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Q-1: What are the items for reliability of a chart?

As a master
how you will instruct your junior officer to transfer position
from one chart to another.
Ans: Items regarding reliability of charts:

Local Agent.
Port Authority
Pilot, Who has local knowledge
Echo sounder
Local Navigational warning
Weekly Notice to Mariner
Annual summery of admiralty notice to mariner
ASD & supplement
Admiralty tide table
Co-tidal/co-range chart
Outward bound shipping
Chart caution/Notes
Old log book

Position transfer from one chart to another chart as instructed:

1. Position transfer from one chart to another chart by use of Brg & Range from
a fixed point which is common to both charts.
2. The new position must be checked against the old psn by means of latitude &
3. Always transfer to the large scale chart available.
4. If the magnetic Brg Being used, must set have difference of variation from
both the charts.
5. If time permit, fixed another position from other fixed point.

Q-2: Why compass Brg unreliable while taking Brg in higher

In Higher latitude, the path of the sun is very low. As a result, vary brg path
from visible horizon to sensible horizon. So its Azimuth will be large.

Consequently, a small change in altitude, Result be a large in Azimuth.

This make the accuracy of the observation unreliable.

Q-3: During taking Brg what should be the suns position?

When observing Amplitude, the Centre of the body should be on the
celestial(sensible) horizon of the observer. But the visible horizon doesnt coincide
with celestial horizon because of combination affect of the refraction, parallax & dip.
Thus, when checking compass error by amplitude method, the lower limb of
the sun must be semi-diameter above the visible horizon. Where by the sun Centre
will be at the celestial horizon.

Q-4: Master Obligation for VLCC while Navigation in English


When master of VLCC are navigation in English Channel must follow the

Master should follow the instruction which is given in chart 5500.

Master must use the deep water route & exhibit the appropriate signal
as per colreg 1972.
Charted and circular area to be avoided.
Adequate UKC to be maintain while passing dover strait.
Maintain at least 7 miles off the coast of French at all times except
Dover strait of entering French Port.
ETA to be informed well in advanced.
Report to be made in designated station in appropriate time as stated.
Pick up the pilot from PGB as marked on chart.
Use designated anchorage when required.
Certain lane in TSS not to be used.
In condition of heavy swell or sea state in posn 5555N 00249E vsl
should proceed to long term anchorage off euro point.

Q-5: When checking compass error by amplitude method, state

the correct position of sun in relation to the visible horizon.
And Give reason for your answer.

Ans: When observing the sun amplitude the Centre of the observed body should be
on the celestial(sensible) horizon of the observer. But due to refraction parallax &
dip the visible horizon dose not coincide with the visible horizon when the sun is
about 018 above the visible.
Thus, when checking compass error by amplitude method, the lower limb of
the sun must be semi-diameter above the visible horizon. Where by the suns
Centre will be at the celestial horizon.
Q-6: Explain why in high lat checking compass error by
amplitude method is unreliable.

Ans: In lower latitude the sun rise or sun set almost a vertical angle so that the
bearing will not change much. But in higher latitude the sun rise or sun set at
oblique angle. Thats why bearing will change much.
So in higher latitude the amplitude method is not reliable.
Consequently a small change in altitude result is a large change in azimuth.

Q-7: What are the Navigational problems at cold climate & Ice
region? What are the pre-caution regarding position fixing,
beacon and sector light?


Navigational problem in ice climate and ice region:

1. Antennas may cover with ice, may not detect signal.

2. Radar scanner may gets obscured due to ice
3. Echo-sounder trace may be lost due to ice.
4. Pack ice may be mistaken for coast line when observed visually or by radar.
5. Range & bearing from land fixed object may be error due to ice.
6. Celestial observation may be difficult as ice covering the horizon.
7. Vessel facing the position fixing problem at cold and Ice region

Precaution regarding position fixing as follows

During cold/ice climate beacon/Buoys are removed by harbor
Authority to avoid loss or damage.
Light color are defused.
Buoys marking(color) are removed.
Ice can completely cover the beacon.

Sector light:
Arc of visibility reduced.
Range of visibility reduced.
Intensity of light will be reduced.
Light colors are defused.
May be fully obscured
For buoy, changes of shifting.
Q- 8: Following the receipt of a TRS warning. The projected
path of which would put the vessel dangerous semi-circle as
the storm passes over. State in brief the masters action in
a) When vessel is secured alongside berth.
b) When vessel in at anchor
c) When the vessel is at open road stead.
d) When the vessel is in open sea condition.


When vessel is secured alongside berth.

Batten down and secure all hatches. Lower all derricks/crane &
secured. If the vessel can not make open sea stress put extra mooring rope
fwd and aft. Rig fender & layout anchor if possible.
Put engine on st-by & maintain the vessel at as alert status for the passing

When vessel in at anchor

Have both anchor lowered with maximum cable of comparing available
sea room. As well as, engine should be employ in the case of weight on cable.

When the vessel is at open road stead.

Decision to be taken to run for open water should be made early. The
vessel should be made as stable as possible with free surface, slack tank etc.
Additional securing should be made on movable deck gears as well as the
specific cargo.

Q-9: Why Navigational chart are unrelaiable?

Ans: No Navigational chart are completely reliable because of:

1. Incomplete survey or alteration of topography.
2. Alteration occur at sea bottom.
3. Date ad method of survey not completely dependable.
4. Paper chart may have some distortion.
5. Magnetic variation will change with passing of time.
6. The use of small scale chart requires extreme caution. So mariner should
try to use the large scale chart.

Q-10: BA Chart 5500 Topics

1. Passage planning
2. Passage planning for special lases of vessels
3. Routing
4. General recommendation
5. Specific regulation
6. Radio reporting system
7. Maritime radio services.
8. Radio beacon services
9. Details of NAVTEX services
10.Tidal information and services
11.Pilotage services
12.Oil and dangerous cargo

Q-11: A new port has been opened up for trade:

a) List the information which a mariner should report.
b) State the name of the agency to which the report should send.


a) Information which a mariner should report:

The form H102a shall be forwarded together with form H102a which contains the
1. Name of the port
2. General remarks
3. Principal activities and trade
4. Latest population figure and date
5. Number and ship on tonnage handled per year
6. Copy of port handbook if available
7. Anchorage: Designation, depth, holding ground and sheltered afforded.
8. Pilotage: Authority for request, embarkation position, regulations.
9. Directions: Entry and berthing information, tidal streams, nav-aids.
10.Tugs: Number of tugs available, max HP
11.Wharves: Name, Number or position, length, depth, height, above chart
datum, facilities available.
12.Cargo Handling: Containers, Lighters, Ro-Ro etc.
13.Cranes: Brief details and maximum capacity.
14.Rescue and distress: salvage, lifeboat, coast guard etc.
15.Supplies: Fuel, Fresh water, Provisions.
16.Services: Medical, consult, ship chandlers.
17.Communication: Road mail, Air services, nearest airport, port radio and
info services, hours of operating.
18.Port Authority. Small craft facilities
19.Views with photographs

b) Report should be sent to the following agencies:

1. Hydrographer of the navy, UK, Hydrographic office
2. Respective administration/Hydrographic office by whom the charts are