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http://actams.wipm.ac.cn

ZERO-PRESSURE GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM

Dedicated to Professor Peter D. Lax on the occasion of his 85th birthday

School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,

Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005, India

E-mail: ktj@math.tifr.res.in; manas@math.tifr.res.in

Abstract The 3-dimensional zero-pressure gas dynamics system appears in the modeling

for the large scale structure formation in the universe. The aim of this paper is to construct

spherically symmetric solutions to the system. The radial component of the velocity and

density satisfy a simpler one dimensional problem. First we construct explicit solutions of

this one dimensional case with initial and boundary conditions. Then we get special radial

solutions with dierent behaviours at the origin.

Key words zero-pressure gas dynamics; spherically symmetric solutions

2000 MR Subject Classication 35A22; 35L65

1 Introduction

namely

ut + (u.)u = 0, u = ,

(1.1)

t + .(u) = 0,

where u is velocity and the density of the particles. This system is used to model the formation

of large scale structure in the universe when pressure is negligible, see Weinberg and Gunn [18]

and Zeldovich [19]. It is observed that the fastest growing mode in linear theory has decaying

vorticity, and this is the reason for the interest in potential solutions where the velocity u can

be represented in terms of a velocity potential .

Even with smooth initial data

existence of global smooth solutions for (1.1) is not possible as the fastest particles overrun the

slowest ones and after some time the density becomes innite.

Received March 16, 2011.

2108 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

Mathematically, the local existence theory given by classical Hamilton Jacobi theory of rst

order equations is not helpful to construct global solution because the mapping from Lagrangian

space to Eulerian space given by

x = y + tu0 (y) (1.3)

yi

u(x, t) = u0 (y), (x, t) = 0 (y) det (1.4)

xj

gives only short time existence result. Also it is well known that global weak solutions are not

unique and additional condition is needed to select the physical solution.

So Gurbatov and Saichev [2], introduced the adhesion model. In adhesion approximation

the velocity obeys the Burgers equation and density by the continuity equation.

ut + (u.)u = u, u = ,

(1.5)

t + .(u) = 0.

The velocity component u can be constructed using the standard Hopf-Cole transformation,

see Weinberg and Gunn [18], Joseph and Sachdev [7], for each > 0. Indeed when the initial

data u (x, 0) = 0 is bounded, u takes the form

1 |xy|2

+0 (y)

y 0 (y)e 2t dy

u (x, t) = R

n

1 |xy|2

. (1.6)

+0 (y)

R n e 2t dy

Then the continuity equation for is a linear equation with smooth bounded coecient which

can be solved using the method of characteristics. If initial data (x, 0) = 0 (x) is given, then

ds = u (X, s) with X(s = t) = x and J (x, t, 0) is the

Jacobian of X (x, t, 0) w.r.t. x.

It is easy to show that lim u (x, t) has a limit, see [18] and [7]. It is still open question

0

to nd the limit for lim (x, t), for general initial conditions. In fact solutions for the inviscid

0

case (1.1), with a general initial condition (1.2) is still not well-understood except for the case

n = 1. For n = 1, initial value problem for the system (1.1) is well-understood, see [6] [10]

and [12] and the references there. However boundary value problem is not studied even for one

space dimensional case.

The aim of this paper is to construct spherical solution of (1.1) for n = 3. This leads

to initial boundary value problem for a system, where the radial component of velocity and

density satisfy the system

1 2

qt + qqr = 0, t + (r q)r = 0, r > 0, (1.8)

r2

where r = |x|. By the change of variable p = r2 the equation (1.8) takes the form

No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2109

Boundary value problem for (1.9) in itself is interesting problem and we study this in detail

and construct explicit solution. Using this explicit solution we obtain radial solution for (1.1),

for n = 3, with dierent behaviours at the origin.

The paper is organized in the following way. In Section 2, we derive the equation for

spherically symmetric solutions of (1.1). In Section 3 we construct explicit solutions for the 1

-dimensional case {(x, t), x > 0, t > 0} with initial condition at t = 0 and Dirichlet boundary

conditions u(0, t) and (0, t) at x = 0. These conditions has to be understood in a weak sense.

We construct radial solutions for the 3-dimensional case, in Section 4. The Section 5 contains

some concluding remarks.

Spherically symmetric solutions of the gas dynamics equations with pressure term was

studied by McVittie [14], Sachdev, Joseph and Haque [16] and for more general systems by

Constanzino and Jenssen [15]. In this section we derive equation for spherically symmetric

solution of

ut + (u.)u = 0,

(2.1)

t + .(u) = 0,

when the space dimension is 3. As in McVittie [14] we look for radial component of velocity

and density of the form

u(x, t) = (x1 /r, x2 /r, x3 /r)q(r, t), (x, t) = (r, t), (2.2)

(1/r)q + (x2 /r2 )q (x2 /r3 )q, if k = j,

j r j

(uj )xk = (2.3)

(xj xk /r2 )qr (xj xk /r3 )q, if k = j.

3

(u1 )t + uk (u1 )xk = (x1 /r)qt + (x1 /r)q[(1/r)q + (x21 /r2 )qr (x21 /r3 )q]

k=1

+(x2 /r)q[(x1 x2 /r2 )qr (x1 x2 /r3 )q]

+(x3 /r)q[(x1 x3 /r2 )qr (x1 x3 /r3 )q]

= (x1 /r){[qt + q 2 /r + ((x21 + x22 + x23 )/r2 )qqr

((x21 + x22 + x23 )/r3 )q 2 ]}

= (x1 /r){qt + qqr },

where we have used (2.3). Similar calculations hold for u2 and u3 and hence

3

(uj )t + uk (uj )k = (xj /r){qt + qqr }, j = 1, 2, 3. (2.4)

k=1

2110 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

3

t + {(uk )xk = t + {((1/r)q + (x2k /r2 )qr (x2k /r3 )q) + (x2k /r2 )qr }

k=1 k=1

= t + (3/r)q + qr (1/r)q + qr

= t + (2/r)q + (q)r

= t + r2 (r2 q)r . (2.5)

From (2.1), (2.4) and (2.5), it follows that (u, ) of the form (2.2) is a solution i q and

satisfy the equations

1

qt + qqr = 0, t + 2 (r2 q)r = 0. (2.6)

r

Let p = r2 , then the system (4.6) becomes

which we will study in the next section with initial condition at t = 0 and a weak form of

boundary condition at r = 0.

So to construct special spherically symmetric solutions (u(x, t), (x, t)) of (2.1), we nd

solutions (q(r, t), p(r, t) of the one dimensional case (2.7) and then take

x1 x2 x3 p(r, t)

u(x, t) = , , q(r, t), (x, t) = , r = |x|.

r r r r2

In this section, we consider one dimensional case of the equations (1.1), namely

ut + (u2 /2)x = 0,

(3.1)

t + (u)x = 0

Here we assume u0 is bounded and locally Lipschitz, and 0 is locally Lipschitz functions in

x > 0 and uB and B are locally Lipschitz continuous functions for t > 0.

Indeed with strong form of Dirichlet boundary conditions (3.3), there is neither existence

nor uniqueness as the speed of propagation = u does not have a denite sign at the boundary

x = 0. We note that the speed is completely determined by the rst equation. We use the

Bardos Leroux and Nedelec [1] formulation of the boundary condition for the u component

which for our case is equivalent to the following condition, see LeFloch [13]

either u(0+, t) = u+

B (t)

(3.4)

or u(0+, t) 0 and u(0+, t) u+

B (t).

No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2111

where u+ B (t) = max{uB (t), 0}. Also u is required to satises entropy condition u(x, t)

u(x+, t) for x > 0. There are explicit representations of the entropy weak solution of the rst

component u of (3.1) with initial condition (3.2) and the boundary condition (3.4) by Joseph

and Gowda [9] and LeFloch [13]. We use the formula in [9] for u which involve a minimization

of functionals on certain class of paths and generalized characteristics. Once u is obtained, the

equation for is linear equation with a discontinuous coecient u(x, t). Now (0+, t) = B (t)

is prescribed only if the characteristics at (0, t) has positive speed, i.e., (u(0+, t)) > 0. So the

weak form of Dirichlet boundary conditions for component is

The condition (3.5) is required to be satised for almost every points of the set {t > 0 :

u(0+, t) > 0}.

To describe the solution, rst we introduce a functional dened on certain class of paths.

For each xed (x, y, t), x 0, y 0, t > 0, C(x, y, t) denotes the following class of paths in

the quarter plane D = {(z, s) : z 0, s 0}. Each path is connected from the point (y, 0)

to (x, t) and is of the form z = (s), where is a piecewise linear function of maximum three

lines. On C(x, y, t), we dene a functional

2

1 1 d(s)

J() = + 2

(uB (s) ) ds + ds. (3.6)

2 {s:(s)=0} 2 {s:(s)=0} ds

We call 0 is straight line path connecting (y, 0) and (x, t) which does not touch the

boundary space boundary x = 0, namely {(0, t), t > 0}, then let

(x y)2

A(x, y, t) = J(0 ) = . (3.7)

2t

Any C (x, y, t) = C(x, y, t) {0 } is made up of three pieces lines connecting (y, 0) to

(0, t1 ) in the interior and (0, t1 ) to (0, t2 ) on the boundary and (0, t2 ) to (x, t) in the interior.

For such curves, it can be easily seen that

t2

(uB (s)+ )2 y2 x2

J() = J(x, y, t, t1 , t2 ) = ds + + . (3.8)

t1 2 2t1 2(t t2 )

It was proved in [9] that there exits C (x, y, t) and corresponding t1 (x, y, t), t2 (x, y, t) so

that

= min{J(x, y, t, t1 , t2 ) : 0 t1 < t2 < t}

= J(x, y, t, t1 (x, y, t), t2 (x, y, t)) (3.9)

and

U (x, t) = min{Q(x, y, t) + U0 (y), 0 y < } (3.11)

2112 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

y

are Lipshitz continuous function in their variables, where U0 (y) = 0 u0 (z)dz. Further minimum

in (3.11) is attained at some value of y 0, which depends on (x, t), we call it y(x, t). If

A(x, y(x, t), t) B(x, y(x, t), t)

(xy(x,t))2

U (x, t) = 2t + U0 (y(x, t)) (3.12)

U (x, t) = J(x, y(x, t), t, t1 (x, y(x, t), t), t2 (x, y(x, t), t)) + U0 (y(x, t)). (3.13)

Here and hence forth y(x, t) is a minimizer in (3.11) and in the case of (3.13), t2 (x, t) =

t2 (x, y(x, t), t) and t1 (x, t) = t1 (x, y(x, t), t). With these notations, we have an explicit formula

for the solutions of (3.1) and (3.2) with boundary conditions (3.3) or (3.4). We have the

following result

Theorem 3.1 For every (x, t) minimum in (3.11) is achieved by some y(x, t) (may not be

unique) and U (x, t) is a Lipschitz continuous. Further for almost every (x, t) there exists unique

minimum y(x, t) and either A(x, y(x, t), t) < B(x, y(x, t), t) or B(x, y(x, t), t) < A(x, y(x, t), t).

Dene

x y(x, t)

, if A(x, t) < B(x, t),

t

u(x, t) = (3.14)

x

, if A(x, t) > B(x, t),

t t1 (x, t)

and y(x,t)

0 (z)dz, if A(x, t) < B(x, t),

0

R(x, t) =

t2 (x,t)

(3.15)

u+

B (s)B (s)ds, if A(x, t) > B(x, t),

t1 (x,t)

and set

(x, t) = x (R(x, t)). (3.16)

Then the function (u(x, t), (x, t)) given by (3.14)(3.16) is a weak solution of (3.1), with initial

conditions (3.2), boundary conditions (3.4) and (3.5).

Proof First we recall from [5, 9] some properties of minimizers y(x, t) in (3.10) and

corresponding t2 (x, t) and t1 (x, t) that are required for our analysis. These minimizers y(x, t)

may not be unique for every (x, t). Let y (x, t) and y + (x, t) are the smallest and the largest

of these minimizers. For each t > 0, they are nondecreasing function of x and hence except

for a countable number of points they are equal. Corresponding t +

2 (x, t) and t2 (x, t) have the

following properties. They are nondecreasing function of x, for each xed t and hence except for

a countable number of points x they are equal and nondecreasing function of t, for each xed x

and except for a countable number of points t they are equal. If A(x, y(x, t), t) < B(x, y(x, t), t),

for some x = x0 then this continues to be so for all x < x0 and t1 (x, t) = t1 (x0 , t) when x x0 .

Furthermore, if A(x, y(x, t), t) > B(x, y(x, t), t), for some x = x0 then this continues to be so

for all x > x0 .

It was proved in [9], that u(x, t) = Q1 (x, y(x, t)) = x U (x, t) where Q1 (x, y, t) = x Q(x, y, t),

is the weak solution of

ut + (u2 /2)x = 0, (3.17)

No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2113

satisfying the initial condition u(x, 0) = u0 (x) and weak form of boundary condition (3.4)

and the entropy condition u(x, t) u(x+, t) for x > 0. To show that satises the second

equation, we follow LeFloch [12] and use the nonconservative product of Volpert [17] in sense

of measures. First we note that u and R are functions of bounded variation and = Rx is a

Borel measure. To justify the product u = uRx , we write

[0, ) [0, ) = Sc Sj Sn ,

where Sc and Sj are points of approximate continuity of u and points of approximate jump

of u and Sn is a set of one dimensional Hausdor-measure zero. At any point (x, t) Sj ,

u(x 0, t) and u(x + 0, t) denote the left and right values of u(x, t). For any continuous function

g : R1 R1 , the Volpert product g(u)Rx is dened as a Borel measure in the following manner.

Consider the averaged superposition of g(u), see Volpert [17]

g(u(x, t)), if (x, t) Sc ,

g(u)(x, t) = 1 (3.18)

g(1 )(u(x, t) + u(x+, t))d, if (x, t) Sj ,

0

[g(u)Rx ](A) = g(u)(x, t)Rx , (3.19)

A

provided (x, t) Sj .

Now we take the continuity equation. First we show that R satises

= Rt + uRx = 0 (3.21)

t , since u satises (3.17), we have

(x y(x, t)) t y(x, t) x y(x, t) (1 x y(x, t))

+ = 0,

t2 t t t

t y(x, t) + ux y(x, t) = 0. (3.22)

t R(x, t) + ux R(x, t) = 0. (3.23)

Now consider the points for which A(x, t) > B(x, t). If (x, t) Sc then u(x, t) = ( tt2x(x,t) ), we

can show that t (t2 (x, t)) + u(x, t)x (t2 (x, t) = 0, and hence

2114 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

So for any Borel subset A of Sc , it follows from (3.23) and (3.24) that

(A) = 0. (3.25)

=

dt 2

is the speed of propagation of the discontinuity at this point and

{(s(t), t)}

ds(t)

= (R(s(t)+, t) R(s(t), t))

dt

1

+ (u(s(t), t) + (u(s(t)+, t) u(s(t), t))d(R(s(t)+, t) R(s(t), t))

0

ds(t) u(s(t)+, t)) + u(s(t), t)

= + (R(s(t)+, t) R(s(t), t))

dt 2

= 0. (3.26)

Form (3.25), (3.26) and (3.18)(3.20), (3.21) follows. Dierentiating (3.21) w.r.t. x and using

= Rx , we get t + (u)x = 0, in the sense of distribution.

To show that the solution satises the initial conditions, rst we observe that given > 0

there exists > 0 such that for all x , t ,

y(x,t)

x y(x, t)

u(x, t) = , R(x, t) = 0 (y)dy,

t 0

2

where y(x, t) minimizes min[U0 (y)+( (xy)

t )], see [9]. Then Laxs argument [11], gives lim u(x, t) =

y0 t0

u0 (x) a.e. x . Since > 0 is arbitrary,

t0

Since y(x, t) x = tu(x, t, then it follows that y(x, t) x as t 0 a.e. x. Since the map

y

y 0 0 (z)dz is continuous, we get

x

lim R(x, t) = lim R(x, t)) = 0 (z)dz, a.e. x.

t0 t0 0

Now we show the solution satises the boundary condition (3.4) and (3.5). That the

u component satises the boundary condition (3.4) is proved in [9]. To show satises the

boundary condition. Note that if u(0+, t) > 0 then u(x, t) > 0 for 0 < x for some

suciently small and u and are given by (3.15) and

t2 (x,t)

x

u(x, t) = , (x, t) = x u+

B (s)B (s)ds .

t t2 (x, t) t1 (x,t)

Then t t2 (x, t) = x/(u(x, t)), and it follows that lim t2 (x, t) = t, since we assumed that

x0

lim u(x, t) = u(0+, t) > 0. By the weak form of the boundary condition (3.4), if u(0+, t0 ) > 0,

x0

then uB (t0 ) > 0 and u(0+, t0 ) = uB (t0 ). Being Lipschitz continuous function uB (t) > 0 in a

No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2115

neighbourhood of t0 . Then u(x, t) is Lipschitz continuous for 0 x < for some > 0. So

t2 (x, t) is Lipschitz continuous for 0 x < . Since u(x, t) = ( ttx2 (x,t ), we have t t2 (x, t) =

x

u(x,t) and dierentiating this we get

u xux

t2 (x, t)x = ,

u2

and so

1

(t2 )x (0+, t0 ) = . (3.27)

uB (t0 )

Since (x, t0 ) = uB (t2 (x, t0 ))B (t2 (x, t0 )(t2 (x, t0 )x ), for x close to 0, we have

From (3.27) and (3.28), (3.5) follows. The proof of the theorem is complete. 2

Using the formula in the previous section we construct for the system (1.1). As we look

for radial component of velocity and density of the form

u(x, t) = (x1 /r, x2 /r, x3 /r)q(r, t), (x, t) = (r, t), r = |x|, (4.1)

1 2

qt + qqx = 0, t + (r q)r = 0. (4.3)

r2

Let p = r2 , then the system (4.3) becomes

q(r, 0) = q0 (r), p(r, 0) = r2 0 (r). (4.5)

r0

Solution to (4.4), (4.5) and (4.7), is given explicitly in previous section in terms of certain

minimization problem. For r, r0 0, t > 0, 0 < t1 < t2 < t dene

(r r0 )2

A(r, r0 , t) = (4.8)

2t

2116 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

and t2

(uB (s)+ ) r2 r2

J(r, r0 , t, t1 , t2 ) = ds + 0 + . (4.9)

t1 2 2t1 2(t t2 )

It was proved that there exits t1 (r, r0 , t), t2 (r, r0 , t) so that

= J(r, r0 , t, t1 (r, r0 , t), t2 (r, r0 , t)) (4.10)

and

U (r, t) = min{Q(r, r0 , t) + U0 (r0 ), 0 r0 < } (4.12)

r

are Lipshitz continuous function in their variables, where U0 (r) = 0 0 (z)dz. Further minimum

in (4.12) is attained at some value of r0 0, which depends on (r, t), we call it r0 (r, t). If

A(r, r0 (r, t), t) B(r, r0 (r, t, t)

(r r0 (r, t))2

U (r, t) = + U0 (r0 (r, t)), (4.13)

2t

and if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) > B(r, r0 (r, t, t)

U (x, t) = J(r, r0 (r, t), t, t1 (r, r0 (r, t), t), t2 (r, r0 (r, t), t)) + U0 (r0 (r, t)). (4.14)

Here and hence forth r0 (r, t) is a minimizer in (4.12) and in the case of (4.14), t2 (r, t) =

t2 (r, r0 (r, t), t) and t1 (r, t) = t1 (r, r0 (r, t), t). With these notations, we have an explicit formula

for the solution of (4.4) with initial conditions (4.5) and weak form of the boundary conditions

(4.7).

Theorem 4.1 For every (r, t) minimum in (4.12) is achieved by some r0 (r, t) (may not be

unique) and U (r, t) is a Lipschitz continuous. Further for almost every (r, t) there exists unique

minimum r0 (r, t) and either A(r, r0 (r, t), t) B(r, r0 (r, t), t) or B(r, r0 (r, t), t) < A(r, r0 (r, t), t).

r r0 (r, t)

, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) < B(r, r0 (r, t), t),

t

q(r, t) = (4.15)

r

, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) > B(r, r0 (r, t), t),

t t1 (r, t)

and

r0 (r,t)

0 (z)dz, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) < B(r, r0 (r, t), t),

0

R(r, t) =

t2 (r,t)

(4.16)

u+

B (s)B (s)ds, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) > B(r, r0 (r, t), t),

t1 (r,t)

and set

(r, t) = r (R(r, t))/r2 . (4.17)

Proof The proof of Theorem 4.1 easily follows from Theorem 3.1 applied to the system

(4.4) for (q, p) with initial conditions (4.5) and weak form of the boundary conditions (4.7) and

then using (q, ) = (q, p/r2 ). 2

No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2117

In the rest of this section we take special cases of initial and boundary data for (4.6) and

use the formulas (4.15), (4.16) and (4.17) to get special solutions with dierent behaviour at

the origin.

4.1 Solutions which Blows up at Origin

First we construct solutions with singular data at the origin. We take the initial and

boundary data of the form

r0

q0 , qB , 0 , B all constants. In this case the radial velocity and the density are given by the

following expressions.

Case 1 q0 = qB > 0,

(q , /r2 ), if r < q t,

0 B 0

(q(r, t), (r, t)) =

(q0 , 0 /r2 ), if r > q0 t.

Case 2 q0 = qB < 0,

(q(r, t), (r, t) = (q0 , 0 /r2 ).

Case 3 0 < qB < q0 ,

2

(qB , B /r ), if r < qB t,

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = (r/t, 0), if qB t < r < q0 t,

(q0 , 0 /r2 ), if r > q0 t.

(r/t, 0), if 0 < r < q0 t,

(q(r, t), (r, t)) =

(q0 , 0 /r ),2

if r > q0 t.

2

(qB , B /r ), if r < st,

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = (1/2(qB + q0 ), c(t)r=st ) if r = st,

(q0 , 0 /r2 ), if r > st,

where s = q0 +q

2

B

and c(t) = 2(qB(qq 0 )(0 +B )

2

B +q0 ) t

.

4.2 Solutions with Riemann Type Initial-boundary Data

Next we take the initial and boundary conditions of the form

q0 , qB , 0 , B all constants. The radial velocity and the density are given by the following

expressions.

2118 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

Case 1 q0 = qB > 0

(q , 0), if r < q0 t,

0

(q(r, t), (r, t)) =

(q0 , (1 q0 t/r)2 0 ), if r > q0 t.

Case 2 q0 = qB < 0

(qB , 0) if r < qB t,

r

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = ,0 if qB t < r < q0 t,

t

(q , (1 q t/r)2 ) if r > q t.

0 0 0 0

t

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = (q0 , (1 q0 )2 0 ).

r

Case 5 q0 < qB and q0 + qB > 0

(qB , 0), if r < st,

q0 + qB

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = , c(t) r=st , if r = st,

2

t

q0 , (1 q0 )2 0 , if r > st,

r

3

where s = (qB + q0 )/2 and c(t) = 6(q

0 (qB q0 )

B +q0 )

2 t.

For the initial and boundary datum of the form

qB (t) = 0, B (t) = 0.

(0, 0), if r < l,

(r l

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = , 0 , if l < r < q0 t + l,

t

t

q0r , (1 q0 )2 0 , if r > q0 t + l,

r

and for q0 < 0

q0

(0, 0), if r < t + l,

2

q

q0

0

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = , c(t) r= 2 t ,

q0 if r = t + l,

2 2

t q0

q0 , (1 q0 )2 0 , if r > t + l,

r 2

No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2119

4.4 Solutions with Datum Initially Vanish Except on l1 < r < l2

For the initial and boundary datum of the form

qB (t) = 0, B (t) = 0.

q0

(0, 0), if 0r t + l1 ,

2

q0 q0

, c(t) r= 2 t ,

q0 if r= t,

2 2

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = t 2 q0

0 q , (1 q ) 0 , if t + l1 < r q0 t + l2 ,

0

r 2

r l2 , 0 ,

if q0 t + l2 r l2 ,

t

(0, 0), if r > l2 ,

where

0 q0 t[(l1 q0 t/2)2 + l1 (l1 q0 t/2) + l12 ]

c(t) = .

6(l1 + q0 t/2)2

If q0 > 0, the entropy solution contain -waves.

q t + l , if 0 t 2(l2 l1 )/q0 ,

0 1

r1 (t) =

l1 + [2(l2 l1 )q0 ]1/2 t1/2 , if t > 2(l2 l1 )/q0 ,

q /2t + l , if 0 t 2(l2 l1 )/q0 ,

0 2

r2 (t) =

l1 + [2(l2 l1 )q0 ]1/2 t1/2 , if t > 2(l2 l1 )/q0 .

Note that r1 (t) = r2 (t) for t 2(l2 l1 )/q0 and hence the surfaces r = r1 (t) and r = r2 (t)

are same for t 2(l2 l1 )/q0 t.

(0, 0), if 0 r l1 ,

(r l 1

,0 , if l1 r1 (t),

t

t

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = q0 , (1 q0 )2 0 , if r1 (t) < r < r2 (t),

r

q 0

, c(t) r=r2 (t) , if r = r2 (t),

2

(0, 0), if r > r2 (t),

0 q0 t[l2 2 + l2 (l2 q0 t/2) + (l2 q0 t/2)2 ]

, if 0 t 2(l2 l1 )/q0 ,

6(l + q t/2)2

2 0

c(t) =

(l23 3

l1 )0

, if t > 2(l2 l1 )/q0 .

3(l1 + [2(l2 l1 )q0 t]1/2 )2

2120 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

5 Concluding Remarks

We constructed some exact radial solutions of 3-pressure-less gas dynamics system with

given conditions at the origin and initial conditions. It is interesting to look for solutions with

initial data u(x, 0) and (x, 0) and u(0, t) and a conditions on the mass. For radial solutions in

3-dimensional,

(x, t)dx = 4 r2 (r, t)dr.

R3 0

Thus we consider initial data of the form

u(0, t) = uB (t), 4 r2 (r, t)dr = RB (t). (5.2)

0

For this problem also we can get an explicit solutions using the analogous one dimensional case

in [8]. Consider the (3.1) with initial conditions (3.2) weak form of the boundary condition

(3.4) for u and conditions on the mass

if u(0+, t) > 0, then 0 (y, t)dy = RB (t). (5.3)

First we state the result in [8]. With the same notations as in Theorem (3.1), we have (u, )

dened by

x y(x, t)

, if A(x, t) < B(x, t),

t

u(x, t) = (5.4)

x

, if A(x, t) > B(x, t),

t t2 (x, t)

and y(x,t)

0 (z)dz, if A(x, t) < B(x, t),

R(x, t) = 0 (5.5)

R (t (x, t)),

B 2 if A(x, t) > B(x, t).

and set

(x, t) = x (R(x, t)) (5.6)

is a weak solution to (3.1), (3.2) and (5.3).

Using the formulas (5.4)(5.6) we can get solutions for the 3-dimensional case. With the

same notations as in theorem (4.1),

r r0 (r, t)

, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) < B(r, r0 (r, t), t),

t

q(r, t) = (5.7)

r

, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) > B(r, r0 (r, t), t),

t t1 (r, t)

and r0 (r,t)

0 (z)dz, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) < B(r, r0 (r, t), t),

R(r, t) = 0 (5.8)

R (t (r, t)),

B 2 if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) > B(r, r0 (r, t), t).

No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2121

and set

(r, t) = r (R(r, t))/r2 . (5.9)

Now substituting (5.7)(5.9) in (4.1), we get explicit formula for spherically symmetric

solution of the multidimensional system (1.1) with prescribed initial conditions for velocity and

density, given velocity at the origin and given condition on the mass.

References

[1] Bardos C, Leroux A Y, Nedelec J C. First order quasi-linear equation with boundary conditions. Comm

Part Di Eqn, 1979, 4: 10171034

[2] Gurbatov S N, Saichev A I. Raiophys. Quant Electr, 1984, 27: 303

[3] Gurbatov S N, Saichev A I. New approximation in the adhesion model for the description of large scale

structure of the universe//Bouchet F, Lachieze-Rey M, eds. Cosmic Velocity Fields. Proc 9th IAP

Astrophysics Meeting. Gif-sur-Yrette: Editions Frontieres, 1993: 335340

[4] Hopf E. The partial dierential equation ut + uux = uxx . Comm Pure Appl Math, 1950, 13: 201230

[5] Joseph K T. Burgers equation in the quarter plane, a formula for the weak limit. Comm Pure Appl Math,

1988, 41: 133149

[6] Joseph K T. A Riemann problem whose viscosity solution contain -measures. Asym Anal, 1993, 7:

105120

[7] Joseph K T, Sachdev P L. Initial boundary value problems for scalar and vector Burgers equations. Stud

Appl Math, 2001, 106: 481505

[8] Joseph K T. Explicit solutions for a system of rst order partial dierential equations. Electr J Dier Equ,

2008, 2008(157): 18

[9] Joseph K T, Gowda G D V. Explicit formula for the solution of convex conservation laws with boundary

condition. Duke Math J, 1991, 62: 401416

[10] Joseph K T. One-dimensional adhesion model for large scale structures. Electron J Dier Equ, 2010,

2010(70): 115

[11] Lax P D. Hyperbolic systems of conservation laws II. Comm Pure Appl Math, 1957, 10: 537566

[12] LeFloch P G. An existence and uniqueness result for two nonstrictly hyperbolic systems//Keytz B L,

Shearer M, eds. Nonlinear Evolution Equations that Change Type. IMA 27. Springer-Varlay, 1990:

126138

[13] LeFloch P G. Explicit formula for scalar non-linear conservation laws with boundary condition. Math

Meth Appl Sci, 1988, 10: 265287

[14] McVittie G C. Spherically symmetric solutions of the equations of gas dynamics. Proc R Soc Ser A, 1953,

220: 339355

[15] Costanzino N, Jenssen H K. Symmetric solutions to multi-dimensional conservation laws. Preprint

[16] Sachdev P L, Joseph K T, Haque M E. Exact solutions of compressible ow equations with spherical

symmetry. Stud Appl Math, 2005, 114(4): 325342

[17] Volpert A I. The space BV and quasi-linear equations. Math USSR Sb, 1967, 2: 225267

[18] Weinberg D H, Gunn J E. Large scale structure and the adhesion approximation. Mon Not R Astr Soc,

1990, 247: 260286

[19] Zeldovich Ya. Gravitational instability: an approximate theory for large density perturbations. Astron

Astrophys, 1970, 5: 8489

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