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CHANNEL

OBJECTIVES

Describe the basic principle of uniform flow in open channel.

geometry.

CONSERVATION OF MASS AND

ENERGY EQUATIONS

= =

: 1 1 = 2 2

2

= + +

2

2

=+ + +

2

2

=++

2

12 22

: 1 + 1 + = 2 + 2 + +

2 2

The head loss equation:

2 2

= = ( )

2 8

The slope of the bottom of

the channel If the channel bottom is constant:

1 2 12 22

0 = tan = : 1 + + 0 = 2 + +

2 1 2 2

FRICTION SLOPE OF EGL

In the design of open-channel systems, the bottom slope is selected such that it

provides adequate elevation drop to overcome the frictional head loss to maintain

desired flow rate.

Therefore, there is a close connection between the head loss and the bottom slope,

and it makes sense to express the head loss as a slope (or the tangent of an angle).

: = tan = (if )

12 22

: 1 + = 2 + + 0

2 2

energy of the liquid expressed as a head) above

the horizontal reference datum is typically sloped

down like the channel itself as a result of frictional

losses, the vertical drop being equal to the head

loss hL and thus being the same as the friction The total energy of a liquid at two

slope. sections of an open channel.

Note that the friction slope is equal to the bottom slope when the head loss is

equal to the elevation drop. That is, Sf = S0 when hL = z1 - z2.

UNIFORM FLOW IN CHANNELS

Flow in a channel is called uniform flow if the flow depth (and thus the average

flow velocity remains constant. Uniform flow conditions are commonly

encountered in long straight runs of channels with constant slope, cross section,

and surface lining.

The flow depth in uniform flow is called the normal depth yn, and the average

flow velocity is called the uniform-flow velocity V0.

0 = 0 = 0

The Chezy coefficient ranges from

about 30 m1/2/s for small channels with

= 8 Chezy coefficient rough surfaces to 90 m1/2/s for large

2 channels with smooth surfaces.

= 2.0 14.8/

In uniform flow, the flow depth y, the average flow velocity V, and the bottom slope

S0 remain constant, and the head loss equals the elevation loss, hL = z1 - z2 =

Sfx= S0 x.

2 2

= 0 =

2 8

= 0 and = 4

UNIFORM FLOW IN OPEN

CHANNEL

Sf = tan

Sf = hf : x

UNIFORM FLOW SUMMARY

Depth(y),

Area (A) & constant along the channel

Velocity (V)

Sf = Sw = So (parallel)

Sw= slope of the water surface

So= slope of the channel bed

Generally, uniform flow can occur only in very long, straight and

prismatic channel.

UNIFORM FLOW IN A LONG

CHANNEL

C.D.L = Critical depth line

GENERAL FLOW EQUATION

Q = VA Area of the

cross-section

Ave. velocity of flow (ft2) or (m2)

Flow rate cfs at a cross-section

or m3/s (ft/s) or (m/s)

Cross-Section

Area

Wetted

Perimeter

CONTINUITY EQUATION

3a

Inflow 3 A

Change in Storage

3b

Outflow

1 A 2

Section AA

RESISTANCE OF FLOW

FORMULA

The average velocity of a uniform flow can be computed

approximately by any of the semi-empirical uniform flow

equations.

K = resistance coefficient

S = channel longitudinal slope

R = hydraulic radius

x & y = coefficients

CHEZY EQUATION

Force producing motion = friction force resisting motion

CHEZY EQUATION CONT

=

=

L = length of channel between 1 and 2

W = weight of water between 1 and 2

Component of flow along the flow direction

g = specific weight

= sin

K = resistance coefficient

= sin P = channel perimeter

V = flow velocity

Frictional resistance on the surface

=

= 2

CHEZY EQUATION CONT

Force producing motion = friction force resisting motion

= 2

sin

= V = average velocity

C = coefficient

sin

= R = hydraulic radius (A/P); in meter

S = slope of the energy grade line

(dimensionless)

= sin

distance x, tan = sin = S. Hence, =

=

GANGUILLET KUTTER

FORMULA

Imperial Unit:

0.00281 1.811

41.65 + +

=

0.00281

1 + 41.65 +

SI Unit:

1 0.00155

23 +

+

=

0.00155

1+ 23 +

BAZIN FORMULA

157.6 87

= =

1 + / 1 + /

Very smooth cement of planed wood 0.11

Unplaned wood, concrete or brick 0.21

Ashlar, rubble masonry or poor brickwork 0.83

Earth channels in perfect condition 1.54

Earth channels in ordinary condition 2.36

Earth channels in rough condition 3.17

POWELL FORMULA

= 42 log +

4

New Old

Neat cement surface 0.0002 0.0004

Unplaned-plank flumes 0.001 0.0017

Concrete lined channels 0.004 0.006

Earth, straight and uniform 0.04

Dredhged earth channels 0.1

MANNINGS EQUATION

Imperial Unit SI Unit

. / / / /

= =

. / /

= / = /

Widely used uniform flow formulae for open channel flow due to

its simplicity and satisfactory results it produces in real-world

applications.

are:

Imperial Unit SI Unit

. / /

= =

MANNINGS COEFFICIENT

(http://www.lmnoeng.com/manningn.htm)

Material Manning n Material Manning n

Natural Streams Excavated Earth Channels

Clean and Straight 0.030 Clean 0.022

Major Rivers 0.035 Gravelly 0.025

Sluggish with Deep

0.040 Weedy 0.030

Pools

Stony, Cobbles 0.035

Light Brush 0.075 Unfinished Concrete 0.014

Heavy Brush 0.15 Gravel 0.029

VARIES MANNINGS IN A

CHANNEL

Horton & Einstein (Assumed same mean velocity)

1 1 11.5 + 2 1.5 1.5

2 + +

= =

2/3

1/2

2

1 1 12 + 2 22 + +

2 1/2

= =

1/2

Lotter

5/3 5/3

= 5/3

= 5/3 5/3 5/3

1 1 2 2

1 1

+

2

+ +

RN area hydraulic radius of the subdivided areas. For simple channel sections, it

may be assumed that:

R1 = R2 = = RN = R

FACTORS AFFECTING

MANNINGS COEFFICIENT

Surface Roughness

Vegetation

Channel Irregular

Channel Alignment

Silting and Scouring

Obstruction

Size and Shape of Channel

Stage and Discharge

Seasonal Change

Suspended Material and Bed Load

FLOW THROUGH CIRCULAR

SECTION

For a flow of water through a circular section, the flow behavior is similar to

open channel if the water level is below the top of the pipe.

Case 1 water level up to the center of the pipe

Case 2 water level below the center of pipe

Case 3 water level above the center of pipe but below the top of pipe

DETERMINATION OF NORMAL

DEPTH BY VARIOUS METHOD

Generally, there are three methods to calculate normal depth for

open channel flow:

Algebraic Method

Solver

Graphical Method

Example 2.1 Flow rate in an open channel in uniform flow

2.001 m

Example 2.2 Channel with non-uniform roughness

Example 2.3.1 Determination of the normal depth and velocity

0.025, carries a discharge of 400 cfs. Compute the normal depth and

velocity.

A. Algebraic Method

A. Algebraic Method Cont

Example 2.3.2 Determination of the normal depth

Determine the normal depth of flow in a 36-in. culvert laid on a slope of 0.0016,

having n = 0.015, and carrying a discharge of 20 cfs.

B. Graphical Method

Example 2.3.3 Determination of the normal depth

In example 2.3.1(b), AR2/3 = 167.7. The value of AR2/3/b8/3 is 0.0569. For this

value, the chart gives y/b = 0.168, or yn = 3.36 ft.

0.168

0.0569

Home Exercise 2.1

0.012) that is 10 m wide at a depth of 2.5 m. The channel

slope is 0.0020. Find the water velocity and flow rate using

Mannings equation.

which n=0.013. Find the slope needed for a water depth of

2.5 ft.

Home Exercise 2.2

has a depth of flow of 1.5 ft. Assuming steady uniform

flow, determine the discharge in the channel. The

Manning roughness coefficient is n= 0.013.

depth of flow of 0.70m. Assume the slope and the Manning

roughness coefficient are similar to (a)

Home Exercise 2.3

channel slope) = 1.5; S0 = 0.0020 and Manning coefficient

(n) = 0.020, carries a discharge of 250 m3/s. Compute the

normal depth and velocity by using Algebraic Method,

Graphical Method and design chart method.

culvert laid on a slope of 0.0015, having Manning

coefficient (n) = 0.015 and carrying a discharge of 0.025

m3/s. Apply 2 methods to find the normal depth (Algebraic,

Graphical methods and Design Chart Method)

Home Exercise 2.4

slide slope of 1.5 horizontal: 1 vertical. The bed slope is 0.003

and carries a discharge of 200 m3/s. The channel is lined with

smooth concrete of n = 0.012. Compute the normal depth

using 3 methods.

horizontal: 1 vertical is laid on a slope of 0.00025. The

roughness coefficient n= 0.012. Find the normal depth for a

discharge of 25m3/s through this channel (by using analytical

methods and graphical methods)

Home Exercise 2.5

5 m/s, determine the cross-section of these channel:

i. circle

ii. Rectangular if b = 2y

iii. Trapezoidal if b = y and m = 3

side slope of 1 horizontal : 1 vertical. The bottom slope is to

be 0.0004. Find the bottom width of the channel necessary to

carry 100 m3/s of discharge at a normal depth of 3.50 m.

Home Exercise 2.6

BEST HYDRAULIC CROSS-

SECTIONS

For a given channel length, the perimeter is representative of the system

cost, and it should be kept to a minimum in order to minimize the size and

cost.

meaning minimum wetted perimeter for a specified cross-sectional area.

semicircular since it has the minimum

wetted perimeter for a specified cross- For a given cross-sectional area of

sectional area, and thus the minimum rectangular open channel, the highest flow

flow resistance. rate occurs when y = b/2.

CHARTS OF BEST HYDRAULIC

CROSS-SECTIONS

ratio y/b increase, reaches a maximum at Variation of the flow rate in a rectangular

y/b=0.5, and then starts to decrease. channel with aspect ratio r = y/b for Ac = 1 m2

The trend is the same for the hydraulic and S0 = tan 1

radius, but the opposite trend for the wetted

perimeter P.

EFFICIENT CROSS-SECTION

Q max

=0

RECTANGULAR CHANNEL

= = + 2

= + 2

=0

= 2+2= 2+2=0

liquid height is half the channel width to minimize flow resistance or to

maximize the flow rate for a given cross-sectional area. This also

minimizes the perimeter and thus the construction costs.

TRAPEZOIDAL CHANNEL

TRAPEZOIDAL CHANNEL CONT

The best hydraulic cross section for a

circular channel of diameter D can be

shown to be y = D/2.

trapezoidal channel is half

of a hexagon.

44

PROPOSITIONS OF SOME MOST

EFFICICENT SECTIONS

Channel Shape A P b R

Rectangular 2y2 4y 2y y/2

Trapezoidal (half regular hexagon) y23 2y3 2y/3 y/2

Circular (semicircle) y2/2 y - y/2

Triangle (vertex angle=90) y2 2y2 - y/22

Discussion Note that the trapezoidal

cross section is better since it has a

smaller perimeter (3.37 m versus 3.68

m) and thus lower construction cost.

This is why many man-made waterways

are trapezoidal in shape. However, the

average velocity through the trapezoidal

channel is larger since Ac is smaller.

OPEN CHANNEL DESIGN

FREEBOARD

CHANNEL FREEBOARD

EFFICIENT CROSS-SECTION

SUMMARY

Trapezoidal channels, the best hydraulic section is

obtained when R = y/2( the trapezoidal channel - half-

hexagon).

radius half the depth.

semicircular open channel will discharge more water than

any other shape (for the same area, slope and factor, n).

Example 2.4 Determination of the most efficient cross-section

carry 1.0 m3/s at slope of 0.0065. Find the most

efficient cross section for:

a. A rectangular

b. A semicircular

c. A triangular

d. A trapezoidal

Home Exercise 2.7

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