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MEANS OF NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF

ROTOR-STATOR INTERACTIONS.

CIFRE Engineer, Head of the turbine designteam, Professor at SUPAERO,

Centrifugal compressorsdesign, Aerothermodynamic (Ecole Nationale Superieure de

Aerothermodynamic department, department, 1ACronautiqueet de 1Espace)

Turbomeca - Boite 17 Turbomeca, Boite 17 Thesis director,

65411 Bordes, FRANCE. 65411 Bordes, FRANCE. 3 1400 Toulouse, France.

This paper deals with numerical and experimental coordinates

investigations of rotor-stator interactions between a x, YI z Cartesiancoordinates

backswept centrifugal impeller and its associated

vaned diffuser. Experimental data were obtained by Greek symbols :

laser two focus velocimetry and fast response rl Efficiency

Kulite transducers. Computations were carried out P Density

thanks to a three-dimensionalNavier-Stokes solver, T Shearstresstensor

customisedby the authors, for the current purpose.

Time-resolved simulations of the full stage with Superscripts :

passages number reduction but respect to real T Transposedmatrix or vector

geometry of components are then presented.

Comparisonswith experimental data lead to a code Subscripts :

validation phase and critic investigations of rotor- a Absolute frame of reference

stator interaction phenomena. Evidence of the i Total conditions

existence of a strong interaction between the rotor r Relative frame

and the stator flow fields are pointed out. In S Static conditions

particular, an intense upstream influence of the V Viscous terms

vaned diffuser was observed. Finally, steady stage

calculations, coupling the components by a mean

interfacial treatment, are examined. The reasonable 2. INTRODUCTION

computational cost of this method now allows such Advances made in the design of centrifugal

numerical simulations of centrifugal stagesto be compressorsin the past thirty years, elevated that

part of design cycles. device to a key position in small and medium gas

The numerical part of the study was performed at turbine engines. Besides,aeroenginesare required

Turbomeca, using the local software and hardware to be lighter and to involve reduced cost of

facilities, whereas the experimental campaign took ownership and maintenance. Considering

place in the Propulsion Laboratory of SUPAERO, compressors,those trends lead to more compact

part of the LAMEP (Laboratoire Mixte en components with high level of aerodynamic

Energetique et Propulsion), which recently loading, particularly for military applications. Then,

designeda test rig devoted to compressors. the aim of first-attempt design with adequate

performance and stability margin, becomes of

Nomenclature : rough achievement.

CP Diffuser static pressurerecovery In the last decade, thanks to detailed flow

coefficient investigations, the extensive use of 3D steady

Q,E,F,G Elements of Navier-Stokes (Euler or Navier-Stokes) solvers and experience of

equationsin vectors form designers gave birth to a high performance

G Corrected massflow generation of centrifugal impellers. But, however

J Jacobian efficient may be the rotor, the matching with its

M Mach number associated vaned diffuser remains a hard task,

u,v,w Contravariant velocity components almost always obtained through mono-dimensional

PYPs Static pressure considerations.The flow generatedby the impeller,

Pi Total pressure entering the vaneless space and later the radial

Paper presented at the RTO AVT Symposium on Design Principles and Methods for Aircraji Gas Turbine Engines,

held in Toulouse, France, 11-15 May 1998, and published in RTO MP-8.

22-2

diffuser appears highly distorted in both The rotor has an equal number of full blades and

circumferential and spanwise directions and subject splitter blades.

to severe unsteady conditions. Among many Close to the maximum efficiency point on the

aerodynamic causes, we can put emphasis on design speed curve, the impeller blade passing

curvature, viscosity and compressibility effects as frequency is superior to 5000 Hz. The compressor

well as Coriolis force influence. Then the vaned stage pressure ratio and the mass flow rate are

diffuser aimed at static pressure recovery from the respectively around 4.0 and 2.0 kg/s. The impeller

flow kinetic energy, receives strongly time- isentropic efficiency is then over 90%. This

dependant inlet conditions, whose influence on its compressor and its experimental mounting were

performances and stability is not yet accurately designedby Turbomeca company. In particular, the

known but undoubtedly has undesirable adverse optical access is provided by a shroud inserted

effects. Those assertions are indeed derived from window allowing measurements situated in the

experimental studies and industrial experience23456. vaneless diffuser and in the captation area (i.e.

Therefore future design methods will need to take semi-vanelessspace).

into account aspects of the flow field currently Experimental studies were performed in the

ignored. In particular, the previously mentioned Propulsion laboratory of the SLJPAERO (part of the

effects of the blade row proximity and LAMEP, Toulouse, France). The compressors

unsteadiness. Some 3D Navier-Stokes codes, either devoted test rig used is powered by an electric

in the form of commercial packages or research motor delivering 400kW. The air intake was

derived software, are now available to model those precalibrated to ensure accurate mass flow

features. But the designer needs an estimation of measurement. The outflow enters a plenum

the relevance of numerical results. Then, each chamber and the desired pressureratio is reached

constructor must assess his numerical design tools by means of a butterfly valve motion. The

on unsteady data, obtained by detailed operating point of the compressoris controlled with

investigations on engine representative machines, 42 pressure probes, inlet and outlet temperature

by carrying out a code validation phase. probes. A computer linked to the rig allows on-the-

TURBOMECA initiated such actions several years fly storageof those data with a view to taking into

ago and recently enhanced its data bases within a account small operating point disturbances in

joint research program with the LAMEP (Toulouse, experimental post-processing ( for instance mass

France) among others. flow recovery calculation). Figure 1, shows the

The present article is intended to give an outline of SUPAERO facility.

this process from the experimental work to the code

validation phase and the modifications of the

numerical package necessary to allow a design

relevant use of such tools, regarding current

hardware capabilities. The first part of the text will

briefly describe the test compressor and the test rig,

before examining the experimental data acquisition

carried out by means of a Laser Two Focus

velocimeter and fast responsepressuretransducers.

In a secondpart, after a brief numerical background

explanation, we will focus our attention on full

unsteady simulations of the centrifugal stage flow

field. Then, a steady mode of stage calculation,

involving Riemann invariant theory, will be

presented and assessedas an available design tool, Figure l- SUPAERO compressor test rig.

already in useat TURBOMECA.

3. TEST STAGE AND MEANS OF

INVESTIGATION. 3.2. I General description.

The experimental approach had been carried out

3.1 Compressor and test rig. with a Laser Two Focus velocimeter. The present

The centrifugal compressor stage investigated in device is derived from DLR works and its main

the present work is composed of a transonic characteristics were given by Schold*. Briefly, the

backswept impeller matched with a vaned diffuser. principle of L2F velocimetry consists in the

measurement of the transit time of seeding

particles, included in the flow, between two highly

22-3

focused laser spots. Histograms of particles absolute speed and over-deflected flow feature.

detection as a function of spot alignment direction Velocity fluctuations up to 20% and flow angle

and time of flight ( i.e. transit time) lead to flow variations of 15 to 20 are measured. However, the

velocity determination. The projection of the flow delivered by the rotor exhibits a relative

velocity vector on the plane perpendicular to the smoothness, i.e. no jet/wake pattern in the sense of

laser beams is obtained through its modulus, angle Dean and Krain* is observed. Turbulent rates reach

and turbulent rates by statistical calculations as 10 to 15% within the wake regions and are lower to

described by Schold. The measurement accuracy 5% elsewhere.

depends on the flow turbulence intensity. The question then arise, to know to which extend

Considering our experimental facilities, the these flow heterogeneities mix out before the radial

precision can be evaluated to +I- 1% on the diffuser leading edge as currently always assumed

absolute velocity and +I- 1 on the absolute flow in design process. Considering the second

angle, when turbulent rates are less than 5%. measurement section, in terms of velocity

magnitude, both the peak induced by the blade

Those measurements are intended to provide data wake passing and the outer gradients have been

for rotor-stator interaction mechanisms reduced. However, large level of fluctuations,

comprehension. Then, they have to be taken for around 15% remain. The mixing hypothesis is then

various relative locations of the impeller main blade contradicted in our particular case. Similar

in front of the diffuser passage. A magnetic pick-up observations can be drawn from the flow angle

situated on the machine rotation axis allow the fluctuations remaining around 10 to 15. Besides

necessary data storage triggering. the discrepancies between turbulent rates obviously

suggest that the mixing process is far to be

The choice of L2F velocimeter instead of LDV ( completed at the radial diffuser leading edge.

Laser Doppler) device was linked to the narrowness At the throat section, the flow is still highly time-

of the flow path and the restriction of flow dependant and spatially heterogeneous. However,

accessibility to a single window. The need of high due to the differences in streampathes, adverse

signal to noise ratio necessary for wall approaching pressure gradients and in the influence of the

investigations claimed in favour of the time of leading edge stagnation area across the diffuser

flight solution. Discussions on the technical aspects pitch, the time-organized blade passing feature has

of this choice, as well as interesting developments vanished.

on advantages and disadvantages of both devices

applied to small high speed turbomachinery should 3.3 Unsteady pressure measurement.

be found in Fagan and Fleeter and Elder, Forster

and Gill publications. 3.3.1 Transducers and measurements locations.

The transducers used for this application were

3.2.2 Measurement positions.

Kulite pressure probes of the XCQ-093 serie. They

Rotor-stator interaction influence on flow evolution fit the temperature and pressure conditions

has been investigated in three main test sections: encountered in that flow region and present a

. the mean radius of the vaneless diffuser. bandwidth suitable for high frequency

. the vaned diffuser leading edge. measurements. Each probe was calibrated in terms

l the throat of the vaned diffuser. of transient response in a shock tube with its own

Each of the three main sections contains ten protection screen, flush mounting device and

measurement locations. Several relative depths acquisition facility used during later compressor

were investigated. runs. The measurement configuration is presented

on Figure 2.

NB: Some results taken from a previous

experimental campaign from the ONERA and

conducted by Fradin are added to our currently

performed measurements with a view to increasing

our validation data base.

The flow in the mean vaneless space section

appears to be dominated by a high level of time

dependant heterogeneities. More precisely, a strong

wake influence of the impeller passing blades is

clearly observed. The wakes take the form of a high

Figure 2 - Kulite flush mounting facility.

22-4

the external wall of the radial diffuser (see later particular, no difference is observed between a five

figures 5) : rotor rotations or ten rotor rotations acquisition.

l Four positions at the mean radius The accuracy in terms of reduced time dependency

between impeller trailing edge and on synchronisation device can be evaluated to 2%

vaned diffuser leading edge at the of the cycle duration.

reduced pitch ratios of O., 0.25, 0.5 and Nota : The unsteady pressures on the mean

0.75. vaneless space radius and the throat section were

l Three positions at the vaned diffuser treated to extract the time mean pressure

leading edge, at reduced pitch ratios of

(p,(t) = -&)dd which can be compared to static

0.25, 0.5 and 0.75. 0

l Three positions in the captation area. pressure tappings originally implemented on the

l Three positions at the diffuser throat test compressor. The comparisons showed some

section. discrepancies between pressure probes. Correcting

l Two positions downstream the diffuser factors correlatedfor difSerent operating points and

throat situated on a mid-pitch line. assessed by swapping probe positions were then

taken into account.

3.3.2 Data acquisition and processing.

The transducer signal is amplified via 4 channels of

ANS-E300F4 and converted from analogic to

digital through an OX2000 Metrix Oscilloscope at a

5OOkHz rate. A pentium 90MHz PC is used to

command the A/D converter and store the files via

an RS232 serial link.

The acquired data consists in the raw signal

obtained during five to ten impeller rotations. The

synchronisation signal is given by a one per blade

impulse allowing the initial time to be converted in

a reduced time of the impeller blade passing in Figure 3 - Raw Data

front of the diffuser pitch but preventing distinction

between impeller passages. Then manufacturing

differences between rotor passages will not be

taken into account in our current study.

Those data are processed by a phase-locked

averaging process, as described by Ainsworth or

Cicatelli and Sieverding13. Figure 3 represents the

raw data obtained from position 1 for instance. The

averaging consists in the following :

Figure 4 - Phase-meaned data

P(t) = $$P(n,t)

n-l 3.3.3 Data presentation.

b) Average random unsteadiness :

Figure 5 represents the phase averaged period for

P(n, t) = P(t) + p(n, t) the 4 experimental positions. The x-coordinate

corresponds to the reduced period of rotor blade

passing in front of the diffuser pitch, where 0.

corresponds to a situation where the impeller

trailing edge and the stator leading edge stands at

where P(n,t) is the raw signal, N is the number oi the same azimuth.

cycles acquired, t is the time, n is the index withir

the N cycles. A cycle corresponds to the rotation 01

an imueller passage in front of the probing position.

position 1 for two different numbers of cycles, thus

showing the independence of the solution when a

22-5

Q=(P.P.P.PW.)7

E=(pu,pu* +p,puv,puw,~(e+/7))~

I;=(pv,puv,Pv2+p,PVW,V(e+P))l

G=(pu,puw,pvw,pw+p,w(e+/~))~

curvilinear space &q,<, r *., while retaining strong

conservation law form as:

ai, a(E-E,)+a(G-d.,+a(%-F.)=O

Figure 5 - Pressure evolutions (1). at+ ag aq at;

4. THREE DIMENSIONAL NAVIER-STOKES

SOLVER. where the vectors are given by :

A

Q = J-(p,pu,pv,pw,e)T

4.1 Foreword. b = J-(PU,PUU + S,P,PVU + <!P,PwU + 5,p,(e + PYJ - LP)

The NREC commercial software package

VISIUNTM constituted the basis of this numerical i = J-(PV,PUV + *I,P,PVV + rl,p,pwV + rl,p,(e + P)V - ?,P)~

6 = J-'(pW,puW +i,p,pvW +<!P,PwW +<,,p,(e + PY -C.,P)

purpose solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes

system of equations4567. Pulliam and Steger

works give an overview of the implemented

method. Developments were carried out by the

authors wishing to closely examine rotor-stator

interaction features. In particular, the treatment of

interfacial areas and multi-channels domains had

been customised, as well as the possibility to

perform steady stage calculations.

the viscous terms are transformed in the same way,

4.2 Numerical background.

their expression is given by Pulliam I8

The numerical approach of VISIUNTM is based

upon a three dimensional Navier-Stokes code, 5, = J(Y,& -Ycz,) ll, =.(z,y, -y:z:)

written for turbomachinery purpose. The full 5, = J(Z& -x,zc) q, =J(x,z, -x$Q)

conservation form is used herein. Its compact form 6, = J(YlZ, -ZrY,) 5, = -G,-Y.L -a

6, = J(%Y, -Y& 5, = -vLY.L - ZL,

coordinates.

-+

at ax ay az - 4.2.2 Turbulence modelling and solution

where vectors are given by : algorithm.

The algebraic eddy viscosity model of Baldwin and

Lomax is implemented to take into account

turbulence effects. Equations are solved

numerically using a Beam and Warming type of

algorithm8~2. At inflow boundary, total

temperature, total pressure and two flow angles are

22-6

specified ; while static pressure is given at the component so that Kl and K2 are small but Kl/K2

outflow boundary. stays as close as possible to Nl/N2. A periodic

azimuthal condition is implemented in each row

(Iper ad Iper. lines for the impeller and Dper and DperY

4.2.3 Two frames of reference lines for the diffuser on Figure 6). This results in a

The main difference between single blade row time lag cancelling at the extreme azimuthal

computations and stage simulations lies in the boundaries of each group of passages. The

existence of two frames of reference, one for each information transferred through the interfacial area

component, separated by an interfacial area, from one grid to the opposite must be compatible

through which numerical information has to be with those spatially periodic conditions. Then we

transferred in order to predict rotoristator have to use an expansion/contraction step at the

interaction effects. Several different approaches, interface. Let e,=2ITK,/N,, e,=2HK,/N, be the

either conservative or non conservative, have been respective azimuthal extension of each component

used. The matching of the two frames retained in grid on Figure 6 and ec= (e,+e,)/2. Fl is the

VISIUNTh is based on M. M. Rai 22 method. The downstream boundary of the first sub-domain

grid is split into a rotating zone and a non-rotating related to el, F2 is the upstream boundary of the

zone with an interfacial overlay. Flux vectors are second sub-domain related to e2. Fc is then a

interpolated from one grid to the other in this virtual frontier related to ec through which data are

overlaid area to obtain boundary conditions related transferred by interpolation on an equal azimuthal

to each component sub-domain. H-type meshes are extension ec thanks to previous

used to model the geometry. Two overlaid grids are expansion/contraction of the azimuthal gradient

generated, one for each component. The interface between Fl and Fc or between F2 and Fc as

area consists in a cylindrical surface situated at the represented on Figure 6.

ec=1/2(el+e2)

mean radius between the impeller trailing edge and

the vaned diffuser leading edge.

the computational domain.

Cpu time and memory necessary for unsteady stage

numerical simulations make the use of a

Periodic boundaries

computational domain reduction unavoidable. A

common approach consists in geometry

modifications in order to obtain the same azimuthal Figure 6 - Reduction of the computational

extension in the rotor and in the stator modelled domain.

passages. This was basically used by VISIUNTM,

but also by Rai22 and Dawes6 among others. The comparison between numerical results and

In fact, geometrical transformations are, in the case experimental data presented in the following parts

of centrifugal compressors, mainly applied to the will give an outline of the level of description

vaned diffuser considered passages. Therefore, the obtained with this method.

hub and/or shroud countours have to be ajusted to

ensure the total design throat section conservation if 4.2.5 Steady stage calculations : an industrial

an accurate simulation of stage performance is necessity.

awaited. Then, in a code assessment contex, The previously described unsteady calculations

interpolations in the numerical flow field to probe involved a full time resolved interpolation process

the solution at the exact measurement locations at the rotor-stator interface and a slow convergence

have to bear reduced space considerations towards a periodic numerical solution. Considering

Moreover, some cases lead to a slightly diverging current hardware capabilities available to

vaneless space which may adversly affect a aeronautical design engineers, a time mean

commonly observed shroud recirculating region. interfacial treatment becomes an industrial

Therefore, an alternative method was preferred by necessity. Such a calculation tool, taking into

the authors with a view to computing the flow in account rotor-stator coupling mainly in terms of

the actual geometry thanks to minor numerical hub to shroud distortions, is already in use during

modifications. This reduction technique, developed design cycles. For instance, three dimensional

by the ONERA (see for instance Fourmaux23), may geometries of components, fitting intra-stage

be summarised as follows : let Nl and N2 be the interactions, can be studied within short term

real blade numbers of the rows to study, let Kl and development cycles.

K2 the number of passages considered in each stage

22-l

authors and presented herein is based on Riemann For inlet flows, V. n > 0, one compatibility

invariants theory and the derived compatibility relation is applied (one negative eigenvalue) and

relations. This approach comes from two four boundary conditions are necessary. Then the

considerations : relations are :

l Compatibility relations are a way to take

into account the transport of flow IP - (pa) Vi, = P* - (pa)V,:

I I

l

properties by wave frontsZ4.

A grid point, steady in its own frame,

receives informations from opposite points

I P - (a)V;, = P* - (a2)V,: = I,

rotating in front of him.

P + (pa) Vi, = (P* + (pa)V,:), = I,

interfacial boundary conditions through azimuthaly where 12,13,14 and 15 are averaged by the same

meaned compatibility relations. The French previous process and result in hub to shroud

ONERA, first described this technique5.26. varying boundary conditions.

Let D be the computational domain and n an inward Numerical flow fields obtained through this

directed vector. The five compatibility relations approach will be compared to experiments in the

obtained from the five eigenvalues sixth part.

Euler system are : ASSESMENT.

The real ratio of blade numbers between the wheel

iii:;:~ and the stator is surrounded by I and l/2. Then,

two basic mesh configurations were built : the first

one contained one blade passage of each

where P is the static pressure, p the density, a the component and will be named case A, the second

sound speed, V the speed vector, V,, = V. n and one matched one blade passage of the impeller with

V, = V - (V . n) . n . The superscript * indicates a two passages of the vaned diffuser, named case B.

In both casesan approximate number of 125000

scheme value and indicates the flow properties at

nodes for each passagemeshedwas chosen which

the position receiving the corresponding

is quite low but planned to give an interesting

characteristic.

compromise between accuracy and solution time.

As will be stated later somefluctuations induced by

The implementation for the interface mean

impeller wakes were partly damped in those first

treatment can be summarised as follows. The

cases,a third configuration was then meshedwith

normal Mach number is supposed to be less than

an increased node number in the azimuthal

unity, inward and outward flow are distinguished.

direction. This casewill be referred as caseC.

For exiting flow, V on < 0, four compatibility

relations are applied (four negative eigenvalues)

and one boundary condition is necessary. This

I I Impeller 1Diffuser 1

I

condition is similar to a non-reflection boundary

CaseB 82x61~24 2*(74x69x24)-1

condition. Then we have :

CaseC 82x82~24 2*(74x81x24)-1

P - (pa) Vi, = P* - (pa)V,t

Table I- Node distribution.

P -(a) Vi, = P* - (a*)V,:

For each configuration, the flow field of the peak

v; = VT efficiency point on the design speedcurve hasbeen

computed. A time-periodic solution was obtained in

P + (pa) Vl, = (P* + (pa)V,:), = I, all cases. Convergence was monitored by

where I1 is an azimuthaly averaged value examining static pressure evolution in the most

calculated on the opposite domain. The averaging sensitive parts of the flow field i.e. the impeller

process is surface weighted and results in hub to trailing edge and the diffuser leading edge. An

shroud profile of I,.

22-8

approximate number of 10 to 15 blade passing position of 0.3. More details are given by Domercq

period were necessary to obtain a periodic solution. and Thomas*.

From the designer point of view, the overall

performance rendering capability of a code is of

major importance, allowing him to evaluate a new

designed release numerically without requiring

intensive test rig campaign. The comparisons

made on one-dimensional mean values can be

summarised in the following chart. The values

given are differences between experimental and

numerical results expressed in percent. Figure 7 - Time averaged spanwise evolutions.

The two calculations performed on the A and B

basic grids, restitute the same spanwise variation in

terms of velocity and angle, thus illustrating their

close one-dimensional behaviour. Besides, rather

accurate descriptions of the hub to shroud

experimental evolution are obtained. In particular,

the gradient of velocity is shown by both (A and B)

calculated profiles. The mean level difference is

linked to the slight mass-flow discrepancies in

calculations, see Table 2. Similarly, the calculated

and measured flow angles denote an interesting

Table 2- Mono-dimensionnal results. agreement. The shroud area subdeflexion , known

The operating point is then quite accurately to result from a complex interaction between tip

described in all cases. The efficiency lack generally leakage vortex, passage vortex and horseshoe

observed is similar to the difference experienced in vortex (Kang and Hirsch) is precisely given by

isolated wheel simulations. Moreover, it should be both calculations. Concerning. Case C, similar

noted that previous simulations obtained by the profiles are obtained with the increased node

sliding of impeller outflow conditions at the inlet of density. In particular, flow angle evolutions are

an isolated diffuser grid did not allow to reach such identical to the previous (A and B) results

a level of description of the diffuser operating

point. For instance the static pressure recovery 5.4 Unsteady assessment and unsteady flow

coefficient was underestimated by more than 20%, invetsigation.

thus suggesting, the importance of full stage

coupling in a transonic configuration. 5.4. I Unstea& assessment.

5.3 Two-dimensional results. case C results which, regarding the higher

The first validation step consists in comparisons azimuthal node density, gave suitable results to face

between measured and time averaged calculated experiments. Figure 8 and Figure 9 represent the

spanwise evolution of the absolute flow angle and absolute flow angle and velocity at midspan for

the absolute flow velocity. This phase will allow three reduced pitch positions of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7.

the evalution of the code capability to reproduce the The measurement section considered is still section

hub-to-shroud distortions which, according to 1. i.e. the mean vaneless snace radius.

Dawes6 are a key factor of rotoristator interaction Rsduced pttch.0.5.

axis coordinate represents the hub-to-shroud

reduced distance, where 0. corresponds to the hub.

Either the absolute flow angle (counted between the

velocity direction and the circumferential

direction), to which a reference angle is substracted Figure 8 - Midspan unsteady evolution of the

or the absolute velocity modulus (reduced by the absolute flow angle.

rotor tip speed) are given on the x-axis. Those

evolutions are extracted at the mean vaneless space

radius and here are given at a reduced pitch

22-9

described with accuracy for locations 1 and 3. The

evolution of the signal between location 1 and 2,

consisting in the separation of the flat profile in a

main and secondary peak is also captured. The

description of this dual shape profile is confirmed

Figure 9 - Midspan unsteady evolution of the by location 3 comparison. However, an inadequate

reduced absolute velocity. numerical damping appears at location 4, since only

half of the signal amplitude has been simulated

numerically.

A strong blade wake influence characterises the

experimental results. This region is occupied by a

low velocity fluid attached to the trailing edge in

the rotating frame of reference. A speed triangle

analysis shows that this results in a low, i.e. rather

circumferential, absolute flow angle and high

speed pattern in the absolute frame of reference.

Those wakes are indeed larger near the hub, since

the trailing edge thickness increases from hub to

shroud. Moreover, a steady point ( i.e. a L2F

measurement point in the diffuser frame of

reference sees the pressure side of the backswept

blade before its suction side. The experimental

gradients observed thus suggest that the absolute

speed magnitude decreases from suction side to

pressure side while the absolute flow angle

increases. Then, in the relative frame, the impeller

delivers fluid of higher energy near the pressure Figure 10 - Confrontation of pressure evolutions.

side. Thus suggesting that the Coriolis effect that

generally drags low energy particles to the suction

side takes advantage, in our case, on the curvature As a conclusion, the unsteady assessment reveals to

effect, which on the contrary leads low energy fluid be quite satisfactory, since the global behaviour of

particles to the centre of curvature, that in our the matching between the impeller and its vaned

backswept case corresponds to the pressure side. diffuser is given by the code.

The comparison between experimental data and

computational results shows that the wakes 5.4.2 Unsteady flow investigation from impeller

extensions are underestimated by the numerical outlet to the captation area.

simulations. However, the magnitude of the Figure 11 and Figure 12 give the time-resolved

fluctuations is quite well estimated. A 10 to 12 evolution of the unsteady flow field through its

angle fluctuation is obtained numerically whereas static pressureand absolute Mach for six positions

around 15 were measured. In terms of velocity, the acrossthe blade passingperiod.

predicted order of variation is situated between 17

to 25% where the corresponding L2F results range

from 17 to 30 %. More precisely, despite the wake

extension reduction, the flow angle and speed

modulus blade-to-blade gradient, linked to

secondary flow behaviour, are accurately rendered.

Moreover, the speed modulus fluctuations are

reduced in the same way with increasing reduced

pitch position. Nonetheless, the downstream

propagation of the numerical wake, thinner than the

experimentally observed corresponding patterns

will also be subject to faster mixing in the captation

area.

Figure 10 presents the comparisons between case C

and unsteady pressure measurements obtained with Figure 11 - Unsteady flow field, static pressure.

Kulite transducers. A fair agreement is obtained.

The shape of the fluctuation is rendered for each

The geometry of the compressor previously

investigated in an unsteady mode was submitted to

a steady calculation involving the coupling process

describedin paragraph4.2.5.

Table 3 sums up the discrepancies obtained

between the time averaged flow field of caseC and

the steady simulation name case D. They are

expressedin percent.

_.-._

Figure 12 - Unsteady flow field, Mach number.

experiment versus simulation agreement was

interesting. The rotor/stator interaction appears to

be reciprocal, the wheel indeed delivers pitch

dependant flow conditions as discussed previously

but the magnitude of stator vane counter effect

reaches the same level. In fact, the pressure field

Table 3 - Mono-dimensionnal comparison of

representation, for instance, underlines the diffuser

caseC (unsteady) and D (steady).

vane leading edge influence on the impeller

outflow pressure condition through the existence of Close performance description is given by the two

a high static pressure zone near the stagnation point coupling techniques. An increased level of loss is

situated on the leading edge. This leads to an predicted betweenthe impeller trailing edge and the

approximate variation of 20% of static pressureon radial diffuser leading edge by the steady coupling

the pressureside of the impeller blades. calculation. This mainly results from slight

Moreover, the blade passingwakes have an obvious discontinuities generatedat the averaging plane.

influence on the captation area flow field, in Finally, spanwiseevolutions of the absolute flow

particular in the vane suction side nearby. The angle and absolutereduced speedof casesC and D

impeller blade trailing edge imposesa high absolute are compared on Figure 13. The profiles are

Mach number and low absolute angle flow pattern extracted at the leading ec e radius of the stator.

to the diffuser inlet. This zone has hardly no effect

on the diffuser pressure side since its extend is

reduced by the leading edge high pressurefield,

when impeller and diffuser blades face each other

(t/T=O.).

Then, it affects the diffuser suction side by

dragging a low Mach number fluid into the channel

(t/T=0.2). The next step consistsin the creation of a --%

high Mach number flow region in the middle of the

diffuser pitch (t/T=0.4), which stands in place of a Figure 13 - Comparisons of spanwiseevolutions.

similar pattern appeared at t/T=0 and observed

whilst diffusing slightly downstreamat this reduced The two profiles exhibit a good agreement.The hub

time. Thus the captation area experiences a to shroud gradients are accurately rendered. The

successionof high speedand low speedbulbs that discrepancy in terms of absolute flow angle is less

mix downstream. The blade-to-blade flow than 1. Thus a steady coupling calculation proves

dependenceat the impeller outlet leadstherefore to to be able to simulate the correct evolution of

a fluctuation that follows the main flow direction. incidence angle and speedon the span of the radial

diffuser. Then it can be consideredas an interesting

6. STEADY SIMULATIONS OF BLADE ROW tool to take into account the coupling between the

INTERACTIONS. components of a centrifugal compressor stage

thanks to calculations of a design affordable cost.

This part of the study will give an overview of the

code capability to describe blade row interaction

within the frame of steady coupling.

22-11

The flow patterns that govern the rotor/stator in impellers and diffusers

interaction in a centrifugal compresssor stage have VKI Lecture Series 1984-07, 1984.

been investigated by means of experimental and

numerical studies. The test stage representative of 4 Bois G., Duchemin J.M., Vouillarmet A.,

high speed and high performance turbomachinery Papaillou K.D.

devices, was known to be a rather severe Analyse expCrimentale de ICcoulement dans un

aerodynamic case. The present paper yields to the Ctage de compresseur centrifuge.

following conclusions concerning the unsteady part AGARD-CP-282. 1980.

of the study :

5 Hus H., Fradin Ch.

. An intense upstream influence of the vaned Influence de IhCt&o&nCitC de ICcoulement B la

diffuser on the impeller flow field is observed. sortie du rotor sur les performances du diffuseur

The performance of the compressor is then dun compresseur centrifuge.

properly caculated by a full time-resolved AGARD-CP-282, 1980.

simulation of the stage, whilst a method

consisting in using impeller outflow as upstream 6 Dawes W.

boundary condition of the vaned diffuser A simulation of the unsteady interaction of a

reveals unsatisfactory. centrifugal impeller with its vaned diffuser : flow

analysis.

l Unsteady variations measured thanks to a L2F ASME paper 94-GT- 105.

device were qualitatively fairly described. The

agreement in terms of blade to blade gradients, Bois G., Fradin Ch., Vignau H.

for instance, put emphasis on the code Probl6mes de validation des codes Euler 3D pour

capability to reproduce secondary flows compresseurs centrifuges.

influence on the stage flow field. Moreover this Third European Propulsion Forum , November 13-

gave an outline of the computational domain 15. 1991. AAAFIDGLRIRAeS.

reduction as an acceptable representation.

* Schold R..

l The interaction of the impeller blade leading Laser Two Focus Velocimetry.

edge and the vaned diffuser stagnation zone at AGARD-CP 399, 1986.

midspan appeared to drive both the impeller

outflow conditions and the unsteady flow 9 Fagan J.R., Fleeter S.

patterns in the captation area. L2F & LDV velocimetry measurement and analysis

of the 3D flow field in a centrifugal compressor.

Moreover, a method allowing design time- AIAA-89-2572.

affordable calculations, which couples components

thanks to a mean treatment of the interfacial area, Elder R.L., Forster C.P., Gill M.E.

using Riemann invariant theory, has been Application of Doppler and Transit Laser

implemented in the Navier-Stokes code. The Anemometry on small Turbomachines.

comparison made between the steady stage flow AGARD-CP-399.

field and the time-averaged flow field of unsteady

calculations underlines the capability of this tool to Fradin Ch.

integrate rotor-stator interaction features in the Constitution dune base de donnCes relative a

calculations of the performance of a transonic 1Ccoulement du fluide dans un compresseur

centrifugal stage. centrifuge.

ONERA Report.

References : I2 R. W. Ainsworth

P.Belaygue, H.Vignau,

Unsteady Measurements Techniques.

Le compresseur centrifuge, composant essentiel

VKI Lecture Series.

des turbomoteurs de petite et moyenne puissance.

AGARD-CP-537.

G. Cicatelli, C.H.Sieverding

The Effect of Vortex Shedding on the Unsteady

2 Krain H.,

Pressure Distribution Around the Trailing Edge of a

A study on centrifugal impeller and diffuser flow

Turbine Blade.

ASME paper 8 1-GT-9, 198 1.

22-12

ASME, Vol. 119, October 1997. Assessment of a Low storage Technique for Multi-

Stage Turbomachinery Navier-Stokes

I4Users Guide VISIUN-2FRTM Version 3.0, Computations.

Simultaneous three-dimensional CFD analysis of ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, USA,

rotating and stationary bladed passages in November 6- 11, 1994.

turbomachinery, a computational system.

Northern Research and Engineering Corporation, 24JP Veuillot, G. Meauze

Wobum, Massachusets, USA. A 3D Euler Method for Internal Transonic Flows

Computation with a Multi-domain Approach.

SAnalysis of three-dimensional unsteady flow in AGARD-LS- 140

centrifugal compressors.

Final report, phase one : diffuser performance. A. LEMEUR

Principal investigator : Oreper G. Calculs stationnaires et instationnaires dans un

Northern Research and Engineering Corporation, &age de turbine transsonique

Wobum, Massachusets, USA. AGARD - CP- 5 10.

centrifugal compressors. Comparison of Steady and Unsteady 3D Viscous

Final report, phase two : impeller performance. Flows Computations through a transsonic turbine

Principal investigator : Oreper G. stage.

Northern Research and Engineering Corporation, ISABE, November 1997.

Woburn, Massachusets, USA.

270. Domercq, R. Thomas.

Analysis of three-dimensional unsteady flow in Unsteady Flow Investigation in a Transonic

centrifugal compressors. Centrifugal Compressor Stage.

Final report, phase three : stage performance. AIAA-97-2877

Principal investigator : Oreper G.

Northern Research and Engineering Corporation, 28Hirsh Ch., Kang S., Pointel G.

Wobum, Massachusets, USA. A numerically supported investigation of the 3D

Flow in Centrifugal Impellers, Part II : Secondary

* Pulliam T.H., Steger J.L. Flow Structure

Implicit Finite-Difference Simulations of Three- ASME paper 96-GT- 152

Dimensional Compressible Flow.

AIAA Journal, Vol. 18, February 1980.

Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat

Transfer-t.

Thin layer approximation and Algebraic Model for

Separated Turbulent Flows.

AIAA paper 78-257, 1978.

An implicit factored scheme for the compressible

Navier-Stokes Equations.

AIAA Journal, Vol. 16, April 1978.

22Rai M.M.

Navier-Stokes Simulations of Rotor-Stator

Interaction using Patched and Overlaid Grids.

AIAA paper 85-1519.

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