1 1UDD LIBRARY
LAWRENCE UNIVERSITY
Appleton, Wisconsin
__
CURVES
AND THEIR PROPERTIES
A HANDBOOK ON
CURVES
AND THEIR PROPERTIES
ROBERT C. YATES
United States Military Academy
97226
NOTATION
octangular C
olar Coordin
ini
=r. t^r
, ^ lem a Tangent and the Rad
Copyright 1947 by R
m Origin to Tangent.
i
i = /I.
r,p) = C
1
Lithoprinted by E
rlll CONTENTS
PREFACE
nephroid
and teacher
lume proposes to supply to student
,n properties of
plane curves. Rather
Pedal Curves e
U
Pedal Equations
^ Yc 31 r 'f Lr!ormation vhi C h might be found
,
bfi
Stropho:
i
HISTORY: The Cycloidal curves, including the Astroid,
;, r e discovered
by Roemer (1674) In his search for the
Space Is provided occasionally for the reader to ir
Double generation was first
sert notes, proofs, and references of his own and thus be st form for gear teeth.
noticed by Daniel Bernoulli in 1725
BIBLIOGRAPHY
_ nans, Green
dl in i , _
_. i i ,
(1895) 339
Section on Epicycloids ,
herein.
. .
CARDIOID
curve
the cui may be
re uj described
uc uc=.i uc as an Epicycloid in
Thus tv,c 1 ,. ,
circle of radius a, or by one of radius
ays: by a
,.., as shown upon a fixed circle of radius a.
I
2. EQUATIONS:
HISTORY: The Cardioid Is a member of the lamiiy
c
2
= 4a 2 (x
2 + 2 2
2 + + y (Origin at cusp).
cloidal Curves, first studied by Roemer (1674)
ir 2ax)
(x y )
vestigation for the best form of gear teeth. r = 2a(l + sin (Origin at ci
r = 2a(l + cos B), 0)
3. METRICAL PROPERTIES:
2X  (^ )(.a 2 )
ler cardioid.
scial limacon :
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CASSINIAN CURV
I If.
GENERAL ITEMS:
'en formed by
a plane paral
of the torus
le l to the axis
2. EQUATIONS:
2 2 2
[(x  a) + y ]'[U + a) n
3. METRICAL PROPERTIES:
(See Section on Lemniscate)
CASSINIAN CURVES
CASSINIAN CURVES
(r,6),^ !>iY are focal radii (measured from F
; the coordinates of Q and P be (p,0) and
;ely. Since 0, D, and Q 1
.re always at right
angles. This
2 2 2 2
2
= (DQ)
2
 (DO) c  4a sin 8.
(O'q)
point
The attached Peaucellier cell inyerts the
P under the property BIBLIOGRAPHY
..! ;
.: ;
" ;..,: " . . <
Let
Pig 9, be Fi,
it pr
^N. 2
k ? off
perpen
rv \ FiC
liar to FiF 2
if the circle
any radius
B
h FiX Dr IV cx
.
ana perpen
die uiar CY.
CATENARY 3
i. METRICAL PROPERTIES:
A = as = 2(area triangle PCB) Sx = it(ys + ax)
CATENARY
HISTORY: Galileo w s the first to inv stigate tt
noulli
true form and ga re some of its
in I69I obtained i B
4. GENERAL ITEMS:
properties.
1. DESCRIPTION: Th
perfectly flexible inextensible chain of unifor n densi
hanging from two s rpports not in the al lin
2. EQUATIONS: If
T cos <f
= ka
a a 2
3 sh(^) = (f)(e + e ) ; y =
CATENARY
section of a sail bounded by two
perpendicular to the plane of t
proportional to the
sail 'is normal to the element and
Routh)
square of the velocity, Fig. lib. (See HISTORY: Causti
Cayley.
ouetelet, Lagrange, and
the
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. A ^caustic curve 1 s
envelope of Light ra ys,
14th Ed. under "Curves,
emitted from a radia nt
Statics 2nd Ed. (I896) I fl 458,
Routh, E. J.: An ,
S, afte r re
p. 310.
Dublin (1879) 287. refracti on by
caustics by reflect on
and refract! on are ailed
curv
3 locus of P Is the pedal of the reflecting
respect to S. Thus the orthotomic is a curve
_sln
a
to the pedal with double its linear dimensions.
'
;
;.. ,.:,'
With usual x,y ax.
con whose pole is the radiant point.
[radius a, radiant point (c,o)]
2 E
E(W  a*Kx +
lowing forms:
PS  PS = SS
and refraction be 6i and 82 and H =
The. tus of P
is tl en an hyper bo La wi th
S, S
ss/n ty
PQT a
,"1 1 ~mLl "The
ays PQT
bola is
(UlUl e, the
(Pig 17)
THE CIRCLE
1
DESCRIPTION: A circle is a plane continuous curve all
points are equidistant from a fixed coplanar
of whose
d) If the point i
efleoted rays are all noi 2. EQUATIONS:
 2 = A COS 29 + B having 2 E 2
(x  h) + (y  k) = a
2
x
2 + y + Ax + By + C = C
. METRICAL PROPERTIES:
2
L = 2na 2 = 4na
4. GENERAL ITEMS:
rcle, produc
BIBLIOGRAPHY constant; i.e., PA PB
circle divides car:.! line : ;
'
angles PAD and PBC are similar). To evaluate this
actions (1856) constant, p, draw the line through P and the center
Heath, R. S.: Geometrical Optics (1895) 105 of the circle. Then (P0  a)(P0 + a) = p = (P0)
2
 a
2
.
Fig. 'l8(b).
THE CIRCLE
'
Fe
Studied y Archi
medes, s me of its
properti s are
1. jSb + BYC = AZC.
2. Its a ea eq uals
the area of th
3. Clrcl s ins
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Two concentric circles admit a Stelne
Daus , P H. College G
. :
2. EQUATIONS:
OP = (OR)  (OQ) = QR
2
(1 + t )
+ (a + b
(If b = 0: r = 2asin e
Cissoid of Diodes) .
r = (^) S ee 0 2ccos 8,
(d) Tangent Construction : (See Fig. 26) A has the
moves along CA
while the other
edge of the
square passes
fixed point on
the line BC per
CONCHOID
HISTORY: Nloomedes (about 225 BC) utilized the Cc
( j The Stropn.
)
(from the Greek meaning
,!
shelllike" ) in finding
ire thr e cei ter with re spec proportionals between two given, lengths (the cube
irele. of Dioc
r plan e Lord).
k) The i of 2
: of parallel lire
BIBLIOGRAPHY
The Conchoid of Nloomedes is the Conchoid of a Line
Hilton, H. : Plane Algebraic Curves, Oxford (1932) 175,
203.
_ r 1
, . in I
I
I . 1
I
32 CONCHOID CONCHOID
2. EQUATIONS: i of an Angle XOY by the n
i
5. EXAMPLES: The cone with ve
ing the curve
2 2 2 2
fx + y  z . fx + y 
. DESCRIPTION:
The cone with ve >rigin containing t
yVUr =0
2. EQUATIONS: Given two surfaces f(x,y,z)
2
 lay
g g
(xl) + (yg) g + g(xl)( g 5)+Myg)( Z 3)3( Z ;) .
y  b  k( yi  b
(B) By fixir 3
tanfandTarbitrary)?
"
With either ch ice, the intersecting cur\
an Ellipse if a < ft
a Parabola If a = f) ,
an Hyperbola if > (b .
38 CONICS
3. PARTICULAR TYPE DEMONSTRATIONS: rmly remarkable that these spheres, inscribed
5 and Its cutting plane, should touch this
le foci of the conic  and that the directrices
bersections of cutting plane and plane of the
Ax*" + 2Bxy 4
; family of lir
s 2
I 2Bm + Cm )x + 2(D + Em)x + P = 0.
CONICS
he family which cut the curv
2
The Hyper Ax + 2Bxy + Cy + 2Dx + 2Ey + F =
Hi 5 JUSt e point P:(h,k).
ne (whose equation
The Ellipse Is the conic for which no line of the family e form of a tangent _jn
cuts the curve just once. That is, for which: conic):
+ B(hy + kx) + Cky
x + h) + E(y + k)
^^nJ^
= o (1)
97826
> CONICS
ce (not
glvenlhTcon ican iVmrt necessarily rectangular) and let the conic (Pig. 38b)
ariab 2
Ax + 2Bxy + Cy + 2Dx + 2Ey + F =
through^/nl le conic
in Qi,Q. The locu of Pi have intercepts ai,a 2 ; b ,b 2 given as the roots of
which, with P ides 2
Ax 2 + 2Dx + P = and Cy + 2Ey + P =
Q,iQ 2 harmonic ally s the
polar of P 2 . Prom these
=
2 QE are in ha rmoni progres _1_ 1 2D
r D .(.)(i + i).
11
bi
+
b2
2E
P
r E=()(^+^)
/(p 2 Pi) ( PiPi.) (P Q 2
Now the polar of P(0,o) is Dx + Ey + F = C
point P:
46 CONICS CONICS
10. P0INTWISE CONSTRI OTION OP A CONIC DETERM NED BY FIVE 12. INSCRIBED QUADRILATERALS: The pai
GIVE:) POINTS:
,
which would me t the conic
laterals inscribed t
//XT
arbitrary line through 1
theorem of Pascal.
in 5' . Furthe  points are
V,
located in the same way.
Fig. 1+1
ctete rmined and the Pascal line For such triangles, ,'
nlned as in (lo),
CONICS
16. CONSTRUCTION AND GENERATION: (See also Sket
14. AEROPLANE DESIGN: The c The following are a few selected from many. Ex
d of them. To o
of the foregoing.
eal's Theorem (1639)
lizes Into the theorer
(1806):
If a hexag on circumsei
at A and B A po'rr
An Hyperbola if c < b.
Drdins
3 2 2 2
ius y y" = By  (A + Bx) = A
BIBLIOGRAPHY
3a (x .
y)l 
125
(1675) who sought a curve whose sv.bnorr.al is inversely
proportional to its ordinate. Monge used the Parabola (a + ,)*
3
1. DESCRIPTION: The curve is defined by 1 1. Replace x + hx + k = by the sj
3 g 2
y = Ax + Bx + Cx + D = A(x  a)(x H
2. GENERAL ITEMS:
(a) The Cubic Parabola has maxmln. points only 1
2
B  3AC > 0.
railroad engi
CUBIC PARABOLA CUBIC PARABOLA
This may be replacec
BIBLIOGRAPHY
;hus B itself.
CURVATURE
1. DEFINITION: Curvature is
change of the angle of incl
respect to the arc length. Precisely,
K R =
=f s
.
K
'
2. OSCULATING CIRCLE:
2 2 2
 vf.,i
(x  a) + (y  p) = r
(x  a) + (y 
fj)y'
=
E If the curve be given in polar coordinates, through t
4* _x
(1 + y' ) + (y  fi)y" =
pole and tangent to the polar axis, there is in like
26 26
a s ain at P :
(
x yj. As P app
pr sculating ci rcle. Now BP = x is a mean
.
CURVATURE CURVATURE
62
CURVATURE IN VARIOUS COORDINATE SYSTEMS: 6. CURVATURE FOR VARIOUS CURVES:
4.
CHEWS EQUATION E
^.insea* iS
Hyperbola
Catenary
"""""^r*.
Cycloid b =V Say 1
2S 61.
"
"olold?
x= a(t  slnt)
if = y
2
U +y' 2 ) Tractrix e . oln sec tp ctan<j
Legate 3r Lemniscate)
Ellipse a

+l ..^.^
2
5. CUBVATURE AT A SINGULAR POINT: At a singular point of
Spir ^^ (n+
an
l)r n "i
r
(n + l)p
1 3
Astroia f 1 1 J(axy) /
2 x + y . a
F  fxy " f xxfyy
7. GENERAL ITEMS:
(a) OsculatlnR circles
The slopes y' may be determined (except when y' does not
2. EQUATIONS:
2
r = a(l  cos t) = 2asin (^
(measured from t
. ) .
CYCLOID
b) Since s=4a OS ), = 
ff
c) A Tau ochrone le problem
.he detern inat ion of the type Oi
(b) L( one aroh ) = 8a (since R = 0, R M = 4a) (Sir Chris ib j
4. GENERAL I
68 CYCLOID
e evolute (or an involute) of a cycloid
b: y  g. y = gt, y = ~r r * = v 
DELTOID
HISTORY: Conceived by Euler in 1745 in c
BIBLIOGRAPHY
(^ R
2
+ 9s
2
= 64b
2
. r
2
= 9b
2
 8p
2
.
tangent BC is b
lt 2lt
p = bsin Jtf. z = b( 2 e + e" ).
catacau stic for t of parallel r
J. METRICAL PROPERTIES:
'orthopt ic curve
2 = 8p.
L = 16b. <p =, it  . R =
J
V io least
Spiral.
2 2 2
][y + (x  c)x] = 4b(x  c)y
DELTOID
BIBLIOGRAPHY
/ /
F(x,y,c) = 0,
2 2
a + b = 1. Their differentials
give (4) da + ("%)db = and
yielding the parabola /x + /y = +1
3 of lines, the sum of
.
ENVELOPES 79
Multiplying the
m g:
3
I
+
given functions
x = a , y = b
I
 1
3
,
EB
:
,.y.
:
e
X,
second by
by vlrtt
7] an Astrc
an Ellipse if P be inside the circle, an Hyperbola if
outside. (Draw CP cutting the crease in Q. Then PQ =
'
5. GENERAL ITEMS:
M2 = LN ,1
1
ENVELOPES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
JS, G. I
Mess. Math ., II (1872).
:
,
.
... ! ::' .:..,:!"
86100.
Glaisher, J. V. L. Mess. Math., XII (1882) 114 (exam
:
I
82 EPI and HYPOCYCLOIDS EPI and HYPOCHCLOIDS
(a c
or
)
generate the same curve upon a fixed circle of
arc TP, radius a. That is, the difference of the radii of fixed
Hypocycloid circle and rolling circle gives the radius of a third
circle which will generate the same Hypocycloid.
may be generated ir
r difference
J. EQUATIONS:
st^e:
: 1 Epicycloid,
= (a  b)cos t = 1 Ordinary Cycloid,
1 Hypocycloid.
= (a  b)sln t
I
EPI and HYPOCYCLOIDS EPI and HYPOCYCLOIDS 85
6. GENERAL ITEMS:
h (^ 3
AB sin
fori!
an Epi or Hypocycloid.
the Hypocycloid.
(c) Pedals with respect to the center are the Ros
Curves: r = csin(n9). (See Trochoids).
Bp = a
. METRICAL PROPERTIES:
(e) The Epieycl 3 ( S(
= ** + D(^ where* has the valu s above. .tat P. The tangent is accordingly
lling circle passing through N, the
ally opposite T, the point of conta
R = AB 0OE B9
.
^p wlth the foregol _g values of
of the circles.
k. (9 may he obtained in terms of t f om the given
KVOLUTES
reputedly originated with
studies on light.
i
2 2 2
Apollonius (about where d = da + dp .
expres
of a single v iriable whi
(h) Generally,
S
y !T! 4(c) f,
3 EVOLUTES EVOLUTES
. EVOLUTES OF SOME CURVES:
(a) The Conies :
<^0
7^J 1
The Evolute of
3
The Ellipse: (~f + (2)* 1 Is () + (f = 1 ,
\ /A>^
2 2
Ha = Kb = a + b .
The Parabola: x
2
= 2ky Is x
2
=
^ (y  k)
3
.
hl+*=.
sculation or double flex) there will correspond to the Parabola, then y 4 = and the c
n the evolute (approaching the point of 3ymmeti
I
:
92 EVOLUTES
7. INTRINSIC EQUATION OP THE EVOLOTE
Let the given curve be s = f ( <p)
EXPONENTIAL CURVES
with the points 0' and P ' of
its evolute corresponding to HISTORY: The number "e" can be traced back to Napier and
the year 1614 where it entered his system of logarithms.
and P of the given curve. Strangely enough, Napier conceived his Idea of logarithms
before anything was known of exponents. The notion of a
Then, if a is the arc length
normally distributed variable originated with DeMolvre
of the evolute:
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Special."
Edwards J.: Calculus Macmillan (1892) 268 ff.
,
169 ff
EXPONENTIAL CURVES EXPONENTIAL CURVES 95
2. GENERAL I Ls the maximum possible number of inhabitants 
regulated, for instance, by the food supply. A
sral form devised to fit observations involves
tion f(t) (which may be periodic, for example):
k(k i)(ka)
+
f(t).*.(nx) or
continuously
velocity. That i
= (^)(1  e'***)
1 l
(/Ti/ = ( e ) = e"
i (or Decay) 1
>. In an ideal e
ise, pestilence,
'al populations
of individuals,
:curs in controlled
g
1^ = e* / J (Fig. 87b).
2
(a) Since y' = xy and y" = y(x  l), the flex
1 2
points are (+1, e" / ). (An inscribed rectangle
t flies and people. one side on the xaxis has area = xy = y'. The
largest one is given by y" = and thus two corr
3 governing law as
are at the flex points.)
EXPONENTIAL CURVES EXPONENTIAL CURVES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Putting n =
, H . : Mathematical S
specifically:
y yo + (f)U + a)
completely independent of
BIBLIOGRAPHY
2. METRICAL
FUNCTIONS WITH DISCONTINUOUS PROPERTIES 101
hyperbolas
xy = 1 form a
FUNCTIONS WITH DISCONTINUOUS PROPERTIES 103
.102 FUNCTIONS WITH DISCONTINUOUS PROPERTIES
3 WITH NONREMOVABLE DISCONTINUITIES:
(c) y Limit jl.
(1 + sin 7i x )t  1
X
The left and right limits are
function y = S D^cosfAx)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Hardy, G. H.
: Pure Mathematics, Macmillan (1933)^62^
Kasner and Newman:
and Schuster (1940)
equilateral triangle is trisected, the middle segment
discarded and an external equilateral triangle built Osgood, V. F.: Real Variables,
SOME EXAMPLES:
(a) The Glissette of the vertex P of a rigid a
whose sides slide upon two fixed points A and
arc of a circle Furthermore, since P travels
.
(See 4).
If the curve be given by
p = f(9) referred to the car
ried point P, then
6. GENERAL ITEMS:
slides on the x,y axes. Tr.
a
>( x + y^ + 3a ) . a .
=V =a*(x 2 + y 2 ).
iter of an Ellipse
xV = (a
2

s
y )(y
2
 b
s
).
I
rolling
lother determlna
the problem of 011s
; simple cloE
3 difference
A simple illustration is the
trammel AB sliding upon two
perpendicular lines. I, the
^.JlTTl
BIBLIOGRAPHY
y
Y
/
ican Mathematical Monthly : v 52, 384. \ \ \
: '' '''
,
" '
\
y
. ' : '.' !
.
: , i 1
'I .
I
\^
, 12,13 (19378, \y \^^ yl"
/^ '^ N
\_
K / *
/
y. tonh x
TJ,~ ;:::::,t:"\
/
",'.
\
L 4 hyperbolic functions HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
. INTERRELATIONS: (c) Differentials and Integrals:
(a) Inverse Relations ;
E 
arc cosh x = ln(x + Vx l) , x7
2
arc tanh x = ()ln[^] ;
x < 1;
2
cosh x  slnh 2 x = 1; sechx
2 2
csch x = coth x  1;
"/.
cosn  ^ 2
2
 *2 oosh iz .
!? 1 ,
135
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
gives the voltage in terms of voltage and cum neous center of rotation. This
Kennelly, A. E. Applic
: . of Hjp. Functions to Elec. Engr.
Problems , McGrawHill (1912)
Merriman and Woodward: Higher Mathematics , John Wiley
(I896) 107 ff. . . , .
is an Ellip se.* AH
and BH are normals
of A and B lridtbu.
H is the ce iter of
any
point of th
1 to the
perpendicul ir PT is
(See
Trochoids, 5e.)
INTRINSIC EQUATK
INTRODUCTION: The choice of reference
ticular curve may be dictated by its ]
a circle:
press qualities of the curve which would not change frc
cycloids and the ordinary Cycloid.
1. For example,
tial angle <p, where <p is measured
'olloi
vhic s i measured If this point we re selected
wher the tangent i a perpendicular to the original
f = a.cosh(^).
volve the co
func ion f cp. Thus for example, the Cardioid may
is
2
= [1 4 sinh 2 (^)]dx 2 .
give by ither 'of .he equations: s = kcoag) or
2 2
The arc length: ds = 8a (l  cos
8acos() = Sacos
_
126 INTRINSIC EQUATIONS
3. INTRINSIC EQUATIONS OF SOME CURVES:
Beltoid B = y COB 3?
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Fig. 125
f ^ or ()(.*.
through meet in A. (For
proof, consider the similar
isosceles triangles OAP and
PDA.)
3. PROPERTIES:
(a) As A approaches the distance OA increases in
definitely.
(b) Points of the circle of inversion are invariant.
E + 2 =
(a + X) (b + X)
5. MECHANICAL INVERSORS:
:onfiguration is composed
of two parallel lines and
a circle. The circle tan
.
INVERSION
theorem
n is a he lpful means of generating
cal prope
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Oxford (1941)
Hall (1941)
,
Houghton Mifflin (1929)
)
INVOLUTES
2. EQUATIONS: (l)Its inverse with respect to the base circle
spiral tractrix (a curve which i n polar coordir
has constant tangent length).
GENERAL ITEMS:
2. cons
(e) The limit of a succession of involutes of any
rL=rt^Mtur asier
4. more uniform wear on the teet
giv n curve is a n Equiangular spiral. (See Spirals
Equ Langular .
oir le. (Mo. Not ices Roy. Astr. Soc , v 51, p. 436
. Byerly, W. E. : Calculus, Ginn (I889) 133
14th Ed., under "Curves,
,
(g) ial case of the Euler Spirals.
(h) The roulette of the center of the attached base Huygens , C: Works, la ociete Hollandaise des Scie
(1888) 51 1
*.
ISOPTIC CURVE
(The Orthoptic of the
IISTORY: The origin of the notior Hyperbola is the circle
Dbscure. Among contributors to ti through the foci of the
the names of Chasles on isoptios corresponding Ellipse and
trochoids (18^7) anli la Hlre on *
If. EXAMPLES:
3
x2y  Wx= + y
2 4
l8a xy  2ya = x + y + 2a =0
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Clssold of t
(FiP){F EP) = a
2
(XA)(XB) = a .
2^(2 
(Pig. 141) R =~ . The
J2).
projection of R on the radius vector
3r jp
n = a n cos n6 for
) It is the Sinusoidal Spiral: v
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1
'. ,.:'.,..;:
(I895).
Yates, R. C: Tools A Mathematical Sketch and Moc
,
a; BC = CP = 00 =
2 2 2
r = (BP)  (OB) =
2 2 2
2a r 4a sin 8,
LIMACON OF PASCAL 1'
. GENERAL ITEMS:
(a It is the Peda 1 of a circ e with respect to any
LIMACON OF PASCAL nt is on the circle, the pedal is
Cardioid.) (Po al description, see
HISTORY: Discovered by Etienne (father of Is, p. 188.)
and discussed by Roosrval in 1650. (b) Its Evolute is the Catacat stic f a circle for
any P light.
1. DESCRTFTION:
(0) It is the Glis eleote
It is the C onchoid of a
ariable triangl 3 which slid rfeen two fixed
circle where the fixed
ri  nttac led to point is on the circle.
circle rolling upon (a) The locus of a ly point rig idly a btached to a con
nt angle whose ides touch CleS
r of Limacons ee Glissett
( 'nd 4)!
(e) It is the Inve se of a con 1 respect to a
us. (The Inl^rT cosB +
r2 acose + k) = an Ellipse , Para ola, or Hyper
" > k). (See
erslonld?!
(f) It is a specia Cartesian Oval
(g) It is part of he Orthopti 3 of a Cardioid.
(h) It is the Trise ctrix if k = a. The angle formed
line join! ig (a,o) with any poin
is 38. (Not
ao aunn wh
Folium of Descartes
1 4ac
a 2 E 2 E
( + y2  2a ) = k ( x + y
(origin at ingular
LIMACON OF PASCAL LIMACON OF PASCAL
(i) Tangent Con i) m generated by
r gldly
: attached tc ortic
fHHr '&
rolling circle, TP
C and F fixed
f the bar itself. The nor
o the plane. CHJD is //v
mals to these directions
par= llelogram and P
neet in H, a point of the a
s j
irole. Accordingly, HP is The
aormal to the path of P and
Lts perpendicular there is ed by a circle %^\/
under Cardioic
BIBLIOGRAPHY
..',
' ''
;..: _.:l... .. .! i  :
, i: :. I
f
.
88.
Yates, R. C. : Tools, A Mathematical Sketch and Model
NEPHROID
? = 4bsin(). = 4b
5 3
(r/2) = a . [sta*() + oos*<)]
: 4b.sin().
2
L = 24b. A = 127ib .
4. GENERAL ITEMS:
Fig. 1U6
For this double generation, let the fixed circle jther Hophroid.
center and radius OT = OE = a, and the rolling
of a Cayley Sextio (a curve
center A' and radius A'T' = A'F = a/2, the latter
Ing the tracing point P. Draw ET', OT'P, and PI" t
Let D be the intersection of TO and FP and draw t i the envelop 3 of a diameter of the circle
circle on T, P, and D. This circle is tangent to
fixed circle since angle DPT = n/2 Now since PD
ion: Since T' (or T) is the
parallel to T'E, triangles OET' and OFD are isosc
Df rotation of P, the normal is
lerefore PP (or PD) . (Fig. 151
TD = Ja.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
. GENERAL ITEMS:
1 normals, they
PARALLEL CURVES PARALLEL CURVES
E EXA ViPtES
foil
Illu trat 10 n 3 sele ctedfro
la are o
 the 6
(a Curv es pa rallel to the P
parallel to th tral Con
8 th e. (See Salmon'
(b Th e Astro idx
f l
y =al
2 z S 3
9k(x + J )  18 K + 8k
PARALLEL CURVES PARALLEL CURVES
3 PARALLEL TO THE ELLIPSE: BIBLIOGRAPHY
Fig. 150
circle
along th e line 00', the instant aneous center of 1
tion of ersection C of OA produced ar
perpendl cular to 00 at B. This point C then lie
circle v ith center C and radius twice OA.
The "kite" CAPG is completed with AP = PG and
CA = CG. Two additional crossed parallelograms APMJA
and PMNRP are attached in order to have PM bisect angle
APG and to insure that PM be always directed toward C.
Thus PM is normal to the path of P and any point such as
Q describes a curve parallel to the Ellipse.
PEDAL CURVES
Conversely, the first negative Pedal Is then the
PEDAL CURVES
HISTORY: The idea of positive and negative pedal curves
occurred first to Colin Maclaurin in. I7I8; the name 2. RECTANGULAR EQUATIONS: If the given curve be
'Pedal is due to Terquem. The theory of Caustic Curves
1
f(x,y) = 0, the equation of the Pedal with respect to
includes Pedals in an important role: the orthotomic is the origin is the result of eliminating m between the
an enlargement of the pedal of the reflecting curve with
respect to the point source of light (Quetelet, 1822).
(See Caustics.) The notion may be enlarged upon to in
and its perpendicular roa th 1 ;in: my +
clude loci formed by dropping perpendiculars upon a line
k is determined so that the line is tangent
For example:
2
The Pedal of the Parabola y = 2x with re
1. DESCRIPTION: The locus Ci, Pig. 151(a), of the foot
of the perpendicular from a fixed point P (the Pedal 1_
3
Point) upon the tangent to a given curve C is the First 2::
the pole:
r a
ms 1 + ( )( j .
Fig. 151 M
lsewhere (see Pedal Equations, 5) t imple, consider the Sinusoidal Spirals
between the tangent to a given curve ar
or r from the pedal point, Fig. 151(b),
irtl .' Differentiating: n(^) = ntan ne
Circle Cardioid
or r a.oo B a + l )A n 8
<  a.cos a+OAf
1m) ]
Conies,
3 me where nx =
Ti+i) ' Central Conic EOCUS
^"ctole
another. Sinusoidal Spiral. The 11 The 2
Central Conic Center r . A + B0OS28
kth positive pedal is thus
Rectangular Hyperbola Center Lemniscate
ny nk
\r 
= a cos ^1 where r
TIT Equiangular Spiral Pole Equiangular Spiral
folloi c s
Many of the results given in the table can
be read directly from this last e
t iat
(See al
s Cardioid (p*a . f) Pole (Cusp) *;;, :^
5 3
Spirals 3, Pedal Equations 6.) Pole r . ap
\7V Pi = f p)Pi.
Smusoidal Spiral
Pole Sinusoidal Spiral
,x
^\
Kg.
Thus, replac ng p an
LI
alogs r
= f(r) P
1 Pi by
1
tt
T
eir
Astroid: x
Parabola
1 +
1
y = a
1 Center
Poot of Directrix
2r = astn28 (Quadri
Bight Strophoid
153
r::pL.
HJ^ Strophoid
Archimedian Spiral
Wieleitner, H.: Spezielle ebene Kurven, Leipsig (190c
Involute of a Circle Center of Circle
101 etc.
Williamson, B.: Calculus , Longmans, Green (1895) 224
Origin
tf.rt.M.A
fV = a
1 * 11
Origin m+n
^n.i^) . 0OBm, Blnn e
1/2 a Parabola).
6. MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS:
(a) The 4th negat
3
(c) R'(2r  pR) = r where R, R 1
are radii of c
,
PEDAL EQUATIONS
PEDAL EQUATIONS
1. DEFINITION: Certain curves have simple equat
VW
[(f x ) + (f7 )o 2 J _ /P u ar>
* _ ,di.,
or l ; 
Thus
f s
=
(^)(f) ft _
origin c
PEDAL EQUATION
CURVE
2
POMT
Accordingly, = and p = rpi.
2 2 a 2 2 E 2
=p (r +ita )(p +W )
if
<f 2 !
Parabola (IE = ka.) Vertex a (r p )
In this last relation, p and Pl play the same roles as do
r and p respectively for the given curve. Thus the pedal =
equation of the first positive pedal of r = f(p) is
Ellipse Eoous
J^ T
2 2 2
'f'^l 
Ellipse Center if  r . a + b
same fashion.
2 2 2
Hyperbola Center . r = a  b
?J!
2 2 **
Epi ana Hypocycloids p = Ar + B
2 Z 2
Astroid Center r + 5P = a
Pole p = rsin a
2 2 2
Deltoid Center 8p + 9r  a
Pole +B
P^=rl
r"
1 m
= a 9 * (SaooM
Pole
1854)
Pedal
Curve
r^.'.ion "TOPR^ 2:femat's Spiral,
a =
a r
2
6ln28+ae ..O Reot.Hyperbola rp a
2
7a2
: r.einO + a . Line p = a
1/2
'"T^T Parabola p
2
= ar 2 ^>
+1/2 rcfMi e, Cardioid (jW <"
+2
1
''
(See also Spirals, 3 and
Circle pa=r2

5?
Edwards, J.: Calculus , Macmillan (1892) 161.
Encyclopaedia Brltannica 14th Ed., under "Cur
,
Dene Kurven (19c
.
PURSUIT CURVE
k i/k, .(k+i)/k
PURSUIT CURVE
in 1732.
The special case when k
2
1. DESCRIPTION: One particle travels along a specified a(3y  2a)
curve while another pursues it,
,
H. Brocard, 1877)
Encyclopaedia Brit
Special
ds = kdo or dx + dy = k
Johns Hopkins Un: , (1908) 135.
2 2 E
3 follows: dx + dy = k [dy  y'dx + ( Luterbacher, J.: Dissertation, Bern (1900).
:
J
T RADIAL CURVES
RADIAL CURVES
HISTORY: The
. ILLUSTRATIONS:
(a) The radius of curvature of the Cycloid (Fig.
R = 2(PH) = 4a
2
[Ellipse : b > 0;
Hyperbola: b 2 < 0]
4. GENERAL ITEMS:
RADIAL CURVES
Curve Radial
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Fig. 159
cost? + T i)  uslnfcp
may be expressed In terms of OT, the arc length s. Thes
then are parametric equations of the locus of 0. It Is
not difficult to generalize for any carried point.
Familiar examples of Roulettes of a point are the
Cycloids, the Trochoids, and Involutes.
3 Ellipse rolls
7 = QT + TQi = sir
of curvature of rolli
itions of the envelope
frequently easily c For example, consider
circle of radius a. H
l82 ROULETTES ROULETTES
6. A CURVE ROLLING UPON AN EQUAL CURVE: SOME ROULETTES (Continued):
'Oils upo
Eollinf! Curve Fixed Curve Carried Element Eoulette
spondlng points In contact, the Ectual
whole configuration is a reflec Parabola Vertex Ordinary Cissoid
Boiling Curre Fixed Curre Carried Element Roulette pail i parallelog] smaller side
i
Hyperbolic Cate
Hyperbola Line Focus
1
Pole Tracts
^psr Line
In of Parabola
Line Center of Circle
cirfi:
Cycloidal Ellipse
line Center
Faulty
Involute
Line Any Curve Point of Line
CU ,11* r
Any Curve , 4 ual Curve Any Point
pTdaf
^
.
SEMICUBIC PARABOLA
HISTORY: ay 2 = x 3 was the first algebraic curve rectifie
(Nell 1659) Leibnitz in 1687 proposed the problem of
finding the curve down which a particle may descend unde
the force of gravity, falling equal vertical distances
in equal time intervals with initial velocity different
from zero. Huygens announced the solution as a SemiCubi
Parabola with a vertical cusp tangent.
Slope at
Limit /(x2)(x;
^1\] x1
. GENERAL ITEMS:
3
 I8x) = [54ax + (fg)r
BIBLIOGRAPHY
:
SKETCHING
SKETCHING Here y2
2
 (B
2
 AC )x
2
 2 (BE  CD)>. 
2
E + CF = 0,
2. ADDITION OF ORDINATES:
CD  BE
The general equation of second degree
2 2 2
Cy =  Bx  E + /(B AC)x + 2(BE  CD)x + E  CF, C ^
inclined at Arc tan(^) 1
ve let Cy = yi + y E ,
SKETCHING IS
SKETCHING
2 flnity". Thus it is as
= c + d (J) + e( i) + fx , the curve, generally,
tangent. That is,
r
f(x,y) = and y = mx
= 0, then ^ = a ^ = 0. But if z = 
n
3duees to the preccdln;. Accordingly,
3 (1) has two infinite roots if
3 3
x + y  3xy  0.
If y * mx + k:
3
(l+m )x
3
+ 3m(mklh
3
+ 3k( m kl) x + k = 0.
For an asymptote
(y  mx  a).P n _ 1 + V, = ( 3>
3 y = x for an asymptc
Thus
the three possible asymptotes of a cubic me
curve again in three finite points upon a 1
the four asymptotes of a quartlc meet the c
infinity; the line ymxk=0inparticular cuts pecifie irves. For example, a quartlc wit
twice Thus, generally, this latter line is an asymptc
.
asymptotes
For example:
x = 0, y = 0, yx = 0, y + x =
meeting the curve again in eight points on the Ellipse
E 2
x + 2y = 1, is:
6. CRITICAL POINTS:
(a) Maximum minis
Indeterminate form  .
k
) if (xa) is a factor of P(x), the point (a,o) if
ordinary if k = 1; maxmln. if k is even; a flex if
k is odd ( i 1).
SKETCHING 201
2
10. SEMI POL YNOMINALS: y = P(x) where P(x) is a poly
nomial (such curves are called "semiparabolic"). In
sketching semiparabolic
curves, it may be found ex
pedient to sketch the curve
slope at (2,0) is
11. EXAMPLES:
(a) SemiPolynomi
2
y
2
. x(x
2
 1) y
2
= x(l x2 ) f x (
3 3
f 2
= x (x  1) y
2
= x
2
(
 x ) f x (
2 3 3
y = x (x  1)  x )
y
2
=
4
x (i  x
2
)
yC! f x
5
(
2 3 2 2 2
2
= (l  x y = x(x  i)(x  a) y x (
y )
.
SKETCHING
2. SOME CURVES AND THEIR NAMES:
2 2
y(a + x )=a 2 x : [y = 0] . x
2
y+y
2
x = a
3
: [x= 0, y=0, x+y.O].
Alysold (Catenary if a = c): aR =
3 2 2 3 3 3
y = x(a x ) : [x+y=0]. x +y =a : [x + y = 0].
3
Boydltch Curves (Lissajou) : fx =
2 2 3
x  a(xy + a )=0 : [x0]. ( 2a  x)x  y = : [x + y =
f ].
o)(y  c)x
2
= aV. Bullet Nose Curve : ^s  ^ = 1
x+y+f = 0].
U2 
2
y )(y
2
 i+x
2
)  6x
3 2
+ 5x y + Jxy
2
 2y
3
 x
2
+ 3xy  1 = '
Folium : The
2 2 2
 2x y  xy + y . [Ol
Sin]
2 4 4
= 2x y + x y  2x
yj
tedPt].
2 2
+ 2x + 2xy  y + 3X 
id].
30lic Paraboloid, a curve
studies of physical optics
'
SKETCHING
2o4
SKETCHING
SOME CURVES AND THEIR NAMES (Continued):
SOME CURVES AND THEIR NAMES (Continued): 2
2 4 4 2 2
used by Trident : xy = ax 3 + bx + ex + d.
Kampy le of Eudoxus: a x = b (x + y ) :
Eudoxus to solve the cube root problem. Trlsectrlx of Catalan Identical vith the Tsc
:
2 2 2
Trlsectrlx of Maclaurin: x(x + y = a(y )

2 2
xy = 3b (a  x)
2
x(y * + b )  aby BIBLIOGRAPHY
2 2
x(y  b = aby
)
Echols, W. H.: Calculus Henry Holt (1908) XV.
,
2 2 2
Urn, Goblet. Hilton, H.: Plane Algebraic Curves Oxford (1932). ,
xy = m(x + 2bx + b + :
2 2 3 Pyramid.
b xy = (a  x) :
I
Kurve
2 2 2 WLcle:
c xy = (a x)(b  x)
2 2 (xa)(xb)(xc)
d xy = :
. EQUIANGULAR SPIRAL:
of a Loxodrome
holding a fixe
compass), from
n
2. THE SPIRALS: r = ae inclui

following: n =* l : 
r = ae
1 1
.
"
. 1
1
i
.'..;;: i
i
".' i I .
bx = (o + f)de = ce + /f(e)de,
_iVdc.l Fig.
3
co 2 /2! + =e /3: + ...+[/ f(e)de,]
SPIRALS
(h) The ortho
graphic projection
of a Conical Helix
on a plane per
pendicular to its
axis is a Spiral
Equiangular Spiral
(Pig. 188).
initial line.
.
SPIRALS SPIRALS 21
o (because of its
(d) The Ionic y
E 2 (Fermat I636 ""* mmmmm^,
5 y = a x) folute : Together j^*
n = a n co:
3. THE SINUSOIDAL SPIRALS: r
r 11
= a n sin n8. (n a rational number).
laurin in 1718.
* = (n + l)r"i ~ (n + l)p
ilch affords a simple geometrical method of con
(a) The areas of all circular tracting the center of curvature.
I
SPIRALS
1. EULER'S SPIRAL: (Also called Clothoi
(a) it table 1 in integer.
g) i
n Curve
2 Rectangular Hyperbola
1 Line
1/2 Parabola
1/3 Tschirnhausen Cubic
1/2 Cardloid
2 Lemniscate
. The 1
Special."
Wieleitner, H. Spezlelle ebene Kurven Leipsig (I9O8)
: ,
247, etc.
Wlllson, F. N.; Graphics , Graphics Press (1909) 65 f f S ^~eS
.7 ,*
4. METRICAL PROPERTIES:
2
A (loop, Fig. 196(a)) = a (l + p.
5. GENERAL ITEMS:
1 It is the Pedal of a Parabola with respect
(c) It is a s pecial
Kierc id.
gh the f
Thus AP = ED, point B (Fig. 198)
while
moves along the line
TRACTRIX
HISTORY: Studied by Huygens in 1692 and later by Leibni
Jean Bernoulli, Liouvllle, and Beltrami. AI30 called
Tractory and Equl tangential Curve.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Fig. 199
1
'
y
2
tT^  y 
.
2. EQUATIONS:
s = a In se<
. METRICAL PR<
E
A = y dy (from pa
' [/" the circle
she) ].
224 TRACTRIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Encyclopaedia Bri tannica: 14th Ed. under "Curves, certain traces of Indian influence, first by the ArabE
about 800 as an aid to the solution of astronomical pi
Differential Geometry, Macmillan lems. Prom them the knowledge probably passed to the
(1935). Greeks. Johann MUller (e.1464) wrote the first treatiE
Leslie: Geometric al Analysis (1821). De triangulis omnimodis this was followed closely by
;
. , T r J ( 1
1
' )
. DESCRIPTION:
Y Y
\ 1 Y
\ /I
\J /
/\ I\
vy \/ J rr
/ \
j:ttlr.
/ \ \ WS  1/
2. INTERRELATIONS:
(1  cos Sx) 2 (1
. 4 (cob kx + 3) l+oos 2x + 3)
8
n + 1
(e)
2 sin kx
n
2
x s
mf
n + 1
111
T
sin 
3. SERIES:
c = 2cos(kl)xcosx  cos(k2)x
c = 2sin(kl)xcosx  sin(k2)x
3 15 315 2835
n k k
cos x =(^~) , expand and replace z +"z by 2c
n n k k
"
3
" i+5 "
9^5 "
V725
+ "" :
. *. L . JL. +
1 5'5
. *L .
9 : the phaselap: .
/* * l1
/ ox cot, 
= mt m f.
Fig 203(b). Let the intersecting plar
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
1 cylinder: (zl) + x2 = 1
oils
airplane travels on a
great circle around the
earth, the plane of the
leriod of
9 Theory : Trigo
This is exhibited 3
Fig. 205.
f PrenticeHall.)
.
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Hurler Development of a given function is the
jsition of fundamental Sine waves of ir.croasir
lency to form successive approximations to the
Lbration. For example, the "step" function
TROCHOIDS
HISTORY: Special Trochoids were first onceived by Diirer
in 1525 and by Roemer in 1674, the lat
with his study of the best form for ge r teeth.
2. EQUATIONS:
 and Hypocycloids if k = b)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
. .
TROCHOIDS
3. GENERAL ITEMS:
e Double Generation
If the small
209(b) and tr
RX pas ses alwa ys through a
smalle Consider
.
medes. Anjr point F of the rod describes an Ellipse 3k; Roulettes h; Glissettes
5.)
whose axes are OX and OY Furthermore, any point G,
.
rigidly connected with the rolling circle, describes (e) The Rose Curves: r = a cos ne r  a sin nfl
an Ellipse with the lines traced by the extremities are Hypotrochoids crenerateri hy ,
ircte of radius
of the diameter through G as axes (Nasir, about I250) rolling within a fixed
2 ( n + !) 01 rele f radius
the diameter PQ envelopes an Astroid
;
units distant from its center. (First noticec
'di in 1752 and then by Ridolphi in 1844. See
. .
aa tip, P = 2(a
e) =2(a . b) oo S ^e.
Salmon, G. Higher Plane Curves , Dublin (1879) VII. The pathof p is the"
:
3. METRICAL PROPERTIES:
(a) Area between the
0,149,151,152,155,
times the area of the
. .;;..!. <,i. P I
1
.... ' i
noulli: 1,1
Edwards, J.: Calculus , Macmillan (1892) 355 1,93,145,152,175,206,22
Encyclopaedia Britannica 14th Ed., under "Cu :
ant: 108,175
4,223,233,255
2,143,161,165,185,218,2
, ' ,
ichold: 5153:50,108,109,120,
mential Curros: 9397;20 Hessian 99
k: 3>+3;37, 38,39
files: 3655:20,78,79,87,88, oat: 237 Hippias, Quadrat rix of: 201*
L12,130, 131, 138,11*0, H9,156, 1 : (eeespiraiB '
Hippopede of Eud oxus: 203
163, 173,1?, 189, 195, 203 toiler Hire: 138,175
onal Curves: 190
c point: 10,56,87,90,196,198 .ubic: 203,205
59,57,76,189
ilnant: Huygene: 15,66,6 7,86,135,152,
Double generation: 81 t. of Descartes: 9 899;193,
Duality: 1*8 Hyacinth: 186
Durer: 175,233 um: 72; (Simple, Double, Hyperbola: 5655 19,27,63,78,
79,88,101,112,115,116,129,130,
"e": 93,9** 159 11+0, 11+1+, 11+9, 157, 163, 161*,
,
Elastic spring: 215 168, 169, 173, 182, 181*, 189, 195,
Ellipse: 3655:2,19,27,63,78,79,
88 , 109 , 111 , 112 120 , 139 , 11*0
,
Sketching: 188205:155
Slope: 191 Tangent Construction: 3,13,29,
Blot machine: 96 32, kl, hk ,'*6,6C, 73, 35, 119,139,
Sluze, Pearls of: 201+ H5, 150, 153, l68,21k,222
Snowflake Curve: 106 at origin: 191,192
i'angeritB
21 9 Varignon: 211