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CONTENTS

Safety Information ..................................................................................................................................... 2


Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive (ESDS) Device Handling .................................................................. 3
Theory of Operation ............................................................................................................................. 4-26
System Overview ...................................................................................................................................... 4
Console Theory of Operation .............................................................................................................. 4-19
1.0 Power Supply ...................................................................................................................................... 4
1.1. Switching Power Supplies .............................................................................................................. 5
1.2. Linear Power Supplies ..................................................................................................................... 5
1.3. Supply Synchronization .................................................................................................................. 5
1.4. Power Failure Detection .................................................................................................................. 6
2.0 Processor and Its Peripherals ............................................................................................................ 6
3.0 Communications Busses and Interface Blocks ............................................................................... 8
3.1 Communications Busses ................................................................................................................. 8
3.2 Interface Blocks ................................................................................................................................ 9
3.3 Ethernet ............................................................................................................................................ 10
4.0 Audio Path .......................................................................................................................................... 11
4.1 Analog Audio Path ........................................................................................................................... 12
4.2 Digital Audio Path ............................................................................................................................ 12
4.3 Interaction Between the Digital and Analog Inputs ...................................................................... 13
5.0 Video Path .......................................................................................................................................... 13
6.0 Tuner Electronics .............................................................................................................................. 14
6.1 Main PCB Interface ......................................................................................................................... 14
6.2 Control ............................................................................................................................................. 15
6.3 FM Tuner .......................................................................................................................................... 16
6.5 Phase-locked Loop Tuning ............................................................................................................. 18
6.6 RDS ................................................................................................................................................... 19
PS321 Series II Speaker System (Bass Module) Theory of Operation ............................................. 19
1.0 Components ...................................................................................................................................... 19
2.0 Bass Module Interface ...................................................................................................................... 19
2.1 Interface connector and cable descriptions ................................................................................. 20
2.2 321 Series II Bass Module Details ............................................................................................... 21
Test Procedures ................................................................................................................................. 27-36
Console Procedures ........................................................................................................................ 27-33
Bass Module Procedures ................................................................................................................ 34-35
Satellite Array Procedures .................................................................................................................... 36
Appendix ............................................................................................................................................. 37-51
Figure 1. 321 Series II Console Test Setup Diagram ............................................................................ 37
Figure 2. 321 Series II Bass Module Test Setup Diagram .................................................................... 38
Obtaining System Information from the Media Center Display ........................................................ 39
Computer Setup Procedure ............................................................................................................ 40-41
TAP Cable Construction ....................................................................................................................... 42
Boselink ETAP Cable Wiring Diagram ................................................................................................. 42
B+B Electronics model 232LPTTL RS232 to TTL converter .............................................................. 42
Bass Module Test Cable Construction ................................................................................................ 43
Bass Module Test Cable Wiring Information ...................................................................................... 43
Console Test Cable Construction ........................................................................................................ 44
Console Test Cable Wiring Information .............................................................................................. 44
Putting the Console into TAP mode .................................................................................................... 45
Console TAP Commands ................................................................................................................. 45-48
Changing the Region Code .................................................................................................................. 49
Console Troubleshooting Tips ............................................................................................................. 50
Bass Module Troubleshooting Tips ..................................................................................................... 51
IC Diagrams ........................................................................................................................................ 52-61
Service Manual Revision History ........................................................................................................... 62

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SAFETY INFORMATION
1. Parts that have special safety characteristics are identified by the symbol on schematics
or by special notes on the parts list. Use only replacement parts that have critical characteristics
recommended by the manufacturer.

2. Make leakage current or resistance measurements to determine that exposed parts are
acceptably insulated from the supply circuit before returning the unit to the customer.
Use the following checks to perform these measurements:

A. Leakage Current Hot Check-With the unit completely reassembled, plug the AC line cord
directly into a 120V AC outlet. (Do not use an isolation transformer during this test.) Use a
leakage current tester or a metering system that complies with American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) C101.1 "Leakage Current for Appliances" and Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
6500 / IEC 60056 paragraph 9.1.1. With the unit AC switch first in the ON position and then in
OFF position, measure from a known earth ground (metal waterpipe, conduit, etc.) to all ex-
posed metal parts of the unit (antennas, handle bracket, metal cabinet, screwheads, metallic
overlays, control shafts, etc.), especially any exposed metal parts that offer an electrical return
path to the chassis. Any current measured must not exceed 0.5 milliamp. Reverse the unit
power cord plug in the outlet and repeat test. ANY MEASUREMENTS NOT WITHIN THE
LIMITS SPECIFIED HEREIN INDICATE A POTENTIAL SHOCK HAZARD THAT MUST BE
ELIMINATED BEFORE RETURNING THE UNIT TO THE CUSTOMER.

B. Insulation Resistance Test Cold Check-(1) Unplug the power supply and connect a jumper
wire between the two prongs of the plug. (2) Turn on the power switch of the unit. (3) Measure
the resistance with an ohmmeter between the jumpered AC plug and each exposed metallic
cabinet part on the unit. When testing 3 wire products, the resistance measured to the product
enclosure should be between 2 and infinite MOhms. Also, the resistance measured to exposed
input/output connectors should be between 4 and infinite MOhms. When testing 2 wire prod-
ucts, the resistance measured to exposed input/output connectors should be between 4 and
infinite MOhms. If it is not within the limits specified, there is the possibility of a shock hazard,
and the unit must be repaired and rechecked before it is returned to the customer.

CAUTION: The Bose 321 Series II Home Entertainment System


contains no user-serviceable parts. To prevent warranty infractions,
refer servicing to warranty service stations or factory service.

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION

THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS PROPRIETARY INFORMATION OF


BOSE CORPORATION WHICH IS BEING FURNISHED ONLY FOR
THE PURPOSE OF SERVICING THE IDENTIFIED BOSE PRODUCT
BY AN AUTHORIZED BOSE SERVICE CENTER OR OWNER OF
THE BOSE PRODUCT, AND SHALL NOT BE REPRODUCED OR
USED FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE.

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ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE SENSITIVE (ESDS)
DEVICE HANDLING
This unit contains ESDS devices. We recommend the following precautions when repairing,
replacing or transporting ESDS devices:

Perform work at an electrically grounded work station.


Wear wrist straps that connect to the station or heel straps that connect to conductive
floor mats.
Avoid touching the leads or contacts of ESDS devices or PC boards even if properly
grounded. Handle boards by the edges only.
Transport or store ESDS devices in ESD protective bags, bins, or totes. Do not insert
unprotected devices into materials such as plastic, polystyrene foam, clear plastic bags,
bubble wrap or plastic trays.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
System Overview
The 321 Series II is a single-zone home entertainment system. It has two configurations:
(1) basic/standard system with no Ethernet interface and no hard drive or uMusicTM function.
This system will be available with either the standard 321 speaker arrays or the GemstoneTM
speaker arrays. (2) A premium system including the Ethernet interface and hard drive and
uMusic. This system will also incorporate the array speakers developed in the Gemstone
project.

The 321 Series II system consists of the following major components:


1. Console with Display, Main board, Tuner board, button board and IR remote receiver,
CD/DVD driver, Hard disk driver (premium version only).
2. Bass module Unit with Woofer, DSP board, I/O board and system power supply.
3. Two two-element speaker arrays.
4. IR remote control.

Console Theory of Operation


The basic elements of the console are:
1. Main board.
2. Tuner board.
3. VFD display.
4. DVD ROM driver.
5. Button board.
6. IR receiver.
7. Hard disk driver (premium only)
8. Ethernet interface (premium only)

1. Power Supply
Note: Refer to the 321 II console schematic sheets, 270593, for the following information.
The bass module provides un-regulated power V_UNREG to console via connector J100 pins 1
and 2 [sheet 10, B2]. The power supply electronics are comprised of 4 main sections; switching
power supplies, linear power supplies, power supply synchronization, and power fail detection.
The consoles input voltage, V_UNREG, comes from the bass module and is nominally 26VDC.
This voltage varies with load and line levels, but is limited to 31.5V maximum (assuming line
voltage of 140V AC). This voltage is always present whenever the bass module is plugged into
the wall and so the consoles power supplies are likewise active. All the voltage level source are
listed in following table:
Node Name Output Type Input from Outputs to
Voltage
V_UNREG +26 Full wave Bass module +12V and +5V switching power supply
rectifier at line of
120VAC
+12V +12 Switching V_UNREG DVD drive, Tuner board, VFD display, Video control
relay.
+9V +9 Linear +12V Analog MUX, DAC output filter op-amps, Summing
op-amps and Zone speaker differential input op-
amps.
+5V +5 Switching V_UNREG +3.3V and +1.8V switching power supply; DVD
drive, Hard disk driver, IR receiver, DAC, SPDIF
receiver.
+3.3V +3.3 Linear +5V Processor CS98200s I/O power, Flash, SDRAM
ICs, Ethernet controller, SPDIF receiver,
+1.8V +1.8 Linear +3.3V Processor CS98200s core and PLL circuit power;
power on/monitor reset chip.
Note: The 1.8V and 3.3V linear regulators are derived from the +5V switching power supply.
The 9V linear regulator is derived from the +12V switching power supply.
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THEORY OF OPERATION
1.1. Switching Power Supplies

The +12V and +5V switching power supplies use ST L4973D3.3 regulator ICs (U17 [sheet 14,
B5] and U2 [A6]). The power supplies are designed as step-down Buck converters. The voltage
fed back to the chip on pin 13 determines the output voltage; the chips control circuitry will work
to keep this voltage at +3.3V. The +5.1V and +12V supplies use resistor divide-down networks
to obtain the +3.3V feedback voltage.

The reference designators listed below correspond to the +12V switching power supply; the
designs of the +5V regulator is nearly identical.

IC Pin Components Connected Function


1 R17, C50 Sets free running switching frequency
(when not controlled externally)
10 C25 Bootstrap to drive internal D-MOS
11 R33 Inhibits supply
12 R36 C22 C24 Lead-lag filter for compensation loop
13 R30 R37 Voltage feedback for control
18 C51 +5.1V for external reference
19 C58 Sets supply soft-start time constant
20 Q5 Supply frequency switching synchronization
(see section 2.4 below)

A number of additional series inductors and parallel capacitors exist to provide filtering func-
tions.

The compensation networks used for these switching power supplies have been chosen to
provide stability under all conditions and to provide minimal RF interference to the tuner.
The supplies function in both continuous and discontinuous mode depending on the load.

1.2. Linear Power Supplies

U18 [C3] is the +9V linear regulator. VR1 [A3] and VR2 [A2] are the 3.3V and 1.8V linear regula-
tor, respectively.

1.3. Supply Synchronization

In order to control the noise interference to the AM tuner, a variable frequency to alternate
switching synchronization scheme was implemented. When the console is in the Tuner mode,
the SPDIF receiver (U8001 [sheet 12, B4]) delivers a 2.8224MHz clock signal (SPDIFIN_BCK)
from the 11.2896MHz crystal oscillator. SPDIFIN_BCK drives the binary count (U3 [sheet 14,
C4]) and generates a required synchronizing pulse (F_SYNCH) and feed to pin 20 of U17 [C5]
and pin 20 of U2 [B6]. Q4 [D3] and Q5 [D3] are for buffering and level shifting of the synchroniz-
ing pulse. The synchronization pulse alternation is controlled by tuner board based on the AM
station to be tuned.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
1.4. Power Failure Detection

It is important to detect a power failure and alert the mircoprocessor to save any relevant infor-
mation and mute the power amplifiers so that no audio pops will be heard. The power failure
detection circuit (Q2, Q3, R11, R35, R40 and R15 [sheet 14, C7]) that we employ controls an
edge-triggered interrupt to the CS98200 microprocessor (U7003, pin 146 [sheet 5, C5]) to do
just that. If the voltage on V_UNREG falls below roughly 13.2V, the microprocessor will be
alerted that there is a power failure occuring. The interrupt will be unasserted (go high) when
V_UNREG goes above roughly 16.1V. This large hytsterisis is set so that dips in V_UNREG
caused by loud volumes will not inadvertantly trip a power fail interrupt. In a brownout condition,
the system will mute with the power dip and then recover gracefully when the normal line level is
restored (V_UNREG goes above 15.39V).

2. Processor and Its Peripherals

2.1 Processor
The CS98200 (U7003) from Cirrus Logic is the DVD decoder IC that functions as the console's
main processor. The CS98200 is a highly-integrated processor that provides all of the audio and
video processing functions needed for the next generation of feature-rich DVD players, DVD
receivers and Internet DVD applications such as MP3, Dolby Digital, Dolby ProLogic II, and
DTS Digital Surround decoding. It supports most popular CD formats, disk control, video
decoding and up to eight channels of audio output. The CS98200 also integrates six 10-bit
video digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and TV encoding with progressive scan functionality.
Progressive scan video provides high resolution and eliminates the "flickering" effect present in
traditional video playback.

The CS98200 contains two embedded 32-bit RISC processors, one of which is used as the
main processor in the 321 Series II system. This processor controls all GPIO, sub-circuits and
interfaces, with the exception of those offloaded to the ST micro on the Tuner Board. All of the
Main Board software runs on this processor. The second embedded CS98200 processor is
responsible for overseeing ATAPI, Memory and Host interfaces, DVD ROM Drive disc playback,
Hard Disk Drive store/playback and audio/video decode and generation. Software for this
processor is provided by Cirrus. An external FLASH and SDRAM are shared between the two
RISC processors.

2.1.1 Processor clock


Y7000 [sheet 2, B6] is the 27.0 MHz crystal for processor CS98200 (U7003) to derivate all
the internal system clock signals. C7001 and C7002 are the load capacitors. The crystals
frequency accuracy should be within 50ppm for color video operation.

2.1.2 Processor reset


U7002 [sheet 2, B6] generates a 140ms power-on pulse any time the +1.8V supply dips below
1.58 volts (including initial power-on). The pulse goes through RC network (R7015 and C7003)
to U7003s reset input pin 2. This same pulse also goes through another RC network (R7013
and C6219) to flash chip U6203s [sheet 6, C3] reset input pin 12. Those two RC networks have
a different time constant to ensure flash chip is out of reset before processor C98200.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
2.2 SDRAM
U6200 [sheet 6, B/C7] is a 128Mbit with 32-bit bus wide synchronous dynamic random access
memory (SDRAM) IC. For SDRAM accesses, a memory clock of up to 166 MHz that synchro-
nizes data access is sent to the chip at pin 68. Data commands for accesses are coded in the
M_RAS_L and M_CAS_L signals (pins 18 and 19), and data read/write selection is done by the
M_WE_L signal (pin 17). The address to be written or read is given on the address bus
MA[10:0]. The 32-bit data bus MD[31:0] contains the word to be written or read after the pipeline
delay of the memory chip.

2.3 FLASH
U6203 [sheet 6, C3] is a 32Mbit with 16-bit bus wide Flash memory IC but only 8-bit wide data
bus is used in the system due to the limitation of CS98200. U6203 shares the memory address
with SDRAM (U6200) but the data is a dedicated one from CS98200. Flash access is asynchro-
nous and does not use a memory clock.

U6204 and U6205 [sheet 6, 4A-D] are buffers between the SDRAM and FLASH, and they have
their Output Enable pins tied to common pull-down resistors, with test points, allowing the
manufacturing plant to disable these buffers (thus releasing the FLASH address/data bus)
during programming. Half of buffer U6204 (2A/B[1..8]) is used to condition the 8 memory
control signals, and is given its own enable and direction-control signals (with independent test
points). This allows the manufacturing plant to maintain control of the SDRAM during both write
and read-back phases of In-circuit test.

2.4 ROMULATOR

J6200 [sheet 6, B/C2] is the ROMULATOR connector for the debug purposes of software
development. The console Main board provides a footprint for the required 60-pin ROMULATOR
connector but not populated in production. This connector will allow access to the FLASH
address and data busses, as per the Cirrus reference design. Pin 59 shall be tied into the
console reset circuitry, allowing it to access the CS98200 and keep the console FLASH in reset
while running off the ROMULATOR.

U6203 can be programmed not only from the ROMULATOR connector during development but
also from CD/DVD driver in the field. During re-programming in the field via CD/DVD driver, the
operating and new program are held in SDRAM. Power failures during field Flash update could
result in the console being made completely inoperable.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
3. Communications Busses and Interface Blocks

3.1 Communications Busses

3.1.1 I2C Bus


There are two I2C buses: (1) the I2C Debug bus for software development, the connector
is J7000-NV which is not populated in production; (2) the I2C configuration bus which
configures the devices in audio path. The devices connecting to the I2C configuration bus
and its protocol are listed in following table.

Reference Vendor Protocol Address Description


Designator Number Byte
6-input stereo analog audio input MUX chip (ST). No
2
U4000 TEA6422 IC 10011010b CS pin is available on this part. ADDR pin has an
internal 50K pull-up: logic high.
S/PDIF receiver. Uses the AKM_CS chip select signal
2
to differentiate its messages from I C. The AKM
address separates its messages from those for the
U8001 AK4112B AKM 00wxxxxxb
mix-down DAC. w is the write bit. The 8 data bits of
the 16-bit protocol are driven by the AK4112B when w
is 0.
Stereo DAC for the CS98200 Mix-down path. Uses
the AKM_CS chip select signal to differentiate its
U9200 AK4382A AKM 011xxxxxb 2
messages from I C. The AKM address separates its
messages from those for the S/PDIF receiver.
*Note: "w" bit can be either 1 or 0 depending on read/write.

3.1.2 SPI Bus

The CS98200's (U7003) built-in SPI interface is used to control two subsystems in the
console, the VFD (interface connector is J6500 [sheet 13, B8]) and the Tuner Assembly
(interface connector is J6000 [D8]). U6802 [A-C6] is the buffer between CS98200 and the
two subsystems. These subsystems must timeshare the SPI resource.

For the outbound data (data stream from CS98200 to subsystems), both subsystems have a
signal which uniquely identifies when the SPI data sent from the CS98200 is valid for them.
For the VFD module, the VFD_STROBE indicates it is the target. For the Tuner Assembly,
it is SPI_SEL (which becomes TNRBD_SEL once buffered). These signals are the key to
timesharing the SPI bus. Note the differing polarities associated with the signals.

For the outbound data (data stream from subsystems to CS98200), each subsystem inter-
acts with the CS98200 differently, as follows:
The VFD module allows for bi-directional communication, but timeshares a single wire in
half-duplex mode to accomplish this. To receive SPI data from the VFD, the CS98200 must
therefore use the SPI configuration option which allows receiving on the same pin used for
transmission (pin 196). See the CS98200 register spec for details.
The Tuner Assembly will use SPI in true bi-directional, full duplex mode, although the
CS9200 will be the master of all transfers. The TNRBD_DATAIN signal, which ties to the
CS98200's SPI receiver, is used for receiving. Again, see the CS98200 register spec for
SPI configuration details.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
3.2 Interface Blocks

3.2.1 Vacuum Fluorescent Display (VFD)


This vacuum fluorescent display is a custom, stand-alone VFD module manufactured by
Futaba. It includes the VFD glass assembly, as well as all power supply and control/refresh
electronics, and a ribbon cable interconnect to the console main board.

The console VFD module interface with the Main board is by a flexible cable via connector
J6500 [sheet 13, B8] which has 5-pin as listed in following table:

J6500 Signal Function


Pin
1 +12V +12V supply for the module.
2 Strobe/ Strobe for serial protocol (low when sending VFD data).
3 Ground Power supply/signal ground.
4 Clock Clock for serial protocol. Normally high here at the connector.
5 Data Data for serial protocol. Normally high here at the connector.

Note: (1) There is a buffer, U6802 with open collector between VFD and the CS98200. The
buffer is required to level-shift the 3.3V logic levels associated with the SPI interface to the 5V
logic levels required by the VFD module.
(2) The VFD module has built-in 1.5K Ohm pull-up resistors on the Clock, Data and Strobe
signals. There are no such pull-ups on the console Main Board; therefore, these signals will not
be measurable at connector J6500 unless the VFD is attached.

3.2.2 Button Board

The console has 6 buttons on the top leading edge. The buttons are physically located on a
small assembly which connects to the Main Board via ribbon cable into J6700 [sheet 8, D8].
Software continually monitors these buttons to detect and de-bounce a key press. Pull-down
resistors are provided to hold KEY inputs to logical 0 (ground) when no buttons are pressed.
Interconnections to the buttons are in the form of a 2x3 row/column matrix of key closures.
Each button is therefore identified by its unique row/column position.

The arrangement of buttons on the front of the console is as follows. Each circular button
represents a key closure which shorts a given KEYOUT row signal to a given KEYIN column
signal when a button is pressed. For example, ON/OFF shorts the KEYOUT0 signal to KEYIN0
when pressed:

KEYOUT0 KEYOUT1 KEYOUT2

ON/OFF SOUR
+ ENTER EJECT

VOLUME

KEYIN0 KEYIN1

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THEORY OF OPERATION
Row Signal Column Signal
Button
KEYOUT KEYOUT KEYOUT KEYIN KEYIN Button Name
Position
2 1 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 1 ON/OFF 1 (Left)
0 0 1 1 0 + (VOL_UP) 4
0 1 0 0 1 SOURCE 2
0 1 0 1 0 ENTER (labeled 5
STORE on
premium console)
1 0 0 0 1 - (VOL_DN) 3
1 0 0 1 0 EJECT 6 (Right)
3.2.3 IR Receiver
The 321 Series II console includes a narrow-band IR receiver module. The IR receiver gets the
IR signal from the remote control and passes it to the Main board via the Button board. The IR
signal information enters the Main board at J6700 pin7.

The console is capable of being controlled by the universal IR remote controls (basic and
premium) developed specifically for the 321 Series II, as well as 3rd party remote controls
which either include the 321 II codes or can learn them (such as a Crestron universal re-
mote). A narrow-band IR receiver module is provided on a printed circuit sub-assembly to
permit mounting in the front of the console. This module amplifies the incoming IR data stream
and removes its 37.9 kHz AM sub-carrier. The CS98200 handles the decoding of inbound
control commands from IR receiver module. Hardware assistance/noise filtering is provided in
the chip for this.

3.2.4 DVD Driver


J3200 [sheet 7, B/C5] is the connector for the DVD ROM driver which connects to the ATAPI
bus on Main board. The DVD ROM provides video source and one of the internal audio sources.
It can be configured either master or slave mode and share same ATAPI bus and reset signal
with HDD but with separate select signal.

3.2.5 Hard Disk Driver


J9341 [sheet 7, B/C4] is the connector for the hard disk driver (HDD) which connects to the
ATAPI bus on Main board. The DVD ROM provides one of the internal audio sources. It can be
configured either master or slave mode and share same ATAPI bus and reset signal with DVD
ROM but with separate select signal. HDD is only populated on premium product.

3.3 Ethernet
The 321 Series II premium console includes an Ethernet connector J9640 [sheet 9, B/C2] and
a Cirrus CS8900A 10baseT Ethernet Controller IC U9641 [sheet 9, B/C6] which interfaces to the
CS98200 via the parallel Host bus. Since this bus is timeshared with the ATAPI drives, RISC0 is
expected to handle all interactions with the chip, providing essentially a transmit and receive
FIFO for RISC1 to use for sending/receiving Ethernet packets, as well as a software API for
high-level control of the chip (power up/down, etc.).

The LINK LED, LAN LED and isolation transformer are included inside the Ethernet connector,
J9640, visible from the back of the console. The green LED (D9640) is connected directly to
the LINK LED output of the CS8900A Ethernet Controller IC (U9641) via R9656. The yellow
LED is directly connected to the LAN LED output via R9657.

10

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THEORY OF OPERATION
4. Audio Path
The audio path block diagram is as follows:

11

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THEORY OF OPERATION
4.1 Analog Audio Path

4.1.1 Analog Input

There are total of 7 analog input sources: 6 external analog inputs and one internal analog
input. Those 6 external analog inputs are: 1 tuner from Tuner board via J6000 [sheet 13, D8],
3 external (AUX, CAB/SAT and TV) from connector J201 [sheet 10, B-D8], 2 network speaker
(Zone1 and Zone2) from J202 [sheet 11, C3] via differential input buffer U8406 [B/C1]. The
internal analog input is from the mix-down DAC U9200 [C8] which convert I2S audio stream
from the CS98200 to an analog signal which is one of the two inputs to the summing circuit
U9100 [C5].

The 6 external analog sources are selected by the TEA6422 (U4000 [sheet 10, B5]) analog
audio MUX. The MUX is controlled via the CS98200's I2C bus. The MUX has the ability to
direct any one of the 6 input sources to any one of the 3 output.

4.1.2 Analog Output

Only the 3rd output of the TEA6422 (U4000) analog audio MUX is used (the 1st and 2nd output
channels are unused) and the 3rd output of the TEA6422 is summed into the NJM4556 buffer
amplifiers (U9100 [sheet 11, C5]). The mix-down DAC outputs are also summed into these
buffer amplifiers. When one of the 6 external analog audio sources is selected as the console
analog output, the 3rd output of the TEA6422 is active and the output of the mix-down DAC is
placed into reset through the reset bit in the I2C registers in order to reduce the noise level to
minimum. In a similar way, when the CS98200-generated down-mix is selected as the console
analog output, the 3rd output of the TEA6422 is muted and the output of the mix-down DAC
takes active.

The analog output goes to the bass module via the connector J100 [sheet 10, B2]. The
TEA6422 analog input MUX supports 2Vrms signal levels. The maximum amplitude of the
differential outputs of the AK4382 DAC is approximately 2Vrms. External analog input signals
may be up to 2Vrms without experiencing distortion or clipping-- absolute maximum allowable
input levels are about 3dB higher.

4.2 Digital Audio Path

4.2.1 Digital Input

There are total of 6 digital input sources: 4 external digital inputs and 2 internal digital input.
Those 4 external digital inputs are: AUX, CABSAT and TV from connector J201 [sheet 12, C8]
and optical signal from J8000 [B8]. The 2 internal digital input sources are from the DVD ROM
driver via connector J3200 [sheet 7, B/C5] and hard disk driver (HDD installed on premium
product only) via connector J9341 [B/C4].

The 4 external digital sources are directed to the AK4112 U8001 [sheet 12, B/C5] SPDIF re-
ceiver. The SPDIF receiver is controlled via the CS98200's I2C bus. The 2 internal digital input
sources (both DVD ROM driver and HDD) feed the audio data streams to CS98200 via the
ATAPI bus for decoding and processing.

12

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THEORY OF OPERATION
4.2.2 Digital Output

The AK4112 (U8001) SPDIF receiver has two output options for all the 4 external digital input
sources: (1) bypass one of the 4 external SPDIF input steams to the digital MUX U8002, and
(2) recover the SPDIF input stream, convert to I2S and feed to CS98200. Those two output
options can be selected independently. The audio streams from both DVD ROM driver and HDD
are decoded and processed by CS98200 and then output to the digital MUX U8002 [sheet 12,
C3]. The digital MUX U8002 selects one of its two inputs and feeds the output to the bass
module via isolation pulse transformer T8600 [sheet 12, C1] and connector J100 [sheet 10, B2].

The 321 Series II console provides a digital output stream for the Smart Speaker compatible
speaker system. This output is capable of sending up to 192 kHz S/PDIF streams when driven
by the CS98200. The outbound S/PDIF signal is roughly 2 Vpp, allowing diode-termination
techniques in the Smart Speaker. When external analog sources (or the AM/FM tuner) are
played, the required data is not available on the digital audio output. When CD/DVD discs are
played, the frame rate will be generated by the CS98200 to be compatible with the disc. When
external digital inputs are played, the AK4112B receiver will phase-lock to the inbound SPDIF
stream, derive bit/frame clocks from it, and provide these clocks to the CS98200 for use in
clocking the S/PDIF output stream.

4.3 Interaction Between the Digital and Analog Inputs

The CS98200 has some ways to decide which input type should be played for each source.
When playing the external inputs, the external digital inputs have preference, and shall be
played whenever an input stream is found to be present. If none is available, the associated
analog inputs shall be selected, thought the digital inputs shall continue to be monitored for
streams that might appear later. Digital signals are routed through the CS98200, which exam-
ines them for available data in any of the supported formats (PCM, MP3, AC3, MPEG2 or DTS).

As for the selection between optical and electrical digital input, the console external optical input
is assigned through the on-screen display (OSD) to a particular input source. To allow this, the
hardware has provided the optical signal a unique input into the AK4112B S/PDIF MUX/receiver.
When playing the source assigned to the optical input, the software should first check for the
presence of an optical input signal-if none is present, the coax digital input (S/PDIF) should be
examined. If, again, no signal is present, the external analog inputs should be played. The
external analog inputs may be played while detection of a valid digital stream is in process.

5. Video Path

The video DACs inside CS98200 may be configured for either S-video and CVBS outputs or
Component Video (YPrPb or RGB) output. The component output can be configured either
interlaced or progressive scan (the console's video low-pass filters have been designed to
support both standard and progressive-scan video outputs). A separate set of Component Video
output jacks is provided. The Y jack includes a switch normally closed to ground that is
opened when a cable is inserted into the jack. The resulting signal COMP_SENSE is moni-
tored by the CS98200.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
A pair of signal relays, K5000 [sheet 13, C2] and K5001 [B2], permit selection of internally
generated Composite and S-Video signals or pass-through of external Composite and S-Video
signal inputs to the output Composite and S-Video connector J201. When VIDEO_SEL is low,
the console is configured as video pass-through mode which plays external video signals.
When VIDEO_SEL is high, the console is configured as playing video signals from CS98200.

The Component Video (YPrPb) output should be selected whenever the COMP_SENSE signal
is high. Also, when Component Video is selected, the VIDEO_SEL line shall remain low at all
times. This prevents attenuation of the video signal if both sets of outputs (Composite, S-Video
and YPrPb) are connected to other equipment.

6. Tuner Electronics

The tuner function is implemented on a dedicated PCB which has no other essential functions
or hardware. This has the advantage of the console working without needing the tuner board in
circuit. The topology of the tuner circuit itself is very similar to the 321 Series I tuner. There are
three variations of the final assembly. See SD270575 for details.

Note: Refer to the Tuner PCB schematic sheets, 270575, for the following information.

6.1 Main PCB Interface

Interfacing the Tuner PCB to the Main is accomplished through a 13 connection flat-flex cable to
connector J1 [sheet 2, C8]. Below is a table describing the pin functionality

Pin Name Direction Function/Notes


Number
1 +12V Supply Sole supply voltage for the tuner board, in normal
operation it draws <100mA. Local 10V(U18) and 5V(U19)
is derived from this
2 Supply_Freq_Sel Output Logic Level output setting the main board switching power
supply frequency determined by a lookup table in the ST
micro (ST72324) for interference avoidance. AM only.
Low, Fsync=97.324kHz
High, Fsync=100.800kHz
3 Gnd Supply Return for all signals. No differentiation in grounding is
implemented on the tuner board.
4 Tuner_L Output Left channel analog audio output.
5 Tuner_R Output Right channel analog audio output.
6 Gnd Supply As 3
7 Tnrbd_Sel Input Buffered SPI select line for communicating with the
ST72324 from the CS98200 on the main board. Note, this
comm bus is shared with the display so this line allows for
the differentiation of commands between systems.
8 Tnrbd_Clk Input Buffered SPI clock line for communicating with the
ST72324 from the CS98200 on the main board.
9 Tnrbd_Datain Output SPI data from the ST72324 to the CS98200. +5V logic
levels.
10 Gnd Supply As 3
11 Tnrbd_Dataout Input Buffered SPI data output from the CS98200 to the
ST72324.
12 Tnrbd_Reset Input Hard Resets the ST72324
13 Tnrbd_Flash Input Control Signal to apply programming voltage to ST72324 in
order to reprogram internal flash.

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6.2 Control

Detailed control of the tuner is implemented by the ST72324 (U7001 [sheet 3, C6]) micropro-
cessor upon instructions from the CS98200 SPI bus on the main board. U7001 is responsible
for:
Handling all control commands from the main board.
Communicating with the PLL IC (U2074 [sheet 2, C/D3]) via the CCB bus to set its various
I/O pins as well as setting the desired local oscillator frequency.
Querying the RDS chip (U2200 [sheet 2, D6]), if present, for relevant messages.
Processing the seek algorithms based on S-Meter and audio levels, as well as IF-count.
Storing the seek/stop and stereo levels during tuner alignment for use in the field.

The general purpose input and output ports on the PLL IC (U2074) are set up as follows:

U2074 Pin Name Direction Function/Notes


Number
7 FM/AM Output Controls Q2000 which switches power to the FM
front-end and the IF amplifier. In AM mode these
are both switched off.
8 IF/MUTE O.C. Output Enables the audio output of the detector when low.
See pin 13.
9 AM/FM Output Switches the mode of detector IC U2000 and sets
which output (FM : pin 23, AM : pin 24) is active.
Inactive => high impedance.
10 FORCE- Output Forces the detector IC to decode FM into mono-
MONO aural audio.
11 Supply_Freq_ Output See above table
Sel
13 IF/MUTE Input When pin 8 is high impedance R2013 pulls the DC
level of the IF/MUTE line high (>3.5v), audio is
muted and the output of the FM IF buffer appears
on this line. This is fed to the IF counter on pin 13.
This is used during seek to determine if a valid
broadcast signal is present. Note that this output is
dependent on having TU-LED (Pin 6) low indicating
a sufficient input IF level.
14 ST-LED Input Used to monitor the stereo indicator coming from
pin 7 of U2000. The state of this pin is shown on
the stereo icon display or in the OSD FM status
window

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6.3 FM Tuner

6.3.1 FM Tuner Front End Circuitry

The FM RF signal from the antenna is input via the F or PAL-type input connector J2001 [sheet
1, B8] and goes to the FM front-end module. The antenna supplied with the console is the
standard quarter-wavelength dipole antenna.

The FM front-end [sheet 1, B/C8] contains a tuned RF amplifier, FM local oscillator and a mixer.
The 10.7 MHz IF output signal (pin 7 of the module) passes through a 10.7 MHz ceramic filter,
CF2000 [C7], an FM IF amplifier Q2001 [C6] and then through a second ceramic filter, CF2001
[C6]. Transistor Q2001 and related circuitry form the FM IF amplifier produces about 15 dB of
voltage gain and provides the proper impedance matching for the ceramic filters. These FM IF
filter stages reject unwanted FM stations and noise.

The software that controls the FM tuner has provisions for an IF offset to optimize tuner perfor-
mance for a given range of IF filters. The possible values of IF offset are -25kHz, 0, and
+25kHz, with the available offsets determined by twice the reference frequency (2 x 12.5kHz).
The software measures (counts) the IF frequency, and this offset is added to the count. In
tuner alignment, the value that minimizes THD at 98.1 MHz for an un-modulated signal is
chosen and stored before other stop levels are set.

6.3.2 FM Tuner Output Circuitry

The output signal from CF2001 is fed to the LA1837 AM/FM detector IC, U2000 [C4] at pin1.
This device contains the FM IF limiter, FM detector, FM stereo MPX decoder, and the S-meter
circuitry used for seek processing. The FM IF input signal to the LA1837 goes through several
gain/limiter stages and then to a single-tuned, coil-based discriminator circuit. The discriminator
coil, T2001 [C5], is adjusted for minimum second harmonic audio distortion. The recovered FM
composite signal appears on pin 23 of U2000.

The composite audio signal is filtered by C2018 [C2] and fed back into pin 22 of U2000. The
value of C2018 is chosen to optimize FM stereo separation. The stereo MPX decoding is also
performed by U2000 and the decoded left and right signals are output on pins 20 and 21. The
pilot PLL VCO is completely internal to the LA1837 detector IC, not requiring an external 456
kHz ceramic resonator as in older designs. The pilot PLL loop filter is formed by C2014, R2016,
and C2016 on pin 14.

FM de-emphasis for the left audio channel is set by C2026, R2022 and the output impedance of
pin 21 of U2000 (3.3k). FM de-emphasis for the right audio channel is set by C2027, R2023 and
the output impedance of pin 20 of U2000 (3.3k). For a US unit the capacitor values are set to
produce 75S de-emphasis, and for Europe/Japan they are set to produce 50S de-emphasis.
The resultant de-emphasized and amplified audio signal appears on pins 16 and 17. Signals
above the audio band, including the 38 kHz sub-channel demodulation components are cut off
at the bass module by the input filters in A/D converters and the audio DSP is used to create a
notch filter at 19 kHz to reject the 19 kHz pilot tone, thus removing the need for external MPX
filters.

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6.3.3 FM and AM S-Meter and Stop, and Stereo Levels

The FM and AM S-meter signals, pin 11 and 12 of the LA1837 respectively, are analog voltage
levels that indicate the FM IF and AM RF input signal levels. These signals are connected to the
A/D inputs of the ST72324. During factory tuner alignment the appropriate test signal levels are
injected into the UUT and the resultant ADC values for FM stop level, FM mono/stereo level and
AM stop level are stored in the EEPROM U7000 [sheet 3, D3].

The stop level is the voltage level above which the signal strength is deemed strong enough to
warrant stopping on a channel during seek. This does not mean that the unit will always stop on
a station if the S-meter level is high enough since an IF count is also performed during to en-
sure that the correct IF frequency has been obtained.

The stereo level is the level above which a channel that has been automatically forced into
mono will return to being decoded as stereo (if stereo material is present).

When first tuning to a station the unit defaults into mono for one half second to prevent a mono
station from coming through as noisy stereo. If the initial S-meter read is greater than the
stereo level the unit switches into stereo. After the initial S-meter read the unit switches be-
tween stereo and mono in the following way. Every 500ms the S-meter is read and the unit
switches from stereo to mono if it reads one S-meter level below the force-mono level. The unit
switches from mono to stereo after ten consecutive readings of S-meter level above the stereo
level. The reasoning for using one sample to force-mono but ten consecutive samples for
stereo is to ensure that a unit with S-meter reading levels close to the threshold do not switch
between noisy stereo and clear mono too often. The set voltage between the force-mono and
stereo thresholds also helps to prevent unnecessary switching between mono and stereo,
mainly due to modulation noise on the S-meter capacitor.

Note: Switching stereo on via the On Screen Display will enable the above automatic force-
mono function while switching it off disables this automatic function and ALWAYS forces the
unit into monaural decoding. Also note that the stereo icon on the front display and the stereo
status flag on the OSD indicate the state of the ST-LED line, which indicates detection of the
19 kHz pilot tone present in stereo broadcasts. In force-mono (automatic or otherwise) this will
always be low even if the actual broadcast is in stereo.

The nominal FM stop and stereo levels are:


FM stop : 30 dBf @ 98.1 MHz
FM stereo : 42 dBf @ 98.1 MHz (force-mono approx 2dB lower)

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6.4 AM Tuner

The signal from the external AM loop antenna enters through the 2.5 mm AM jack, J2000 [sheet
1, D8], and is fed to the AM front end module, T2000 [D6]. The antenna input is balanced by
placing C2000 [D7] between one side of the input and ground, reducing electric field interfer-
ence. The front end module contains the varactor-tuned RF and Local Oscillator (LO) tracking
circuits. This part is pre-tuned by the manufacturer for proper alignment with AM antenna
PT199824-002, and is further adjusted during factory alignment, if necessary. The RF tuned
output is fed to the AM buffer FET transistor Q2002 [D6] and the buffered output is sent to pin
27 of U2000 [C3] which contains the AM RF amplifier, mixer, IF amplifier, AM detector, and AM
S-meter circuitry. The 450 kHz AM IF output signal that appears on pin 2 is filtered by the IF
filter, T2001 [C5], and fed back into the IC on pin 4. The AM IF signal is demodulated by U2000
and the audio output is sent to pins 20 and 21, to pass through the low pass filter used in FM for
de-emphasis.

In order to avoid having harmonics of the main board switching power supplies interfere with the
AM tuner the switching frequency is controlled by F_SYNCH, a clock output from U3 [console
schematic sheet 14, C4] on the main board. The signal Supply_Freq_Sel (via lookup table
based on AM station) is used to vary the output of F_SYNCH between two frequencies that will
avoid the selected channel frequency and its image the best.

The AM seek stop processing and factory alignment is performed in a similar fashion to FM
mode processing. The nominal AM stop level is 56 dBV/m @ 1080 kHz.

6.5 Phase-locked Loop Tuning

The AM and FM local oscillators are controlled by the PLL IC, U2074 [sheet 2, C3]. The micro-
processor selects the AM or FM band and the particular frequency. The 7.2 MHz clock refer-
ence is generated by the microprocessor which is the stable crystal oscillator frequency divided
by 2. The 7.2 MHz oscillator is divided down to produce a 12.5 kHz reference frequency in FM
mode and a 10 kHz (9 kHz for European and Japan units) reference frequency in AM mode.
U2074 [sheet 2, C/D3] divides down the AM or FM LO input, compares it to the appropriate
reference frequency and generates an error signal that is output on pin 19.

This error signal is integrated and amplified by an active lead-lag filter formed using an internal
FET inside U2074 and associated components connected to pins 19, 20 and 21. C2096, C2097,
R2079, R2080 and R2081 control the gain and pole-zero locations of the filter. The values of
these components are chosen to ensure stability of the PLL while providing sufficient speed,
moderate overshoot, and symmetric up/down settling time. The resulting signal output at pin 21
is used as a tuning voltage and is fed back to the AM and FM front-ends.

The AM tuning voltage is further filtered by R2078 and C2095 and is fed back to the common
node of the varactors inside the AM front end, T2004. The tuning voltage varies the capaci-
tance of the varactor diodes, which in turn simultaneously tunes both the AM antenna and the
AM LO. In FM mode, the tuning voltage is filtered by R2077 [sheet 2, D1] and the input capaci-
tance of pin 5 of the FM front-end (0.047uF) [sheet 1, B/C8]. As in the AM case, the tuning
voltage is fed to varactors which tune the LO frequency and RF filtering.

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6.6 RDS

European tuners contain additional components for the decoding of Radio Data System (RDS)
information. The LC72722 Radio Data System (RDS) decoder IC, U2200 [sheet 2, D6], is a
single-chip system IC that implements the signal processing required by both the European
RDS standard and US RDBS system. RDS/RDBS systems can send digital information over
the airwaves along with the standard FM signal by adding a digitally modulated 57 kHz sub-
carrier to the normal FM composite signal. The LC72722 includes a bandpass filter, demodula-
tor, synchronization, and error correction circuits. The input (pin 2) to the RDS IC comes from
Q2003 [sheet 1, C1], which buffers the FM composite signal at pin 23 of the LA1837. The time
base for the decoder is a crystal oscillator formed by the 4.332 MHz crystal, Y2200, the inverter
internal to the IC across pins 12 and 13, and the two shunt capacitors, C2205 and C2206.
Control of the RDS IC is achieved by using the same bus interface used for the PLL IC.

PS321 Series II Speaker System Theory of Operation

The following information describes the operation of the PS321 Series II bass module.

Note: Refer to the bass module amp and DSP schematic diagrams, 270921, for the following
information.

1. Components

The PS321 Series II Speaker System consists of:


The PS321 Series II Bass Module, 273031-*
Qty 2 Array Speakers, 255198-* or (Series II GS) 269990-*
Array Speaker Cable, 255123-* or (Series II GS) 269984-*
Line Cord 260082-*
Bass Module Interface Cable Assembly 269997-*
* Dash variants may vary.
The components above permit connection to the AV321 Series II console.

2. Bass Module Interface

Control and audio input to the bass module is by means of a 13-pin interface connector and
associated bass module to console cable. This interface provides up to 15 watts (average) of
unregulated DC power for operation of the connected console. The bass module is controlled
through a single-wire serial connection which utilizes the Smart Speaker protocol on a 4800
Baud, half-duplex, bi-directional connection. Audio from the console is transported to the bass
module via stereo analog and/or S/PDIF input. The analog and digital audio inputs may be
used in conjunction to allow the transport of multi-channel audio information. A separate MUTE
line is also provided to allow the console to immediately mute the audio output. Additionally,
there is a control line which completely powers down the DSP section of the bass module to
reduce power consumption, but it is not implemented in production.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
2.1 Interface connector and cable descriptions

The 13-pin interface connector is wired in a one-to-one fashion with the console connector.
The pins/signals are as follows:

Pin Number Signal Description Wire Type/Gauge


1 Vunreg #20AWG
2 GND #20AWG
3,11 SPDIF +/- #28AWG twisted pair
4 Mute #28AWG
5 DSP_Shutdown #28AWG
6 AGND #28AWG Drain/shield over Audio Right & Left
7 DGND #28AWG Drain/ shield for SPDIF+/-
9,8 Audio Left +/- #28AWG twisted pair
12,10 Audio Right +/- #28AWG twisted pair
13 SmartSpeaker #28AWG
Shell SGND Overall tin-copper braid shield

2.1.1 Smart Speaker


This is a single-wire 4800 baud, half duplex connection. It operates on an open-collector prin-
ciple and follows the hardware and software protocol defined by the SmartSpeaker interface
specifications. It operates similar to RS-232, but with a 0-3.3/5V level and positive logic.

2.1.2 MUTE Control


This is a positive logic control input to the Powered Speaker. Asserting this line (+3.3V) forces a
hardware mute of the power amplifiers. This input is internally pulled logic high in the Powered
Speaker and the input must be pulled to logic low by the console to allow audio to be heard.

2.1.3 S/PDIF
The S/PDIF input is a fully differential input which is terminated by a pair of back-to-back diodes
only. Supported sample rates are 44.1 kHz and 48 kHz.

2.1.4 Analog Audio Input


The analog audio inputs are fully differential with an input impedance of approximately 10k
ohms. The full scale input is 2.0Vrms.

2.1.5 DSP_SHUTDOWN
This is a positive logic control input which, when asserted logic high, shuts down the SMPS
feeding the entire DSP and signal processing path. It is not implemented (via depopulated
components) in the production design.

2.1.6 Vunreg
This is a DC supply which provides unregulated power for use by the console. Approx. 30W
peak is available from this supply. It is internally fused at 4A.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
2.2 321 Series II Bass Module Details

The bass module contains all the active audio processing and amplification electronics of the
321 Series II System. The rear end cap of the bass module provides access to the following
components:
Line cord socket
Power Switch (European only)
System Connector (13-pin)
Array Speaker Connector (DB9-S)

All the above components are mounted on the I/O Printed Circuit Assembly, part number
270926-001, which is, in turn, secured to the end cap via a metal bracket. The dash suffix is
used to denote the various AC voltage variants.

All other electronics reside on the DSP/Amplifier PCB Assembly. The DSP/Amp PCB is secured
to the extruded aluminum heat sink (which is glued to the back baffle of the module enclosure)
with a metal bracket. This bracket provides sufficient compression force to the PCB to maintain
good thermal contact to the heat sink of the audio power amplifiers, rectifier diodes, and pre-
regulator FET.

The power transformer for the system is directly mounted to the end baffle of the module above
the heat sink.

2.2.1 I/O Printed Circuit Assembly


Note: Refer to the Input/Output (I/O) PCB schematic diagram, 270926, for the following infor-
mation.

The I/O printed circuit assembly contains the AC input connector J1 [C4], the line switch S1 [D3]
and line fuse F1 [C3]. Connector J2/J5 [D2], depending on the dash (-xxx) variation, provides
the primary power connection to the power transformer. A location for a MOV (VR1 [C3]) is
provided, but is not populated in production.
Connectors J6 [B7] and J7 [D8] connect the I/O PCB to the DSP PCB. J6 connects to a 16-
position ribbon cable which carries the S/PDIF and audio inputs and control signals to/from the
DSP board. J7 connects to a 10-position cable that brings the array speaker amplifier outputs
and Vunreg/GND onto the I/O PCB. C7-9 provide RF ground coupling between the various
ground pins and structures on the board. C1, C3, C4, C5, and C10 are DC blocking caps on
the differential audio inputs and associated GND. C6 is the bulk storage capacitor for the
Vunreg supply. All of the signals described in section 3.1 are connected to the 13-pin system
connector J3 [B2] on this board.

2.2.2 DSP/Amplifier Printed Circuit Assembly


This board provides the following major functions:

Note: Refer to the DSP/Amplifier PCB schematic diagrams, 270921, for the following informa-
tion.

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2.2.2.1 Power rectification, pre-regulation and filtering
J5 [sheet 4, D6] connects the secondary winding of the power transformer to the circuit rectifiers
D7-10 [C/D 5/6], which form a full-bridge rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier charges capaci-
tor C22 [D2] to a controlled peak voltage, via FET Q4 [D4]. The controlled peak voltage is
15.75V ( 0.75V). The pre-regulator circuit formed by ZR1 [D5], Q2-3 [C4/5], R7-13, and C21,
24-5 cause Q1 to switch off once the limit voltage has been attained.
The diodes D7-10 and Q1 are required to have good thermal contact to the heat sink. This
requires a deflection of 0.5 to 1mm of the thermal material applied in the interface. Q5 and
associated components provide a soft-switching function

2.2.2.2 Control Power generation


Both a 5 volt and a 3.3 volt power rails are generated for the DSP and audio source control
circuits.

U100 [sheet 4, B5], L70 [B4], D11, and C30, C31 form a buck switching regulator for the 5 volt
supply. The nominal switching frequency is established by components R16 and C33 [B6]. A
modulating signal derived from the transformer secondary is coupled to the oscillator circuit via
C37. R18 and R19 establish the magnitude of the modulating signal. C38 filters unwanted
harmonics and line noise from the signal. Q6 [A6] allows the Inhibit pin to be pulled low from
the console, which disables the power supply, forming the DSP_SHUTDOWN function.
U101 [A3] generates the 3.3 volt supply from the 5 volt supply. C42 prevents oscillation of the
output of U502 as well as assisting to manage voltage ripple due to load fluctuations. U6000
[sheet 1, D5] monitors the 3.3V and issues a reset of the DSP if this supply ever drops below a
regulation threshold of 3.08V.

2.2.2.3 Audio Power amplification


Dual Audio Amplifier ICs, U150 [sheet 5, C/D3] and U250 [A/B3] provide the power amplification
for the external speaker arrays. The array outputs are available on J150 [B/C1]. A similar
amplifier, U350 [B/C6], provides power amplification to the bass module woofer via connector
J350 [C4]. Both inputs of U350 are wired in parallel and both amp outputs are provided to the
woofer connector J350. Each output of the amplifiers have an RF de-coupling capacitor of
.01uF, C152 and similar, shunting the high-frequency components of the signal through a series
resistor of 3.32 Ohms, R162 and similar. The series resistor creates a lead in the pass charac-
teristic at approximately 4.7MHz in order to maintain stability of the power amplifier.
The differential inputs of the power amplifiers are coupled to the output of the Audio DAC via
1uF aluminum electrolytic capacitors, C156, C157 and similar. A shunt resistor and capacitor,
R151 and C156 and similar, form the termination of a second-order low-pass filter described
later.

2.2.2.4 Power Amplifier control, monitoring


The MODE signal is a three-level signal generated by Q450 [sheet 5, A8], Q451 [B8], Q452
[B8], D450, R450, and R451. IF the /STDBYout signal is asserted low, the internal bias of the
MODE pins of the amplifiers will cause the signal to drive to ground. This causes the amplifiers
to enter the Stand-by low-power state. The internal bias to the amplifier signal inputs is turned
off causing the inputs to drift to ground. Stand-by should not be entered while the DAC driving
the signal inputs is out of the reset state.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
When the /STDBYout signal is high, the MODE pin will be either within the 3.3-6.4 volt range
(mute), or near VRAW (active), as controlled by the MUTE signal and Q450, D450. When
MUTE is high, Q450 saturates, causing the MODE voltage to be driven to approximately 5.4
volts. R450 assures the MUTE signal is active any time the DSP (U7000) is not driving it.
The open-collector diagnostic outputs of the three amplifier ICs are summed into the /DIAG
signal to the DSP (U7000 [sheet 1, B/C 4/5]). R453 [sheet 5, C7] pulls the signal to logic false
(high) when none of the amplifiers is asserting the signal. Currently /DIAG is unused by the
DSP.

The Clip signals of the amplifier ICs driving the array speakers (U150, U250) are summed into
the /ARRAYCLIP signal. R454 [sheet 5, D2] holds the signal false (high) if neither amplifier IC
is asserting the clip signal. A similar arrangement is used for the bass amplifier with the /
BASSCLIP signal.

2.2.2.5 Digital-to Analog Signal conversion and conditioning


Processed audio signals are converted to amplifier drive signals by the DAC portion of the
Codec (CS4228), U4000 [sheet 2, C/D2]. The single-ended outputs of U4000 have a full-scale
output of nominally 1.31 Vrms. They also have significant out-of-band noise as well as the
expected sigma-delta conversion noise due the ICs location in the digital portion of the circuit.
Resistor arrays R4300, R4301, R4302 [B2] serve to terminate the negative signal of the power
amplifier differential inputs and provides the source impedance for the first stage of the second-
order low-pass filter. The Capacitors C4300-11 provide both the switching noise suppression on
the individual signal and one of the two poles for the second-order lowpass filter.
Resistor arrays R150 [sheet 5, C4], R250 [B4], R350 [B8] increase the source impedance of the
second portion of the filter. The shunt resistance of R151 and similar and the shunt capacitance
of C158 and similar form the second pole.
Analog output gain for a 0dbFS digital signal
DAC output 1.3Vrms
Filter Gain -8dB
Amplifier Gain 26dB
Total Gain 18dB (8x)
Max amplitude 10.4 volts RMS or 14.7 volts peak
Note that DSP gain managers limit the signals to avoid clipping, which is likely to occur beyond
11 volts peak.

2.2.2.6 Analog-to Digital Conversion


The analog inputs (J7100, pins 2, 3, 5, 6 [sheet 3, C7]) are coupled to the ADC differential input
of U4000 [sheet 2, C/D2] through a RC t-network which utilizes the inherent element matched
values of quad resistor packs R1001 and R1005. This provides good common-mode rejection
on the inputs as well as providing a lowpass filter function.
The A/D conversion sample rate is determined by the SHARC_CLK providing a 128Fs master
clock to the converter (33.333MHz/6 = 5.56MHz) rate which ultimately yields a sample rate of
43.4kHz.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
2.2.2.7 S/PDIF Receiver
U4400 [sheet 1, B7] provides the S/PDIF digital audio receiver function. The incoming differen-
tial S/PDIF signal is fed to U4400s differential inputs RXP0 and RXN0 through a filter and
termination network. T1 is a common-mode transformer which rejects unwanted common-
mode noise, particularly important since U4400 has little or no common-mode rejection inherent
to the IC design. D4502 [sheet 3, C6] clamps the signal to +/- one diode drop. This is the only
termination of the input signal. The assumption is that while there is a termination mismatch
on the end of the twisted pair, all reflections and standing waves are eliminated by the clamping
action of the diodes, i.e., the reflections never reach into the +/- one diode drop region. The
subsequent resistors and capacitors form a low pass network that limits the bandwidth to just
above the fundamental bit rate of the S/PDIF signal (128Fs).
U4400 provides the system MCLK at 128Fs when the S/PDIF input is active. When the ADC
path is selected, the MCLK is provided by the DSP (U7000) SHRAC_CLK output [sheet 1, C3],
which is routed through U4400s MCLK output (pin 10) by setting the IC into Stop mode via an
I2C command from the DSP.

2.2.2.8 Internal audio path


External analog and S/PDIF input signals are converted to serial digital samples that are
clocked at the bit rate established by BITCLK. Each sample is 32-bits long alternate between
left and right channels as indicated by the LRCLK signal. The Codec, U4000, generates
BITCLK and LRCLK in all operating modes based on its MCLK input. MCLK is programmed to
be 128 times the LRCLK rate and, thus, 4 times the BITCLK rate.
The S/PDIF decoder, U4400, either generates MCLK from the bit-rate detected on the selected
digital audio input, or passes through the SHARC_CLK signal when no valid digital audio input
is detected or when the part is not running. The SHARC_CLK signal clocks the audio path
when analog audio inputs are selected.
The analog data converted by U4000 is presented to the DSP controller U7000 on A/DOUT.
The received digital data from either S/PDIF input is transmitted to U7000 on a separate signal
using the DR0A input of U7000. Both signals share the same LRCLK and BITCLK as do the
audio outputs D/ADATA1-3.

2.2.2.9 Communications

Smart Speaker Interface


Smart Speaker commands from the console are received by the circuit comprised of Q6100 and
Q6101 [sheet 1, C7]. The input is level shifted to a 3.3V signal by Q6100 and is then gained-
up with hysteresis before being presented to the PWM0 input of the DSP. This is accomplished
with 3 inverters of U6100 and C6105 and is necessary as the PWM0 input uses a fast counter
to determine the commands and any noise/glitching of the input destroys the message.

TAP Interface
The components used to access TAP directly onto the bass module DSP/Amplifier PCB are not
populated on the production versions of this board. Any testing or troubleshooting will be per-
formed using the Smart Speaker commands as listed in the test procedures in this troubleshoot-
ing guide. The following is for informational purposes only.

The TAP interface uses the serial ports (signals TAPIN and TAPOUT) on the Sharc micropro-
cessor (U7000 [sheet 1, C4]). The connection is made through J6200 [sheet 3, A8]. Q6200,
R6200 and similar convert RS-232 level input communication signals to logic level. Q6201
drives the output line to 0 and 3.3V. These parts are not used, and are shown as NV (no value)
on the schematic sheets.

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THEORY OF OPERATION
DSP/Amplifier PCB LEDs
There are 2 LEDs in the system, located on the DSP/Amplifier board, a green LED (DS6500
[sheet 3, D7]) and an amber LED (DS6501). The amber LED is not populated in production.
When the main board is installed and rear cover is in place, the light produced is visible (with
practice) through the rear grille as it reflects off the heat sink as well as goes through drilled
holes in the PC board. R6500 and R6501 limit the current through the LEDs (as well as the
DSP controlling them). The table below explains the uses of these LEDs in production mode
(CB = Counter Blink: when one LED is on, the other LED is off!):

Green Amber Description


LED LED
Off Off This should never happen. If it does, it likely means
1) That there is no power OR-
2) There is a problem with the hardware (or, perhaps, software!)
Off On When power is first supplied, BEFORE the DSP boots, the hardware
will put the LEDs into this state. If the board stays in this state
there is a problem with the DSP hardware (or software).
CB, 5 Hz CB, 5 Hz Immediately after powering up AND if the LEDs remain in this mode,
there is a problem with the Power On Self Test (POST): either the
FLASH did not checksum or the SDRAM memory test failed or
there was a problem initializing one or more or the audio peripherals
(U4000, U4400).
Once Off Board is powered, initialized, and waiting for a Smart Speaker
every 5 command to turn on the board. The LED will be on for only 0.010
sec seconds!
1 Hz Off Board is powered, initialized, has been turned on by the console (or in
ASCII TAP mode) and S/PDIF is present. When on, the LED will be
on for 0.5 seconds.
CB, 1 Hz CB, 1 Hz Board is powered, initialized, has been turned on by the console (or in
ASCII TAP mode), S/PDIF NOT present. When on the LED will be
on for 0.5 seconds.
Toggle Dont The green LED will toggle whenever a byte is received from the
care RS-232 input. This toggling will modulate the current state of the
green LED, i.e. the normal 1 Hz rate may be chopped by incoming
RS-232 data.
CB, 5 Hz CB, 5 Hz If the board passed the POST and generally seemed to be OK, this
state indicates that a catastrophic software error has occurred. The
production code will stay in this mode for 1 second then do a
software reset; development code will remain in this state, allowing
the developer to isolate the source of the problem.
X ON When the system is operating normally, the orange LED may remain
on when the amplifier mute is on.
1 Hz 1 Hz LEDs will blink together when reading FLASH update data.
5 Hz 5 Hz LEDs will blink together when FLASH is being written with update
information
10 Hz OFF The green LED will blink when in the quasi-standby state

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THEORY OF OPERATION
2.2.2.10 DSP
The DSP system comprises of the SHARC microprocessor (21065L, U7000), the FLASH
memory (U7200 [sheet 2, B5]), and the SDRAM (U7300 [B/C3]). The software can essentially
be broken up into two segments: The framework and the DSP functions. The framework
comprises all of the micro-controller type functions for the 321 Series II such as the communi-
cations, controlling/monitoring the power amplifiers, and power-up/down. The DSP functions
are the digital audio signal processing functions that exist inside the framework, such as the
equalization, array processing, volume control, etc. The following discussion relates only to the
interactive and hardware information about the DSP system.

Booting - On a cold start, the supplies come up with the 3.3V supply being the last to achieve
regulation. This supply is monitored with the reset IC, MAX823 (U6000 [sheet 1, D5]) such that
when a threshold is reached, about 3.1V, the IC brings the DSP system out of RESET. When
this occurs, the DSP boots from the FLASH IC and enters the Standby mode.

Standby - After a cold start or an off signal, the DSP puts the system into a standby mode
where the system draws about 3-4 W off the primary AC. Mainly, the amplifiers are put into
standby mode (low quiescent draw), the CS8415A (U4400 [sheet 1, A7]) and CS4228 (U4000
[C2]) are reset, and the DSP enters the IDLE16 mode (NOT reset) as this is the lowest power
drain mode for the DSP. In this mode, the TAP input works as described above and the PWM
input looks for any communication via Smart Speaker. On any edge on the COMM line, the
DSP enters its quasi-power-down (quasi-standby) mode and sees if a valid command was
received, if not, then the unit enters the standby mode again. LED action shows what is going
on during this time. Also once a second, the system must come alive briefly to toggle the
watchdog timer to prevent a RESET to occur.
Also, on entering standby, the volume parameter is set to the last value, but is bounded in the
range of 20 to 80.

Oscillator - The system clock is derived from the oscillator formed by Y7000 [sheet 1, A6] and
an inverter of U6100. There is an onboard inverter on the SHARC but it was determined to not
have enough gain to reliably start-up the oscillator. R7000 was empirically determined to keep
the power dissipation in the crystal to less than .5mW. C7008, 7009 make up the loading
capacitance to set the correct frequency, 33.333MHz. The SHARC doubles this clock to
66.666MHz which sets the maximums MIPS load of the software.
Reprogramming - Software updating is accomplished via the S/PDIF input. The file is a
converted binary image into a stereo PCM format that comprises a header followed by the
image to be flashed (the length of this file is about 2 seconds). This allows the software to be
upgraded from a CD-ROM inserted into the console. When the appropriate Smart Speaker
commands are sent, the DSP reboots into ERC then looks again for an update header before
reading in the actual update image. When the image is read in, the code takes a few seconds
to determine the validity with a checksum. If the checksum fails, then no update occurs. (If
there are still updates being presented, then the process will begin again.) If the checksum
passes, the unit then writes the image to the FLASH, a process which takes about 45 seconds
and the LEDs blink very rapidly (10 Hz, see above). The update disc/file can then be stopped
during this time safely. When this has completed, the system then reboots into the new code as
if it were a cold start (into standby).

The ERC (Emergency Recovery Code) has been written to a protected area of the FLASH such
that in case a software update crashed or anything else that causes the FLASH to be corrupted,
the ERC will always be available, and therefore rewriting the FLASH is always possible using
the same update procedure.
26

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Troubleshooting Guide
321 and 321GS Series II
Home Entertainment System
(US/Canada, European, UK, Australia, Japan
and Dual Voltage Standard Versions)

321 Series II System

321GS Series II System

2005 Bose Corporation Troubleshooting Guide


Reference Number 273029-TG Rev. 00
Electronic Copy Only
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SPECIFICATIONS AND FEATURES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE

Bose Corporation
The Mountain
Framingham Massachusetts USA 01701
P/N: 273029-TG Rev. 00 3/2005 (H)
http://serviceops.bose.com

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