltage is drawn in the graph sheet.

## (ii)FLUX CONTROL METHOD:

1. Armature rheostat is kept in its minimum resistance position and motor is brought to rated speed
(1500 rpm) by adjusting the field rheostat.
2. The armature voltage (Va1), armature current (I a1) is noted and keeping this constant, the field
current is varied in steps by adjusting the field rheostat and at each step the field current (If) and the
corresponding speeds are noted down in the tabular column.
3. This procedure is continued until the speed reaches 1800 rpm.
4. After obtaining a set of readings corresponding to Va1, the field rheostat is brought back to its initial
position.
5. Now armature rheostat is adjusted in such a way that the armature voltage is fixed at another
constant value of Va2 and armature current (I a2)
6. The steps 15 to 17 are repeated again to obtain another set of readings corresponding to V a2.
7. After the experiment is completed, field rheostat is brought to minimum resistance position and the
main supply is switched OFF.
8. Using the data, Plot of Speed vs field current is drawn in the graph sheet.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FUSE CALCULATION:

TABULAR COLUMN:

## ARMATURE CONTROL METHOD FLUX CONTROL METHOD

Eb = Va - IaRa(eff)

If Va Ia Eb N

## (A) (V) (A) (V) (rpm)

If1=

If2=

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Va If N

## (V) (A) (rpm)

MODEL CALCULATION:
Va1=

Ia1=

Eb1=

Va2=
MODEL GRAPH:
Ia2=

Eb2=

RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Which method of speed control is used for controlling the speed of the motor above its rated speed?
Give reason.
2. Which method of speed control is used for controlling the speed of the motor below its rated speed?
Give reason.

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3. Explain the reasons for the shape of the graphs obtained.
4. Write the methods to control the speed of a DC series motor.
5. What are the factors affecting speed of a dc motor?

## LOAD TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:

To conduct a direct load test on the given single phase transformer and also to determine the
efficiency and the regulation at different load conditions

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

KVA rating =
Rated H.V side Voltage =
Rated L.V side Voltage =

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

## 2 Single Phase Autotransformer 220/(0-270 V) 1 No

(0-150 V), MI
3 Voltmeter AC 1each
(0-300 V), MI
4 Ammeter AC (0-10 A), MI 1 No

## 5 Wattmeter (20A,150 V, UPF) 1 No

6 Resistive load - 1 No

7 DPST Switch - 1 No

## 8 Connecting Wires & Fuse - As Required

THEORY:

Direct load test is conducted to determine the efficiency characteristics and regulation characteristics
of the given transformer. Transformer is a static device having copper windings and iron core. Eddy current
losses and hysteresis losses that together called as iron or constant losses takes place in the iron core. The
variable losses or copper losses which are variable with load current takes place in the windings. These
losses decide the efficiency of the transformer under different load conditions. An ideal transformer is
supposed to give constant secondary voltage irrespective of the load current. But practically, the secondary
voltage decreases as the transformer is loaded due to primary and secondary impedance drops. Since these

## PRECAUTIONS: (Not to be included in the record)

1. Remove the fuse carriers and start wiring as per the circuit diagram.

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2. Fuse rating calculation: Since this is load test, the required fuse rating is only 120% of the rated
current of the motor.
3. Keep the autotransformer in its minimum position at the time of starting..
4. Replace the fuse carriers with appropriate fuse wire after the circuit connections.

PROCEDURE:

## 1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keeping the autotransformer in its minimum position and the DPST switch on load side in open
position, the main supply is switched ON.
3. By slowly and carefully operating the autotransformer the rated voltage (115V) is applied to the L.V
side of the transformer.
4. Under this no-load condition, one set of readings namely VH.V, IH.V, WH.V, VL.V and WL.V, are
recorded in the tabular column.
5. The DPST switch on the load side is now closed and the load is increased in gradual steps and at
each step primary voltage is maintained at no load voltage and then all meter readings are noted
down in the tabular column.
6. The procedure is continued until the current on the H.V side is equal to its full load value.
7. After the experiment is completed, the load is decreased to its minimum, the auto transformer is
brought to the minimum position and the supply is switched OFF.
8. After completing the experiment, Output Power, Input Power, Efficiency and Regulation are
calculated.
9. Using the data, plot of % Regulation vs Output Power and % Efficiency vs Output Power are drawn
in the graph sheets.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FUSE CALCULATION:

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TABULAR COLUMN:

INPUT OUTPUT

VLV ILV WLV VHV IHV WHV (%) %Regulation

## (V) (A) (W) (V) (A) (W)

FORMULAE USED:

1. The Output Power of the transformer = VH.V * IH.V on the H.V side
2. The Input Power of the transformer = WL.V = Wattmeter reading on the L.V side
3. % Efficiency (%) = (OUTPUT / INPUT) * 100

4. % Regulation = *100

MODEL GRAPH:

MODEL CALCULATIONS:

RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

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## 1. Define Regulation of a transformer

2. What is the effect of load power factor on regulation of Transformer?
3. What is the condition for maximum efficiency?
4. Determine the % load at which maximum efficiency occurred for the given 1- transformer?
5. Explain mutual induction principle.
OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT TESTS ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:

To conduct the open circuit test and short circuit test on a single-phase transformer and hence
predetermine the efficiency and regulation. And also to draw the equivalent circuit referred to H.V side and
to plot performance characteristics: (i)% vs Output Power(ii) % Regulation vs Power factor.

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

KVA rating =
Rated H.V side Voltage =
Rated L.V side Voltage =

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

## 7 Connecting wires & Fuse - As Required

THEORY:

The actual performance characteristics of transformers can be obtained by conducting a direct load test
on them. When this has to be performed on large rating transformers, the loads of the required size may not
be available, and the power consumed during this test will be very large as the transformers are loaded up to
120% of their rated capacity.
The time required to perform such a test is also more. The same performance characteristics can be
obtained by comparatively easier methods, which are known as indirect methods or predetermination
techniques. To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of transformers, the open circuit test [to determine
the core loss] and short circuit test [to determine the full load copper loss (variable loss)] are carried out.
Assuming the output and load power factor, the efficiency at different loads is computed.

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The regulation on full load for different assumed load power factors can also be computed. The data
obtained from these tests are also useful to find the equivalent circuit parameters. The results obtained from
these tests are almost closer to the actual values obtained by direct load test.

## PRECAUTION: (Not to be included in the Record)

1. Remove the fuse carriers and start wiring as per the circuit diagram
2. Keep the autotransformer in its minimum position at the time of starting
3. Fuse calculations: (i) For O.C test -- fuse rating -- 20% of rated current of L.V side
(ii) For S.C test -- fuse ratings -- 120% of rated current of H.V side
4. Replace the fuse carrier with appropriate fuse wires after the circuit connections are checked by the
Staff-in-charge

PROCEDURE:

O.C TEST:

## 1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keeping the H.V winding open and the autotransformer in its minimum position, the main supply is
switched ON.
3. By slowly and carefully adjusting the autotransformer, the rated voltage (115V) is applied to the L.V
winding of the transformer.
4. Under this condition the ammeter (Io), Voltmeter (Vo) and Wattmeter (Wo) readings are noted down.
5. After the experiment is completed, the autotransformer is slowly brought back to its minimum
position and then the main supply is switched OFF.
6. After completing the experiment, constant loss, efficiency and regulations are calculated.
7. Using the data, Plot of % Regulation Vs Power Factor is drawn in the graph sheets.

S.C TEST:

## 1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Short circuiting the L.V winding and keeping the autotransformer in its minimum position, the main
supply is switched ON.
3. By slowly and carefully adjusting the auto transformer, the rated current IHV is circulated through the
KVA rating x1000
H.V winding, (Note: I H .V )
VH.V
4. Under this condition, the ammeter (Isc), the voltmeter (Vsc) and the Wattmeter (Wsc) readings are
noted down.
5. After the experiment is completed, the autotransformer is brought back to its minimum position
and main supply is switched OFF.
6. After completing the experiment, copper loss, output power, efficiency and regulations are
calculated.

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7. Using the data, Plot of % Efficiency vs Output Power and regulation graph(%reg vs pf) is drawn in
the separate graph sheets.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:

FUSE CALCULATION:

## SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:

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FUSE CALCULATION:

TABULATION:

## VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER

TEST
(V) (A) (W)

O.C. TEST
(On L.V side) VO = IO= W O=
S.C. TEST
(On H.V side) VSC = ISC = WSC=

FORMULAE USED:

## I. To Obtain the Equivalent Circuit Parameters w.r.t H.V Side:

1. From the O.C test the constant loss (Iron loss) is noted Wc = Wo = ________ Watt.
2. From the S.C test the full load copper loss is noted WF.L = Wsc = _______ watt.

For a transformer, the equivalent circuit parameters can be determined either with respect to H.V
side or with respect to L.V side. If the parameters are estimated on the H.V side the resulting equivalent
circuit is called H.V side equivalent circuit of the transformer. From the O.C test Ro and Xo are calculated
using the following expressions,
V0 V0
R0 ( L.V ) X 0 ( L.V ) Where,Iw = I0 Coso , Im = I0 Sino
Iw Im
1 W0
0= Cos
V0 I 0
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Since these values are calculated with respect to L.V side (because O.C test is conducted on the L.V
side), the equivalent values of `Ro' and `Xo' as referred to H.V side are determined as
R 0(L.V) X 0(L.V)
R0 ( H .V ) X 0 ( H .V )
K2 K2
Where K = (secondary voltage) / (primary voltage)
K=115/230 for a step down operation; K = 230/115 for a step up operation.
Since we are assuming a step down operation K= 115/230 = 0.5.
Wsc Vsc
RT ( H .V ) 2
, Z T ( H .V ) X T (HV ) Z 2 T(HV) - R 2 T(HV)
I sc I sc
RT(H.V) and XT(H.V) are the total equivalent resistance and reactance of the transformer as referred to
the H.V side whose values are calculated from the S.C test.
Now the H.V side equivalent circuit is drawn and the parameters values are mentioned in the circuit.

## II. TO PREDETERMINE THE EFFICIENCY:

The percentage efficiency is then predetermined for different load conditions for a specified load
power factor using the expression,
Output power = x*KVA*cos*1000 Watt
Copper loss = x2 *WSC Watt
Total loss = Core loss (Wo) + Copper loss watt
Input power = Output Power + Total loss Watt
% Efficiency = (Output Power/Input Power) x 100 %
Where `x' is the fraction of the full load which is 0.25 for 25% load, 0.5 for 50% load, 0.75 for 75% load, 1.0
for full load and 1.25 for 125% load and cos is the load p.f (assumed as 0.8 lag).
The efficiency values so calculated are entered in the tabular column as shown below.

## I H .V (R T(HV) Cos X T(HV) Sin )

% Regulation = *100 , Where + for lagging power factor, -for
VHV
leading power factor, IH.V = Rated current on H.V side, VH.V = Rated voltage on H.V side

TABULATION:

EFFICIENCY

## X (W) (W) (W) (W) (%)

0.2

0.4

0.6

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0.8

1.0

1.2

## TO PREDETERMINE THE % REGULATION:

POWER FACTOR % Reg. for lagging P.F % Reg. for leading P.F

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

MODEL GRAPHS:

## EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT REFERRED TO HV SIDE:

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MODEL CALCULATION:

RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Why is O.C test conducted on the L.V side and S.C test on the H.V side?
2. Define Regulation in a transformer
3. Why is the regulation graph not passing through the origin?
4. Write the condition for maximum efficiency.
5. What are the parameters that are calculated from O.C and S.C tests?
REGULATION OF A THREE PHASE ALTRENATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHODS

AIM:

To conduct OC and SC tests on a given 3- alternator and hence to predetermine the regulation by
(i) EMF method (ii) MMF method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

## S. No. Apparatus Range &Type Quantity

1 Alternator Set up - I No.
2 Rheostat 200 /3 A 2 Nos.
3 Voltmeter AC (0-600 V), MI I No.
4 Ammeter AC (0-10 A), MI I No.
5 Ammeter DC (0-2 A), MC I No.
6 Tachometer - 1No.
7 DPST Switch and TPST Switch - 1 each
8 Connecting wires & Fuse - As Required

THEORY:

Loading an alternator causes its terminal voltage to drop or rise depending upon (i) Magnitude of
reasons are 1) Armature resistance 2) Armature winding leakage reactance and 3) Armature reaction.

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Electromotive force (EMF) and Magnetomotive force (MMF) methods are used to predetermine the
regulation of non-salient pole alternators. In emf method, the effect of armature reaction is represented as a
fictitious reactance Xar for each phase of the alternator. In mmf method effect of armature leakage reactance
is replaced by additional armature reaction. MMF method is more accurate.
Direct load Test is not preferred due to the absence of large sized loads and the enormous power
wastage involved in testing. Voltage regulation is defined as a percentage of rated voltage when load
current is reduced to zero suddenly by throwing off the load keeping If and speed constant.

## 1. Remove the fuse before starting wiring.

2. Fuse rating calculation: Since this is no load test, the required fuse rating is only 20% of the rated
current of the alternator.
3. Keep Motor field Rheostat in minimum resistance Position.
4. Keep the potential divider for alternator field in minimum voltage position.
5. Check that the TPST on alternator side is open.

PROCEDURE:

## 1. The circuit connections are given as shown in the circuit diagram.

2. Keeping the motor field rheostat in the indicated position and with the TPSTS open, the motor
supply is switched ON, by closing DPSTS1.
3. Motor is started using the 3-point starter by moving the handle from OFF to ON position and the
motor is brought to its rated speed by adjusting the rheostat in the motor field circuit.
4. Supply is switched on to the field winding of alternator by closing the DPSTS2.

O.C. TEST:

1. Using the 200 ohm potential divider, current in field circuit is increased in steps of 0.1A and at each
step the alternator induced voltage indicated by voltmeter and the corresponding field current (I f) are
noted in tabular column.
2. This procedure is continued until the alternator voltage is 120% of its rated voltage.
3. After completing O.C. Test, the potential divider and motor field rheostat are brought to its
minimum position.
4. After completing the experiment, calculate Synchronous Impedance, Synchronous Reactance &
Regulation using the formulae given.
5. Using the data, Plot the graph between Eo Vs If.

S.C. TEST:

1. The alternator terminals are short circuited by closing TPST switch through an ammeter.
2. The rated current is made to flow through the armature of the stator windings by carefully adjusting
220 ohms potential divider from the minimum position.
3. After completing the experiment, calculate the Load current, Field Current and Regulation.
4. Using the data, Plot the graph Isc vs If and % Regulation vs Power Factor for both the EMF and
MMF methods.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
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FUSE CALCULATION:

MOTOR

ALTERNATOR

TABULATION:

## O.C. TEST S.C TEST

If Vg(1-1) Vg (ph)
S. No.
(A) (V) (V)

S.C TEST

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S. No. If ISC
(A) (A)

FORMULAE USED:

## 1. Synchronous Impedance (ph),ZS = (Open circuit voltage/phase) / (Short circuit current/phase)

(For the same field current)
2. Synchronous Reactance (Ph), XS= [(ZS) 2-(Ra) 2]1/2

EMF Method:

## E0={(Vcos +IaRa)2+(VSin )IaXS)2}1/2

E0 = Induced EMF per Phase, V=Rated voltage per phase, Ra = Armature resistance in , Ia = Armature
E0 V
% Reg X 100
V
MMF Method:

From the O.C.C. graph, find (1) If1 - Field current required to produce rated voltage per phase.
(2) If2 - Field current required to produce rated current per phase during
S.C. test.
If = {If1 +If2 -2If1If2cos(90)}1/2
2 2

E0 V
Now determine Vo corresponding to I from graph. % Reg X 100
V

EMF METHOD:

## P.F Eo Reg. P.F Eo Reg.

S. No.
(lag) (V) (%) (lead) (V) (%)

1. 0.2 0.2

2. 0.4 0.4

3. 0.6 0.6

4. 0.8 0.8

5. 1.0 1.0

## MODEL CALCULATION: (EMF method)

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MODEL GRAPH:

MMF METHOD:

## P.F. If E0 Reg. P.F. If Reg. E0

S. No.
(lag) (A) (V) (%) (lead) (A) (%) (V)

1. 0.2 0.2

2. 0.4 0.4

3. 0.6 0.6

4. 0.8 0.8

5. 1.0 1.0

## MODEL CALCULATION: (MMF method)

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RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Define Regulation
2. What is meant by pessimistic method?
3. Which method is called as optimistic method?
4. What are the advantages of EMF and MMF method?
5. List out the various methods used to predetermine the regulation.
V AND INVERTED V CURVES OFTHREE PHASE
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
AIM:
To draw V and inverted V curves for given three phase synchronous motor

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No. Name of the apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Voltmeter (0 600 V) M. I. 1
2 Ammeter (0 10 A) M. I. 1
3 Ammeter (0 2 A) M. C. 1
4 Wattmeter 600 V, 10 A UPF 1
(0 10000
5 Tachometer Digital 1
rpm)
Three phase Auto
6 (0 470 V) - 1
Transformer

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7 Rheostat 950 , 0.8 A - 1

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PRECAUTION
1. All the switches should be kept open at the time of starting the experiment.
2. The potential divider in the field circuit of synchronous motor should be kept at minimum
potential position.

PROCEDURE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Close the T. P. S. T. switch.
3. The auto transformer is varied gradually to start the motor.
4. The auto transformer is adjusted till the voltmeter reads the rated voltage of the synchronous
motor.
5. Close the D. P. S. T. switch and increase the field current.
6. At no load condition, increase the field current in steps and note down the corresponding
armature current.
7. The potential divider is brought to the minimum potential position.

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8. Repeat the same procedure for different load conditions.
9. Reduce the load on the motor.
10. Reduce the field current to zero value.
11. Reduce voltage by varying auto transformer.
12. Open all the switches.
TABULAR COLOUMN

POWER
S. No. Ia (A) If (A)
FACTOR
W1 (W) W2 (W) W1 + W2 (W)

10

11

12

13

14

GRAPH
Field current, If Vs Armature current, Ia
Field current, If Vs Power factor, cos

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RESULT
Thus the V and inverted V curves of the given synchronous motor have been drawn.

## LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

AIM:

To conduct the direct load test on a given 3-phase induction motor and plot the performance
characteristics of the machine.

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

Rated voltage =
Rated power =
Rated current =
Frequency =
Rated speed =

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

## S. No. Apparatus Range & Type Quantity

1 3 Induction Motor - 1 No.
2 3 Autotransformer 415 V (0 470 V), 1 No.
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12.4 KVA
3 Voltmeter AC (0-600 V), MI 1 No.
4 Ammeter AC (0-10 A), MI 1 No.
600 V, 10 A , UPF
5 Wattmeter 1 No.
( Double Element)
6 Tachometer, TPST Switch - 1 each
7 Connecting wires & fuse - As Required

THEORY:

Squirrel cage induction motors are so called because of the rotor construction, which is the most
rugged construction. The rotor conductors are heavy bars of copper, Aluminium that are permanently short-
circuited. The rotor slots are given a slight skew for quieter operation and to prevent the locking tendency of
the rotor. The direct load test is conducted on the squirrel cage induction motor to plot its performance
characteristics under loading condition. This is more accurate than the predetermination techniques as the
latter doesnt take into account the effect of factors such as temperature, which cause significant change in
its operation.

## 1. Remove the fuse carrier before starting wiring

2. Fuse rating calculation: Since this is load test, the required fuse rating is only 120% of the rated
current of the motor
3. Before switching on the supply ensure the motor in on no load condition and the autotransformer is
in the minimum position
4. Replace the fuse carriers with appropriate fuse wires after the circuit connections are checked by the
staff in charge

PROCEDURE:

## 1. The connections are given as shown in circuit diagram.

2. The 3 ac supply is switched ON to the motor using the starter.
3. Under this load condition, one set of readings of the ammeter (IL), voltmeter (VL), wattmeter (W), spring
balance and the speed (N) of motor are noted down.
4. Now the mechanical load on motor is increased in regular steps in such a way that the current drawn by
the motor increases in steps of 1A.
5. At each step of loading, the entire meter readings are noted down in the tabular column.
6. This procedure is continued until the current drawn by the motor equals 120% of its rated value.
7. After the experiment is completed, the main supply is switched OFF.
8. After completing the experiment, Torque, Output Power, Power Factor, % Slip and % efficiency are
calculated by using the given formulae.
9. Using the obtained data, the plot of % efficiency Vs Output power, .% Slip vs Output power,
Speed vs Output power, power factor vs Output power, Line current vs Output power and
Slip vs torque.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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FUSE CALCULATION:

TABULAR COLUMN:

Line Line Input Output
Speed Torque
voltage current power F1 F2 F1 ~ F 2 power
S. No. P.F % %Slip
VL IL
(RPM) (Nm)
(V) (A) (W) (Kg) (Kg) (Kg) (W)

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MODEL GRAPHS:

FORMULAE USED:

## 1. Torque = 9.81*R*(F1~F2 ) N-m

R Radius of the brake drum including belt thickness. (m)
F1, F2 spring balance readings in kg.
2. Output Power = 2NT/60 W
T Torque in N-m
N Speed in rpm.
3. Power Factor = Input Power / 3 VL* IL Watt
4. % Efficiency = (Output/Input)* 100 %
5. % Slip = [(Ns-N)/Ns]*100%

MODEL CALCULATION:

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RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is Skewing?
2. What is cogging?
3. What is crawling?
4. Define Slip

## LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

AIM:
To draw load characteristics of a single phase induction motor by conducting the load test

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Single phase induction motor - - 1

## 2 Single phase auto transformer (0 270 V) 1

3 Voltmeter (0-300) V MI 1

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4 Ammeter (0-10 ) A MI 1

## 6 Connecting wires - - As required

THEORY:
Constructional of this motor is more or less similar to a poly phase induction motor, except
that its stator is provided with a single phase winding. A centrifugal switch is used in some type of
motor in order to cut out a winding, used in some type of motor, in order to cut out a winding, used
in some type of motors for starting squirrel cage rotor, when fed from a single phase only
alternating one which alternates along one phase axis only. Now, alternating or pulsating flux
acting on a stationary squired cage rotor cannot produce rotation that is why a single phase motor is
not self starting.

FORMULAE
1. Torque ( T )=S*9.81*R Nm
2. Output power (Po) = 2NT/60 watts
3. Efficiency () = Output power / Input power X 100 %
4. Slip S = (Ns Nr) / Ns * 100 %
5. Synchronous speed Ns = 120 f / P rpm
6. Power factor cos = Pin / (VL *IL)
where,
VL Line Voltage
IL Line current
N Speed in rpm
Nr - Rated speed in rpm
T Torque in Nm

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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## FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Motor should be started and stopped under no load condition.
2. Brake drum should be cooled with water when it is under load.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The DPST switch is closed. The autotransformer is adjusted to get rated voltage and
4. Then load is removed and autotransformer reduced to zero. Then DPST switch opened.
TABULAR COLUMN:
Circumference of the Brake drum =_________m.
Voltage Input Spring Balance Speed Torque Output Power
Current Reading S=S1 S2 Efficiency SLIP
S. No VL (V) Power N T Power Factor
I L (A) S (Kg) S2 (Kg) (Kg) % S
Pin (W) 1 (rpm) (Nm) Po (W) Cos
1

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3

Circumference = 2 R =

Radius = R=Circumference / (2 )
= _________meter

MODEL CALCULATION

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MODEL GRAPH

RESULT:

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AIM:

THEORY:

## The value of the armature current in a D.C shunt motor is given by

Ia = (V Eb )/ Ra
Where V = applied voltage.
Ra = armature resistance.
E b = Back emf.
In practice the value of the armature resistance is of the order of one ohms and at the instant of
starting the value of the back emf is zero volts. Therefore under starting conditions the value of the armature
current is very high. This high inrush current at the time of starting may damage the motor. To protect the
motor from such dangerous current the DC Motors are always started using starters.
The types of D.C motor starters are
i) Two point starters ii) Three point starters iii) Four point starters.
The functions of the starters are i) It protects from dangerous high speed. ii) It protects the motor from

## i) TWO POINT STARTERS:

It is used for starting D.C. series motors which has the problem of over speeding due to the loss of
load from its shaft. Here for starting the motor the control arm is moved in clock-wise direction from its
OFF position to the ON position against the spring tension. The control arm is held in the ON position by the
electromagnet E. The exciting coil of the hold-on electromagnet E is connected in series with the armature
circuit. If the motor loses its load, current decreases and hence the strength of the electromagnet also
decreases. The control arm returns to the OFF position due to the spring tension, thus preventing the motor
from over speeding. The starter also returns to the OFF position when the supply voltage decreases
appreciably. L and F are the two points of the starter which are connected with the motor terminals.

## ii) THREE POINT STARTER:

It is used for starting the shunt or compound motor. The coil of the hold on electromagnet E is
connected in series with the shunt field coil. In the case of disconnection in the field circuit the control arm
will return to its OFF position due to spring tension. This is necessary because the shunt motor will over
speed if it loses excitation. The starter also returns to the OFF position in case of low voltage supply or
complete failure of the supply. This protection is therefore is called No Volt Release (NVR).

When the motor is over loaded it draws a heavy current. This heavy current also flows through the
exciting coil of the over load electromagnet ( OLR). The electromagnet then pulls an iron piece upwar6.ds
which short circuits the coils of the NVR coil. The hold on magnet gets de-energized and therefore the
starter arm returns to the OFF position, thus protecting the motor against overload. L, A and F are the three
terminals of the three point starter.

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## iii) FOUR POINT STARTER:

In a four point starter arm touches the starting resistance, the current from the supply is divided into
three paths. One through the starting resistance and the armature, one through the field circuit, and one
through the NVR coil. A protective resistance is connected in series with the NVR coil. Since in a four point
starter the NVR coil is independent of the of the field ckt connection, the d.c motor may over speed if there
is a break in the field circuit. A D.C motor can be stopped by opening the main switch. The steps of the
starting resistance are so designed that the armature current will remain within the certain limits and will not
change the torque developed by the motor to a great extent.

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## AUTO TRANSFORMER STARTING:

An auto transformer starter consists of an auto transformer and a switch as shown in the fig. When
the switch S is put on START position, a reduced voltage is applied across the motor terminals. When the
motor picks up speed, say to 80 per cent of its normal speed, the switch is put to RUN position. Then the
auto-transformer is cut out of the circuit and full rated voltage gets applied across the motor terminals.
The circuit diagram in the fig is for a manual auto-transformer starter. This can be made push button
operated automatic controlled starter so that the contacts switch over from start to run position as the motor
speed picks up to 80% of its speed. Over-load protection relay has not been shown in the figure. The switch
S is air-break type for small motors and oil break type for large motors. Auto transformer may have more
than one tapping to enable the user select any suitable starting voltage depending upon the conditions.
Series resistors or reactors can be used to cause voltage drop in them and thereby allow low voltage
to be applied across the motor terminals at starting. These are cut out of the circuit as the motor picks up
speed.

## STAR- DELTA METHOD OF STARTING:

The starter phase windings are first connected in star and full voltage is connected across its free
terminals. As the motor picks up speed, the windings are disconnected through a switch and they are
reconnected in delta across the supply terminals. The current drawn by the motor from the lines is reduced to
as compared to the current it would have drawn if connected in delta. The motor windings, first in star and
then in delta the line current drawn by the motor at starting is reduced to one third as compared to starting
current with the windings delta-connected.
In making connections for star-delta starting, care should be taken such that sequence of supply connections
to the winding terminals does not change while changing from star connection to delta connection.
Otherwise the motor will start rotating in the opposite direction, when connections are changed from star to
delta. Star-delta starters are available for manual operation using push button control. An automatic star
delta starter used time delay relays (T.D.R) through which star to delta connections take place automatically
with some pre-fixed time delay. The delay time of the T.D.R is fixed keeping in view the starting time of the
motor.

## FULL VOLTAGE OR DIRECT ON-LINE STARTING:

When full voltage is connected across the stator terminals of an induction motor, large current is
drawn by the windings. This is because, at starting the induction motor behaves as a short circuited
transformer with its secondary, i.e. the rotor separated from the primary, i.e. the stator by a small air-gap.
At starting when the rotor is at standstill, emf is induced in the rotor circuit exactly similar to the
emf induced in the secondary winding of a transformer. This induced emf of the rotor will circulate a very
large current through its windings. The primary will draw very large current from the supply mains to
balance the rotor ampere-turns. To limit the stator and rotor currents at starting to a safe value, it may be
necessary to reduce the stator supply voltage to a low value. If induction motors are started direct-on-line
such a heavy starting current of short duration may not cause harm to the motor since the construction of
induction motors are rugged. Other motors and equipment connected to the supply lines will receive reduced
voltage. In industrial installations, however, if a number of large motors are started by this method, the
voltage drop will be very high and may be really objectionable for the other types of loads connected to the
system. The amount of voltage drop will not only be dependent on the size of the motor but also on factors

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like the capacity of the power supply system, the size and length of the line leading to the motors etc. Indian
Electricity Rule restricts direct on line starting of 3 phase induction motors above 5 Hp.

## ROTOR RESISTANCE STARTER:

In a slip-ring (wound rotor) induction motor, resistance can be inserted in the rotor circuit via slip
rings ,so as to increase the starting torque. The starting current in the rotor winding is

## Where Rext = Additional resistance per phase in the rotor circuit.

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RESULT:
Thus the starters used of three phase induction motor were studied.

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