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Acta Mathematica Scientia 2011,31B(6):21072121

http://actams.wipm.ac.cn

SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF 3-DIMENSIONAL


ZERO-PRESSURE GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM
Dedicated to Professor Peter D. Lax on the occasion of his 85th birthday

K.T. Joseph and Manas R. Sahoo


School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,
Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005, India
E-mail: ktj@math.tifr.res.in; manas@math.tifr.res.in

Abstract The 3-dimensional zero-pressure gas dynamics system appears in the modeling
for the large scale structure formation in the universe. The aim of this paper is to construct
spherically symmetric solutions to the system. The radial component of the velocity and
density satisfy a simpler one dimensional problem. First we construct explicit solutions of
this one dimensional case with initial and boundary conditions. Then we get special radial
solutions with dierent behaviours at the origin.
Key words zero-pressure gas dynamics; spherically symmetric solutions
2000 MR Subject Classication 35A22; 35L65

1 Introduction

In this paper we consider the multi-dimensional system of zero-pressure gas dynamics


namely
ut + (u.)u = 0, u = ,
(1.1)
t + .(u) = 0,
where u is velocity and the density of the particles. This system is used to model the formation
of large scale structure in the universe when pressure is negligible, see Weinberg and Gunn [18]
and Zeldovich [19]. It is observed that the fastest growing mode in linear theory has decaying
vorticity, and this is the reason for the interest in potential solutions where the velocity u can
be represented in terms of a velocity potential .
Even with smooth initial data

u(x, 0) = u0 (x), (x, 0) = 0 (x) (1.2)

existence of global smooth solutions for (1.1) is not possible as the fastest particles overrun the
slowest ones and after some time the density becomes innite.
Received March 16, 2011.
2108 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

Mathematically, the local existence theory given by classical Hamilton Jacobi theory of rst
order equations is not helpful to construct global solution because the mapping from Lagrangian
space to Eulerian space given by
x = y + tu0 (y) (1.3)

is one-one only for short time and


 
yi
u(x, t) = u0 (y), (x, t) = 0 (y) det (1.4)
xj

gives only short time existence result. Also it is well known that global weak solutions are not
unique and additional condition is needed to select the physical solution.
So Gurbatov and Saichev [2], introduced the adhesion model. In adhesion approximation
the velocity obeys the Burgers equation and density by the continuity equation.

ut + (u.)u = u, u = ,
(1.5)
t + .(u) = 0.

The velocity component u can be constructed using the standard Hopf-Cole transformation,
see Weinberg and Gunn [18], Joseph and Sachdev [7], for each  > 0. Indeed when the initial
data u (x, 0) = 0 is bounded, u takes the form
  
1 |xy|2
 +0 (y)

y 0 (y)e  2t dy
u (x, t) = R 
n

1 |xy|2
 . (1.6)

+0 (y)
R n e  2t dy

Then the continuity equation for  is a linear equation with smooth bounded coecient which
can be solved using the method of characteristics. If initial data  (x, 0) = 0 (x) is given, then

 (x, t) = 0 (X  (x, t, 0)J  (x, t, 0), (1.7)

where X  (x, t, s) the solution of dX(s)


ds = u (X, s) with X(s = t) = x and J  (x, t, 0) is the
Jacobian of X  (x, t, 0) w.r.t. x.
It is easy to show that lim u (x, t) has a limit, see [18] and [7]. It is still open question
0
to nd the limit for lim  (x, t), for general initial conditions. In fact solutions for the inviscid
0
case (1.1), with a general initial condition (1.2) is still not well-understood except for the case
n = 1. For n = 1, initial value problem for the system (1.1) is well-understood, see [6] [10]
and [12] and the references there. However boundary value problem is not studied even for one
space dimensional case.
The aim of this paper is to construct spherical solution of (1.1) for n = 3. This leads
to initial boundary value problem for a system, where the radial component of velocity and
density satisfy the system
1 2
qt + qqr = 0, t + (r q)r = 0, r > 0, (1.8)
r2
where r = |x|. By the change of variable p = r2 the equation (1.8) takes the form

qt + qqr = 0, pt + (qp)r = 0, r > 0, (1.9)


No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2109

which is (1.1) with n = 1 in the domain r > 0, t > 0.


Boundary value problem for (1.9) in itself is interesting problem and we study this in detail
and construct explicit solution. Using this explicit solution we obtain radial solution for (1.1),
for n = 3, with dierent behaviours at the origin.
The paper is organized in the following way. In Section 2, we derive the equation for
spherically symmetric solutions of (1.1). In Section 3 we construct explicit solutions for the 1
-dimensional case {(x, t), x > 0, t > 0} with initial condition at t = 0 and Dirichlet boundary
conditions u(0, t) and (0, t) at x = 0. These conditions has to be understood in a weak sense.
We construct radial solutions for the 3-dimensional case, in Section 4. The Section 5 contains
some concluding remarks.

2 Equation for Radial Case

Spherically symmetric solutions of the gas dynamics equations with pressure term was
studied by McVittie [14], Sachdev, Joseph and Haque [16] and for more general systems by
Constanzino and Jenssen [15]. In this section we derive equation for spherically symmetric
solution of
ut + (u.)u = 0,
(2.1)
t + .(u) = 0,

when the space dimension is 3. As in McVittie [14] we look for radial component of velocity
and density of the form

u(x, t) = (x1 /r, x2 /r, x3 /r)q(r, t), (x, t) = (r, t), (2.2)

so that uj = (xj /r)q(r, t), j = 1, 2, 3, where r = |x|. Now



(1/r)q + (x2 /r2 )q (x2 /r3 )q, if k = j,
j r j
(uj )xk = (2.3)
(xj xk /r2 )qr (xj xk /r3 )q, if k = j.

An easy computation shows that

3
(u1 )t + uk (u1 )xk = (x1 /r)qt + (x1 /r)q[(1/r)q + (x21 /r2 )qr (x21 /r3 )q]
k=1
+(x2 /r)q[(x1 x2 /r2 )qr (x1 x2 /r3 )q]
+(x3 /r)q[(x1 x3 /r2 )qr (x1 x3 /r3 )q]
= (x1 /r){[qt + q 2 /r + ((x21 + x22 + x23 )/r2 )qqr
((x21 + x22 + x23 )/r3 )q 2 ]}
= (x1 /r){qt + qqr },

where we have used (2.3). Similar calculations hold for u2 and u3 and hence

3
(uj )t + uk (uj )k = (xj /r){qt + qqr }, j = 1, 2, 3. (2.4)
k=1
2110 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

Also for continuity equation, we have


3
t + {(uk )xk = t + {((1/r)q + (x2k /r2 )qr (x2k /r3 )q) + (x2k /r2 )qr }
k=1 k=1
= t + (3/r)q + qr (1/r)q + qr
= t + (2/r)q + (q)r
= t + r2 (r2 q)r . (2.5)

From (2.1), (2.4) and (2.5), it follows that (u, ) of the form (2.2) is a solution i q and
satisfy the equations
1
qt + qqr = 0, t + 2 (r2 q)r = 0. (2.6)
r
Let p = r2 , then the system (4.6) becomes

qt + qqr = 0, pt + (pq)r = 0, r > 0, t > 0, (2.7)

which we will study in the next section with initial condition at t = 0 and a weak form of
boundary condition at r = 0.
So to construct special spherically symmetric solutions (u(x, t), (x, t)) of (2.1), we nd
solutions (q(r, t), p(r, t) of the one dimensional case (2.7) and then take
 
x1 x2 x3 p(r, t)
u(x, t) = , , q(r, t), (x, t) = , r = |x|.
r r r r2

3 Initial Boundary Value Problem for the One Dimensional Case

In this section, we consider one dimensional case of the equations (1.1), namely

ut + (u2 /2)x = 0,
(3.1)
t + (u)x = 0

in the quarter plane x > 0, t > 0 with initial conditions

u(x, 0) = u0 (x), (x, 0) = 0 (x), x > 0 (3.2)

with a weak form of boundary conditions at x = 0,

u(0, t) = uB (t), (0, t) = B (t). (3.3)

Here we assume u0 is bounded and locally Lipschitz, and 0 is locally Lipschitz functions in
x > 0 and uB and B are locally Lipschitz continuous functions for t > 0.
Indeed with strong form of Dirichlet boundary conditions (3.3), there is neither existence
nor uniqueness as the speed of propagation = u does not have a denite sign at the boundary
x = 0. We note that the speed is completely determined by the rst equation. We use the
Bardos Leroux and Nedelec [1] formulation of the boundary condition for the u component
which for our case is equivalent to the following condition, see LeFloch [13]

either u(0+, t) = u+
B (t)
(3.4)
or u(0+, t) 0 and u(0+, t) u+
B (t).
No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2111

where u+ B (t) = max{uB (t), 0}. Also u is required to satises entropy condition u(x, t)
u(x+, t) for x > 0. There are explicit representations of the entropy weak solution of the rst
component u of (3.1) with initial condition (3.2) and the boundary condition (3.4) by Joseph
and Gowda [9] and LeFloch [13]. We use the formula in [9] for u which involve a minimization
of functionals on certain class of paths and generalized characteristics. Once u is obtained, the
equation for is linear equation with a discontinuous coecient u(x, t). Now (0+, t) = B (t)
is prescribed only if the characteristics at (0, t) has positive speed, i.e., (u(0+, t)) > 0. So the
weak form of Dirichlet boundary conditions for component is

if u(0+, t) > 0, then (0+, t) = B (t). (3.5)

The condition (3.5) is required to be satised for almost every points of the set {t > 0 :
u(0+, t) > 0}.
To describe the solution, rst we introduce a functional dened on certain class of paths.
For each xed (x, y, t), x 0, y 0, t > 0, C(x, y, t) denotes the following class of paths in
the quarter plane D = {(z, s) : z 0, s 0}. Each path is connected from the point (y, 0)
to (x, t) and is of the form z = (s), where is a piecewise linear function of maximum three
lines. On C(x, y, t), we dene a functional
 2
1 1 d(s)
J() = + 2
(uB (s) ) ds + ds. (3.6)
2 {s:(s)=0} 2 {s:(s)=0} ds

We call 0 is straight line path connecting (y, 0) and (x, t) which does not touch the
boundary space boundary x = 0, namely {(0, t), t > 0}, then let

(x y)2
A(x, y, t) = J(0 ) = . (3.7)
2t
Any C (x, y, t) = C(x, y, t) {0 } is made up of three pieces lines connecting (y, 0) to
(0, t1 ) in the interior and (0, t1 ) to (0, t2 ) on the boundary and (0, t2 ) to (x, t) in the interior.
For such curves, it can be easily seen that
t2
(uB (s)+ )2 y2 x2
J() = J(x, y, t, t1 , t2 ) = ds + + . (3.8)
t1 2 2t1 2(t t2 )

It was proved in [9] that there exits C (x, y, t) and corresponding t1 (x, y, t), t2 (x, y, t) so
that

B(x, y, t) = min{J() : C (x, y, t)}


= min{J(x, y, t, t1 , t2 ) : 0 t1 < t2 < t}
= J(x, y, t, t1 (x, y, t), t2 (x, y, t)) (3.9)

is Lipshitz continuous. Further

Q(x, y, t) = min{J() : C(x, y, t)} = min{A(x, y, t), B(x, y, t)} (3.10)

and
U (x, t) = min{Q(x, y, t) + U0 (y), 0 y < } (3.11)
2112 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

y
are Lipshitz continuous function in their variables, where U0 (y) = 0 u0 (z)dz. Further minimum
in (3.11) is attained at some value of y 0, which depends on (x, t), we call it y(x, t). If
A(x, y(x, t), t) B(x, y(x, t), t)
(xy(x,t))2
U (x, t) = 2t + U0 (y(x, t)) (3.12)

and if A(x, y(x, t), t) > B(x, y(x, t), t)

U (x, t) = J(x, y(x, t), t, t1 (x, y(x, t), t), t2 (x, y(x, t), t)) + U0 (y(x, t)). (3.13)

Here and hence forth y(x, t) is a minimizer in (3.11) and in the case of (3.13), t2 (x, t) =
t2 (x, y(x, t), t) and t1 (x, t) = t1 (x, y(x, t), t). With these notations, we have an explicit formula
for the solutions of (3.1) and (3.2) with boundary conditions (3.3) or (3.4). We have the
following result
Theorem 3.1 For every (x, t) minimum in (3.11) is achieved by some y(x, t) (may not be
unique) and U (x, t) is a Lipschitz continuous. Further for almost every (x, t) there exists unique
minimum y(x, t) and either A(x, y(x, t), t) < B(x, y(x, t), t) or B(x, y(x, t), t) < A(x, y(x, t), t).
Dene
x y(x, t)

, if A(x, t) < B(x, t),
t
u(x, t) = (3.14)

x
, if A(x, t) > B(x, t),
t t1 (x, t)
and y(x,t)



0 (z)dz, if A(x, t) < B(x, t),
0
R(x, t) =
t2 (x,t)
(3.15)


u+
B (s)B (s)ds, if A(x, t) > B(x, t),
t1 (x,t)

and set
(x, t) = x (R(x, t)). (3.16)
Then the function (u(x, t), (x, t)) given by (3.14)(3.16) is a weak solution of (3.1), with initial
conditions (3.2), boundary conditions (3.4) and (3.5).
Proof First we recall from [5, 9] some properties of minimizers y(x, t) in (3.10) and
corresponding t2 (x, t) and t1 (x, t) that are required for our analysis. These minimizers y(x, t)
may not be unique for every (x, t). Let y (x, t) and y + (x, t) are the smallest and the largest
of these minimizers. For each t > 0, they are nondecreasing function of x and hence except
for a countable number of points they are equal. Corresponding t +
2 (x, t) and t2 (x, t) have the
following properties. They are nondecreasing function of x, for each xed t and hence except for
a countable number of points x they are equal and nondecreasing function of t, for each xed x
and except for a countable number of points t they are equal. If A(x, y(x, t), t) < B(x, y(x, t), t),
for some x = x0 then this continues to be so for all x < x0 and t1 (x, t) = t1 (x0 , t) when x x0 .
Furthermore, if A(x, y(x, t), t) > B(x, y(x, t), t), for some x = x0 then this continues to be so
for all x > x0 .
It was proved in [9], that u(x, t) = Q1 (x, y(x, t)) = x U (x, t) where Q1 (x, y, t) = x Q(x, y, t),
is the weak solution of
ut + (u2 /2)x = 0, (3.17)
No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2113

satisfying the initial condition u(x, 0) = u0 (x) and weak form of boundary condition (3.4)
and the entropy condition u(x, t) u(x+, t) for x > 0. To show that satises the second
equation, we follow LeFloch [12] and use the nonconservative product of Volpert [17] in sense
of measures. First we note that u and R are functions of bounded variation and = Rx is a
Borel measure. To justify the product u = uRx , we write

[0, ) [0, ) = Sc Sj Sn ,

where Sc and Sj are points of approximate continuity of u and points of approximate jump
of u and Sn is a set of one dimensional Hausdor-measure zero. At any point (x, t) Sj ,
u(x 0, t) and u(x + 0, t) denote the left and right values of u(x, t). For any continuous function
g : R1 R1 , the Volpert product g(u)Rx is dened as a Borel measure in the following manner.
Consider the averaged superposition of g(u), see Volpert [17]


g(u(x, t)), if (x, t) Sc ,
g(u)(x, t) = 1 (3.18)

g(1 )(u(x, t) + u(x+, t))d, if (x, t) Sj ,
0

and the associated measure



[g(u)Rx ](A) = g(u)(x, t)Rx , (3.19)
A

where A is a Borel measurable subset of Sc and

[g(u)Rx ]({(x, t)}) = g(u)(x, t)(R(x+, t) R(x, t)) (3.20)

provided (x, t) Sj .
Now we take the continuity equation. First we show that R satises

= Rt + uRx = 0 (3.21)

in the sense of measures. Let (x, t) Sc and u = xy(x,t)


t , since u satises (3.17), we have
  
(x y(x, t)) t y(x, t) x y(x, t) (1 x y(x, t))
+ = 0,
t2 t t t

from which it follows that


t y(x, t) + ux y(x, t) = 0. (3.22)

Now if A(x, t) B(x, t),

t R(x, t) + ux R(x, t) = 0 (y(x, t){t y(x, t) + ux y(x, t)},

and from (3.22), we get


t R(x, t) + ux R(x, t) = 0. (3.23)

Now consider the points for which A(x, t) > B(x, t). If (x, t) Sc then u(x, t) = ( tt2x(x,t) ), we
can show that t (t2 (x, t)) + u(x, t)x (t2 (x, t) = 0, and hence

t R(x, t) + ux R(x, t) = 0. (3.24)


2114 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

So for any Borel subset A of Sc , it follows from (3.23) and (3.24) that

(A) = 0. (3.25)

Now we consider a point (s(t), t) Sj , then

ds(t) u(s(t)+, t) + u(s(t), t)


=
dt 2
is the speed of propagation of the discontinuity at this point and

{(s(t), t)}
ds(t)
= (R(s(t)+, t) R(s(t), t))
dt
1
+ (u(s(t), t) + (u(s(t)+, t) u(s(t), t))d(R(s(t)+, t) R(s(t), t))
 0 
ds(t) u(s(t)+, t)) + u(s(t), t)
= + (R(s(t)+, t) R(s(t), t))
dt 2
= 0. (3.26)

Form (3.25), (3.26) and (3.18)(3.20), (3.21) follows. Dierentiating (3.21) w.r.t. x and using
= Rx , we get t + (u)x = 0, in the sense of distribution.
To show that the solution satises the initial conditions, rst we observe that given  > 0
there exists > 0 such that for all x , t ,
  y(x,t)
x y(x, t)
u(x, t) = , R(x, t) = 0 (y)dy,
t 0
2
where y(x, t) minimizes min[U0 (y)+( (xy)
t )], see [9]. Then Laxs argument [11], gives lim u(x, t) =
y0 t0
u0 (x) a.e. x . Since  > 0 is arbitrary,

lim u(x, t) = u0 (x), a.e. x.


t0

Since y(x, t) x = tu(x, t, then it follows that y(x, t) x as t 0 a.e. x. Since the map
y
y 0 0 (z)dz is continuous, we get
x
lim R(x, t) = lim R(x, t)) = 0 (z)dz, a.e. x.
t0 t0 0

Now we show the solution satises the boundary condition (3.4) and (3.5). That the
u component satises the boundary condition (3.4) is proved in [9]. To show satises the
boundary condition. Note that if u(0+, t) > 0 then u(x, t) > 0 for 0 < x  for some
suciently small  and u and are given by (3.15) and
 t2 (x,t) 
x
u(x, t) = , (x, t) = x u+
B (s)B (s)ds .
t t2 (x, t) t1 (x,t)

Then t t2 (x, t) = x/(u(x, t)), and it follows that lim t2 (x, t) = t, since we assumed that
x0
lim u(x, t) = u(0+, t) > 0. By the weak form of the boundary condition (3.4), if u(0+, t0 ) > 0,
x0
then uB (t0 ) > 0 and u(0+, t0 ) = uB (t0 ). Being Lipschitz continuous function uB (t) > 0 in a
No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2115

neighbourhood of t0 . Then u(x, t) is Lipschitz continuous for 0 x <  for some  > 0. So
t2 (x, t) is Lipschitz continuous for 0 x < . Since u(x, t) = ( ttx2 (x,t ), we have t t2 (x, t) =
x
u(x,t) and dierentiating this we get

u xux
t2 (x, t)x = ,
u2
and so
1
(t2 )x (0+, t0 ) = . (3.27)
uB (t0 )
Since (x, t0 ) = uB (t2 (x, t0 ))B (t2 (x, t0 )(t2 (x, t0 )x ), for x close to 0, we have

(0+, t0 ) = uB (t0 ))B (t0 )(t2 )x (0, t0 )). (3.28)

From (3.27) and (3.28), (3.5) follows. The proof of the theorem is complete. 2

4 Spherically Symmetric Solutions

Using the formula in the previous section we construct for the system (1.1). As we look
for radial component of velocity and density of the form

u(x, t) = (x1 /r, x2 /r, x3 /r)q(r, t), (x, t) = (r, t), r = |x|, (4.1)

we take initial data of the form

u(x, 0) = (x1 /r, x2 /r, x3 /r)q0 (r), (x, 0) = 0 (r). (4.2)

Then q and satisfy the equations


1 2
qt + qqx = 0, t + (r q)r = 0. (4.3)
r2
Let p = r2 , then the system (4.3) becomes

qt + qqx = 0, pt + (pq)r = 0, r > 0, t > 0, (4.4)

with initial conditions


q(r, 0) = q0 (r), p(r, 0) = r2 0 (r). (4.5)

We take boundary conditions at r = 0

q(0, t) = qB (t), lim r2 (r, t) = B (t). (4.6)


r0

Since p = r2 (4.6) with conditions at r = 0

q(0+, t) = qB (t), p(0+, t) = B (t). (4.7)

Solution to (4.4), (4.5) and (4.7), is given explicitly in previous section in terms of certain
minimization problem. For r, r0 0, t > 0, 0 < t1 < t2 < t dene

(r r0 )2
A(r, r0 , t) = (4.8)
2t
2116 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

and t2
(uB (s)+ ) r2 r2
J(r, r0 , t, t1 , t2 ) = ds + 0 + . (4.9)
t1 2 2t1 2(t t2 )
It was proved that there exits t1 (r, r0 , t), t2 (r, r0 , t) so that

B(r, r0 , t) = min{J(r, r0 , t, t1 , t2 ) : 0 t1 < t2 < t}


= J(r, r0 , t, t1 (r, r0 , t), t2 (r, r0 , t)) (4.10)

is Lipshitz continuous. With A and B dened by (4.8)(4.10)

Q(r, r0 , t) = min{A(r, r0 , t), B(r, r0 , t)} (4.11)

and
U (r, t) = min{Q(r, r0 , t) + U0 (r0 ), 0 r0 < } (4.12)
r
are Lipshitz continuous function in their variables, where U0 (r) = 0 0 (z)dz. Further minimum
in (4.12) is attained at some value of r0 0, which depends on (r, t), we call it r0 (r, t). If
A(r, r0 (r, t), t) B(r, r0 (r, t, t)
(r r0 (r, t))2
U (r, t) = + U0 (r0 (r, t)), (4.13)
2t
and if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) > B(r, r0 (r, t, t)

U (x, t) = J(r, r0 (r, t), t, t1 (r, r0 (r, t), t), t2 (r, r0 (r, t), t)) + U0 (r0 (r, t)). (4.14)

Here and hence forth r0 (r, t) is a minimizer in (4.12) and in the case of (4.14), t2 (r, t) =
t2 (r, r0 (r, t), t) and t1 (r, t) = t1 (r, r0 (r, t), t). With these notations, we have an explicit formula
for the solution of (4.4) with initial conditions (4.5) and weak form of the boundary conditions
(4.7).
Theorem 4.1 For every (r, t) minimum in (4.12) is achieved by some r0 (r, t) (may not be
unique) and U (r, t) is a Lipschitz continuous. Further for almost every (r, t) there exists unique
minimum r0 (r, t) and either A(r, r0 (r, t), t) B(r, r0 (r, t), t) or B(r, r0 (r, t), t) < A(r, r0 (r, t), t).

r r0 (r, t)

, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) < B(r, r0 (r, t), t),
t
q(r, t) = (4.15)

r
, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) > B(r, r0 (r, t), t),
t t1 (r, t)
and
r0 (r,t)



0 (z)dz, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) < B(r, r0 (r, t), t),
0
R(r, t) =
t2 (r,t)
(4.16)


u+
B (s)B (s)ds, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) > B(r, r0 (r, t), t),
t1 (r,t)

and set
(r, t) = r (R(r, t))/r2 . (4.17)
Proof The proof of Theorem 4.1 easily follows from Theorem 3.1 applied to the system
(4.4) for (q, p) with initial conditions (4.5) and weak form of the boundary conditions (4.7) and
then using (q, ) = (q, p/r2 ). 2
No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2117

In the rest of this section we take special cases of initial and boundary data for (4.6) and
use the formulas (4.15), (4.16) and (4.17) to get special solutions with dierent behaviour at
the origin.
4.1 Solutions which Blows up at Origin
First we construct solutions with singular data at the origin. We take the initial and
boundary data of the form

q(r, 0) = q0 , (r, 0) = r2 0 , qB (0+, t) = qB , lim r2 (r, t) = B ,


r0

q0 , qB , 0 , B all constants. In this case the radial velocity and the density are given by the
following expressions.
Case 1 q0 = qB > 0,

(q , /r2 ), if r < q t,
0 B 0
(q(r, t), (r, t)) =
(q0 , 0 /r2 ), if r > q0 t.

Case 2 q0 = qB < 0,
(q(r, t), (r, t) = (q0 , 0 /r2 ).
Case 3 0 < qB < q0 ,



2
(qB , B /r ), if r < qB t,
(q(r, t), (r, t)) = (r/t, 0), if qB t < r < q0 t,



(q0 , 0 /r2 ), if r > q0 t.

Case 4 qB < 0 < q0 ,



(r/t, 0), if 0 < r < q0 t,
(q(r, t), (r, t)) =
(q0 , 0 /r ),2
if r > q0 t.

Case 5 qB < 0 and q0 0,

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = (q0 , 0 /r2 ).

Case 6 q0 < qB and qB + q0 > 0,





2
(qB , B /r ), if r < st,
(q(r, t), (r, t)) = (1/2(qB + q0 ), c(t)r=st ) if r = st,



(q0 , 0 /r2 ), if r > st,

where s = q0 +q
2
B
and c(t) = 2(qB(qq 0 )(0 +B )
2
B +q0 ) t
.
4.2 Solutions with Riemann Type Initial-boundary Data
Next we take the initial and boundary conditions of the form

q(r, 0) = q0 , (r, 0 = 0 , q(0+, t) = qB , (0+, t) = B ,

q0 , qB , 0 , B all constants. The radial velocity and the density are given by the following
expressions.
2118 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

Case 1 q0 = qB > 0

(q , 0), if r < q0 t,
0
(q(r, t), (r, t)) =
(q0 , (1 q0 t/r)2 0 ), if r > q0 t.

Case 2 q0 = qB < 0

(q(r, t), (r, t)) = (q0 , (1 q0 t/r)2 ).

Case 3 0 < qB < q0




(qB , 0) if r < qB t,


 
r
(q(r, t), (r, t)) = ,0 if qB t < r < q0 t,

t


(q , (1 q t/r)2 ) if r > q t.
0 0 0 0

Case 4 qB < 0 and q0 0


t
(q(r, t), (r, t)) = (q0 , (1 q0 )2 0 ).
r
Case 5 q0 < qB and q0 + qB > 0


(qB , 0), if r < st,



 
q0 + qB
(q(r, t), (r, t)) = , c(t) r=st , if r = st,
2

 

t

q0 , (1 q0 )2 0 , if r > st,
r
3
where s = (qB + q0 )/2 and c(t) = 6(q
0 (qB q0 )
B +q0 )
2 t.

4.3 Solutions with Datum Vanish Near the Origin


For the initial and boundary datum of the form

q0 (r) = q0 [l,) , 0 (r) = 0 [l,) ,


qB (t) = 0, B (t) = 0.

If q0 > 0, the entropy solution takes the form




(0, 0), if r < l,



(r l
(q(r, t), (r, t)) = , 0 , if l < r < q0 t + l,
 t 



t
q0r , (1 q0 )2 0 , if r > q0 t + l,
r
and for q0 < 0

q0

(0, 0), if r < t + l,

2

q

q0
0
(q(r, t), (r, t)) = , c(t) r= 2 t ,
q0 if r = t + l,

2 2



t q0

q0 , (1 q0 )2 0 , if r > t + l,
r 2
No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2119

where c(t) = 0 (l q0 )t/6.


4.4 Solutions with Datum Initially Vanish Except on l1 < r < l2
For the initial and boundary datum of the form

q0 (r) = q0 [l1 ,l2 ) , 0 (r) = 0 [l1 ,l2 ) ,


qB (t) = 0, B (t) = 0.

If q0 < 0 the entropy weak solutions takes the form


q0

(0, 0), if 0r t + l1 ,

2

 



q0 q0

, c(t) r= 2 t ,
q0 if r= t,

2 2
 
(q(r, t), (r, t)) = t 2 q0
0 q , (1 q ) 0 , if t + l1 < r q0 t + l2 ,


0
r 2

 


r l2 , 0 ,

if q0 t + l2 r l2 ,

t



(0, 0), if r > l2 ,

where
0 q0 t[(l1 q0 t/2)2 + l1 (l1 q0 t/2) + l12 ]
c(t) = .
6(l1 + q0 t/2)2
If q0 > 0, the entropy solution contain -waves.

q t + l , if 0 t 2(l2 l1 )/q0 ,
0 1
r1 (t) =
l1 + [2(l2 l1 )q0 ]1/2 t1/2 , if t > 2(l2 l1 )/q0 ,

q /2t + l , if 0 t 2(l2 l1 )/q0 ,
0 2
r2 (t) =
l1 + [2(l2 l1 )q0 ]1/2 t1/2 , if t > 2(l2 l1 )/q0 .

Note that r1 (t) = r2 (t) for t 2(l2 l1 )/q0 and hence the surfaces r = r1 (t) and r = r2 (t)
are same for t 2(l2 l1 )/q0 t.


(0, 0), if 0 r l1 ,

 



(r l 1

,0 , if l1 r1 (t),

t

 
t
(q(r, t), (r, t)) = q0 , (1 q0 )2 0 , if r1 (t) < r < r2 (t),

r

 



q 0

, c(t) r=r2 (t) , if r = r2 (t),

2


(0, 0), if r > r2 (t),

where c(t) is given by



0 q0 t[l2 2 + l2 (l2 q0 t/2) + (l2 q0 t/2)2 ]

, if 0 t 2(l2 l1 )/q0 ,
6(l + q t/2)2
2 0
c(t) =


(l23 3
l1 )0

, if t > 2(l2 l1 )/q0 .
3(l1 + [2(l2 l1 )q0 t]1/2 )2
2120 ACTA MATHEMATICA SCIENTIA Vol.31 Ser.B

5 Concluding Remarks

We constructed some exact radial solutions of 3-pressure-less gas dynamics system with
given conditions at the origin and initial conditions. It is interesting to look for solutions with
initial data u(x, 0) and (x, 0) and u(0, t) and a conditions on the mass. For radial solutions in
3-dimensional,
(x, t)dx = 4 r2 (r, t)dr.
R3 0
Thus we consider initial data of the form

q(r, 0) = q0 (r), (r, 0) = 0 (r) (5.1)

with integrable 0 . The boundary condition is replaced by



u(0, t) = uB (t), 4 r2 (r, t)dr = RB (t). (5.2)
0

For this problem also we can get an explicit solutions using the analogous one dimensional case
in [8]. Consider the (3.1) with initial conditions (3.2) weak form of the boundary condition
(3.4) for u and conditions on the mass

if u(0+, t) > 0, then 0 (y, t)dy = RB (t). (5.3)

First we state the result in [8]. With the same notations as in Theorem (3.1), we have (u, )
dened by

x y(x, t)

, if A(x, t) < B(x, t),
t
u(x, t) = (5.4)

x
, if A(x, t) > B(x, t),
t t2 (x, t)
and y(x,t)

0 (z)dz, if A(x, t) < B(x, t),
R(x, t) = 0 (5.5)

R (t (x, t)),
B 2 if A(x, t) > B(x, t).
and set
(x, t) = x (R(x, t)) (5.6)
is a weak solution to (3.1), (3.2) and (5.3).
Using the formulas (5.4)(5.6) we can get solutions for the 3-dimensional case. With the
same notations as in theorem (4.1),

r r0 (r, t)

, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) < B(r, r0 (r, t), t),
t
q(r, t) = (5.7)

r
, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) > B(r, r0 (r, t), t),
t t1 (r, t)
and r0 (r,t)

0 (z)dz, if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) < B(r, r0 (r, t), t),
R(r, t) = 0 (5.8)

R (t (r, t)),
B 2 if A(r, r0 (r, t), t) > B(r, r0 (r, t), t).
No.6 K.T. Joseph & M.R. Sahoo: SOME EXACT SOLUTIONS OF GAS DYNAMICS SYSTEM 2121

and set
(r, t) = r (R(r, t))/r2 . (5.9)

Now substituting (5.7)(5.9) in (4.1), we get explicit formula for spherically symmetric
solution of the multidimensional system (1.1) with prescribed initial conditions for velocity and
density, given velocity at the origin and given condition on the mass.

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