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# THE IMMERSION WORT CHILLER CALCU

By: Near-Beer-Engineer
josh.davis@live.ca

Hello!

ideal immersion wort chiller for your homebrewing
endeavours. It takes specifications such as heat exchan
length, cooling water temperature, mixing rate, initial/fin
wort temperature and other parameters and uses them t
calculate the amount of time it will take you to cool your
of wort. To get started, just follow these simple steps:

## 1. Go to the "Inputs" worksheet and specify all the

parameters that you know. If you're not sure about
few of them, just use the defaults that are already

## 2. View the "Summary" worksheet to review your

inputs and see them in both metric and english uni

## 3. Examine the "Outputs" worksheet to see what t

program has calculated for you. The cooling time a
amount of cooling water will likely be the most
interesting.

## 4. Experiment with the parameters to find an idea

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For the technically inclined:

## The Immersion Wort Chiller Calculator uses thermodynamic rela

"lumped capacitance" assumption is used to estimate heat tran
copper). It is also assumed that no phase changes occur within
values for the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) have been ca
workbook. Details of these experiments can be found under the
coefficient (U) if he or she chooses. Non-isothermal batch coolin
are only estimates. They are based on the Non-Isothermal equa
N WORT CHILLER CALCULATOR
Near-Beer-Engineer
josh.davis@live.ca

homebrewing
such as heat exchanger
mixing rate, initial/final
ters and uses them to
ake you to cool your pot
hese simple steps:

## eet to review your

ric and english units.

## heet to see what the

The cooling time and
y be the most

## ers to find an ideal

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es thermodynamic relationships to calculate the rate of heat transfer betw
d to estimate heat transfer throughout the walls of the metal tubing (which
e changes occur within the tubing (i.e. there are no chunks of ice that melt
cient (U) have been calculated by the author via several experiments using
can be found under the "Sample Data" tab. The user also has the option o
isothermal batch cooling is a complicated phenomenon and it should be no
he Non-Isothermal equations shown in the figure above. If you discover an
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
e of heat transfer between the cooling coils and the hot wort. The
he metal tubing (which is likely reasonably accurate for thin-walled
chunks of ice that melt as the cooling water is heated). Estimated
veral experiments using his particular system and pre-loaded into this
er also has the option of providing their own overall heat transfer
non and it should be noted that the equations used in this workbook
ove. If you discover any issues let me know! Enjoy!
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
hot wort. The
for thin-walled
ed). Estimated
heat transfer
n this workbook
-
Choose units from the dropdown menu on e
cell, then input your value for each para

Parameter
Wort Volume
Length of Submerged Chiller
Tubing Outer Diameter
Cooling Water Rate (w)
Cooling Water Inlet Temp (T1)
Initial Wort Temperature (t1)
Final Wort Temperature (t2)
Wort Density
Wort Heat Capacity (Cm)
Cooling Water Density
Cooling Water Heat Capacity (Cj)
Stirring Rate

## Place your cursor over cells with red corners for a h

pdown menu on each "Units" Pricin
value for each parameter.
OD
Value Units 0.25

11 L 0.25

5m 0.375

0.375 in 0.375

## 0.2222222224 L/s (kg/s) 0.375

10 C 0.5

100 C 0.5

30 C 0.5

1.05 g/cm3
4187 J/(kg.K)
1 g/cm3
4187 J/(kg.K)
Constant and Vigorous

Pricing

## Length Price (\$CDN)

10 10.63
20 23.49
10 16.49
20 29.89
50 43.99
10 10.63
20 23.49
50 56.49
Choose Calculation Method

## Pricing Scheme: Automatic

Summary of specified inputs in both metric a

Parameter
Wort Volume
Length of Chiller
Tubing Outer Diameter
Cooling Water Rate (w)
Cooling Water Inlet Temp (Tc)
Initial Wort Temperature (T1)
Final Wort Temperature (T2)
Wort Density
Wort Heat Capacity (Cm)
Cooling Water Density
Cooling Water Heat Capacity (Cj)
Stirring Rate
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
uts in both metric and english units, for your enjoyment.

Metric English
11.00 L 2.906 gal
5.000 m 16.40419948 ft
0.009525 m 0.375 in
0.222222222 L/s (kg/s) 0.05870 gal/s
10 C 50 F
100 C 212 F
30 C 86 F
1.05 g/cm3 65.625 lb/ft3
4187 J/(kg.K) 1.000 BTU/(F.lb)
1 g/cm3 62.5 lb/ft3
4187 J/(kg.K) 1.000 BTU/(F.lb)
Constant and Vigorous
Pre-Defined Pre-Defined
joyment.
Calculated Valu

Parameter
Wort Mass (m)
Heat to Remove (Q)
Heat Transfer Area (A)
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U)

## * Estimated Cooling Time

* Cooling Water Required
* Price of Tubing
Calculated Values

Metric English
11.55 kg 25.46 lb
3385190 J 3208.541 BTU
0.1496 m2 1.610477 ft2
1885 W/(m2.K) 331.9485 BTU/(ft2.h.F)

## 4.98 min 299 seconds

66.4 L 17.55 gal
29.89 \$ CDN
*
*
*
Soft Copper Tubing - Price Per Foot
Size (O.D.) Size (I.D.) Wall Thickness Price / ft
1/8" 0.065" 0.030" \$1.59
3/16" 0.1275" 0.030" \$1.69
1/4" 0.19" 0.030" \$1.49
5/16" 0.2485" 0.032" \$1.99
3/8" 0.311" 0.032" \$1.94
1/2" 0.436" 0.032" \$2.99

## Free Convection Gas - Free Convection Gas : U = 1 - 2 W/m2K (typical wi

Free Convection Gas - Forced liquid(flowing)water : U = 5 - 15 W/m2K (t
Free Convection Gas - Condensing Vapor Water : U = 5 - 20 W/m2K (typic
Forced Convection (flowing)Gas - Free Convection Gas : U = 3 - 10 W/m2
Forced Convection (flowing)Gas - ForcedConvection Gas : U = 10 - 30 W
Forced Convection (flowing)Gas - Forced liquid(flowing)water: U = 10
Forced Convection (flowing)Gas - Condensing Vapor Water: U = 10 - 50
Liquid Free Convection - ForcedConvection Gas : 10 - 50 W/m2K (gas boil
Liquid Free Convection - Free Convection Liquid : 25 - 500 W/m2K (oil bat
Liquid Free Convection - Forced Liquid flowing (Water) : 50 - 100
Liquid Free Convection - Condensing vapor water : 300 - 1000 W/m2K (ste
Forced liquid (flowing) water - Free Convection Gas : 10 - 40 W/m2K (com
Forced liquid (flowing) water - Free Convection Liquid : 500 - 150
Forced liquid (flowing) water - Forced liquid (flowing) water: 900 - 2500 W
Forced liquid (flowing) water - Condensing vapor water : 1000 - 4000 W/m
Boiling liquid water - Free Convection Gas : 10 - 40 W/m2K (steam boiler +
Boiling liquid water - Forced Liquid flowing (Water): 300 - 1000 W/m2K (e
Boiling liquid water - Condensing vapor water: 1500 - 6000 W/m2K (evap
Engineering Toolbox)

## - 2 W/m2K (typical window, room to outside air through glass)

: U = 5 - 15 W/m2K (typical radiator central heating)
= 5 - 20 W/m2K (typical steam radiators)
Gas : U = 3 - 10 W/m2K (superheaters)
n Gas : U = 10 - 30 W/m 2K (heat exchangers gases)
wing)water: U = 10 - 50 W/m2K (gas coolers)
or Water: U = 10 - 50 W/m2K (air heaters)
0 - 50 W/m2K (gas boiler)
5 - 500 W/m2K (oil bath for heating)
g (Water) : 50 - 100 W/m 2K (heating coil in vessel water, water without steering), 500 - 20
300 - 1000 W/m2K (steam jackets around vessels with stirrers, water), 150 - 500 W/m2K (other liquid
: 10 - 40 W/m2K (combustion chamber + radiation)
n Liquid : 500 - 1500 W/m 2K (cooling coil - stirred)
g) water: 900 - 2500 W/m2K (heat exchanger water/water)
ater : 1000 - 4000 W/m2K (condensers steam water)
: 300 - 1000 W/m2K (evaporation of refrigerators or brine coolers)
0 - 6000 W/m2K (evaporators steam/water)
without steering), 500 - 2000 W/m 2K (heating coil in vessel water, water with steering)
150 - 500 W/m2K (other liquids)
ater, water with steering)
Description of System and tests:

My system is made of 20 feet of 3/8 copper tubing, of which aproximately 19 feet is actu
submerged during cooling. It is coiled in an approximately an 18cm diameter. The tubin
isconnected to a utility sink via a faucet adapter and several feet of polyethylene tubing.

The following tests were done in an aluminum pot holding 10L of water (theoretical maxi
pot volume ~15L). Stirring was done with a long metal spoon and was constant and
vigourous. Temperatures were measured digitally at a point farthest from the cooling coil
the wall of the pot. The water was boiled and the empty wort chiller was submerged in t
boiling water for about 10 minutes to simulate sterilization. The overall heat transfer
coefficient was then determined for the system with and without stirring by back-calculat
the equations used in this workbook.

U = 1885 W/m2.K for the system when vigorous stirring was employed. This was proven
data set 1 and 3. Data set 4 confirmed this when a water cooling flow rate of roughly ha
used, holding U constant, and checking if the program predicted the time to cool correctl
did (it was off by 6 seconds, pretty solid!).

U = 1144 for the system when no stirring was employed. Data set 2 was used to determ
this.
DATA SET II

No stirring
Cooling Water T 14 C
Water Rate 0.113442995 L/s
Calculated U 1144 W/m2.K

t (s) T (F)
0 208
12 193
Wort Temperature - High
35 172
45 170 CE6605660al
55 165
64 160 CE6605660al
74 155
87 150 CE6605660al
100 145
Pot Temperature (F)
113 140 CE6605660al
134 135
153 130 CE6605660al
172 125
CE6605660al
CE6605660al CE6605660al
Pot Temperature (F)
CE6605660al

CE6605660al

## 195 120 CE6605660al

215 115 CE6605660al CE6605660al
244 110
275 105
337 100
444 85
510 80
676 71

DATA SET IV

Constant Stirring
Cooling Water T 14 C
Water Rate 0.061538462 L/s
Calculated U 1885 W/m2.K

0 210
22 193
36 185
44 180
53 175 Wort Temperature
63 170
73 165 CE6605660al
84 160 CE6605660al

95 155 CE6605660al
CE6605660al
106 150
CE6605660al
118 145
CE6605660al
133 140
CE6605660al
150 135 Pot Temperature (F)
CE6605660al
162 130
CE6605660al
180 125
CE6605660al
197 120
CE6605660al
219 115
CE6605660al
239 110
CE6605660al
263 105 0 25 50 75 1
290 100
321 95
357 90
397 85
447 80
511 75
601 70
aproximately 19 feet is actually
an 18cm diameter. The tubing
l feet of polyethylene tubing.

## 0L of water (theoretical maximum

on and was constant and
farthest from the cooling coils near
rt chiller was submerged in the
The overall heat transfer
hout stirring by back-calculating

## employed. This was proven using

ooling flow rate of roughly half was
cted the time to cool correctly. It

## emperature - High Flow, No Agitation

05660al

05660al

05660al

05660al

05660al

05660al
CE6605660al CE6605660al CE6615661al CE6615661al CE6625662al

Time (s)
05660al

05660al

05660al
CE6605660al CE6605660al CE6615661al CE6615661al CE6625662al

Time (s)

## Wort Temperature - Half Flow, Constant Agitation

CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
(F)
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
0 25 50 75 100125150175200225250275300325350375400425450475500525550575600625650

Time (s)
DATA SET I

Constant Stirring
Cooling Water T 14 C Wort Temperatur
Water Rate 0.113443 L/s
CE6605660al
Calculated U 1885 W/m2.K CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
t (s) T (F) CE6605660al
0 209 CE6605660al
CE6605660al
35 194 CE6605660al
110 163 Pot Temperature (F) CE6605660al
173 131 CE6605660al
CE6605660al
230 112 CE6605660al
322 90
360 83
434 74
464 70

## DATA SET III

Constant Stirring
Cooling Water T 14 C
Water Rate 0.113442995 L/s
Calculated U 1885 W.m2.K

0 210
30 196
42 185
48 180
58 172 Wort Temp
70 165
82 156 CE66
90 152
104 145 CE66
110 140
134 132 CE66
147 126
Pot Temperature (F)
CE66

CE66
CE66

CE66

## Pot Temperature (F)

165 120 CE66
177 115
189 112 CE66
201 108
220 103 CE66
232 100
255 95
280 91
305 87
320 85
356 80
398 75
463 70

gitation

5450475500525550575600625650
rt Temperature - High Flow, Constant Agitation
CE6605660al
CE6605660al f(x) = -50.7958972631 ln(x) + 385.8800693447
CE6605660al R = 0.9659857989
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
ure (F) CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al
CE6605660al

Time (s)

## Wort Temperature - High Flow, Constant Agitation

CE6605660al

CE6605660al

CE6605660al

ot Temperature (F)
CE6605660al

CE6605660al
CE6605660al

CE6605660al

ot Temperature (F)
CE6605660al

CE6605660al

CE6605660al
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Time (s)
tion
0 450 500