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Descent directions Descent directions Line search

Line search Line search Trust-region

The Newton Method The Newton Method

Overview

Nonlinear Optimization Most deterministic methods for unconstrained optimization have the

following features:

Overview of methods; the Newton method with line search

They are iterative, i.e. they start with an initial guess x0 of the

variables and tries to find better points {xk }, k = 1, . . ..

Niclas Brlin They are descent methods, i.e. at each iteration k,

Department of Computing Science

f (xk +1 ) < f (xk )

Ume University

niclas.borlin@cs.umu.se is (at least) required.

At each iteration k, the nonlinear objective function f is replaced

November 19, 2007

by a simpler model function mk that approximates f around xk .

The next iterate xk +1 = xk + p is sought as the minimizer of mk .

c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Convergence Overview Convergence Overview

Descent directions Line search Descent directions Line search

Line search Trust-region Line search Trust-region

The Newton Method The Newton Method

function of the form

1

mk (xk + p) = fk + p T fk + p T Bk p,

2 In the line search strategy, the algorithm chooses a search

where fk = f (xk ), fk = f (xk ), and Bk is a matrix, usually a direction pk and tries to solve the following one-dimensional

positive definite approximation of the hessian 2 f (xk ). minimization problem

If Bk is positive definite, a minimizer of mk may be found by

min f (xk + pk ),

solving >0

p mk (xk + p) = 0

where the scalar is called the step length.

for p.

If the minimizer of mk does not produce a better point, the step p

In theory we would like optimal step lengths, but in practice it is

is modified to produce a point xk +1 = xk + p that is better. more efficient to test trial step lengths until we find one that gives

The modifications come in two major flavours: line search and us a good enough point.

trust-region.

c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Methods for unconstrained optimization Methods for unconstrained optimization

Convergence Overview Convergence Overview

Descent directions Line search Descent directions Line search

Line search Trust-region Line search Trust-region

The Newton Method The Newton Method

Trust-region

0.8

0.6

In the trust-region strategy, the algorithm defines a region of trust

xk around xk where the current model function mk is trusted.

0.4 The region of trust is usually defined as

0.2 kpk2 ,

A candidate step p is found by approximately solving the

0.2

following subproblem

0.4

min mk (xk + p) s.t. kpk2 .

p

0.6

If the candidate step does not produce a good enough new point,

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5

we shrink the trust-region radius and re-solve the subproblem.

c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Convergence Overview Convergence Overview

Descent directions Line search Descent directions Line search

Line search Trust-region Line search Trust-region

The Newton Method The Newton Method

0.8

In the line search strategy, the direction is chosen first, followed

by the distance.

0.6

In the trust-region strategy, the maximum distance is chosen

xk

0.4

first, followed by the direction.

0.6 0.6

0 0.4

xk 0.4

xk

0.2 0.2

0.2

0 p 0

0.2 0.2

0.4

0.4 0.4

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Methods for unconstrained optimization Convergence rate Methods for unconstrained optimization Convergence rate

Convergence Linear convergence Convergence Linear convergence

Descent directions Quadratic convergence Descent directions Quadratic convergence

Line search Local vs. global convergence Line search Local vs. global convergence

The Newton Method Globalization strategies The Newton Method Globalization strategies

Convergence rate

Assume we have a series {xk } that converges to a solution x .

Define the sequence of errors as

ek = xk x

In order to compare different iterative methods, we need an

efficiency measure. and note that

Since we do not know the number of iterations in advance, the lim ek = 0.

k

computational complexity measure used by direct methods

We say that the sequence {xk } converges to x with rate r and

cannot be used.

rate constant C if

Instead the concept of a convergence rate is defined. kek +1 k

lim =C

k kek kr

and C < .

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Methods for unconstrained optimization Convergence rate Methods for unconstrained optimization Convergence rate

Convergence Linear convergence Convergence Linear convergence

Descent directions Quadratic convergence Descent directions Quadratic convergence

Line search Local vs. global convergence Line search Local vs. global convergence

The Newton Method Globalization strategies The Newton Method Globalization strategies

In practice there are three important rates of convergence: becomes

linear convergence, for r = 1 and 0 < C < 1; 1, 101 , 102 , . . . , 107

| {z }

7 iterations

quadratic convergence, for r = 2.

super-linear convergence, for r = 1 and C = 0.

For C = 0.99 the corresponding sequence is

| {z }

1604 iterations

linear convergence.

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Methods for unconstrained optimization Convergence rate Methods for unconstrained optimization Convergence rate

Convergence Linear convergence Convergence Linear convergence

Descent directions Quadratic convergence Descent directions Quadratic convergence

Line search Local vs. global convergence Line search Local vs. global convergence

The Newton Method Globalization strategies The Newton Method Globalization strategies

For r = 2, C = 0.1 och ke0 k = 1, the sequence becomes

1, 101 , 103 , 107 , . . . A method is called locally convergent if it produces a convergent

For r = 2, C = 3 och ke0 k = 1, the sequence diverges sequence toward a minimizer x provided a close enough

starting approximation.

1, 3, 27, . . .

A method is called globally convergent if it produces a

For r = 2, C = 3 och ke0 k = 0.1, the sequence becomes convergent sequence toward a minimizer x provided any

0.1, 0.03, 0.0027, . . . , starting approximation.

i.e. it converges despite C > 1. Note that global convergence does not imply convergence

For quadratic convergence, the constant C is of lesser importance.

towards a global minimizer.

Instead it is important that the initial approximation is close enough to

the solution, i.e. ke0 k is small.

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Methods for unconstrained optimization Convergence rate Methods for unconstrained optimization

Convergence Linear convergence Convergence

Descent directions Quadratic convergence Descent directions

Line search Local vs. global convergence Line search

The Newton Method Globalization strategies The Newton Method

Consider the Taylor expansion of the objective function along a

The line search and trust-region methods are sometimes called search direction p

globalization strategies, since they modify a core method 1

(typically locally convergent) to become globally convergent. f (xk + p) = f (xk ) + p T fk + 2 p T 2 f (xk + p)p,

2

There are two efficiency requirements on any globalization for some (0, )

strategy:

Far from the solution, they should stop the methods from going Any direction p such that p T fk < 0 will produce a reduction of

out of control. the objective function for a short enough step.

Close to the solution, when the core method is efficient, they

should interfere as little as possible. A direction p such that

p T fk < 0

is called a descent direction.

c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Methods for unconstrained optimization Methods for unconstrained optimization

Convergence Convergence

Descent directions Descent directions

Line search Line search

The Newton Method The Newton Method

p fk

Since cos = kpkkf is the angle between the search direction

kk

and the negative gradient, descent directions are in the same

half-plane as the negative gradient.

If the search direction has the form

The search direction corresponding to the negative gradient

pk = Bk1 fk , p = fk is called the direction of steepest descent.

1

0.8

0.6

0.5

f

0.3

0.2

0.1

1.5 1 0.5 0

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Overview Overview

Methods for unconstrained optimization Methods for unconstrained optimization

Exact and inexact line searches Exact and inexact line searches

Convergence Convergence

The Sufficient Decrease Condition The Sufficient Decrease Condition

Descent directions Descent directions

Backtracking Backtracking

Line search Line search

The Curvature Condition The Curvature Condition

The Newton Method The Newton Method

The Wolfe Condition The Wolfe Condition

Each iteration of a line search method computes a search direction pk Consider the function

and then decides how far to move along that direction.

The next iteration is given by () = f (xk + pk ), > 0.

iteration. This is called an exact line search.

We will require pk to be a descent direction. This assures that the

objective function will decrease However, it is possible to construct inexact line search methods

that produce an adequate reduction of f at a minimal cost.

f (xk + k pk ) < f (xk )

Inexact line search methods construct a number of candidate

for some small k > 0. values for and stop when certain conditions are satisfied.

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Overview Overview

Methods for unconstrained optimization Methods for unconstrained optimization

Exact and inexact line searches Exact and inexact line searches

Convergence Convergence

The Sufficient Decrease Condition The Sufficient Decrease Condition

Descent directions Descent directions

Backtracking Backtracking

Line search Line search

The Curvature Condition The Curvature Condition

The Newton Method The Newton Method

The Wolfe Condition The Wolfe Condition

c1=1

c1=0.5

c1=0

enough to guarantee convergence.

Instead, the sufficient decrease condition is formulated from the linear

Taylor approximation of ()

() (0) + (0)

f()

or

f (xk + pk ) f (xk ) + fkT pk .

The sufficient decrease condition states that the new point must at

least produce a fraction 0 < c1 < 1 of the decrease predicted by the

Taylor approximation, i.e.

f (xk + pk ) < f (xk ) + c1 fkT pk . 0 1/16 1/8 1/4 1/2 1

This condition is sometimes called the Armijo condition.

c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Overview Overview

Methods for unconstrained optimization Methods for unconstrained optimization

Exact and inexact line searches Exact and inexact line searches

Convergence Convergence

The Sufficient Decrease Condition The Sufficient Decrease Condition

Descent directions Descent directions

Backtracking Backtracking

Line search Line search

The Curvature Condition The Curvature Condition

The Newton Method The Newton Method

The Wolfe Condition The Wolfe Condition

The sufficient decrease condition alone is not enough to guarantee Another approximation to the solution of

convergence, since it is satisfied for arbitrarily small values of .

The sufficient decrease condition has to be combined with a strategy

min () f (xk + pk )

>0

that favours large step lengths over small.

is to solve for () = 0, which is approximated to the condition

A simple such strategy is called backtracking: Accept the first element

of the sequence | (k )| c2 | (0)|,

1 1

1, , , . . . , 2i , . . .

2 4 where c2 is a constant c1 < c2 < 1.

that satisfies the sufficient decrease condition. Such a step length

always exist.

Since () = pkT f (xk + pk ), we get

Large step lengths are tested before small ones. Thus, the step length |pkT f (xk + k pk )| c2 |pkT f (xk )|.

will not be too small.

This technique works well for Newton-type algorithms. This condition is called the curvature condition.

c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Overview The Newton-Raphson method in 1

Methods for unconstrained optimization Methods for unconstrained optimization

Exact and inexact line searches The Classical Newton minimization method in n

Convergence Convergence

The Sufficient Decrease Condition Geometrical interpretation; the model function

Descent directions Descent directions

Backtracking Properties of the Newton method

Line search Line search

The Curvature Condition Ensuring a descent direction

The Newton Method The Newton Method

The Wolfe Condition The modified Newton algorithm with line search

The sufficient decrease condition and the curvature condition Consider the non-linear problem f (x ) = 0, where f , x .

The Newton-Raphson method for solving this problem is based on the

f (xk + pk ) f (xk ) + c1 fkT pk , linear Taylor approximation of f around xk

|pkT f (xk + k pk )| c2 |pkT f (xk )|, f (xk + p) f (xk ) + pf (xk ).

where 0 < c1 < c2 < 1, are collectively called the strong Wolfe If f (xk ) 6= 0 we solve the linear equation

conditions. f (xk ) + pf (xk ) = 0

Step length methods that use the Wolfe conditions are more for p and get

complicated than backtracking. p = f (xk )/f (xk ).

Several popular implementations of nonlinear optimization

The new iterate is given by

routines are based on the Wolfe conditions, notably the BFGS

quasi-Newton method. xk +1 = xk + pk = xk f (xk )/f (xk ).

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Methods for unconstrained optimization Methods for unconstrained optimization

The Classical Newton minimization method in n The Classical Newton minimization method in n

Convergence Convergence

Geometrical interpretation; the model function Geometrical interpretation; the model function

Descent directions Descent directions

Properties of the Newton method Properties of the Newton method

Line search Line search

Ensuring a descent direction Ensuring a descent direction

The Newton Method The Newton Method

The modified Newton algorithm with line search The modified Newton algorithm with line search

The Classical Newton minimization method in n Geometrical interpretation; the model function

In order to use Newtons method to find a minimizer we apply the The approximation of the non-linear function f (x) with the

first-order necessary conditions on a function f linear (in p) polynomial

f (x ) = 0 (f (x ) = 0) f (xk + p) f (xk ) + 2 f (xk )p

This results in the Newton sequence corresponds to approximating the non-linear function f (x) with

the quadratic (in p) Taylor expansion

xk +1 = xk (2 f (xk ))1 f (xk ) (xk +1 = xk f (x )/f (x ))

1

mk (xk + p) f (xk ) + f (xk )T p + p T 2 f (xk )p,

This is often written as xk +1 = xk + pk , where pk is the solution of the 2

Newton equation: i.e. Bk = 2 f (xk ).

2 f (xk )pk = f (xk ). Newtons method can be interpreted as that at each iteration k, f

This formulation emphasizes that a linear equation system is solved in is approximated by the quadratic Taylor expansion mk around xk

each step, usually by other means than calculating an inverse. and xk +1 is calculated as the minimizer of mk .

c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

The Newton-Raphson method in 1 The Newton-Raphson method in 1

Methods for unconstrained optimization Methods for unconstrained optimization

The Classical Newton minimization method in n The Classical Newton minimization method in n

Convergence Convergence

Geometrical interpretation; the model function Geometrical interpretation; the model function

Descent directions Descent directions

Properties of the Newton method Properties of the Newton method

Line search Line search

Ensuring a descent direction Ensuring a descent direction

The Newton Method The Newton Method

The modified Newton algorithm with line search The modified Newton algorithm with line search

Advantages: Disadvantages:

It converges quadratically It does not necessarily

toward a stationary point. converge toward a minimizer.

It may diverge if the starting

approximation is too far from the

solution.

It will fail if 2 f (xk ) is not

invertible for some k .

It requires second-order

information 2 f (xk ).

Newtons method is rarely used in its classical formulation. However, many

methods may be seen as approximations of Newtons method.

c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

Methods for unconstrained optimization Methods for unconstrained optimization

The Classical Newton minimization method in n The Classical Newton minimization method in n

Convergence Convergence

Geometrical interpretation; the model function Geometrical interpretation; the model function

Descent directions Descent directions

Properties of the Newton method Properties of the Newton method

Line search Line search

Ensuring a descent direction Ensuring a descent direction

The Newton Method The Newton Method

The modified Newton algorithm with line search The modified Newton algorithm with line search

Since the Newton search direction pN is written as

pN = Bk1 fk ,

with Bk = 2 fk , pN will be a descent direction if 2 fk is positive definite.

If 2 fk is not positive definite, the Newton direction pN may not a

descent direction.

In that case we will choose Bk as a positive definite approximation of

2 fk .

Performed in a proper way, this modified algorithm will converge toward

a minimizer. Furthermore, close to the solution the Hessian is usually

positive definite and the modification will only be performed far from

the solution.

c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

The Newton-Raphson method in 1 The Newton-Raphson method in 1

Methods for unconstrained optimization Methods for unconstrained optimization

The Classical Newton minimization method in n The Classical Newton minimization method in n

Convergence Convergence

Geometrical interpretation; the model function Geometrical interpretation; the model function

Descent directions Descent directions

Properties of the Newton method Properties of the Newton method

Line search Line search

Ensuring a descent direction Ensuring a descent direction

The Newton Method The Newton Method

The modified Newton algorithm with line search The modified Newton algorithm with line search

The positive definite approximation Bk of the Hessian may be The modified Newton algorithm with line search

found with minimal extra effort: The search direction p is

calculated as the solution of

Specify a starting approximation x0 and a convergence tolerance .

2 f (x)p = f (x). Repeat for k = 0, 1, . . .

If 2 f (x) is positive definite, the matrix factorization If kf (xk )k < , stop.

(LDLT )pkN = f (xk )

If 2 f (x) is not positive definite, at some point during the

factorization, a diagonal element will be dii 0. In this case, the for the search direction pkN .

element may be replaced with a suitable positive entry. Perform a line search to determine the new approximation

Finally, the factorization is used to calculate the search direction xk +1 = xk + k pkN .

(LDLT )p = f (x).

c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search c 2007 Niclas Brlin, CS, UmU

Nonlinear Optimization; The Newton method w/ line search

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