Russian standard GOST 14249

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Russian standard GOST 14249

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NORMS AND METHODS OF STRENGTH CALCULATION

GOST 14249-89

(ST SEV 596-86, ST SEV 597-77,

ST SEV 1039-78, ST SEV 1040-88,

ST SEV 1041-88)

Moscow

GOST

14249-89

VESSELS AND APPARATUSES (ST SEV 596-86,

Norms and Methods of Strength Calculation ST SEV 597-77,

ST SEV 1039-78,

ST SEV 1040-88,

ST SEV 1041-88)

This Standard lays down the norms for and methods of calculating the strength of

cylindrical shells, conical elements, end plates and covers of vessels and apparatus made of

carbon and alloy steels which are used in the chemical industry, oil-refining, and related

branches of industry where they operate in conditions of single action and multiple-action

static loadings under internal excess pressure, vacuum, or external excess pressure, and under

the effects of axial and transverse forces and bending moments. It also lays down values for

permissible stresses, Young's modulus of elasticity, and safety factors for the strength of

welded seams. The norms and methods of calculating strength shall be applied whilst at the

same time observing the "Regulations for the structure and safe operation of vessels operating

under pressure" approved by the USSR State Mining Industry Inspectorate, and on the

condition that deviations from geometrical shape and inaccuracy in the manufacture of the

elements of vessels and apparatus that are designed do not exceed the tolerances laid down in

norm-setting and technical documentation.

1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1.1. D e s i g n t e m p e r a t u r e

1.1.1. The design temperature is to be used for determining the physical and mechanical

characteristics of the material and the permissible stresses.

1.1.2. The design temperature is to be determined on the basis of heat-engineering

calculations or the results of tests.

The maximum value for the temperature of the wall of a vessel or apparatus is to be taken

as being the design temperature. If that temperature is less than 20C, a temperature of 20C

is to be used as the design temperature when determining the permissible stresses.

1.1.3. If it is not possible to make heat calculations or take measurements, and if the

temperature of the walls rises to the temperature of the medium in contact with the wall

during the time that it is in operational use, the design temperature is to be taken as being the

maximum temperature of the medium but it is not to be less than 20C.

If heating is by open flame, waste gases or electric heaters, the design temperature is to be

taken as being equal to the temperature of the medium increased by 20C in the case of

enclosed heating, and by 50C in the case of direct heating, unless more accurate data is

available.

1.2. W o r k i n g , d e s i g n , a n d t e s t p r e s s u r e

1.2.1. The term working temperature for a vessel or apparatus should be understood as

meaning the maximum internal excess or external pressure arising during the normal course

of the operating process, without taking into consideration hydrostatic pressure from the

medium and without taking into account the permissible rise of pressure over a brief period

when a safety valve or some other safety device is functioning.

1.2.2. The design pressure in the working conditions of elements of vessels and apparatus

is to be understood as meaning the pressure that is used when making calculations for their

strength.

As a rule, the design pressure for the components of a vessel or apparatus is to be equal to

or higher than the working pressure.

If the pressure in a vessel or apparatus increases by more than 10% relative to the working

pressure when safety devices are functioning, the elements of the apparatus shall be designed

for a pressure equal to 90% of the pressure when the valve or safety device is fully opened.

For elements that separate spaces which are at differing pressures (e.g., in apparatus with

heating jackets), the design pressure should be taken either as being each pressure separately

or as the pressure which requires the greatest wall thickness in the element that is being

designed. If it is ensured that the pressures act simultaneously, it is permissible for

calculations to be based on the difference between the pressures. The pressure difference is

also to be used as the design pressure for those elements which separate a space that has an

internal excess pressure from a space that has an absolute pressure less than atmospheric

pressure. If there is no accurate data available on the difference between the absolute pressure

and atmospheric pressure, the absolute pressure is to be taken as being zero.

If a hydrostatic pressure amounting to 5% or more of the working pressure acts on an

element of a vessel, the design pressure shall be increased by that amount.

1.2.3. The term test pressure in a vessel or apparatus should be understood as meaning the

pressure at which testing of the vessel or apparatus is to be carried out.

1.2.4. The design pressure under test conditions for the elements of vessels and apparatus

should be understood as meaning the pressure to which they are subjected during trial testing,

including the hydrostatic pressure if it is 5% or more of the test pressure.

1.3. D e s i g n f o r c e s a n d m o m e n t s

The design forces and moments are to be taken as being the forces or moments acting for

the relative state of loading (e.g., during operational use, testing or installation) which arise as

the result of the effects of the intrinsic weight of pipe runs connected to the vessel or

apparatus, and of wind, snow and other loadings.

The design forces and moments due to wind loadings and seismic effects are to be

determined in accordance with GOST 24756.

1.4. P e r m i s s i b l e s t r e s s , s a f e t y f a c t o r s f o r s t r e n g t h a n d

stability

1.4.1. The permissible loading [] when making calculations relating to the limiting

loadings of vessels and apparatus operating under single-action* static loadings is to be

determined by means of the following formulae:

for carbon and low-alloy steels

Re or R p 0.2 Rm Rm / 10 5 R p1.0 / 10 5

min ; ; ;

n n n n

(1)

for austenitic steels

R p1.0 Rm Rm / 10 5 R p1, 0 / 10 5

min ; ; ;

n n n n . (2)

__________

* If the vessels or apparatus operate under multiple-action static loadings but the number of

cycles of loading due to pressure, constraints on thermal deformations, or other effects do not

exceed 103, such a loading is conventionally considered as being a single-action loading in

calculations for strength. When determining the number of cycles of loading, variation within

the limit of 15% of the design load are not to be taken into account.

The limiting creep stress is to be used for determining the permissible stresses in those

cases where there is an absence of data regarding the rupture stress, or in connection with

conditions of operational use when it is necessary to limit the amount of deformation

(displacement).

If no information is available concerning the nominal yield point when there is 1% residual

elongation, the permissible stress for austenitic steel is to be determined using formula (1).

For test conditions, the permissible stress is to be determined by means of the formula

R e20 or R 20

p 0.2

n (3)

For test conditions for vessels and apparatus made of austenitic steel, the permissible stress

is to be determined by means of the formula

R 20 or R 20

p 0.2 p 1.0

n (4)

1.4.2. The safety factors for strength shall correspond to the values given in Table 1.

Table 1

Safety factors for strength

Loading conditions

n n n n

Operating conditions 1.5 2.4 1.5 1.0

Test conditions:

hydraulic testing 1.1 - - -

pneumatic testing 1.2 - - -

Conditions during installation 1.1 - - -

For vessels and apparatus of Groups 3 and 4 as given in the USSR State Mining Industry

Inspectorate's "Regulations for the structure and safe operation of vessels operating under

pressure", it is permissible to take the safety factor for tensile strength n as being equal to 2.2.

In a case where the permissible stress for austenitic steel is determined by means of

formula (1), the strength safety factor n at nominal yield point Rp0.2 for working conditions is

to be taken as being equal to 1.3.

For vessels and apparatus which function in conditions of creep with a design operating

life of 104 up to 2105 hours, the strength safety factor n is to be 1.5. When the design

operating life is 2105 hours, it is permissible to take the strength factor n as being equal to

1.25 if the heat creep resistance and long-term plasticity are monitored when the material is in

operational use and the deviation of the creep rupture strength and creep from the mean value

on the lower side does not exceed 20%.

It is not required that calculations for the strength of cylindrical shells and conical

elements, convex and flat end plates for test conditions should be carried out if the design

pressure in the test conditions would be less than the design pressure in working conditions

multiplied by

20

1.35 .

1.4.3. The corrective coefficient to the permissible stresses () shall be equal to one except

in the case of steel castings, for which coefficient shall have the following values;

0.8 - for castings subject to individual testing by non-destructive methods;

0.7 - for other castings.

1.4.4. For steels that are widely used in the chemical, petrochemical and oil-refining

machinery building, the permissible stresses for working conditions when = 1 shall

correspond to those given in Appendix 1.

1.4.5. For rolled steel plate manufactured in accordance with technical specifications for

the two strength groups, it is allowable for the permissible stresses for the first group to be

taken from Table 5 of Appendix 1. For rolled sheet steel of the second strength group (steels

VSt3ps, VStSsp, VStSGps and 09G2S), the permissible stress taken from Table 5 of

Appendix 1 is to be increased by 6% - and by 7% for steel 09G2. When steels VStSpc,

VStSsp and VSt3Gps of the second strength group are being used at a temperature higher than

250C, or steels 09G2S and 09GS of the second strength group at a temperature of more than

300C, the same permissible stresses are to be taken as for steel of the first group.

1.4.6. When the temperature is 200C, it is permissible to determine the permissible stress

in accordance with clause 1.4.1, using the guaranteed values of the mechanical characteristics

in accordance with the Standards or technical specifications for the steel and taking into

account the rolling thicknesses of steel plate. When the temperatures are higher, it is

permissible for the permissible stresses together with the rolling thickness and strength group

of the steel which are taken into account to be determined in accordance with officially

approved norm-setting and technical documentation.

1.4.7. Design mechanical characteristics which are necessary for determining the

permissible stresses at increased temperatures for steels that are not given in Appendix 1 are

to be determined after carrying out tests on a representative number of test specimens which

will ensure that guaranteed values for the strength characterises are obtained.

1.4.8. For elements of vessels and apparatus which function in conditions of creep at

design temperatures which vary over the whole of the period of operational use, it is

permissible to use as the permissible stress an equivalent permissible stress []equ calculated

by means of the following formula.

1

m 1/ m

nT 1

i

1 To i

[]equ = , (5)

where []i = []1; []2; ... []n - is the permissible stress for the design period of operational

use at temperatures ti (i = l, 2 ...);

Ti - is the duration of the stages of operational use of the elements at wall temperatures

corresponding to ti (i = l, 2 ...), hrs;

n

Ti

To = 1 - is the total design operating life, hrs;

- is an exponent in equations for the creep limit of steel (it is recommended that m = 8

should be used for high-temperature alloy steels).

It is recommended that the stages of operational use at different temperatures should be

taken in temperature steps of 5 and 10C.

1.4.9. For vessels and apparatus which function with multiple-action loadings, the

permissible amplitude of stresses is to be determined in accordance with GOST 25859.

1.4.10. For elements of vessels and apparatus which are not calculated using limiting

loadings (e.g., flange connections) the permissible stresses shall be determined in accordance

with the relative officially approved norm-setting and technical documentation.

1.4.11. Design values for the yield point, tensile strength and coefficient of linear

expansion are given in Appendices 2 and 3.

1.4.12. When making calculations for the stability of apparatus using low critical stresses

within the limits of elasticity, the safety factor for stability (n) should be taken as being:

for working conditions - 2.4;

for testing and installation conditions - 1.8

1.5. D e s i g n v a l u e s o f t h e m o d u l u s o f l o n g i t u d i n a l e l a s t i c i t y

1.5.1. The design values for the modulus of longitudinal elasticity E for carbon and alloy

steels according to temperature shall correspond to those given in Appendix 4.

1.6. S a f e t y f a c t o r s o f w e l d s

When making calculations for the strength of welded elements of vessels and apparatus, a

safety factor for the strength of the welded connections should be introduced:

- for a longitudinal seam in a cylindrical or conical shell;

- for a circular seam in a cylindrical or conical shell;

- for the welded seams of a stiffening ring;

a - for a transverse welded seam for a reinforcing ring;

, , - for the welded seams of convex and flat end plates and covers (depending on

their position).

The numerical values of these factors shall correspond to the values given in Appendix 5.

For seamless elements of vessels and apparatus = 1.

1.7. A d d i t i o n s t o d e s i g n t h i c k n e s s e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n e l e m e n t s

1.7.1. When designing vessels and apparatus it is necessary to take into account an additive

correction c to the design thicknesses of the elements of the vessels and apparatus.

The construction thickness of an element of a vessel or apparatus shall be determined in

accordance with the formula

s sp+c, (6)

where sp - is the design thickness of the wall of the element of the vessel or apparatus.

The addition to the design thickness should be determined from the formula

c = c1 + c2 + c3. (7)

When making the check calculation, the addition is to be deducted from the values for the

construction thickness of the wall.

If the actual wall thickness is known, it is permissible not to take c2 and c3 into account

when carrying out the check calculation.

1.7.2. The justification for all additions to the design thickness shall be given in the

technical documentation.

If there is two-sided contact with a corrosive and/or erosive medium, the addition c1 for

compensation for corrosion and/or erosion shall be increased accordingly.

The technological corrective addition c3 makes provision for compensation for the thinning

of the wall of the element of the vessel or apparatus during technical processing - drawing,

stamping, bending of pipes, etc. This addition should be taken into consideration when

preparing the working drawings according to the technical processes used.

Additions c2 and c3 are to be taken into account in those cases where their sum exceeds 5%

of the nominal thickness of the sheet steel.

The addition c3 for the technological process used does not include rounding off of the

design thickness to a standard sheet thickness.

When calculations are made for elliptical end plates that are manufactured using stamping,

the technological addition c3 to compensate for thinning in the flanging zone is not to be taken

into account if its value is not greater than 15% of the design thickness of the plate.

1.8. C h e c k i n g f o r f a t i g u e s t r e n g t h

1.8.1. For vessels and apparatus which function under multiple-action loadings with the

number of cycles of loading due to pressure, constriction of thermal deformations or other

effects greater than 103 over the whole operating life, a check should be made for fatigue

strength in addition to the calculations that are made in accordance with this Standard.

1.8.2. Vessels and apparatus which function with multiple-action loadings are to be

checked for cyclical fatigue strength in accordance with GOST 25859.

2. CALCULATION OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

2.1. D e s i g n d i a g r a m s

Conditions for applicability of design formulae 2.1.1 Design diagrams for cylindrical shells

are given in Figs 1-4.

2.2. C o n d i t i o n s f o r a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f d e s i g n f o r m u l a e

2.2.1. The design formulae are to apply when the ratio of the wall thickness to diameter is

sc

0.1

D for shells and pipes when D200 mm;

sc

0.3

D for pipes when D<200 mm.

a - shell with flange or flat end plate; b - shell with rigid bulkheads

Fig. 1

Smooth cylindrical shells with convex or conical end plates

a - shell with flanged end plates; b - shell with end plates without flanges

Fig 2

Fig. 3

Fig. 4

Note. Figs. 1-4 do not define the construction and are given only to show the design

dimensions.

2.2.2. The design formulae given in clauses 2.3.2, 2.3.4-2.3.7, and 2.4.2 should be used on

condition that the design temperature does not exceed the values at which creep of the

materials is to be taken into account, i.e. at those temperatures when the permissible stress is

determined only by the yield point or tensile strength (strength limit). If no accurate data is

available, it is permissible for the formulae to be used provided that the temperature of the

wall of the shell does not exceed 380C when it is made of carbon steel, 420C when it is

made of low-alloy steel, and 525C when it is made of austenitic steel.;

2.2.3. For shells which are reinforced with stiffening rings, the following limitations shall

be satisfied in addition to the requirements of clauses 2.2.1 and 2.2.2:

the ratio of the height of the cross section to the diameter is to be:

h2

D 0.2;

the design formulae should be used provided that the stiffening rings are positioned

uniformly;

in those cases where the stiffening rings are not fitted uniformly, it is necessary to

substitute the values b and l1 for that area on which the distance between two adjacent

stiffening rings is the maximum;

if l2> l1, l2 to be taken as the design length l.

2.2.4. The design formulae for shells which function under the effect of an axial

compressive force given in clause 2.3.4 are to be used on condition that:

l or b

D 1.0.

In the absence of more accurate calculations, it is permissible to use formula (22) for shells

on which

l or b

D < 1.0

2.3. S m o o t h c y l i n d r i c a l s h e l l s

2.3.1. Shells which are loaded with an internal excess pressure

2.3.1.1. The wall thickness should be calculated by means of the formula

s sp+c, (8)

pD

2 p p

where sp = . (9)

2.3.1.2. The permissible internal excess pressure should be calculated from the formula

2 p s c

[p] = D ( s c) . (10)

2.3.1.3. When a shell is made from plates of different thicknesses joined by longitudinal

welded seams, calculation of the thickness of the shell is to be carried out for each plate

taking into account the weaknesses that exist in them.

2.3.2. Shells which are loaded with an external pressure

2.3.2.1. Thickness of the wall

The thickness of the wall is to be determined approximately by means of formulae (11) and

(12) and subsequently checked using formula (13).

s sp+c, (11)

1,1 pD

max K 2 D10 2 ;

where sp 2 . (12)

Coefficient K2 should be found from the nomogram given in Fig 5. Examples of the use of

the nomogram for calculations are given in Fig. 6.

Nomogram for calculations of stability within the limits of the elasticity of cylindrical

shells which function under an external pressure

Fig. 5

Examples of the use of the nomogram (see Fig. 5)

pressure; III - determining the permissible design length; m - start of procedure;

n - intermediate points; - final result

Fig. 6

2.3.2.2. The permissible external pressure should be found from the formula

p p

2

p

1

p E . (13)

where the permissible pressure based on the condition for strength is to be found by means of

the formula

2 s c

[p] = ( s c ) .

D (14)

whilst the permissible pressure obtained from the condition for stability within the limits of

elasticity is to be determined using the formula

2 .5

20.8 10 6 E D 100( s c )

n y B1 l D

[p] = , (15)

where

D D

min 1.0; 9.45

l 100( s c)

1 = . (16)

When determining the length of the shell l or L the length of the adjoining element, l3 should

be determined from the formulae

H

l3

3 - for convex end plates,

D

l3

6tg - for conical shells (end plates) without flanges, but not more than

the length of the conical element;

D

l3 max r sin ;

6tg - for conical shells (end plates) with flanges, but not more than the

length of the conical element.

The coefficient K1 is to be determined from the nomogram given in Fig. 5.

If the value obtained for coefficient K1 lays below the corresponding dot-and-dash line (see

Fig. 5), it is permissible to determine the value of [] in the preliminary calculation by means

of the formula

6

p 2,4 K1 10 E

ny

(17)

2.3.3. Shells which are loaded with an axial tensile force

2.3.3.1. The thickness of the wall should be calculated using the formula

s sp+c, (18)

F

sp

where D . (19)

2.3.3.2. The permissible axial tensile force should be calculated by means of the formula

[F] = (D+s - c)(s - c)[]. (20)

2.3.4. Shells which are loaded with an axial compressive force

2.3.4.1. The permissible axial compressive force should be calculated using the formula

F F

2

F

1

F E , (21)

where the permissible axial compressive force [F] obtained from the condition for strength is

[F] = (D+s - c)(s - c)[], (22)

and the permissible axial compressive force within the limits of elasticity [F] obtained from

the condition for stability is

[F] = min {[F]1; [F]2}. (23)

In formula (23), the permissible axial compressive force [F]1, is to be determined from the

condition for local stability within the limits of elasticity by means of the formula

2.5

310 10 6 E 2 100( s c)

D

n y B1 D

[F]1 = , (24)

and the permissible axial compressive force [F]2 to be determined from the condition for

general stability within the limits of elasticity using the formula

2

( D s c )( s c ) E

ny

[F]2 = (25)

The flexibility , is to be determined from the formula

2.83l

D s-c (26)

The reduced design length l is to be obtained from Fig. 7.

l

Note. In a case where D <10, formula (23) assumes the form [F] = [F]1.

2.3.4.2. For working conditions ( = 2.4), the permissible compressive force may be

determined from the formula

The safety factors 1 and 2 should be found from Figs. 8 and 9.

f

Calculation diagram l

l

- l

- 2l

- 0.7l

- 0.5l

0 2.00l

0.2 1.73l

0.4 1.47l

0.6 1.23l

0.8 1.06l

1.0 1.00l

0 2.00l

0.2 1.70l

0.4 1.40l

0.6 1.11l

0.8 0.85l

1.0 0.70l

Fig. 7

2.3.5.1. The permissible bending moment should be calculated from the formula

M M

2

M

1

M E , (28)

where the permissible bending moment [] obtained from the condition for strength is to be

calculated using the formula

D

[] = 4 D(D+s - c)(s - c)[] [F], (29)

and the permissible bending moment [] from the condition for stability within the limits of

elasticity is to be calculated using the formula

2.5

89 10 6 E 3 100( s c) D

D F E1

ny D 3.5

[] = . (30)

2.3.5.2. For working conditions ( = 2.4), the permissible bending moment may be

determined by means of the formula

[] = 4 D (D+s - c)(s - c)[]3. (31)

The safety factor 3 should to be determined from Fig. 10.

2.3.6. Shells which are loaded with transverse forces

The permissible transverse force [Q] should be calculated from the formula

Q Q

2

Q

1

Q E

, (32)

where the permissible transverse force [Q] obtained from the condition for strength is

[Q] = 0.25 D (s - c), (33)

and the permissible transverse force [Q]E from the condition for stability within the limits of

elasticity is

2.4 E ( s c) 2 D( s c)

ny 0.18 3.3 l2

[Q] = . (34)

2.3.7. Shells which function under the combined effects of external pressure, an axial

compressive force, a bending moment and a transverse force

Shells which function under the combined effects of loadings are to be checked for

stability using the formula

2

p F M Q

p + F + M + Q 1.0, (35)

where [] - is the permissible external pressure in accordance with clause 2.3.2;

[F] - is the permissible axial compressive force in accordance with clause

2.3.4;

[] - is the permissible bending moment in accordance with clause 2.3.5;

[Q] - is the permissible transverse force in accordance with clause 2.3.6.

Graph for determining the factor 1

Fig. 8

Graph for determining the factor 2

Fig. 9

Graph for determining the factor 3

Fig. 10

2.4. C y l i n d r i c a l s h e l l s r e i n f o r c e d w i t h s t i f f e n i n g r i n g s

2.4.1. Shells with stiffening rings which are loaded with an excess internal pressure

2.4.1.1. Determination of the dimensions of the stiffening rings when there is internal

pressure

The coefficient K4 for a given design pressure and wall thickness s, should be calculated

from the formula

p( D s c)

K4 1

2 p ( s c )

. (36)

If K4 0, reinforcement by means of stiffening rings is not required. Within the range

0 K42 1

p

, the distance between two stiffening rings should be calculated using

the formula

2 p 1

b D( s c ) 1

K4 K 4

, (37)

and the area of the transverse cross section of the ring from the formula

p

K4

l1 (s - c) . (38)

2

p

If K4 -1, it is necessary for the wall thickness to be increased to such a dimension

that the following condition is fulfilled

2

p

0 < K4 < -1.

Note. The corrective addition 1 to compensate for corrosion should be taken into account

when determining the area of the transverse cross section of the stiffening ring .

2.4.1.2. The permissible internal excess pressure should be determined from the condition

[] = min {[]1; []2}. (39)

The permissible internal excess pressure []1 determined from the conditions for the

strength of the complete shell should be calculated using the formula

A

2 p ( s c ) 2

l1

p 1

D ( s c) . (40)

The permissible internal excess pressure []2 determined from the conditions for the

strength of a shell between two adjoining stiffening rings should be calculated from the

formula

p 2 2 ( s c) 2 2

D ( s c) 2

1

. (41)

where

b2

2

D( s c) . (42)

2.4.2. Shells with stiffening rings which are loaded with an external pressure

2.4.2.1. The design parameters for the reinforced shell are to be:

The design parameters for the reinforced shell are to be:

the effective length of the wall of the shell l , which is to be taken into account when

determining the effective moment of inertia and should be determined from the condition

D( s c )

l = min{l1; t + 1.1 }; (43)

the effective moment of inertia I of the design transverse cross section of a stiffening ring,

which should be determined using the formula

l1 ( s c )3 A l ( s c)

I I e2 e

10,9 A le ( s c ) ; (44)

the coefficient of rigidity k of a shell which is reinforced with stiffening rings

10,9 I

k

l1 ( s c )3

. (45)

Note. The additive correction 1 to compensate for corrosion should be taken into account

when determining the moment of inertia of a stiffening ring.

2.4.2.2. The permissible external pressure should be determined from the condition

[] = min {[]1; []2}. (46)

2.4.2.2.1. The permissible external pressure []1 determined on the basis of the condition

for the stability of the complete shell should be calculated from the formula

p1 p1

2

p 1

1

p 1E

, (47)

The permissible external pressure []1 shall correspond to the value for []1 determined by

means of formula (40) when the values of the safety factor and are = 1.0 and = 1.0.

The permissible external pressure []1 obtained from the condition for stability within the

limits of elasticity should be calculated using the formula

2.5

20.8 10 6 E D 100k ( s c )

kB2 n y l D

[]1 = , (48)

where

D D

min 1.0; 9.45

l 100k ( s c)

2 = . (49)

2.4.2.2.2. The permissible external pressure []2 is to be determined starting from the

conditions for the stability of the shell between stiffening rings. The permissible external

pressure []2 when the value for the length

t

b; l2

l= 2

shall correspond to the pressure [] (see clause 2.3.2.2). It is permissible to use []2 found

from formula (41) with the value of factor =1.0 instead of using [] determined from

formula (14).

2.4.2.3. Determining the dimensions of a stiffening ring when there is external pressure

After the dimensions of the ring and shell have been determined in accordance with design

considerations, a check should be carried out in accordance with clause 2.4.2.2.

The wall thickness s or the distance b between stiffening rings for a given design pressure

should be determined with the aid of the nomograms (see Figs. 5 and 6). When the

nomogram given in Fig. 5 is used, it should be taken that l = b. The design effective moment

of inertia of the stiffening ring should be calculated using the formula

0.1 pD 3l1 n y

Ip K5

E 2 .4 . (50)

The coefficient K5 should be determined from Fig. 11.

Fig. 11

After the design effective moment of inertia has been obtained using the successive

approximations method, a profile for the stiffening ring with a moment of inertia I, should be

selected which ensures that the requirement of the following condition is fulfilled

I I, (51)

where I - is the effective moment of inertia of the design transverse cross section of the

stiffening ring determined using formula (44).

2.4.3. Shells with stiffening rings which are loaded with axial tensile or compressive

forces, a bending moment or a transverse force

The permissible loadings should be calculated by means of the formulae in clauses 2.3.3-

2.3.6 with l = b. When determining the reduced design length l from Fig. 7, the total length

L should be used instead of l.

2.4.4. Shells with stiffening rings which are subjected to loads acting simultaneously

Calculation should be carried out in a similar manner to the calculation given in clause

2.3.7 and, when doing so, the permissible external pressure is to be determined in accordance

with clause 2.4.2.2.

3.1. C a l c u l a t i o n d i a g r a m s

3.1.1. Fig. 12 shows calculation diagrams for elliptical, hemispherical and torospherical

end plates.

a - elliptical end plate; b - hemispherical end plate; c - torospherical end plate

Fig. 12

Note. This Fig. does not define the construction of the end plates and is given only to show

the necessary design dimensions.

3.2. C o n d i t i o n s f o r a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f d e s i g n f o r m u l a e

3.2.1. The design formulae are to apply when the following conditions are fulfilled:

for elliptical end plates

s1 c

0.002 D 0.100,

H

0.2 D 0.5;

for torospherical end plates

s1 c

0.002 D 0.100.

For torospherical end plates, the following types of end plates are to be used in calculations

depending on the relationship between the parameters R, D1 and r1:

type A RD1, r1 0.095 D1;

type R0.9 D1, r1 0.170 D1;

type R0.8 D1, r1 0.150 D1.

3.2.2. The design formulae given in clauses 3.3.2 and 3.4.2 are to apply provided that the

design temperatures do not exceed the values at which creep of materials is taken into

account, i.e. at those temperatures when the permissible stress is determined only by the yield

point or tensile strength (strength limit).

If there is no accurate information available, it is permissible for the formulae to be used

provided that the design temperature of the wall of an end plate made of carbon steel does not

exceed 380C, that of one made of low-alloy steel does not exceed 420C, and that of one

made of austenitic steel does not exceed 525C.

3.3. E l l i p t i c a l a n d h e m i s p h e r i c a l e n d p l a t e s

3.3.1. Elliptical and hemispherical end plates loaded with excess internal pressure

3.3.1.1. The thickness of the wall s1 should be calculated using the formula

s1 s1p+c, (52)

where

pR

s1 p

2 0.5 p . (53)

3.3.1.2. 3.3.1.2. The permissible internal excess pressure [] should be calculated from the

formula

2 s1 c

[p] = R 0.5( s1 c ) . (54)

3.3.1.3. The radius of curvature at the crown of an end plate is to be equal to:

D2

R

4H , (55)

where R = D - for elliptical end plates with = 0.25 D;

R = 0.5 D - for hemispherical ends plates with = 0.5 D.

3.3.1.4. If the length of the cylindrical flanged part of the end plate is

h1 > 0.8 D ( s1 c ) - for an elliptical end plate, or

h1 > 0.3 D ( s1 c ) - for a hemispherical end plate, the thickness of the end plate

shall not be less than the thickness of the shell calculated in accordance with clause 2.3.1 with

= 1.

3.3.1.5. For end plates which are manufactured from a single blank, the safety factor = 1.

For end plates manufactured from a number of blanks, factor should be determined in

accordance with Appendix 5.

3.3.2. Elliptical and hemispherical end plates which are loaded with an external pressure

3.3.2.1. The thickness of the wall is to be determined approximately by means of formulae

(56) and (57) with subsequent checking using formula (58)

s1 s1p+c, (56)

where

K R ny p pR

s1 p max ;

510 10 E 2

6

. (57)

For the preliminary calculation, K is to be taken as being equal to 0.9 for elliptical end

plates, and 1.0 for hemispherical end plates.

3.3.2.2. The permissible external pressure [] should be calculated from the formula

p p

2

p

1

p E , (58)

where the permissible pressure [] obtained from the condition for strength is

2 s1 c

[p] = R 0.5( s1 c ) , (59)

and the permissible pressure [] from the condition for stability within the limits of elasticity

is

2

26 10 6 E 100k ( s1 c )

ny K R

[] = . (60)

3.3.2.3. The coefficient K should be determined in accordance with Fig. 13 or by means of

formula (61) depending on the ratios

D H

s1 c and D

1 ( 2 .4 8 x ) x

K

1 (3.0 10 x ) x , (61)

where

s1 c D 2H

x 10

D 2H D . (62)

Graph for determining the coefficient K

Fig. 13

3.4. T o r o s p h e r i c a l e n d p l a t e s

3.4.1. Torospherical end plates which are loaded with Internal excess pressure

3.4.1.1. The thickness of the wall in the boundary area should be calculated using the

formula

s1 s1p+c, (63)

where

pD1 1

s1 p

2 . (64)

For welded end plates, an additional check of the thickness of the wall in the central area

should be carried out using the formula:

s1 s1p+c, (65)

where

pR

s1 p

2 0.5 p . (66)

3.4.1.2. The permissible excess pressure obtained from the condition of strength of the

boundary area should be calculated using the formula

p 2( s1 c )

D1 2 . (67)

For welded end plates, it is necessary to carry out an additional check of the permissible

excess pressure from the condition for the strength of the central area using the formula

2( s1 c)

p

R 0.5( s1 c) . (68)

The lesser of the pressures determined using formulae (67) and (68) should be taken as the

permissible pressure.

In the case of welding of end plates made up of sheet steel of differing thicknesses, the

relative values for the thickness of the walls in the edge and central areas should be

substituted in formulae (67) and (68).

Fig. 14

Graph for determining the coefficient 2

Fig. 15

3.4.1.3. The coefficient 1 should be determined in accordance with fig. 14, and the

coefficient 2 accordance with Fig. 15 or from the formulae:

D1

1.25; 0.25 3 1.00

s1 c

type A 2 = max ;

D1

1.00; 0.12 3 3.75

s1 c

type 2 = max ; (69)

D1

0.90; 0.12 3 3.20

s1 c

type 2 = max .

3.4.1.4. For end plates manufactured from a complete blank, the factor = 1. For end

plates manufactured from a number of parts, factor should be determined from Table 2.

Table 2

for for

Sketches of end plates

formulae (61), (65) formulae (63), (66)

For seam A

1

For seam

1

d

When D <0.6

1

for for

Sketches of end plates

formulae (61), (65) formulae (63), (66)

d

When D 0.6

1

3.4.1.5. If the length of the cylindrical flanged part of an end plate h1 0.8 D1 ( s1 c ) ,

the thickness of the cylindrical part of the end plate shall not be less than the thickness of the

shell calculated in accordance with clause 2.3.1 when = 1.

3.4.2. Torospheric end plates which are loaded with an external pressure

3.4.2.1. Torospheric end plates loaded with an external pressure should be calculated in

accordance with clause 3.3.2 using formulae (58), (59) and (60) with K = 1.

In addition, the external pressure shall not exceed the permissible pressure determined

using formula (67).

4.1. F i e l d o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f d e s i g n f o r m u l a e

4.1.1. The formulae are to be used to calculate flat round end plates and covers on the

condition that:

s1 c

0.11

Dp

.

s1 c

0.11

Dp

4.1.2. It is permissible to carry out calculations when , but the value for the

permissible pressure which is obtained by means of formula (75) or (84) should be multiplied

by the corrective factor:

2 .2

Kp

2

s c

1 1 6 1

D p

. (70)

If, when determining the thickness of the end plates in accordance with clauses 4.2.1 or

s1 c

0.11

Dp

4.3.1, it proves to be that , it is necessary to carry out an additional

determination of the permissible pressure in accordance with clause 4.2.7 or 4.3.8 and to

multiply it by the coefficient K.

If K[] < , the thickness of the end plates should be increased so as to satisfy the

condition

K[] .

4.2. C a l c u l a t i o n o f f l a t r o u n d e n d p l a t e s a n d c o v e r s

4.2.1. The thickness of flat round end plates and covers of vessel sand apparatus which

function under internal excess pressure or external pressure is to be calculated using the

formula

s1 s1p + c, (71)

where

p

s1 p KK o D p

( ) . (72)

4.2.2. The value of the coefficient K is to be taken from Table 3 according to the

construction of the end plates and covers.

Table 3

Conditions in which end plate

Type Drawing

and cover ate connected K

1 1.7s 0.53

Dp = D

2 0.85s 0.50

Dp = D

3 sc

0.25

s1 c 0.45

s c

0.25

s1 c 0.41

Dp = D

4 sc

0.5

s1 c 0.41

sc

0 .5

s1 c 0.38

Dp = D

5 sc

0.25

s1 c 0.45

sc

0.25

s1 c 0.41

Dp = D

6 > 0.85s 0.50

Dp = D

Conditions in which end plate

Type Drawing

and cover ate connected K

7 sc

0 .5

s1 c 0.41

sc

0 .5

s1 c 0.38

Dp = D

8 sc

0.5

s1 c 0.41

sc

0 .5

s1 c 0.38

Dp = D

9 max {s; 0.25s1} r se

min{s1; 0.1D} K max 0.11 1 0.23

s1 e

h1 r

0.3

D = D - 2r

10 sc

0 .5

s1 c

sc

0 .5

s1 c 0.41

Dp = D

0.38

0.25s1 r s1 - s2

30 90

11

Dp = D3 0.40

12

Dp = D. 0.11

4.2.3. The value of the coefficient of weakening K for end plates and covers which have a

single opening is to be determined from the formula

2

d d

Ko 1

D p D p

. (73)

4.2.4. The value of the coefficient of weakening (K) for end plates and covers which have

a number of openings is to be determined from the formula

3

d

1 i

Ko Dp

di

1

D

p . (74)

Coefficient K is to be determined for the cross section which is most weakened. The

maximum sum of the lengths of chords of the openings and the most weakened cross section

of the end plate or cover is to be determined in accordance with Fig. 16 using the formula

di = max {(d1 + d2); (b2 + b3)}.

The main design dimensions of the openings are given in Figs 16 and 17.

Fig. 16

Fig. 17

4.2.5. The value of the coefficient of weakening K for end plates and covers without

openings is to be taken as being equal to 1.0.

4.2.6. In all cases of connection of an end plate to a shell, the minimum thickness of the

flat round end plate shall be greater than, or equal to, the thickness of the shell calculated in

according with clause 2.3.

4.2.7. The permissible pressure on the flat end plate or cover is to be determined from the

formula

2

p s1 c

K Ko Dp . (75)

4.2.8. The thickness s2 for connections of types 10, 11 and 12 (see Table 3) are to be

determined using the formula

max 1.1s; s1

D p 2r for type 10

s2 1 sin

1,2s1

p D p D2

max 0 . 5 D c; s 2 for types11 and 12.

p

1

D p

(76)

4.3. C a l c u l a t i o n o f f l a t r o u n d c o v e r s w i t h a n a d d i t i o n a l e d g e

moment

4.3.1. Flat circular covers with an additional edge moment (Fig. 18) are to be calculated for

internal pressure using the formula

s1 s1p + c, (77)

where

D

s1 p KK 6 D p

[ ] . (78)

4.3.2. The value of the coefficient K6 is to be determined from the formula

D3

1 3 1

K 6 0.41 D.

D3

D.

(79)

or by means of the graph in Fig 19, depending on the ratios D3/D. and .

The value of is to be found from the formula

F F6

1 or ,

FQ FQ

(80)

where FQ = 0.785 pD2..

Fig. 18

Fig. 19

4.3.3. The value of the coefficient K is to be determined in accordance with clause 4.2.3,

or 4.2.4 if di 0.7Dp; when doing so, bolt holes are not to be taken into account in the

calculation.

4.3.4. For covers which have a groove to receive an upstand (e.g., the chamber of a heat

exchanger) the value of coefficient K6 for determining the thickness at the position of the

groove (Fig 18b) is to be calculated taking into account the force due to compression of the

gasket in the groove by using the formula

D3 D s

1 3 1 9.6 3 4

K 6 0.41 D. D. D.

D3

D.

. (81)

4.3.5. The thickness of a flat round cover s2 (Fig 18) which has an additional edge

moment at the sealing position (Fig 18a) is to be determined from the formula

0.6

s2 max K 7 ;

D1

, (82)

where

F . F .

max ;

p .

In formula (82), the subscript p denotes that the value relates to the operational state or to

tests, whilst the subscript m denotes that the value relates to installation conditions..

4.3.6. The value of coefficient K7 is to be determined from the formula

D3

K 7 0 .8 1

D.

(83)

or in accordance with Fig. 20, depending on the ratio of the diameters.

4.3.7. The thickness s3 of the edge of a flat round cover with an additional edge moment

outside the sealing zone (Fig 18) is to be determined by means of formula (82), using D2

instead of Dc. when doing so

4.3.8. When check calculations of the permissible pressure for a flat round cover with an

additional edge moment are made, the permissible pressure is to be determined from the

formula

2

s1 c

p K K D

6 p . (84)

Fig. 20

5.1. D e s i g n d i a g r a m s a n d d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s

5.1.1. Figs. 21-26 show design diagrams for the connection arrangements of conical shells

5.1.2. Design parameters

5.1.2.1. The design lengths of the transition parts are to be determined from the following

formulae for conical shells (Figs. 21a, 21b and 21c)

D D

a1 0.7 ( s1 c ) a 2 0 .7 ( s2 c )

cos 1 cos 2

; ;

for conical shells (Figs. 22a and 22b)

D

a1 0.7 ( s c)

cos 1

;

for conical shells (Fig. 21d)

D

a1 ( s1 c )

cos 1

;

for cylindrical shell (Figs. 21b and 21c)

a2 0.7 D ( s2 c) ;

D

a 2 0 .5 ( s c)

cos 2

; a2 0.5 D ( s c) ;

for cylindrical shells or pipe connections (see Fig. 21d)

a2 1.25 D ( s2 c) .

c - connection of a conical shell to a cylindrical shell with a reinforcing ring;

d - connection of a conical shell to a cylindrical shell of smaller diameter

Fig. 21

Connection of shells with a toroidal transition zone

b - connection of a conical shell to a cylindrical shell

Fig. 22

Basic dimensions of a conical transition zone

Fig. 23

Fig. 24

Fig. 25

a - end plate with toroidal transition zone; b - end plate with reinforcing ring;

c - end plate without a toroidal transition zone and reinforcing ring

Fig. 26

5.1.2.2. The design diameter of a smooth conical shell is to be determined from the

following formulae:

for conical shells without a toroidal transition zone (Figs. 21a, 21b and 21c)

D = D - 1.41sin1;

for conical shells with a toroidal transition zone (Figs. 22a and 22b)

D = D - 2 [r (cos2 - cos1) + 0.71 sin1];

for conical shells with a stepped change in the thickness of the wall; for the second and all

subsequent parts, the internal diameter of the larger base should be taken as the design

diameter D of that particular part of the shell.

5.1.2.3. The design coefficient for the strength of welded seams in the transition zones of

shells is to be obtained from Table 4.

Table 4

Design safety factor for strength of welded seams

in accordance

in accordance in accordance with in accordance

Form of

with with clauses with

connection of

clauses clauses 5.3.5 clauses

shells

5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.7 5.3.6

5.3.4 5.3.8 5.3.9 5.4.6

5.4.5

Internal pressure p p p }

or tensile force p = min{p;

ap = a

Internal pressure } = min{ ; } = min{ ; } p

or compressive p = min{p; p p p p

force ap = 1

Bending moment } = min{ ; } = min{ ; } = min{ ; }

p = min{p; p p p p p p

ap = a

5.2. F i e l d a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f d e s i g n f o r m u l a e

5.2.1. The design formulae are to apply when the relationship between the thickness of an

external shell and its diameter are within the limits

s1 cos 1

0.001 0.050

D .

It is not required that this condition should be fulfilled for a fully conical end plate (1 >

70).

5.2.2. The design formulae given in clauses 5.3.2, 5.4.2 and 5.5.1. are to apply provided

that the design temperatures do not exceed the values at which creep of the metal is taken into

consideration, i.e., at temperatures when the permissible stress is determined only by the yield

point and tensile strength (strength limit). If no precise information is available, the formulae

are to be applied provided that the design temperature of the shell wall does not exceed 380C

if it is made of carbon steel, 480C if it is made of low-alloy steel, and 525C if it is made of

austenitic steel.

5.2.3. The design formulae in this Standard are not applicable for calculations for the

strength of conical transition parts in positions where a jacket is fastened to the casing.

In that case, calculation is to be carried out in accordance with GOST 25867.

5.2.4. The design formulae are not applicable if the distance between two neighbouring

junctions of connections of shells is less than the total of the corresponding design lengths of

the shells, or if the distance from the assembly connections to the supporting elements of the

vessel (other than skirt supports or support rings) is less than double the design length of the

shell in accordance with clause 5.1.2.1.

5.2.5. The design formulae are to apply on condition that the construction length of the

transition parts of the shells are not less than the design lengths 1 and 2.

If this conditioned is not fulfilled, it is necessary to make a check of the permissible

pressure in which the following are substituted for s1 and s2:

for a connection of shells without a toroidal transition zone

a1D a2 D

s1 E max s1 ; s s2 E max s2 ; s

a1 ; a2 ;

for connections of shells with a toroidal transition zone when coefficient is determined by

means of formula (98).

a1D a2 D

s1E max s ; s s2 E max s ; s

a1 ; a2 ;

s, s - are the actual thicknesses of the walls of the shells being connected (Figs. 21a, 21b, 21d

and 22b).

5.2.6. The design formulae for the connection assemblies of conical and cylindrical shells

without a toroidal transition zone are to apply provided that the fillet weld is formed with

continuous double-sided fusion.

5.2.7. The manufactured thickness of the wall of a conical element at the position of

connection of two shells, s1, s2 or s, is always to be taken as being not less than thickness s

determined in accordance with clause 5.3.1 or clauses 5.3.2 and 5.4.1 or clauses 5.4.2 and

5.5.1 for the relative loadings.

The construction thickness of the wall of a cylindrical element at the position where two

shells are joined shall not be less than the minimum wall thickness determined in accordance

with the formulae in Section 2.

5.2.8. Calculation of the reinforcement to the openings of conical shells is to be carried out

in accordance with GOST 24755.

5.2.9. Calculation of the thickness of the walls of the transition parts of shells should be

carried out using either the method of successive approximations based on preliminary

selection with subsequent checking for the selected values of

D s1 c

or

s2 c s2 c

or obtained directly from the diagrams.

Calculation using the diagrams is to be carried out for conical transition zones which have

2 = 0. If the permissible stresses of the materials of the transition zones differ from each

other, the calculation by means of the diagram is to be carried out using the lesser of the

values.

The permissible pressure, axial force and bending moment for conical shells shall be taken

as being the lower of the values obtained from the condition for the strength or stability of a

smooth conical shell and from the condition for the strength of the transition part.

5.2.10. The calculation is also applicable for skew-symmetrical shells which are connected

to cylindrical shells. The design values for 1, D and D1 are to be taken as shown in Fig. 24.

5.3. C o n i c a l s h e l l s w h i c h a r e l o a d e d w i t h a p r e s s u r e

5.3.1. Smooth conical shells loaded with an internal excess pressure

5.3.1.1. The thickness of the wall is to be determined by means of the formula

s s. + , (85)

where

pD 1

s.

2 p p cos 1

. (86)

5.3.1.2. The permissible internal excess pressure is to be determined from the formula

2 p ( s c)

p D

( s c)

cos i . (87)

5.3.2. Smooth conical shells which are loaded with an external pressure

5.3.2.1. The design formulae are to apply provided that 1 70.

5.3.2.2. The wall thickness is to be determined in accordance with the formula given in

clauses 2.3.2.1 in the first approximation, and is subsequently to be checked using formula

(88).

When making the preliminary determination of the wall thickness, values of lE and DE

found from formulae (91) and (92) are to be taken as being the design values.

5.3.2.3. The permissible external pressure is to be determined by means of the formula

p p

p

2

1

p E , (88)

where the permissible pressure from the condition for strength is

2 p ( s c)

p

D

( s c)

cos 1 , (89)

and the permissible pressure obtained from the condition for stability within the limits of

elasticity is

2.5

20.8 10 6 DE 100( s )

p E

1 lE DE

. (90)

The effective dimensions of the conical shell are to be determined by means of the

formulae

D D1

lE

2 sin 1 , (91)

D D1 D D D1

DE max ; 0.31( D D1 ) tg1

2 cos 1 cos 1 s . (92)

The value of the coefficient 1 is to be determined from the formula:

D DE

B1 min 1.0; 9.45 E

lE 100 s c

. (93)

5.3.3. Connection of shells which do not have a toroidal transition zone (see Figs. 21a and

21b)

5.3.3.1. The design formulae are to apply under the following conditions

1 70; 0 2 < 1; (s1 - c) (s2 - c).

If (s1 - c) (s2 - c), a check calculation is to be made using the formula

s1 - c = s2 - c.

5.3.3.2. The thickness of the wall is to be found from the formulae

pD1 1

s2

2 2 p p cos 2

; (94)

s2 s2 + . (95)

In a case where a conical and a cylindrical shell are connected (Fig. 21b), cos2 = 1. When

determining 1 coefficient is to be calculated using formula (98) or is to be found in

accordance with the diagram (Fig. 27).

Calculation of the wall thickness of the conical element of the transition zone is to be

carried out with the aid of the ratio of the wall thicknesses

s1 c

s2 c

s1 c

s1 s 2 p c

s2 c . (96)

Diagram for determining coefficient when calculating the thickness of the walls of the

transition zones of shells

Fig. 27

5.3.3.3. The shape coefficient is to be determined from the formula

1 max{0.5; }. (97)

where is determined by means of the formula

D (tg1 tg 2 ) cos 2

0.4 0.25

s2 c s1 c

2

1 x

1

s2 c x s1 c

cos 2 2 cos 1 s c

2 . (98)

For connections of conical and cylindrical shells (2 = 0) coefficient may be determined

from a diagram (Fig. 27 or Fig. 28).

5.3.3.4. The permissible internal excess or external pressure [] obtained from the

condition for the strength of the transition part is to be determined by means of the formula

2 2 p ( s2 c)

p D 1

( s2 c)

cos 2 , (99)

where the coefficient 1 is determined in accordance with clause 5.3.3.3

5.3.4. Connection of a conical shell to a reinforcing ring (Figs. 21b and 25)

5.3.4.1. The design formulae are to be used provided that

1 70

and when the ring is connected to a cylindrical shell (Fig, 21c) that

(s1 - c) (s2 - c).

If (s1 - c) < (s2 - c), should be used In the check calculation s1 - c = s2 - c;

but if the connection is as shown in Fig. 25, only if there is no bending moment of the ring.

Diagram for determining the coefficient when making the check calculation

Fig. 28

5.3.4.2. The area of the transverse cross section of the reinforcing ring shall be determined

using the formula

when connection is as shown in Fig. 21c

pD 2tg1 0.25

A 1 A

8 ap 0.25

, (100)

where

2 2 p s c

A 1 2

p D . (101)

Coefficient is to be determined either by means of formula (96) or from the diagram

(Fig. 28).

If 0 there is no requirement for reinforcing by means of a stiffening ring

where connection is as shown in Fig. 25

pD 2 tg 1

A

8 ap

. (102)

In cases where there is a loading action from external pressure, an axial compressive force

or a bending moment, the welded seam of the butt joint of the ring shall be welded with a

continuous seam. When determining the area of the transverse cross section , consideration

should also be given to the cross section of the shell walls in the positions between the

external welded seams of the ring and the shells.

5.3.4.3. The permissible internal excess or external pressure obtained from the condition

for the strength of the transition part is to be determined using the formula

when the connection is as shown in Fig. 21c

2 2 p ( s2 c)

p

D 2 ( s2 c) , (103)

when the connection is as shown in Fig. 25

8 ap

p A

D 2 tg 1 .

(104)

5.3.4.4. The general shape coefficient for the transition part is to be found from the formula

2 = max{0.5; }, (105)

where

s c

2

1 x 1

D s2 c s c

0.4 tg1 B3 1 x 1

s2 c 2 cos 1 s2 c

o

s c

2

1 x 1

s2 c s c

B2 1 x 1

2 cos 1 s2 c

. (106)

The coefficients 2 and B3 are to be determined by means of the formula

1.6 A ap

B2

( s 2 c ) D ( s 2 c ) 2 p

; 3 = 0.25.

5.3.4.5. Checking of the welded seam of the reinforcing ring

4 A

t j

D , (107)

where tj - is the sum of all the effective widths of the load-bearing welded joints between the

reinforcing ring and the shell (Fig. 21c).

Where there is an intermittent weld, its actual width is to be reduced in the proportion of

the length of the welded seam to the whole perimeter of the shell. The distance between the

ends of discontinuous welded seams shall be not more than eight times the thickness of the

shell wall, and the sum of all the lengths of the welded seams shall be not less than one half of

the length of the circumference of the ring.

5.3.5. Connection of shells with toroidal transition zones (Fig. 22a and 22b)

5.3.5.1. The design formulae are to apply when the following conditions are met

r

0 0.3

1 70; 0 2 < 1; D .

5.3.5.2. The thickness of the wall is to be determined from the formula

ST sT. + , (108)

where

pD 3 1

sT .

2 p p cos 2

. (109)

Diagram for determining the coefficient T when calculating

the thickness of the walls of transition shells

Fig. 29

In the case of connection of a conical shell to a cylindrical shell (Fig. 22b), cos2 = l. The

coefficient 3 is to be determined from formula (111), and coefficients and are to be

found from formulae (98) and (112) or by means of the diagrams (Figs. 27 and 29).

5.3.5.3. The permissible internal excess or external pressure obtained from the condition

for the strength of the transition part is

2 p ( sT c)

p D 3

( sT c)

cos 2 . (110)

The coefficient 3 is to be found by means of formula (111), and coefficients are to

be determined using formulae (98) and (112) or from the diagrams (Figs. 28 and 30).

Diagram for determining the coefficient when carrying out the check calculation

Fig. 30

5.3.5.4. The shape coefficients are to be found from the following formulae:

coefficient 3 from

3 = max {0.5; , }, (111)

where is to be determined from formula (98) with

s1 c

1

s

2 c

= 1 and ,

and coefficient obtained from

1

T

r D

0.028 (1 2 )

D sT c

1

1 1

cos 1 cos 2

. (112)

5.3.6. Connection of a pipe connection or internal cylindrical shell to a conical shell (Fig.

21d).

5.3.6.1. The design formulae are to apply when the following condition is fulfilled

1 70.

5.3.6.2. The wall thickness is to be determined from the formula

s2 s2p + c, (113)

where

pD 4

s2 p

2 p p

. (114)

Calculation of the wall thickness of the conical element of the transition part is to be

carried out using the ratio of the wall thicknesses

s1 c

s1 s 2 p c

s2 c . (115)

5.3.6.3. The permissible internal excess or external pressure obtained from the condition

for the strength of the transition part is to be determined using the formula

2 2 p ( s 2 c)

p

D 4 ( s 2 c) . (116)

5.3.6.4. The shape coefficient is to be determined from the formula

4 = max{1.0; }, (117)

where

2

s1 c

x 1

= + 0.75 when s2 c ; (118)

D tg1

0 .4 0,5

s2 c s1 c

2

1 x

s1 c s1 c s

2 c

x

s2 c s2 c cos1 2

(119)

when

2

s1 c

x 1

s2 c .

In both cases the coefficient can also be determined from the diagrams (Figs. 31 and

32).

Diagram for determining the coefficient , when calculating the thickness of the walls of

the transition zones of the shells

Fig. 31

5.3.7. Gently sloping end plates with a toroidal transition zone (see Fig. 26a)

5.3.7.1. The design formulae are to apply for the action of an excess internal pressure when

the following condition is satisfied

1 > 70.

5.3.7.2. The wall thickness is to be taken as being

s min {max{s; sT}; Sp + c}; (120)

1 p

sp 0.3( D r )

90 p , (121)

where s is to be determined in accordance with clause 5.3.1 with D = D and sT determined in

accordance with clause 5.3.5.

Diagram for determining the coefficient when carrying out the check calculation

Fig. 32

5.3.7.3. The permissible internal excess pressure is to be taken as being the larger of the

value of

2

p p ( s c) 90

0.3( D r ) 1 (122)

and the lesser of the values of [] determined in accordance with clauses 5.3.1 when s = s

and 5.3.5 when s = s.

5.3.8. Gently sloping conical end plate with reinforcing ring (see Fig. 26b)

5.3.8.1. The design formulae are applicable for the effect of an internal excess pressure

when the following conditions are fulfilled:

1 > 70; s = s.

5.3.8.2. The thickness of the wall of the conical end plate is to be determined in accordance

with clause 5.3.1.1 when D = D.

5.3.8.3. The area of the transverse cross section of the reinforcing ring is to be determined

in accordance with clause 5.3.4.2, in which (s1 - ) = 0 should be used when determining .

5.3.8.4. The permissible internal excess pressure is to be determined for the conical end

plate in accordance with clause 5.3.1.2 with D = D; and for the reinforcing ring in accordance

with clause 5.3.4.3 in which (s1 - ) = 0 = 0 should be used when determining 2. The

calculation is to apply if the requirements of clause 5.3.4.5. are fulfilled.

5.3.9. Gradually sloping conical end plate without a toroidal transition zone and without a

reinforcing ring (see Fig 26c).

5.3.9.1. The design formulae are to apply for the effect of an internal excess pressure when

the following condition is fulfilled

1 > 70.

5.3.9.2. The wall thickness is to be taken as being

s min {max{s; s1}; Sp + c}; (123)

sp is to be determined using formula (119) with r r = 0;

s is to be determined in accordance with clause 5.3.1 with D = D;

s1 is to be determined in accordance with clause 5.3.3.

5.3.9.3. The permissible internal excess pressure is to be taken as being the larger of the

value of [] determined from formula (120) when r = 0 and the lesser of the values of []

found in accordance with clause 5.3.1 when s = s and D = D and in accordance with clause

5.3.3.

5.3.10. Gently sloping conical end plate which is loaded with an external pressure

5.3.10.1. The design formulae are to apply for the effect of an external pressure when the

following condition is fulfilled

1 > 70.

5.3.10.2. The permissible external pressure is to be determined from formula (86), the

permissible pressure within the limits of plasticity from formula (87), and the permissible

pressure within the limits of elasticity from the formula

2

4 EK s c

p cos 2 1

n y D

E

, (124)

where

0,1 5

K min 0.36; max ;0,12

4 ; (125)

D

2( s c ) cos 1 . (126)

5.4. C o n i c a l s h e l l s l o a d e d w i t h a x i a l f o r c e s

5.4.1. Smooth conical shells which are loaded with an axial tensile force

5.4.1.1. The thickness of the wall is to be determined using the formula

s s.p + c, (127)

where

F 1

s.

D1 cos1 . (128)

5.4.1.2. The permissible tensile force is to be

[F] = D1(s - c)[] cos 1. (129)

5.4.2. Smooth conical shells loaded with an axial compressive force

5.4.2.1. The design formula are to apply when the following condition is fulfilled

1 70.

5.4.2.2. The permissible axial compressive force [F] is to be determined from the formula

F min

F D

; 1 F

2 DF

F

1

F E , (130)

where the permissible axial force obtained from the condition for strength is

[F] = DF(s - c)[] cos 1 (131)

and the permissible axial force obtained from the condition for stability within the limits of

elasticity is

2.5

310 10 6 E 2 100( s c )

DF cos 1

ny DF ;

[F] = (132)

0.9 D 0.1D1

DF

cos 1 (133)

5.4.3. Connection of shells without a toroidal transition zone (Figs. 21a and 21b).

5.4.3.1. The design formulae are to apply when the conditions in clause 5.3.3.1 are

fulfilled.

5.4.3.2. The permissible axial tensile or compressive force [F] obtained from the condition

for the strength of the transition part is to be determined by means of the formula

( s2 c ) 2 p cos 2

F D

5 , (134)

where the shape coefficient is 5 = max {1.0; (2+1.2)}. (135)

The coefficient is to be determined using formula (98), or from the diagram (see Fig. 28).

5.4.4. Connection of a conical and a cylindrical shell with a reinforcing ring (Fig21c).

5.4.4.1. The design formulae are to apply when the conditions in clause 5.3.4.1. are

fulfilled.

5.4.4.2. The permissible axial tensile or compressive force [F] obtained from the condition

for the strength of the transition part is to be determined from the formula

( s2 c ) 2 p

F D

6 , (136)

where

6 = max {1.0; 20}. (135)

The coefficient 0 is to be determined by means of formula (106), in which 3 = -0.35

should be used.

5.4.4.3. Checking of the welded seam of a reinforcing ring shall be carried out in

accordance with clause 5.3.4.5.

5.4.5. Connection of shells with a torroidal transition zone (figs. 22a and22b).

5.4.5.1. The design formulae are to apply when the conditions in clause 5.3.5.1 are

fulfilled.

5.4.5.2. The permissible axial tensile or compressive force [F] to satisfy the condition for

the strength of the transition part is to be determined by means of the formula

( s c ) p cos 2

F D

7 , (138)

where

7 = max {1.0; (2+1.2)}. (139)

The coefficients and are to be determined by means of formulae (98) and (112), or

from the diagrams (Figs. 28 and 30).

5.4.6. Connection of a pipe connection or internal cylindrical casing with a conical shell

(Fig. 21d)

5.4.6.1. The design formulae are to apply when the conditions in clause 5.3.6.1 are

fulfilled.

5.4.6.2. The permissible axial tensile or compressive force [F] obtained from the condition

for the strength of the transition part is to be determined by means of the formula

( s2 c ) 2 p

F D

8 , (140)

where 8 = max {1.0; (2-1)}. (141)

The shape coefficient is to be determined by means of formulae (118) or (117), or from

the diagram (Fig. 32).

5.5. C o n i c a l s h e l l s w h i c h a r e l o a d e d w i t h a b e n d i n g m o m e n t

5.5.1. The permissible bending moment is to be calculated using the following formulae:

from the condition for strength

Dp

M F

4 , (142)

where the design diameter Dp = D1 for a conical transition zone (Fig. 23), and [F] is

determined by means of formula (129);

from the condition for stability

M M

2

M

1

M E , (143)

where

M DF F

4 , (144)

M DF F

3,5 , (145)

and DF is determined using formula (133).

The permissible axial forces are to be determined as follows:

[F] in accordance with clause 5.4.1.2; [F] and [F]E in accordance with clause 5.4.2.2.

5.5.2. Connection of shells

5.5.2.1. The permissible bending moment from the condition for the strength of the

transition part is to be determined from the formula

M D F

4 , (146)

where the permissible axial force [F] is to be determined in accordance with clauses

5.4.3.2, 5.4.4.2, 5.4.5.2 and 5.4.6.2.

5.6. Combination of loadings

5.6.1. Conditions for applicability of the formulae

If a conical shell which is loaded with a pressure, an axial force and a bending moment and

the total of the equivalent pressures from these loadings determinedly means of the formulae

4F 16 M

pF pM

D 2p D 3p

; , (147)

makes up less than 10% of the working pressure for the relevant design diameter, the

conical shell should be calculated for the effect of the pressure only.

5.6.2. Combined action of loads

When checking strength or stability for the combined actions of the loadings, minus p is to

be substituted for the design external pressure in formula (148) and (150); and when checking

for the effect of axial compressive force, minus F is to be substituted. The bending moment M

is always to be used with a plus sign.

5.6.2.1. Smooth conical shells

In the case of the effect of external pressure, it is necessary to check the stability condition

using the formula

p F M

- p - F + M 1. (148)

In addition, a check must be carried out for stability under the individual loadings

[p]; F [F]; M [M]. (149)

The permissible loadings [p], [F] and [M] are to be determined in accordance with clauses

5.3.2.3, 5.4.2.2 and 5.5.1. The check is to be carried out even if the conditions in clause 5.6.1

are not fulfilled for only one of the design diameters of a conical shell.

When there is internal pressure, it should be taken that p = 0 in formula (148).

5.6.2.2. Transition parts of conical shells

In addition to checking for the conditions of strength under the individual loadings in

accordance with formulae (149), it is necessary to check that the following condition is

fulfilled

p F M

p + F + M 1, (150)

where [p], [F] and [M] are the permissible loadings for the transition part of the shell. A check

is to be carried out if the conditions given in clause 5.6.1 are not fulfilled when Dp = D.

APPENDIX 1

Obligatory

Table 5

Permissible stresses for carbon and low-alloy steels

Design Permissible stress [], MPa (kg force/cm2) for steels of Types

temperature VSt3 09G2S, 16GS 20, 20K

of wall of Thickness, mm 17G1S

vessel or 10 10G2 17GS

apparatus, up to 20 over 20 up to 32 over 32 up to 160 10G2SI

20 154(1540) 140(1400) 196(1960) 183(1830) 147(1470) 130(1300) 180(1800) 183(1830)

100 149(1490) 134(1340) 177(1770) 160(1600) 142(1420) 125(1250) 160(1600) 160(1600)

150 145(1450) 131(1310) 171(1710) 154(1540) 139(1390) 122(1220) 154(1540) 154(1540)

200 142(1420) 126(1260) 165(1650) 148(1480) 136(1360) 118(1180) 148(1480) 148(1480)

250 131(1310) 120(1200) 162(1620) 145(1450) 132(1320) 112(1120) 145(1450) 145(1450)

300 115(1150) 108(1080) 151(1510) 134(1340) 119(1190) 100(1000) 134(1340) 134(1340)

350 105(1050) 98(980) 140(1400) 123(1230) 106(1060) 88(880) 123(1230) 123(1230)

375 93(930) 93(930) 133(1330) 116(1160) 98(980) 82(820) 108(1080) 116(1160)

400 85(850) 85(850) 122(1220) 105(1050) 92(920) 77(770) 92(920) 105(1050)

410 81(810) 81(810) 104(1040) 104(1040) 86(860) 75(750) 86(860) 104(1040)

420 75(750) 75(750) 92(920) 92(920) 80(800) 72(720) 80(800) 92(920)

430 71* (710) 71*(710) 86(860) 86(860) 75(750) 68(680) 75(750) 86(860)

440 - - 78(780) 78(780) 67(670) 60(600) 67(670) 78(780)

450 - - 71(710) 71(710) 61(610) 53(530) 61(610) 71(710)

460 - 64(640) 64(640) 55(550) 47(470) 55(550) 64(640)

470 - - 56(560) 56(560) 49(490) 42(420) 49(490) 56(560)

480 - - 53(530) 53(530) 46* (460) 37(370) 46** (460) 53(530)

* For design wall temperature of 425C.

* * For design wall temperature of 475C.

Notes:

1. When the design temperatures are less than 20C, the permissible stresses are to be

taken as being the same as when the design temperature is 20C provided that it is permissible

to use the materials for the particular temperature.

2. For intermediate values of design temperatures of walls, the permissible stress is to be

determined by linear interpolation with the results being rounded down to the nearest 0.5 MPa

(5 kg force/cm2).

3. For steel of Type 20 with Re20 < 220 MPa (2200 kg force/cm 2), the permissible stresses

given in Table 5 are to be multiplied by the ratio Re20 /220 (Re20 /2200).

4. For steel of Type 10G2 with RP0.220 < 270 MPa (2700 kg force/cm2), the permissible

stresses given in Table 5 are to be multiplied by the ratio RP0.220;/270 (RP0.220/2700).

Table 6

Permissible stresses for creep-resistant chromium steel

Design temperature Permissible stress [], MPa (kg force/cm2) for steels of Types

of wall of vessel or

apparatus, 12KhM 12MKh 15KhM 15Kh5M 15Kh5M-U

20 147(1470) 147(1470) 155(1550) 146(1460) 240(2400)

100 146.5(1465) 146.5(1465) 153(1530) 141(1410) 235(2350)

150 146(1460) 146(1460) 152.5(1525) 138(1380) 230(2300)

200 145(1450) 145(1450) 152(1520) 134(1340) 225(2250)

250 145(1450) 145(1450) 152(1520) 127(1270) 220(2200)

300 141(1410) 141(1410) 147(1470) 120(1200) 210(2100)

350 137(1370) 137(1370) 142(1420) 114(1140) 200(2000)

375 135(1350) 135(1350) 140(1400) 110(1100) 180(1800)

400 132(1320) 132(1320) 137(1370) 105(1050) 170(1700)

410 130(1300) 130(1300) 136(1360) 103(1030) 160(1600)

420 129(1290) 129(1290) 135(1350) 101(1010) 150(1500)

430 127(1270) 127(1270) 134(1340) 99(990) 140(1400)

440 126(1260) 126(1260) 132(1320) 96(960) 135(1350)

450 124(1240) 124(1240) 131(1310) 94(940) 130(1300)

460 122(1220) 122(1220) 127(1270) 91(910) 126(1260)

470 117(1170) 117(1170) 122(1220) 89(890) 122(1220)

480 114(1140) 114(1140) 117(1170) 86(860) 118(1180)

490 105(1050) 105(1050) 107(1070) 83(830) 114(1140)

500 96(960) 96(960) 99(990) 79(790) 108(1080)

510 82(820) 82(820) 84(840) 72(720) 97(970)

520 69(690) 69(690) 74(740) 66(660) 85(850)

530 60(600) 57(570) 67(670) 60(600) 72(720)

540 50(500) 47(470) 57(570) 54(540) 58(580)

550 41(410) - 49(490) 47(470) 52(520)

560 33(330) - 41(410) 40(400) 45(450)

570 - - - 35(350) 40(400)

580 - - - 30(300) 34(340)

590 - - - 28(280) 30(300)

600 - - - 25(250) 25(250)

Notes:

1. When design temperatures are less than 20C, the permissible stresses are to be taken as

being the same as for 20C provided that it is permissible to use the material at the particular

temperature.

2. For intermediate design temperatures of the wall, the permissible stresses are to be

determined by linear interpolation with the results being rounded down to the nearest 0.5 MPa

(5 kg force/cm2],

3. It is recommended that steels of Types 12MKh, 12KhM and 15 KhM should not be used

when design temperatures are less than 200C.

Table 7

Permissible stresses for high-temperature, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant steels of

the austenitic class

Design Permissible stress [], MPa (kg force/cm2) for steels of Types

temperature 08Kh18N10T, 12Kh18N10T,

of wall of vessel 03Kh21N21M4GB 08Kh18N12T, 12Kh18N12T,

03Kh18N11 03Khl7N14M3

or apparatus, 08Kh17N13M2T, l0Kh17N13M2T,

08Kh17N15M3T 10Kh17M13M3T

20 180(1800) 160(1600) 153(1530) 168(1680) 184(1840)

100 173(1730) 133(1330) 140(1400) 156(1560) 174(1740)

150 171(1710) 125(1250) 130(1300) 148(1480) 168(1680)

200 171(1710) 120(1200) 120(1200) 140(1400) 160(1600)

250 167(1670) 115(1150) 113(1130) 132(1320) 154(1540)

300 149(1490) 112(1120) 103(1030) 123(1230) 148(1480)

350 143(1430) 108(1080) 101(1010) 113(1130) 144(1440)

375 141(1410) 107(1070) 90(900) 108(1080) 140(1400)

400 140(1400) 107(1070) 87(870) 103(1030) 137(1370)

410 - 107(1070) 83(830) 102(1020) 136(1360)

420 - 107(1070) 82(820) 101(1010) 135(1350)

430 - 107(1070) 81(810) 100.5(1005) 134(1340)

440 - 107(1070) 81(810) 100(1000) 133(1330)

450 - 107(1070) 80(800) 99(990) 132(1320)

460 - - - 98(980) 131(1310)

470 - - - 97.5(975) 130(1300)

480 - - - 97(970) 129(1290)

490 - - - 96(960) 128(1280)

500 - - - 95(950) 127(1270)

510 - - - 94(940) 126(1260)

520 - - - 79(790) 125(1250)

530 - - - 79(790) 124(1240)

540 - - - 78(780) 111(1110)

550 - - - 76(760) 111(1110)

560 - - - 73(730) 101(1010)

570 - - - 69(690) 97(970)

580 - - - 65(650) 90(900)

590 - - - 61(610) 81(810)

600 - - - 57(570) 74(740)

610 - - - - 68(680)

620 - - - - 62(620)

630 - - - - 57(570)

640 - - - - 52(520)

650 - - - - 48(480)

660 - - - - 45(450)

670 - - - - 42(420)

680 - - - - 38(380)

690 - - - - 34(340)

700 - - - - 30(300)

Notes:

1. When design temperatures are less than 20C, the permissible stresses are to be taken as

being the same as for 20C provided that it is permissible to use the material at the particular

temperature.

2. For intermediate design wall temperatures, the permissible stress is to be determined by

interpolation between the two nearest values shown in the Table with the results being

rounded down to the nearest 0.5 MPa (5 kg forc6/cnr).

3. For forgings of steel Types 12Khl8N10T, 10Khl7N13M2T and 10Khl7N13M3T, the

permissible stresses given in Table 7 are to be multiplied by 0.83 for temperatures up to

500C.

4. For rolled steel of Types 12Khl8N10T, 10Khl7N13M2T and 10Khl7Nl3M3T, the

permissible stresses in Table 7 for temperatures up to 550are to be multiplied by the ratio

R *p 0.2 R *p 0.2

240 2400

,

where R*p0.2 - is the yield point of the material of the rolled steel determined in accordance

with GOST 5949; for rolled steel of Type 03Khl8Nll the permissible stresses are to be

multiplied by 0.8.

5. For forgings and rolled metal of steel Type 08Khl8NlOT, the permissible stresses given

in Table 7 for temperatures up to 550C are to be multiplied by 0.95 .

6. For forgings of steel Type 03Khl7N14M3, the permissible stresses given in Table 7 are

to be multiplied by 0.9.

7. For forgings of steel Type 03Khl8Nll, the permissible stresses given in Table 7 are to be

multiplied by 0.9; for rolled metal of steel Type 03Khl8Nll, the permissible stresses given in

Table 7 are to be multiplied by 0.8.

^

8. For pipe of steel Type 03Kh21N21M4GB (ZI-35), the permissible stresses given in

Table 7 are to be multiplied by 0.88.

9. For forgings of steel Type 03Kh21N21M4GB (ZI-35), the permissible stresses given in

Table 7 are to be multiplied by the ratio

R *p 0.2 R *p 0.2

250 2500

,

where R*p0.2 - is the yield point of the material of the forging determined in accordance with

GOST 25054 (by correlation).

Table 8

Permissible resistances for high-temperature, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant

steels of the austenitic and austenitic-ferrite class

Design Permissible stress [], MPa (kg force/cm2) for steels of Types

temperature

of wall of

vessel or 08Kh18G8N2 07Kh13G20 02Kh8N22S6 15Kh18N12S4Yu 06KhN28D, 08Kh22M6,

(0-3) (ChS-46) (EP-794) (EI-654) 03Kh28D 08Kh21N62

apparatus,

20 230(2300) 233(2330) 133(1330) 233(2330) 147(1470) 233(2330)

100 206(2060) 173(1730) 106.5(1065) 220(2200) 138(1380) 200(2000)

150 190(1900) 153(1530) 100(1000) 206.5(2065) 130(1300) 193(1930)

200 175(1750) 133(1330) 90(900) 200(2000) 124(1240) 188.5(1885)

250 160(1600) 127(1270) 83(830) 186.5(1865) 117(1170) 166.5(1665)

300 144(1440) 120(1200) 76.5(765) 180(1800) 110(1100) 160(1600)

350 - 113(1130) - - 107(1070) -

375 - 110(1100) - - 105(1050) -

400 - 107(1070) - - 103(1030) -

Notes:

1. When design temperatures are less than 20C, the permissible stresses are to be taken as

being the same as for 20C provided that it is permissible to use the material at the particular

temperature.

2. For intermediate design temperatures of the wall, the permissible stress is to be

determined by linear interpolation with the results being rounded down to the nearest 0.5 MPa

(5 kg force/cm2).

APPENDIX 2

For information

Mechanical characteristics:

for carbon and low-alloy steels - Tables 1 and 2, for creep-resistant chromium steel -

Tables 3 and 4, for high temperature, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant steels of the

austenitic and austenitic-ferrite class Tables 5 and 6

Table 9

Design Design value of yield point Re, P (kg force/m2) for steels of Types

temperature VSt3 09G2S, 16GS 20, 20K

of wall of Thickness, mm 17G1S,

vessel or 10G2,

10 17GS,

apparatus, 09G2

up to 20 over 20 up to 32 over 32 up to 160 10G2SI

20 250(2500) 210(2100) 300(3000) 280(2800) 220(2200) 195(1950) 270(2700) 280(2800)

100 230(2300) 201(2010) 265.5(2655) 240(2400) 213(2130) 188(1880) 240(2400) 240(2400)

150 224(2240) 197(1970) 256.5(2565) 231(2310) 209(2090) 183(1830) 231(2310) 231(2310)

200 223(2230) 189(1890) 247.5(2475) 222(2220) 204(2040) 177(1770) 222(2220) 222(2220)

250 197(1970) 180(1800) 243(2430) 218(2180) 198(1980) 168(1680) 218(2180) 218(2180)

300 173(1730) 162(1620) 226.5(2265) 201(2010) 179(1790) 150(1500) 201(2010) 201(2010)

350 167(1670) 147(1470) 210(2100) 185(1850) 159(1590) 132(1320) 185(1850) 185(1850)

375 164(1640) 140(1400) 199.5(1995) 174(1740) 147(1470) 123(1230) 162(1620) 174(1740)

400 - - 183(1830) 158(1580) - - - 158(1580)

410 - - - 156(1560) - - - 156(1560)

420 - - - 138(1380) - - - 138(1380)

Table 10

Design Design value of tensile strength R, P (kg force/m2) for steels of Types

temperature VSt3 09G2S, 16GS 20, 20K 10G2,

of wall of Thickness, mm 09G2,

vessel or 10 17GS,

apparatus, up to 20 over 20 up to 32 over 32 up to 160 10G2SI,

10G2S1

20 460(4600) 380(3800) 470(4700) 440(4400) 410(4100) 340(3400) 440(4400)

100 435(4350) 360(3600) 425(4250) 385(3850) 380(3800) 310(3100) 385(3850)

150 460(4600) 390(3900) 430(4300) 430(4300) 425(4250) 340(3400) 430(4300)

200 505(5050) 420(4200) 439(4390) 439(4390) 460(4600) 382(3820) 439(4390)

250 510(5100) 435(4350) 444(4440) 444(4440) 460(4600) 400(4000) 444(4440)

300 520(5200) 440(4400) 445(4450) 445(4450) 460(4600) 374(3740) 445(4450)

350 480(4800) 420(4200) 441(4410) 441(4410) 430(4300) 360(3600) 441(4410)

375 450(4500) 402(4020) 425(4250) 425(4250) 410(4100) 330(3300) 425(4250)

Table 11

2

Design temperature Design value of yield point Rp0.2, P (kg force/m ) for steels of Types

of wall of vessel or

apparatus, 12MKh 12KhM 15KhM 15Kh5 15Kh5-U

20 220(2200) 220(2200) 233(2330) 220(2200) 400(4000)

100 219(2190) 219(2190) 230(2300) 210(2100) 352.5(3525)

150 218(2180) 218(2180) 229(2290) 207(2070) 345(3450)

200 217.5(2175) 217.5(2175) 228(2280) 201(2010) 337.5(3375)

250 217.5(2175) 217.5(2175) 228(2280) 190(1900) 330(3300)

300 212(2120) 212(2120) 220(2200) 180(1800) 315(3150)

350 206(2060) 206(2060) 213(2130) 171(1710) 300(3000)

375 202(2020) 202(2020) 210(2100) 164(1640) 270(2700)

400 198(1980) 198(1980) 205(2050) 158(1580) 255(2550)

410 195(1950) 195(1950) 204(2040) 155(1550) 240(2400)

420 194(1940) 194(1940) 202(2020) 152(1520) 225(2250)

Table 12

Design Design value of tensile strength R, P (kg force/m2) for steels of Types

temperature

of wall of vessel

or apparatus, 12Kh 12Kh 15Kh 15Kh5 15Kh5-U

20 450(4500) 450(4500) 450(4500) 400(4000) 600(6000)

100 440(4400) 440(4400) 440(4400) 380(3800) 572(5720)

150 434(4340) 434(4340) 434(4340) 355(3550) 555(5550)

200 430(4300) 430(4300) 430(4300) 330(3300) 535(5350)

250 440(4400) 437(4370) 437(4370) 320(3200) 520(5200)

300 454(4540) 445(4450) 445(4450) 318(3180) 503(5030)

350 437(4370) 442(4420) 442(4420) 314(3140) 492(4920)

375 427(4270) 436(4360) 436(4360) 312(3120) 484(4840)

400 415(4150) 426(4260) 426(4260) 310(3100) 472(4720)

410 413(4130) 424(4240) 424(4240) 306(3060) 468(4680)

420 410(4100) 421(4210) 421(4210) 300(3000) 462(4620)

Table 13

2

Design Design value of yield point Rp0.2, P (kg force/m ) for steels of Types

temperature

of wall of

vessel or 08Kh18G8N2 07Kh13AG20 02Kh8N22S6 15Kh18N12S4Yu 08Kh22N6, 06KhN28D,

(0-3) (ChS-46) (EP-794) (EI-654) 08Kh21N62 03KhN28D

apparatus,

20 350(3500) 350(3500) 200(2000) 350(3500) 350(3500) 220(2200)

100 328(3280) 260(2600) 160(1600) 330(3300) 300(3000) 207(2070)

150 314(3140) 230(2300) 150(1500) 310(3100) 280(2900) 195(1950)

200 300(3000) 200(2000) 135(1350) 300(3000) 283(2830) 186(1860)

250 287(2870) 190(1900) 125(1250) 280(2800) 250(2500) 175(1750)

300 274(2740) 180(1800) 115(1150) 270(2700) 240(2400) 165(1650)

350 - 170(1700) - - - 160(1600)

375 - 165(1650) - - - 157.5(1575)

400 - 160(1600) - - - 155(1550)

Table 14

2

Design Design value of tensile strength R, P (kg force/m ) for steels of Types

temperature

of wall of vessel 08Kh18G8N2 07Kh13AG20 02Kh8N22S6 15Kh18N12S4Y 06KhN28D,

or apparatus, (0-3) (ChS-46) (EP-794) u (EP-654) 03KhN28D

20 600(6000) 670(6700) 550(5500) 700(7000) 550(5500)

100 535(5350) 550(5500) 500(5000) 640(6400) 527.5(5275)

150 495(4950) 520(5200) 480(4800) 610(6100) 512.5(5125)

200 455(4550) 490(4900) 468(4680) 580(5800) 500(5000)

250 415(4150) 485(4850) 450(4500) 570(5700) 490(4900)

300 375(3750) 480(4800) 440(4400) 570(5700) 482.5(4825)

350 - 465(4650) - - 478(4780)

375 - 458(4580) - - 474(4740)

400 - 450(4500) - - 470(4700)

Table 15

Design Design value of yield point Rp1.0, P (kg force/m2) for steels of Types

temperature 12Kh18N10, 08Kh18N10,

of wall of vessel or 12Kh18N12, 08Kh18N12,

03Kh21N214GB 03Kh18N11 03Kh17N143

apparatus, 10Kh17N132, 08Kh17N132,

10Kh17N133 08Kh17N153

20 276(2760) 252(2520) 270(2700) 240(2400) 230(2300)

100 261(2610) 234(2340) 260(2600) 200(2000) 210(2100)

150 252(2520) 222(2220) 257(2570) 187.5(1875) 195(1950)

200 240(2400) 210(2100) 257(2570) 180(1800) 180(1800)

250 231(2310) 198(1980) 250(2500) 173(1730) 170(1700)

300 222(2220) 184.5(1845) 223(2230) 168(1680) 155(1550)

350 216(2160) 169.5(1695) 215(2150) 162(1620) 152(1520)

375 210(2100) 162(1620) 212(2120) 160(1600) 135(1350)

400 205.5(2055) 154.5(1545) 210(2100) 160(1600) 130(1300)

410 204(2040) 153(1530) - 160(1600) 125(1250)

420 202.5(2025) 151.5(1515) - 160(1600) 123(1230)

430 201(2010) 150.75(1508) - 160(1600) 122(1220)

440 199.5(1995) 150(1500) - 160(1600) 121(1210)

450 198(1980) 148.5(1485) - 160(1600) 120(1200)

460 196.5(1965) 147(1470) - - -

470 195(1950) 146(1460) - - -

480 193.5(1935) 145.5(1455) - - -

490 192(1920) 144(1440) - - -

500 190.5(1905) 142.5(1425) - - -

510 189(1890) 141(1410) - - -

520 187.5(1875) 139.5(1395) - - -

530 186(1860) 138(1380) - - -

Note. The yield point for forgings, rolled steel and pipe when the temperature is 20C

should be taken as being:

for forgings of steels Types 12Khl8N10T, 10KH17N13M2T and 10Khl7N13M3T -

R p201.0 of sheet steel

;

1.2

R p201.0 of sheet steel

;

for forgings and rolled steel of Type 08Khl8N10T - 1.05

1.15 R p200.2 of rolled steel

R p201.0 of sheet steel

;

for forgings of steel Types 03Khl7Ni4M3 and 03Khl8Nll - 1.11

R p1.0 of sheet steel

20

;

for rolled steel of Type 03Khl811 - 1.25

R p201.0 of sheet steel

;

for pipe of steel Type 03Kh21N21M4GB (ZI-35) - 1.14

1.08 R p200.2

for forgings of steel Type 03Kh21N21M4GB (ZI-35) - (forgings)

R p200.2

where is the yield point of the material of the forgings in accordance with GOST

25054 (by correlation).

Table 16

2

Design Design value of yield point Rp0.2 , P (kg force/m ) for steels of Types

temperature 12Kh18N10, 08Kh18N10,

of wall of vessel 12Kh18N12, 08Kh18N12T,

03Kh21N214GB 03Kh18N11 03Kh17N14M3

or apparatus, 10Kh17N132, 08Kh17N132,

10Kh17N133 08Kh17N13M3T

20 240(2400) 210*(2100) 250(2500) 200(2000) 200(2000)

100 228(2280) 195(1950) 240(2400) 160(1600) 180(1800)

150 219(2190) 180(1800) 235(2350) 150(1500) 165(1650)

200 210(2100) 173(1730) 235(2350) 140(1400) 150(1500)

250 204(2040) 165(1650) 232(2320) 135(1350) 140(1400)

300 195(1950) 150(1500) 205(2050) 130(1300) 126(1260)

350 190(1900) 137(1370) 199(1990) 127(1270) 115(1150)

375 186(1860) 133(1330) 195(1950) 125(1250) 108(1080)

400 181(1810) 129(1290) 191(1910) 122.5(1225) 100(1000)

410 180(1800) 128(1280) - 121.5(1215) 98(980)

420 180(1800) 128(1280) - 121(1210) 97.5(975)

430 179(1790) 127(1270) - 120.5(1205) 97(970)

440 177(1770) 126(1260) - 120(1200) 96(960)

450 176(1760) 125(1250) - 120(1200) 95(950)

460 174(1740) 125(1250) - - -

470 173(1730) 124(1240) - - -

480 173(1730) 123(1230) - - -

490 171(1710) 122(1220) - - -

500 170(1700) 122(1220) - - -

510 168(1680) 120(1200) - - -

520 168(1680) 119(1190) - - -

530 167(1670) 119(1190) - - -

* For steels 08Khl7Nl3M2T, 08KH17N15M3T, the yield point when the temperature is 20C is to be equal

to 200 MPa (2000 kg force/cm2).

Notes:

1. For forgings of steels Types 12Kh18N10, 10Kh17N132, 10Kh17N133, the yield

points given in Table 16 are to be multiplied by 0.83.

2. For rolled steel of Types 12Kh18N10, 10Kh17N132, 10Kh17N133 the yield

points given in Table 16 are to be multiplied by

R *p 0.2 R *p 0.2

240 2400

,

where R*p0.2 - is the yield point of the material of the rolled steel determined in accordance

with GOST 5949.

3. For forgings and rolled steel of Type 08Kh18N10 the yield points given in Table 16 are

to be multiplied by 0.95.

4. For forgings of steel Type 03Kh17N143 the yield points given in Table 16 are to be

multiplied by 0.9.

5. For forgings of steel Type 03Kh18N11 the yield points given in Table 16 are to be

multiplied by 0.9; for rolled steel of Type 03Kh18N11 the yield point is to be multiplied by

0.8.

6. For pipe of steel Type 03Kh21N214GB (ZI-35) the yield points given in Table 16 are

to be multiplied by 0.88.

7. For forgings of steel Type 03Kh2lN21M4GB (ZI-35), the yield points given in Table 16

are to be multiplied by the relationship

R *p 0.2 R *p 0.2

250 2500

,

where R*p0.2 is the yield point of the materials of the forgings determined in accordance with

GOST 25054 (by correlation).

Table 17

Design Design value of tensile strength R, P (kg force/m2) for steels of Types

temperature

of wall of 08Kh18N10, 12Kh18N10,

vessel or 08Kh22N6, 08Kh18N12, 12Kh18N12,

03Kh21N214GB 03Kh17N143 03Kh18N11

08Kh21N62 08Kh17N132, 10Kh17N132,

apparatus, 08Kh17N153 10Kh17N133

20 550(5500) 600(6000) 500(5000) 520(5200) 520(5200) 540(5400)

100 540(5400) 583(5830) 474(4740) 450(4500) 480(4800) 500(5000)

150 535(5350) 550(5500) 453(4530) 433(4330) 455(4550) 475(4750)

200 535(5350) 515(5150) 432(4320) 415(4150) 430(4300) 450(4500)

250 534(5340) 503(5030) 412(4120) 405(4050) 424(4240) 443(4430)

300 520(5200) 500(5000) 392(3920) 397(3970) 417(4170) 440(4400)

350 518(5180) - 376(3760) 394(3940) 408(4080) 438(4380)

375 517(5170) - 368(3680) 392(3920) 405(4050) 437(4370)

400 516(5160) - 360(3600) 390(3900) 402(4020) 436(4360)

410 - - 358(3580) 388(3880) 400(4000) 434(4340)

420 - - 356(3560) 386(3860) 398(3980) 432(4320)

430 - - 354(3540) 384(3840) 396(3960) 431(4310)

440 - - 352(3520) 382(3820) 394(3940) 430(4300)

450 - - 350(3500) 380(3800) 392(3920) 428(4280)

460 - - - - 390(3900) 426(4260)

470 - - - - 388(3880) 424(4240)

480 - - - - 386(3860) 422(4220)

490 - - - - 385(3850) 421(4210)

500 - - - - 383(3830) 420(4200)

510 - - - - 381(3810) 418(4180)

520 - - - - 380(3800) 416(4160)

530 - - - - 374*(3740) 412*(4120)

* For design temperature of the wall of 550C.

APPENDIX 3

for information

Table 18

Coefficient of linear expansion

Design value of coefficient 106, -1, when temperature, C, is

Type of Steel

20-100 20-200 20-300 20-400 20-500

VSt3, 20, 20K 11.6 12.6 13.1 13.6 14.1

09G2S, 16GS, 17GS, 17G1S

10G2S1, 10G2 13.0 14.0 15.3 16.1 16.2

12KhM, 12MKh, 15KhM, 11.9 12.6 13.2 13.7 14.0

15Kh5M, 15KhM-U

08KH22N6T, 08Kh21N6M2T 9.6 13.8 16.0 16.0 16.5

12Kh18N10T, 12Kh18N12T,

03KM7N14M3, 10KH17N13M2T

10K.h17N13M3T, 08KM8N10T

08KM8N12T, 03Kh18N11

08KM7N13M2T, 08Kh17Nl5M3T 16.6 17.0 18.0 18.0 18.0

03Kh21N21M4GB 14.9 15.7 16.6 17.3 17.5

06KHN28MDT,

03KHN28MDT 15.3 15.9 16.5 16.9 17.3

08Kh18GBN2T 12.3 13.1 14.4 14.4 15.3

APPENDIX 4

Obligatory

Design values of the modulus of elasticity

3 - high-temperature, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant austenitic steels

Table 19

Modulus of elasticity 105 P (10-6 kg force/m2) when temperature, , is

Steel

20 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 650 600 650 700

Carbon and low-alloy 1.99 1.91 1.86 1.81 1.76 1.71 1.64 1.55 1.40 - - - - -

steels

Creep-resisting and 2.15 2.15 2.05 1.98 1.95 1.90 1.84 1.78 1.71 1.63 1.54 1.40 - -

corrosion-resistant

chrome steels

High-temperature and 2.00 2.00 1.99 1.97 1.94 1.90 1.85 1.80 1.74 1.67 1.60 1.52 1.43 1.32

heat-resistant

austenitic steels

APPENDIX 5

Obligatory

Table 20

Safety factors for the strength of welded joints

Value of safety factor for strength

of welded seams

Form of welded seam Length of monitored Length of monitored

welds of total length is welds of total length is

100%* 10 to 50%*

Butt or Tee-shaped with continuous fusion 1.0 0.9

from both sides, welded automatically or

semi-automatically

Butt with re-welding of the root of the seam 1.0 0.9

or Tee-shaped with weld continuous

through the seam, welded manually

Butt, accessible for welding from one side 0.9 0.8

only and having a metal backing plate held

against the root of the base metal of the root

of the weld for the full length of the seam

during welding

Tee-shaped with a constructional clearance 0.8 0.65

between the welded parts

Butt, welded automatically or semi- 0.9 0.8

automatically from one side using flux or

ceramic backing

Butt welded manually from one side 0.9 0.65

* The extent of monitoring is determined by technical specifications for manufacture and the regulations of

the USSR State Mining Industry Inspectorate.

APPENDIX 6

for information

Table 21

Terms used in this Standard and their symbols

Term Symbol

Area of transverse cross section of stiffening ring, mm2 (m2)

Design lengths of transition parts of shells, mm (m) 1, 2

Actual lengths of the transition parts of shells, mm (m) 1, 2

Non-dimensional coefficients B1, B2, B3,

B4, B5, B6, B7

Distance between two adjacent stiffening rings, mm (m) b

Length of chords of openings in end plates, mm (m) bi (i = 1, 2, 3 ...n)

Sum of additions to design thicknesses of walls, mm (m)

Addition to compensate for corrosion and erosion, mm (m) 1

Addition to compensate for negative tolerance, mm (m) 2

Addition for technological process used, mm (m) 3

Internal diameter of vessel or apparatus, mm (m) D

External diameter of perimeter of end plate or cover having D

a thickness of s1, mm (m)

Average diameter of gasket, mm (m) D.

Effective diameter of conical shell when there is external DE

pressure, mm (m)

Effective diameter of conical shell when there is axial DF

compression and bending, mm (m)

Design diameter of smooth conical shell, mm (m) D

Design diameter of end plate (cover) and conical shell, mm D

(m)

External diameter of vessel or apparatus, and also of D1

diameter of smaller base of conical shell, mm (m)

Smallest diameter of external part of cover with reduced D2

thickness, mm (m)

Diameter of bolt perimeter, mm (m) D3

Diameter of opening in end plate or cover, mm (m) d

Diameter of openings in end plates, mm (m) di (i = 1, 2, 3 ...n)

Modulus of longitudinal elasticity at design temperature, E

MPa (kg force/m2)

Distance between centre of gravity of transverse

cross section of stiffening ring and median surface of

shell, mm (cm)

Design axial tensile or compressive force (without taking F

into account loadings arising because of internal

excess or external pressure), N (kg force)

Loading on securing bolts of cover, N (kg force) F

Resultant of internal pressure, N (kg force) FQ

Reaction of gasket, N (kg force) F

Permissible tensile or compressive force, N (kg force) [F]

Permissible axial compressive force obtained from the [F]

condition for stability within the limits of

elasticity, N (kg force)

Term Symbol

Permissible axial compressive force obtained from the [F]

condition for strength when =1, N (kg force)

Permissible axial compressive force determined from the [F]1

condition for local stability within the limits of

elasticity, N (kg force)

Permissible axial compressive force determined from the [F]2

condition for general stability within the limits of

elasticity, N (kg force)

Height of convex part of end plate without taking the

cylindrical part into account, mm (m)

Length of cylindrical part of flange of end plate, mm (m) h1

Height of cross section of stiffening ring measured from h2

median surface of shell, mm (m)

Effective moment of inertia of design transverse cross I

section of stiffening ring, mm4 (m4)

Moment of inertia of transverse cross section of stiffening I

ring relative to the axis passing through the centre of gravity

of the transverse cross section of the ring (relative to the axis

X-X), mm4 (m4).

Design effective moment of inertia of design transverse cross Ip

section of stiffening ring, mm4 (m4)

Construction coefficient of flat end plates and covers K

Non-dimensional coefficients K1, K2, K3,

K4, K5, K6, K7

Coefficient of rigidity of shell which is reinforced by k

stiffening ring

Coefficient of weakening of flat end plates (covers) by Ko

openings

Correction coefficient Kp

Reduction coefficient for radius of curvature of an elliptical K

end plate

Design length of cylindrical shell reinforced with stiffening L

rings, mm (m)

Design length of smooth shell, mm (m) l

Effective length of conical shell, mm (m) lE

Effective length of wall of shell taken into account when le

determining the effective moment of inertia, mm (m)

Reduced length, mm (m) l

Distance between two stiffening rings measured along the l1

axes passing through the centre of gravity of the cross

sections of the rings, mm (m)

Distance between the outermost stiffening rings and the next l2

effective stiffening elements, mm (m)

Length of adjoining element taken into account when l3

determining the design length l or L, mm (m)

Design bending moment, N*mm (kg forcem) M

Permissible bending moment, N-mm (kg force m) [M]

Permissible bending moment obtained from the condition for [M]E

stability within the limits of elasticity, Nmm (kg force cm)

Permissible bending moment obtained from the condition for [M]

strength when =l, Nmm (kg forcem)

Term Symbol

Safety factor for tensile (strength limit)

Safety factor for rupture stress

Safety factor for yield point

Safety factor for stability

Design internal excess or external pressure, MPa (kg

force/m2)

Equivalent pressure when loaded with axial force, F

MPa (kg force/m2)

Equivalent pressure when loaded with a bending moment, pM

MPa (kg force/m2)

Permissible internal excess or external pressure, MPa (kg [p]

force/m2)

Permissible external pressure obtained from the condition for [p]E

stability within the limits of elasticity, MPa (kg force/m2)

Permissible external stress obtained from the condition for [p]

strength when =1, MPa (kg force/m2)

Permissible internal excess or external pressure determined [p]1

from the condition for strength or stability of the complete

shell (with stiffening rings), MPa (kg force/m2).

Permissible external pressure obtained from the condition for [p]1E

stability of the complete shell (with stiffening rings) within

the limits of elasticity, MPa (kg force/m2)

Permissible external pressure obtained from the condition for [p]1

the strength of the complete shell when =1, MPa (kg

force/m2)

Permissible internal excess or external pressure determined [p]2

from the condition for the strength or the stability of the shell

between two adjacent stiffening rings, MPa (kg force/m2)

Permissible transverse force obtained from the condition for [Q]E

stability within the limits of elasticity, N (kg force)

Permissible transverse force obtained from the condition for [Q]

strength when =1, N (kg force)

Design transverse force, N (kg force) Q

Resultant of internal pressure on end plate (cover), N (kg Q

force)

Permissible transverse force, N (kg force) [Q]

Radius of curvature at the crown of an end plate over the R

internal surface, mm (m)

Bolt loading, N (kg force) R

Reaction of gasket, N (kg force) R

Minimum value of yield point at design temperature, MPa R

(kg force/m2)

Minimum value of yield point at temperature of 20C, MPa R20

(kg force/m2)

Minimum value of nominal yield point at design temperature R0.2

(stress at which residual extension is 0.2%), MPa (kg

force/m2)

Minimum value of nominal yield point at temperature of R p200.2

20C, MPa (kg force/m2)

Minimum value of tensile strength (limit of strength) at Rm

Term Symbol

design temperature, MPa (kg force/m2)

Average value of rupture strength over 105 hrs at design Rm/10 5

Average 1% limiting creep stress over 105 hrs at design R1.0/10 5

Minimum value of nominal yield point at design temperature R1.0

(pressure at which the residual elongation is 1%), MPa (kg

force/m2)

Internal radius of flange of conical shell (end plate), mm r

(m)

Radius of groove, mm () r

External radius of flange of torospherical end plate, mm (m) r1

Construction thickness of wall of shell, mm (cm) s

Construction thickness of wall of conical shell, mm (m) s

Thickness of cover at sealing position, mm (m) s

Design thickness of wall of shell, mm (m) s

Design thickness of wall of conical shell, mm (m) s.

Design thickness of wall of end plate (cover) or transition s1

part of shell, mm (m)

Design thickness of wall of transition part of shell, mm (m) s2

Construction thickness of wall of toroidal transition zone of s

conical shell, mm (m)

Construction thickness of wall of gently sloping conical end s

plate, mm (m)

Design thickness of wall of transition part with a toroidal s.

transition zone, mm (m)

Design thickness of gently sloping end plate, mm (m) s

Effective thickness of wall of transition part of shells, mm s1; s2

(m)

Construction thickness of wall of end plates (cover) or s1

transition part of conical shell, mm (m)

Construction thickness of wall of transition part of s2

shell, mm (m)

Thickness of cover outside seal, mm (m) s3

Thickness of part of end plate of reduced thickness in the s4

position of circular groove, mm (m)

Width of transverse cross section of stiffening ring at the t

place where it is welded to the shell, mm (m)

Bearing width of circular welded seam, mm (m) tj

Half of angle of flare at crown of conical shell, degrees ; 1; 2

Shape coefficients 1, 2, 3, 4. 5, 6, 7, 8,

, o, , , A

Correction coefficient to permissible stress

1

Ratio of permissible stresses 2

Flexibility of element

Permissible stress at design temperature, MPa (kg force/m2) []

Permissible stress at temperature of 20C, MPa (kg []20

force/m2)

Permissible stress for stiffening ring at design temperature, []

Term Symbol

MPa (kg force/m2)

Permissible stress for transition part of shells (cylindrical and []1; []2

conical) at design temperature, MPa (kg force/m2)

Maximum sum of lengths of chords of openings in the most di

weakened diametric cross section of end plate or cover, mm

(m)

Safety factor for strength of welded seams

Safety factor for strength of welded seams in torospherical ,

end plates (depending on position)

Safety factor for strength of welded seams of stiffening ring

Safety factor for strength for longitudinal welded seams

Design factor for strength of welded seams

Safety factor for strength of circular welded seam

Safety factor for strength of transverse welded seam of

reinforcing ring

Coefficient of reduction of permissible stresses when

calculating for stability:

obtained from the condition for local stability when there 1

is axial compression

obtained from the condition for general stability when 2

there is axial compression

obtained from the condition for local stability when there 3

is bending

CONTENTS

1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS..............................................................................................2

1.1. Design temperature...........................................................................................................2

1.2. Working, design, and test pressure...................................................................................2

1.3. Design forces and moments..............................................................................................2

1.4. Permissible stress, safety factors for strength and stability..............................................3

1.5. Design values of the modulus of longitudinal elasticity...................................................5

1.6. Safety factors of welds.....................................................................................................5

1.7. Additions to design thicknesses of construction elements................................................5

1.8. Checking for fatigue strength...........................................................................................6

2. CALCULATION OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS...................................................................6

2.1. Design diagrams...............................................................................................................6

2.2. Conditions for applicability of design formulae...............................................................6

2.3. Smooth cylindrical shells..................................................................................................8

2.4. Cylindrical shells reinforced with stiffening rings.........................................................15

3. CALCULATION OF CONVEX END PLATES..................................................................18

3.1. Calculation diagrams......................................................................................................18

3.2. Conditions for applicability of design formulae.............................................................19

3.3. Eliptical and hemispherical end plates...........................................................................19

3.4. Torospherical end plates.................................................................................................21

4. CALCULATION OF FLAT ROUND END PLATES AND COVERS................................24

4.1. Field of applicability of design formulae.......................................................................24

4.2. Calculation of flat round end plates and covers.............................................................24

4.3. Calculation of flat round covers with an additional edge moment.................................28

5. CALCULATION OF CONICAL SHELLS..........................................................................30

5.1. Design diagrams and design parameters........................................................................30

5.2. Field and conditions of applicability of design formulae...............................................34

5.3. Conical shells which are loaded with a pressure............................................................35

5.4. Conical shells loaded with axial forces..........................................................................45

5.5. Conical shells which are loaded with a bending moment..............................................47

5.6. Combination of loadings................................................................................................48

APPENDIX 1............................................................................................................................49

APPENDIX 2............................................................................................................................54

APPENDIX 3............................................................................................................................59

APPENDIX 4............................................................................................................................59

APPENDIX 5............................................................................................................................60

APPENDIX 6............................................................................................................................61

REFERENCE DATE

1. DEVELOPED AND SUBMITTED by the Ministry of Chemical and Oil Machine

Building

COLLABORATORS

V.I. Rachkov, Candidate of Technical Sciences; S.I. Zusmanovskaya, Candidate of

Technical Sciences (project managers); N.M. Samsonov, Doctor of Technical Sciences; G.V.

Mamontov, Candidate of Technical Sciences; V.D. Babansky, V.F. Kurylev, Candidate of

Technical Sciences; S.M. Kutepov, Candidate of Technical Sciences; L.S. Pritykina, I.V.

Sukharnikova, I.E. Zeyde, A.K. Kuznetsova, Yu.S. Medvedev, Candidate of Technical

Sciences

2. APPROVED AND INTRODUCED INTO OPERATION by Resolution of the State

Committee of the USSR for Standards of 18.05.89, No. 1264

3. Replaces 14249-80

4. The standard fully meets ST SEV 596-86, ST SEV 597-77, ST SEV 1039-78, ST SEV

1040-88, ST SEV 1041-88

5. REFERENCE NORMATIVE AND TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS

Designation of Normative Document to which

Point Number, Appendix

Reference is Made

GOST 5949- Appendix 1

GOST 24755-81 5.2.8

GOST 24756-81 1.3

GOST 25054-81 Appendix 1

GOST 25859-83 1.4.9, 1.8.2

GOST 25867-83 5.2.3

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