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Engineering Hydrology (CEN-204)

Water Budget and System Concept

January 9, 2017
HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

Source: Applied Hydrology, Chow et al., 1988


GLOBAL WATER CYCLE
WATER BALANCE
TERRESTRIAL AND ATMOSPHERIC WATER BALANCE
TERRESTRIAL AND ATMOSPHERIC WATER BALANCE
EQUATIONS
Water Balance for Soil Moisture:
ds
nD P E RS PG
dt (1)
Water Balance for Groundwater :
H
Sy PG RG (2)
t

Terrestrial Water Balance ( (1)+(2)): ( R RS RG )


ds dH
nD Sy PER
dt dt (3)
Atmospheric Water Balance:
d Wa
E PC (4)
dt

Combined Water Balance ((3)+(4)):


ds d H dWa
nD Sy CR
dt dt dt (5)
TWSC
REFLECTIVITY OF THE LAND SURFACE: ALBEDO

1. Atmosphere: scatter, reflection, absorption.


2. Albedo (%) is the % of solar energy reflected back to the
atmosphere. It depends on the type of surface and solar
altitude (small for moist soil surface and high solar
altitude ~90 deg.)
3. 10-20% for green forest; 15-30% for grasslands; 15-25%
for croplands; 40-50% for old, dirty snow; 80-90% for
pure and white snow;
4. Global average: 8% for ocean surface; 14% for earths
land surface; 10% for the Earth as a whole; 30% for the
planet as a whole (including atmosphere, clouds, etc)
EARTHS AVERAGE ANNUAL HEAT BALANCE IN PERCENTAGE UNITS

Incoming solar radiation Outgoing radiation

(Shortwave) (Longwave)

Space
6 20 4 6 38 26
100
e
Atmospher

16

3 15

Land,
51 21 7 23
Ocean

Incoming solar radiation 100 units


Absorbed by water vapor, dust, and ozone 16
Absorbed by clouds 3
Backscattered by air 6 (shortwave)
Reflected by clouds 20 (shortwave)
Reflected by surface 4 (shortwave)
Absorbed by land and ocean 51
Net surface emission of longwave radiation 21 (longwave)
Absorption by water vapor 15 (longwave)
Escape into space 6 (longwave)
Net emission by water vapor, CO2 38 (longwave)
Emission by clouds 26 (longwave)
Sensible heat flux 7
Latent heat flux 23
FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

Differential heating of the Earths surface

Coriolis forces due to the rotation of the Earth


Radial motion in a rotating frame of reference

Pressure gradients

Topographic effects

Regional and local modifications due to vegetation, soil-


moisture, etc.
DIFFERENTIAL HEATING OF THE EARTHS SURFACE

Difference in insolation are one of the primary factors in


determining the general circulation of the earths atmosphere
(radiative cooling and heating)
GLOBAL CIRCULATION PATTERN
GENERAL CIRCULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE
HYDROLOGIC SYSTEM: BLOCK DIAGRAM

Source: Applied Hydrology, Chow et al., 1988


REFERENCES
Presentation by Sid Verma, University of Illinois
Presentation by Pat YEH, University of Tokyo
Applied Hydrology by V. T. Chow, D. R. Maidment and Larry W. Mays, 1988
CONTACTS

Dr. Sarit Kumar Das

Office: Room no. G-01, Geomatics Building, Civil Engineering


Email ID: saritkdas.fce@iitr.ac.in
Office Phone: 5056
Mobile: 9432492170