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# CHAPTER 2

## UNIFORM FLOW IN OPEN

CHANNEL
OBJECTIVES
Describe the basic principle of uniform flow in open channel.

geometry.

## Design the open channel based on best hydraulics formula.

CONSERVATION OF MASS AND
ENERGY EQUATIONS
= =
: 1 1 = 2 2
2
= + +
2
2
=+ + +
2
2

=++
2

12 22
: 1 + 1 + = 2 + 2 + +
2 2
The head loss equation:
2 2
= = ( )
2 8
The slope of the bottom of
the channel If the channel bottom is constant:
1 2 12 22
0 = tan = : 1 + + 0 = 2 + +
2 1 2 2
FRICTION SLOPE OF EGL
In the design of open-channel systems, the bottom slope is selected such that it
provides adequate elevation drop to overcome the frictional head loss to maintain
desired flow rate.
Therefore, there is a close connection between the head loss and the bottom slope,
and it makes sense to express the head loss as a slope (or the tangent of an angle).

: = tan = (if )

12 22
: 1 + = 2 + + 0
2 2

## The energy line z + y + V2/2g (total mechanical

energy of the liquid expressed as a head) above
the horizontal reference datum is typically sloped
down like the channel itself as a result of frictional
losses, the vertical drop being equal to the head
loss hL and thus being the same as the friction The total energy of a liquid at two
slope. sections of an open channel.

Note that the friction slope is equal to the bottom slope when the head loss is
equal to the elevation drop. That is, Sf = S0 when hL = z1 - z2.
UNIFORM FLOW IN CHANNELS
Flow in a channel is called uniform flow if the flow depth (and thus the average
flow velocity remains constant. Uniform flow conditions are commonly
encountered in long straight runs of channels with constant slope, cross section,
and surface lining.
The flow depth in uniform flow is called the normal depth yn, and the average
flow velocity is called the uniform-flow velocity V0.

0 = 0 = 0
The Chezy coefficient ranges from
about 30 m1/2/s for small channels with
= 8 Chezy coefficient rough surfaces to 90 m1/2/s for large
2 channels with smooth surfaces.
= 2.0 14.8/

In uniform flow, the flow depth y, the average flow velocity V, and the bottom slope
S0 remain constant, and the head loss equals the elevation loss, hL = z1 - z2 =
Sfx= S0 x.
2 2
= 0 =
2 8

= 0 and = 4
UNIFORM FLOW IN OPEN
CHANNEL

Sf = tan
Sf = hf : x
UNIFORM FLOW SUMMARY
Depth(y),
Area (A) & constant along the channel
Velocity (V)

Sf = Sw = So (parallel)

## where Sf = slope energy grade line

Sw= slope of the water surface
So= slope of the channel bed

Generally, uniform flow can occur only in very long, straight and
prismatic channel.
UNIFORM FLOW IN A LONG
CHANNEL

## N.D.L = Normal depth line

C.D.L = Critical depth line
GENERAL FLOW EQUATION
Q = VA Area of the
cross-section
Ave. velocity of flow (ft2) or (m2)
Flow rate cfs at a cross-section
or m3/s (ft/s) or (m/s)

Cross-Section
Area

Wetted
Perimeter
CONTINUITY EQUATION

3a
Inflow 3 A
Change in Storage
3b

Outflow
1 A 2
Section AA

## Inflow Outflow = Change in Storage

RESISTANCE OF FLOW
FORMULA
The average velocity of a uniform flow can be computed
approximately by any of the semi-empirical uniform flow
equations.

## Where: V = average velocity

K = resistance coefficient
S = channel longitudinal slope
R = hydraulic radius
x & y = coefficients
CHEZY EQUATION
Force producing motion = friction force resisting motion
CHEZY EQUATION CONT

## Weight of water = volume density gravity

=
=
L = length of channel between 1 and 2
W = weight of water between 1 and 2
Component of flow along the flow direction
g = specific weight
= sin
K = resistance coefficient
= sin P = channel perimeter
V = flow velocity
Frictional resistance on the surface
=
= 2
CHEZY EQUATION CONT
Force producing motion = friction force resisting motion
= 2

sin
= V = average velocity

C = coefficient
sin
= R = hydraulic radius (A/P); in meter

S = slope of the energy grade line
(dimensionless)
= sin

## When is small, sloped length L = horizontal

distance x, tan = sin = S. Hence, =

=
GANGUILLET KUTTER
FORMULA

Imperial Unit:

0.00281 1.811
41.65 + +
=
0.00281
1 + 41.65 +

SI Unit:

1 0.00155
23 +
+
=
0.00155
1+ 23 +

BAZIN FORMULA

157.6 87
= =
1 + / 1 + /

## Description of channel Bazin's m

Very smooth cement of planed wood 0.11
Unplaned wood, concrete or brick 0.21
Ashlar, rubble masonry or poor brickwork 0.83
Earth channels in perfect condition 1.54
Earth channels in ordinary condition 2.36
Earth channels in rough condition 3.17
POWELL FORMULA

= 42 log +
4

## Description of channel Powell's,

New Old
Neat cement surface 0.0002 0.0004
Unplaned-plank flumes 0.001 0.0017
Concrete lined channels 0.004 0.006
Earth, straight and uniform 0.04
Dredhged earth channels 0.1
MANNINGS EQUATION
Imperial Unit SI Unit

. / / / /
= =

. / /
= / = /

Widely used uniform flow formulae for open channel flow due to
its simplicity and satisfactory results it produces in real-world
applications.

## Correlation between Chezy coefficient and Manning coefficient

are:
Imperial Unit SI Unit

. / /
= =

MANNINGS COEFFICIENT
(http://www.lmnoeng.com/manningn.htm)
Material Manning n Material Manning n
Natural Streams Excavated Earth Channels
Clean and Straight 0.030 Clean 0.022
Major Rivers 0.035 Gravelly 0.025
Sluggish with Deep
0.040 Weedy 0.030
Pools
Stony, Cobbles 0.035

## Pasture, Farmland 0.050 Finished Concrete 0.012

Light Brush 0.075 Unfinished Concrete 0.014
Heavy Brush 0.15 Gravel 0.029

## Trees Earth 0.025

VARIES MANNINGS IN A
CHANNEL
Horton & Einstein (Assumed same mean velocity)

## 1.5 2/3 2/3

1 1 11.5 + 2 1.5 1.5
2 + +
= =
2/3

## Pavlovskii, Muhlhofer, Einstein and Banks

1/2
2
1 1 12 + 2 22 + +
2 1/2
= =
1/2

Lotter

5/3 5/3
= 5/3
= 5/3 5/3 5/3
1 1 2 2

1 1
+
2
+ +

RN area hydraulic radius of the subdivided areas. For simple channel sections, it
may be assumed that:
R1 = R2 = = RN = R
FACTORS AFFECTING
MANNINGS COEFFICIENT
Surface Roughness
Vegetation
Channel Irregular
Channel Alignment
Silting and Scouring
Obstruction
Size and Shape of Channel
Stage and Discharge
Seasonal Change
Suspended Material and Bed Load
FLOW THROUGH CIRCULAR
SECTION
For a flow of water through a circular section, the flow behavior is similar to
open channel if the water level is below the top of the pipe.
Case 1 water level up to the center of the pipe
Case 2 water level below the center of pipe
Case 3 water level above the center of pipe but below the top of pipe
DETERMINATION OF NORMAL
DEPTH BY VARIOUS METHOD
Generally, there are three methods to calculate normal depth for
open channel flow:

Algebraic Method

Solver

Graphical Method

## Design Chart Method

Example 2.1 Flow rate in an open channel in uniform flow

2.001 m
Example 2.2 Channel with non-uniform roughness
Example 2.3.1 Determination of the normal depth and velocity

## A trapezoidal channel has width b = 20 ft, z = 2, S0 = 0.0016, and n =

0.025, carries a discharge of 400 cfs. Compute the normal depth and
velocity.

A. Algebraic Method
A. Algebraic Method Cont
Example 2.3.2 Determination of the normal depth

Determine the normal depth of flow in a 36-in. culvert laid on a slope of 0.0016,
having n = 0.015, and carrying a discharge of 20 cfs.
B. Graphical Method
Example 2.3.3 Determination of the normal depth

## C. Method of Design Chart

In example 2.3.1(b), AR2/3 = 167.7. The value of AR2/3/b8/3 is 0.0569. For this
value, the chart gives y/b = 0.168, or yn = 3.36 ft.

## Curve for determining normal depth

0.168

0.0569
Home Exercise 2.1

## Water flows in a rectangular concrete open channel (n =

0.012) that is 10 m wide at a depth of 2.5 m. The channel
slope is 0.0020. Find the water velocity and flow rate using
Mannings equation.

## Water flows at 10 ft/s in a rectangular through 5 ft wide for

which n=0.013. Find the slope needed for a water depth of
2.5 ft.
Home Exercise 2.2

## a) An 7.5ft rectangular channel with a bed slope of 0.0003 ft/ft

has a depth of flow of 1.5 ft. Assuming steady uniform
flow, determine the discharge in the channel. The
Manning roughness coefficient is n= 0.013.

## b) What the discharge if the channel width is 3.5m with a

depth of flow of 0.70m. Assume the slope and the Manning
roughness coefficient are similar to (a)
Home Exercise 2.3

## A trapezoidal channel with b (width) = 15 m; z (side-

channel slope) = 1.5; S0 = 0.0020 and Manning coefficient
(n) = 0.020, carries a discharge of 250 m3/s. Compute the
normal depth and velocity by using Algebraic Method,
Graphical Method and design chart method.

## Determine the normal depth of flow in a diameter 0.5 m

culvert laid on a slope of 0.0015, having Manning
coefficient (n) = 0.015 and carrying a discharge of 0.025
m3/s. Apply 2 methods to find the normal depth (Algebraic,
Graphical methods and Design Chart Method)
Home Exercise 2.4

## A trapezoidal channel is 10 m wide at the bottom and has a

slide slope of 1.5 horizontal: 1 vertical. The bed slope is 0.003
and carries a discharge of 200 m3/s. The channel is lined with
smooth concrete of n = 0.012. Compute the normal depth
using 3 methods.

## A trapezoid channel 6.5m wide and having a side slope of 2.5

horizontal: 1 vertical is laid on a slope of 0.00025. The
roughness coefficient n= 0.012. Find the normal depth for a
discharge of 25m3/s through this channel (by using analytical
methods and graphical methods)
Home Exercise 2.5

## If the flow rate in open channel is 50 m3/s with the velocity of

5 m/s, determine the cross-section of these channel:
i. circle
ii. Rectangular if b = 2y
iii. Trapezoidal if b = y and m = 3

## A concrete line trapezoidal channel (n = 0.015) is to have a

side slope of 1 horizontal : 1 vertical. The bottom slope is to
be 0.0004. Find the bottom width of the channel necessary to
carry 100 m3/s of discharge at a normal depth of 3.50 m.
Home Exercise 2.6
BEST HYDRAULIC CROSS-
SECTIONS
For a given channel length, the perimeter is representative of the system
cost, and it should be kept to a minimum in order to minimize the size and
cost.

## The best hydraulic cross-section is with the maximum hydraulic radius,

meaning minimum wetted perimeter for a specified cross-sectional area.

## The best hydraulic cross section is

semicircular since it has the minimum
wetted perimeter for a specified cross- For a given cross-sectional area of
sectional area, and thus the minimum rectangular open channel, the highest flow
flow resistance. rate occurs when y = b/2.
CHARTS OF BEST HYDRAULIC
CROSS-SECTIONS

## The flow rate increases as the flow aspect

ratio y/b increase, reaches a maximum at Variation of the flow rate in a rectangular
y/b=0.5, and then starts to decrease. channel with aspect ratio r = y/b for Ac = 1 m2
The trend is the same for the hydraulic and S0 = tan 1
radius, but the opposite trend for the wetted
perimeter P.
EFFICIENT CROSS-SECTION

Q max

## S constant, R max and P min

=0

RECTANGULAR CHANNEL
= = + 2

= + 2

=0

= 2+2= 2+2=0

## Therefore, a rectangular open channel should be designed such that the

liquid height is half the channel width to minimize flow resistance or to
maximize the flow rate for a given cross-sectional area. This also
minimizes the perimeter and thus the construction costs.
TRAPEZOIDAL CHANNEL
TRAPEZOIDAL CHANNEL CONT
The best hydraulic cross section for a
circular channel of diameter D can be
shown to be y = D/2.

## The best cross section for

trapezoidal channel is half
of a hexagon.

44
PROPOSITIONS OF SOME MOST
EFFICICENT SECTIONS
Channel Shape A P b R
Rectangular 2y2 4y 2y y/2
Trapezoidal (half regular hexagon) y23 2y3 2y/3 y/2
Circular (semicircle) y2/2 y - y/2
Triangle (vertex angle=90) y2 2y2 - y/22
Discussion Note that the trapezoidal
cross section is better since it has a
smaller perimeter (3.37 m versus 3.68
m) and thus lower construction cost.
This is why many man-made waterways
are trapezoidal in shape. However, the
average velocity through the trapezoidal
channel is larger since Ac is smaller.
OPEN CHANNEL DESIGN
FREEBOARD
CHANNEL FREEBOARD
EFFICIENT CROSS-SECTION
SUMMARY
Trapezoidal channels, the best hydraulic section is
obtained when R = y/2( the trapezoidal channel - half-
hexagon).

## Rectangular channel, the best hydraulic section is when

radius half the depth.

## The circle has the least perimeter for a given area. A

semicircular open channel will discharge more water than
any other shape (for the same area, slope and factor, n).
Example 2.4 Determination of the most efficient cross-section

## An open channel with n = 0.011 is to be designed to

carry 1.0 m3/s at slope of 0.0065. Find the most
efficient cross section for:

a. A rectangular
b. A semicircular
c. A triangular
d. A trapezoidal
Home Exercise 2.7