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STATE STANDARD OF THE USSR

VESSELS AND APPARATUSES


NORMS AND METHODS OF STRENGTH CALCULATION

GOST 14249-89
(ST SEV 596-86, ST SEV 597-77,
ST SEV 1039-78, ST SEV 1040-88,
ST SEV 1041-88)

STATE COMMITTEE OF THE USSR FOR STANDARDS

Moscow

STATE STANDARD OF THE USSR


GOST
14249-89
VESSELS AND APPARATUSES (ST SEV 596-86,
Norms and Methods of Strength Calculation ST SEV 597-77,
ST SEV 1039-78,
ST SEV 1040-88,
ST SEV 1041-88)

Date of Introduction 01.01.90


This Standard lays down the norms for and methods of calculating the strength of
cylindrical shells, conical elements, end plates and covers of vessels and apparatus made of
carbon and alloy steels which are used in the chemical industry, oil-refining, and related
branches of industry where they operate in conditions of single action and multiple-action
static loadings under internal excess pressure, vacuum, or external excess pressure, and under
the effects of axial and transverse forces and bending moments. It also lays down values for
permissible stresses, Young's modulus of elasticity, and safety factors for the strength of
welded seams. The norms and methods of calculating strength shall be applied whilst at the
same time observing the "Regulations for the structure and safe operation of vessels operating
under pressure" approved by the USSR State Mining Industry Inspectorate, and on the
condition that deviations from geometrical shape and inaccuracy in the manufacture of the
elements of vessels and apparatus that are designed do not exceed the tolerances laid down in
norm-setting and technical documentation.
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1. D e s i g n t e m p e r a t u r e
1.1.1. The design temperature is to be used for determining the physical and mechanical
characteristics of the material and the permissible stresses.
1.1.2. The design temperature is to be determined on the basis of heat-engineering
calculations or the results of tests.
The maximum value for the temperature of the wall of a vessel or apparatus is to be taken
as being the design temperature. If that temperature is less than 20C, a temperature of 20C
is to be used as the design temperature when determining the permissible stresses.
1.1.3. If it is not possible to make heat calculations or take measurements, and if the
temperature of the walls rises to the temperature of the medium in contact with the wall
during the time that it is in operational use, the design temperature is to be taken as being the
maximum temperature of the medium but it is not to be less than 20C.
If heating is by open flame, waste gases or electric heaters, the design temperature is to be
taken as being equal to the temperature of the medium increased by 20C in the case of
enclosed heating, and by 50C in the case of direct heating, unless more accurate data is
available.
1.2. W o r k i n g , d e s i g n , a n d t e s t p r e s s u r e
1.2.1. The term working temperature for a vessel or apparatus should be understood as
meaning the maximum internal excess or external pressure arising during the normal course
of the operating process, without taking into consideration hydrostatic pressure from the
medium and without taking into account the permissible rise of pressure over a brief period
when a safety valve or some other safety device is functioning.
1.2.2. The design pressure in the working conditions of elements of vessels and apparatus
is to be understood as meaning the pressure that is used when making calculations for their
strength.
As a rule, the design pressure for the components of a vessel or apparatus is to be equal to
or higher than the working pressure.
If the pressure in a vessel or apparatus increases by more than 10% relative to the working
pressure when safety devices are functioning, the elements of the apparatus shall be designed
for a pressure equal to 90% of the pressure when the valve or safety device is fully opened.
For elements that separate spaces which are at differing pressures (e.g., in apparatus with
heating jackets), the design pressure should be taken either as being each pressure separately
or as the pressure which requires the greatest wall thickness in the element that is being
designed. If it is ensured that the pressures act simultaneously, it is permissible for
calculations to be based on the difference between the pressures. The pressure difference is
also to be used as the design pressure for those elements which separate a space that has an
internal excess pressure from a space that has an absolute pressure less than atmospheric
pressure. If there is no accurate data available on the difference between the absolute pressure
and atmospheric pressure, the absolute pressure is to be taken as being zero.
If a hydrostatic pressure amounting to 5% or more of the working pressure acts on an
element of a vessel, the design pressure shall be increased by that amount.
1.2.3. The term test pressure in a vessel or apparatus should be understood as meaning the
pressure at which testing of the vessel or apparatus is to be carried out.
1.2.4. The design pressure under test conditions for the elements of vessels and apparatus
should be understood as meaning the pressure to which they are subjected during trial testing,
including the hydrostatic pressure if it is 5% or more of the test pressure.
1.3. D e s i g n f o r c e s a n d m o m e n t s
The design forces and moments are to be taken as being the forces or moments acting for
the relative state of loading (e.g., during operational use, testing or installation) which arise as
the result of the effects of the intrinsic weight of pipe runs connected to the vessel or
apparatus, and of wind, snow and other loadings.
The design forces and moments due to wind loadings and seismic effects are to be
determined in accordance with GOST 24756.
1.4. P e r m i s s i b l e s t r e s s , s a f e t y f a c t o r s f o r s t r e n g t h a n d
stability
1.4.1. The permissible loading [] when making calculations relating to the limiting
loadings of vessels and apparatus operating under single-action* static loadings is to be
determined by means of the following formulae:
for carbon and low-alloy steels
Re or R p 0.2 Rm Rm / 10 5 R p1.0 / 10 5
min ; ; ;

n n n n

(1)
for austenitic steels
R p1.0 Rm Rm / 10 5 R p1, 0 / 10 5
min ; ; ;

n n n n . (2)
__________
* If the vessels or apparatus operate under multiple-action static loadings but the number of
cycles of loading due to pressure, constraints on thermal deformations, or other effects do not
exceed 103, such a loading is conventionally considered as being a single-action loading in
calculations for strength. When determining the number of cycles of loading, variation within
the limit of 15% of the design load are not to be taken into account.
The limiting creep stress is to be used for determining the permissible stresses in those
cases where there is an absence of data regarding the rupture stress, or in connection with
conditions of operational use when it is necessary to limit the amount of deformation
(displacement).
If no information is available concerning the nominal yield point when there is 1% residual
elongation, the permissible stress for austenitic steel is to be determined using formula (1).
For test conditions, the permissible stress is to be determined by means of the formula
R e20 or R 20
p 0.2

n (3)
For test conditions for vessels and apparatus made of austenitic steel, the permissible stress
is to be determined by means of the formula
R 20 or R 20
p 0.2 p 1.0

n (4)
1.4.2. The safety factors for strength shall correspond to the values given in Table 1.
Table 1
Safety factors for strength
Loading conditions
n n n n
Operating conditions 1.5 2.4 1.5 1.0
Test conditions:
hydraulic testing 1.1 - - -
pneumatic testing 1.2 - - -
Conditions during installation 1.1 - - -
For vessels and apparatus of Groups 3 and 4 as given in the USSR State Mining Industry
Inspectorate's "Regulations for the structure and safe operation of vessels operating under
pressure", it is permissible to take the safety factor for tensile strength n as being equal to 2.2.
In a case where the permissible stress for austenitic steel is determined by means of
formula (1), the strength safety factor n at nominal yield point Rp0.2 for working conditions is
to be taken as being equal to 1.3.
For vessels and apparatus which function in conditions of creep with a design operating
life of 104 up to 2105 hours, the strength safety factor n is to be 1.5. When the design
operating life is 2105 hours, it is permissible to take the strength factor n as being equal to
1.25 if the heat creep resistance and long-term plasticity are monitored when the material is in
operational use and the deviation of the creep rupture strength and creep from the mean value
on the lower side does not exceed 20%.
It is not required that calculations for the strength of cylindrical shells and conical
elements, convex and flat end plates for test conditions should be carried out if the design
pressure in the test conditions would be less than the design pressure in working conditions
multiplied by
20
1.35 .

1.4.3. The corrective coefficient to the permissible stresses () shall be equal to one except
in the case of steel castings, for which coefficient shall have the following values;
0.8 - for castings subject to individual testing by non-destructive methods;
0.7 - for other castings.
1.4.4. For steels that are widely used in the chemical, petrochemical and oil-refining
machinery building, the permissible stresses for working conditions when = 1 shall
correspond to those given in Appendix 1.
1.4.5. For rolled steel plate manufactured in accordance with technical specifications for
the two strength groups, it is allowable for the permissible stresses for the first group to be
taken from Table 5 of Appendix 1. For rolled sheet steel of the second strength group (steels
VSt3ps, VStSsp, VStSGps and 09G2S), the permissible stress taken from Table 5 of
Appendix 1 is to be increased by 6% - and by 7% for steel 09G2. When steels VStSpc,
VStSsp and VSt3Gps of the second strength group are being used at a temperature higher than
250C, or steels 09G2S and 09GS of the second strength group at a temperature of more than
300C, the same permissible stresses are to be taken as for steel of the first group.
1.4.6. When the temperature is 200C, it is permissible to determine the permissible stress
in accordance with clause 1.4.1, using the guaranteed values of the mechanical characteristics
in accordance with the Standards or technical specifications for the steel and taking into
account the rolling thicknesses of steel plate. When the temperatures are higher, it is
permissible for the permissible stresses together with the rolling thickness and strength group
of the steel which are taken into account to be determined in accordance with officially
approved norm-setting and technical documentation.
1.4.7. Design mechanical characteristics which are necessary for determining the
permissible stresses at increased temperatures for steels that are not given in Appendix 1 are
to be determined after carrying out tests on a representative number of test specimens which
will ensure that guaranteed values for the strength characterises are obtained.
1.4.8. For elements of vessels and apparatus which function in conditions of creep at
design temperatures which vary over the whole of the period of operational use, it is
permissible to use as the permissible stress an equivalent permissible stress []equ calculated
by means of the following formula.
1
m 1/ m
nT 1
i
1 To i
[]equ = , (5)

where []i = []1; []2; ... []n - is the permissible stress for the design period of operational
use at temperatures ti (i = l, 2 ...);
Ti - is the duration of the stages of operational use of the elements at wall temperatures
corresponding to ti (i = l, 2 ...), hrs;
n
Ti
To = 1 - is the total design operating life, hrs;
- is an exponent in equations for the creep limit of steel (it is recommended that m = 8
should be used for high-temperature alloy steels).
It is recommended that the stages of operational use at different temperatures should be
taken in temperature steps of 5 and 10C.
1.4.9. For vessels and apparatus which function with multiple-action loadings, the
permissible amplitude of stresses is to be determined in accordance with GOST 25859.
1.4.10. For elements of vessels and apparatus which are not calculated using limiting
loadings (e.g., flange connections) the permissible stresses shall be determined in accordance
with the relative officially approved norm-setting and technical documentation.
1.4.11. Design values for the yield point, tensile strength and coefficient of linear
expansion are given in Appendices 2 and 3.
1.4.12. When making calculations for the stability of apparatus using low critical stresses
within the limits of elasticity, the safety factor for stability (n) should be taken as being:
for working conditions - 2.4;
for testing and installation conditions - 1.8
1.5. D e s i g n v a l u e s o f t h e m o d u l u s o f l o n g i t u d i n a l e l a s t i c i t y
1.5.1. The design values for the modulus of longitudinal elasticity E for carbon and alloy
steels according to temperature shall correspond to those given in Appendix 4.
1.6. S a f e t y f a c t o r s o f w e l d s
When making calculations for the strength of welded elements of vessels and apparatus, a
safety factor for the strength of the welded connections should be introduced:
- for a longitudinal seam in a cylindrical or conical shell;
- for a circular seam in a cylindrical or conical shell;
- for the welded seams of a stiffening ring;
a - for a transverse welded seam for a reinforcing ring;
, , - for the welded seams of convex and flat end plates and covers (depending on
their position).
The numerical values of these factors shall correspond to the values given in Appendix 5.
For seamless elements of vessels and apparatus = 1.
1.7. A d d i t i o n s t o d e s i g n t h i c k n e s s e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n e l e m e n t s
1.7.1. When designing vessels and apparatus it is necessary to take into account an additive
correction c to the design thicknesses of the elements of the vessels and apparatus.
The construction thickness of an element of a vessel or apparatus shall be determined in
accordance with the formula
s sp+c, (6)
where sp - is the design thickness of the wall of the element of the vessel or apparatus.
The addition to the design thickness should be determined from the formula
c = c1 + c2 + c3. (7)
When making the check calculation, the addition is to be deducted from the values for the
construction thickness of the wall.
If the actual wall thickness is known, it is permissible not to take c2 and c3 into account
when carrying out the check calculation.
1.7.2. The justification for all additions to the design thickness shall be given in the
technical documentation.
If there is two-sided contact with a corrosive and/or erosive medium, the addition c1 for
compensation for corrosion and/or erosion shall be increased accordingly.
The technological corrective addition c3 makes provision for compensation for the thinning
of the wall of the element of the vessel or apparatus during technical processing - drawing,
stamping, bending of pipes, etc. This addition should be taken into consideration when
preparing the working drawings according to the technical processes used.
Additions c2 and c3 are to be taken into account in those cases where their sum exceeds 5%
of the nominal thickness of the sheet steel.
The addition c3 for the technological process used does not include rounding off of the
design thickness to a standard sheet thickness.
When calculations are made for elliptical end plates that are manufactured using stamping,
the technological addition c3 to compensate for thinning in the flanging zone is not to be taken
into account if its value is not greater than 15% of the design thickness of the plate.
1.8. C h e c k i n g f o r f a t i g u e s t r e n g t h
1.8.1. For vessels and apparatus which function under multiple-action loadings with the
number of cycles of loading due to pressure, constriction of thermal deformations or other
effects greater than 103 over the whole operating life, a check should be made for fatigue
strength in addition to the calculations that are made in accordance with this Standard.
1.8.2. Vessels and apparatus which function with multiple-action loadings are to be
checked for cyclical fatigue strength in accordance with GOST 25859.
2. CALCULATION OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS
2.1. D e s i g n d i a g r a m s
Conditions for applicability of design formulae 2.1.1 Design diagrams for cylindrical shells
are given in Figs 1-4.
2.2. C o n d i t i o n s f o r a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f d e s i g n f o r m u l a e
2.2.1. The design formulae are to apply when the ratio of the wall thickness to diameter is
sc
0.1
D for shells and pipes when D200 mm;
sc
0.3
D for pipes when D<200 mm.

Smooth cylindrical shells

a - shell with flange or flat end plate; b - shell with rigid bulkheads
Fig. 1
Smooth cylindrical shells with convex or conical end plates

a - shell with flanged end plates; b - shell with end plates without flanges
Fig 2

Smooth shells with a jacket

Fig. 3

Cylindrical shell reinforced with stiffening rings

Fig. 4
Note. Figs. 1-4 do not define the construction and are given only to show the design
dimensions.
2.2.2. The design formulae given in clauses 2.3.2, 2.3.4-2.3.7, and 2.4.2 should be used on
condition that the design temperature does not exceed the values at which creep of the
materials is to be taken into account, i.e. at those temperatures when the permissible stress is
determined only by the yield point or tensile strength (strength limit). If no accurate data is
available, it is permissible for the formulae to be used provided that the temperature of the
wall of the shell does not exceed 380C when it is made of carbon steel, 420C when it is
made of low-alloy steel, and 525C when it is made of austenitic steel.;
2.2.3. For shells which are reinforced with stiffening rings, the following limitations shall
be satisfied in addition to the requirements of clauses 2.2.1 and 2.2.2:
the ratio of the height of the cross section to the diameter is to be:
h2
D 0.2;
the design formulae should be used provided that the stiffening rings are positioned
uniformly;
in those cases where the stiffening rings are not fitted uniformly, it is necessary to
substitute the values b and l1 for that area on which the distance between two adjacent
stiffening rings is the maximum;
if l2> l1, l2 to be taken as the design length l.
2.2.4. The design formulae for shells which function under the effect of an axial
compressive force given in clause 2.3.4 are to be used on condition that:
l or b
D 1.0.
In the absence of more accurate calculations, it is permissible to use formula (22) for shells
on which
l or b
D < 1.0

2.3. S m o o t h c y l i n d r i c a l s h e l l s
2.3.1. Shells which are loaded with an internal excess pressure
2.3.1.1. The wall thickness should be calculated by means of the formula
s sp+c, (8)
pD
2 p p
where sp = . (9)
2.3.1.2. The permissible internal excess pressure should be calculated from the formula

2 p s c
[p] = D ( s c) . (10)
2.3.1.3. When a shell is made from plates of different thicknesses joined by longitudinal
welded seams, calculation of the thickness of the shell is to be carried out for each plate
taking into account the weaknesses that exist in them.
2.3.2. Shells which are loaded with an external pressure
2.3.2.1. Thickness of the wall
The thickness of the wall is to be determined approximately by means of formulae (11) and
(12) and subsequently checked using formula (13).

s sp+c, (11)
1,1 pD
max K 2 D10 2 ;
where sp 2 . (12)
Coefficient K2 should be found from the nomogram given in Fig 5. Examples of the use of
the nomogram for calculations are given in Fig. 6.

Nomogram for calculations of stability within the limits of the elasticity of cylindrical
shells which function under an external pressure

Fig. 5
Examples of the use of the nomogram (see Fig. 5)

I - determining the design thickness of a wall; II - determining the permissible external


pressure; III - determining the permissible design length; m - start of procedure;
n - intermediate points; - final result
Fig. 6
2.3.2.2. The permissible external pressure should be found from the formula

p p
2
p
1
p E . (13)
where the permissible pressure based on the condition for strength is to be found by means of
the formula
2 s c
[p] = ( s c ) .
D (14)
whilst the permissible pressure obtained from the condition for stability within the limits of
elasticity is to be determined using the formula
2 .5
20.8 10 6 E D 100( s c )
n y B1 l D
[p] = , (15)
where
D D
min 1.0; 9.45
l 100( s c)
1 = . (16)
When determining the length of the shell l or L the length of the adjoining element, l3 should
be determined from the formulae
H
l3
3 - for convex end plates,
D
l3
6tg - for conical shells (end plates) without flanges, but not more than
the length of the conical element;
D
l3 max r sin ;
6tg - for conical shells (end plates) with flanges, but not more than the
length of the conical element.
The coefficient K1 is to be determined from the nomogram given in Fig. 5.
If the value obtained for coefficient K1 lays below the corresponding dot-and-dash line (see
Fig. 5), it is permissible to determine the value of [] in the preliminary calculation by means
of the formula
6
p 2,4 K1 10 E
ny
(17)
2.3.3. Shells which are loaded with an axial tensile force
2.3.3.1. The thickness of the wall should be calculated using the formula
s sp+c, (18)
F
sp
where D . (19)
2.3.3.2. The permissible axial tensile force should be calculated by means of the formula
[F] = (D+s - c)(s - c)[]. (20)
2.3.4. Shells which are loaded with an axial compressive force
2.3.4.1. The permissible axial compressive force should be calculated using the formula

F F
2
F
1
F E , (21)

where the permissible axial compressive force [F] obtained from the condition for strength is
[F] = (D+s - c)(s - c)[], (22)
and the permissible axial compressive force within the limits of elasticity [F] obtained from
the condition for stability is
[F] = min {[F]1; [F]2}. (23)
In formula (23), the permissible axial compressive force [F]1, is to be determined from the
condition for local stability within the limits of elasticity by means of the formula
2.5
310 10 6 E 2 100( s c)
D
n y B1 D
[F]1 = , (24)
and the permissible axial compressive force [F]2 to be determined from the condition for
general stability within the limits of elasticity using the formula
2
( D s c )( s c ) E

ny
[F]2 = (25)
The flexibility , is to be determined from the formula
2.83l

D s-c (26)
The reduced design length l is to be obtained from Fig. 7.
l
Note. In a case where D <10, formula (23) assumes the form [F] = [F]1.
2.3.4.2. For working conditions ( = 2.4), the permissible compressive force may be
determined from the formula

[F] = ( D s c )( s c ) min1; 2 . (27)


The safety factors 1 and 2 should be found from Figs. 8 and 9.

Reduced design length l


f
Calculation diagram l
l
- l

- 2l

- 0.7l

- 0.5l

0 2.00l
0.2 1.73l
0.4 1.47l
0.6 1.23l
0.8 1.06l
1.0 1.00l
0 2.00l
0.2 1.70l
0.4 1.40l
0.6 1.11l
0.8 0.85l
1.0 0.70l
Fig. 7

2.3.5. Shells which are loaded with a bending moment


2.3.5.1. The permissible bending moment should be calculated from the formula

M M
2
M
1
M E , (28)
where the permissible bending moment [] obtained from the condition for strength is to be
calculated using the formula
D
[] = 4 D(D+s - c)(s - c)[] [F], (29)
and the permissible bending moment [] from the condition for stability within the limits of
elasticity is to be calculated using the formula
2.5
89 10 6 E 3 100( s c) D
D F E1
ny D 3.5
[] = . (30)
2.3.5.2. For working conditions ( = 2.4), the permissible bending moment may be
determined by means of the formula

[] = 4 D (D+s - c)(s - c)[]3. (31)
The safety factor 3 should to be determined from Fig. 10.
2.3.6. Shells which are loaded with transverse forces
The permissible transverse force [Q] should be calculated from the formula

Q Q
2
Q
1
Q E

, (32)
where the permissible transverse force [Q] obtained from the condition for strength is
[Q] = 0.25 D (s - c), (33)
and the permissible transverse force [Q]E from the condition for stability within the limits of
elasticity is
2.4 E ( s c) 2 D( s c)
ny 0.18 3.3 l2
[Q] = . (34)

2.3.7. Shells which function under the combined effects of external pressure, an axial
compressive force, a bending moment and a transverse force
Shells which function under the combined effects of loadings are to be checked for
stability using the formula
2
p F M Q

p + F + M + Q 1.0, (35)
where [] - is the permissible external pressure in accordance with clause 2.3.2;
[F] - is the permissible axial compressive force in accordance with clause
2.3.4;
[] - is the permissible bending moment in accordance with clause 2.3.5;
[Q] - is the permissible transverse force in accordance with clause 2.3.6.
Graph for determining the factor 1

Fig. 8
Graph for determining the factor 2

Fig. 9
Graph for determining the factor 3

Fig. 10
2.4. C y l i n d r i c a l s h e l l s r e i n f o r c e d w i t h s t i f f e n i n g r i n g s
2.4.1. Shells with stiffening rings which are loaded with an excess internal pressure
2.4.1.1. Determination of the dimensions of the stiffening rings when there is internal
pressure
The coefficient K4 for a given design pressure and wall thickness s, should be calculated
from the formula
p( D s c)
K4 1
2 p ( s c )
. (36)
If K4 0, reinforcement by means of stiffening rings is not required. Within the range

0 K42 1
p
, the distance between two stiffening rings should be calculated using
the formula

2 p 1
b D( s c ) 1
K4 K 4
, (37)
and the area of the transverse cross section of the ring from the formula
p
K4
l1 (s - c) . (38)

2
p
If K4 -1, it is necessary for the wall thickness to be increased to such a dimension
that the following condition is fulfilled

2
p
0 < K4 < -1.
Note. The corrective addition 1 to compensate for corrosion should be taken into account
when determining the area of the transverse cross section of the stiffening ring .
2.4.1.2. The permissible internal excess pressure should be determined from the condition
[] = min {[]1; []2}. (39)
The permissible internal excess pressure []1 determined from the conditions for the
strength of the complete shell should be calculated using the formula
A
2 p ( s c ) 2
l1
p 1
D ( s c) . (40)
The permissible internal excess pressure []2 determined from the conditions for the
strength of a shell between two adjoining stiffening rings should be calculated from the
formula

p 2 2 ( s c) 2 2
D ( s c) 2
1

. (41)
where
b2
2
D( s c) . (42)
2.4.2. Shells with stiffening rings which are loaded with an external pressure
2.4.2.1. The design parameters for the reinforced shell are to be:
The design parameters for the reinforced shell are to be:
the effective length of the wall of the shell l , which is to be taken into account when
determining the effective moment of inertia and should be determined from the condition
D( s c )
l = min{l1; t + 1.1 }; (43)
the effective moment of inertia I of the design transverse cross section of a stiffening ring,
which should be determined using the formula
l1 ( s c )3 A l ( s c)
I I e2 e
10,9 A le ( s c ) ; (44)
the coefficient of rigidity k of a shell which is reinforced with stiffening rings
10,9 I
k
l1 ( s c )3
. (45)
Note. The additive correction 1 to compensate for corrosion should be taken into account
when determining the moment of inertia of a stiffening ring.
2.4.2.2. The permissible external pressure should be determined from the condition
[] = min {[]1; []2}. (46)
2.4.2.2.1. The permissible external pressure []1 determined on the basis of the condition
for the stability of the complete shell should be calculated from the formula

p1 p1
2
p 1
1
p 1E

, (47)
The permissible external pressure []1 shall correspond to the value for []1 determined by
means of formula (40) when the values of the safety factor and are = 1.0 and = 1.0.
The permissible external pressure []1 obtained from the condition for stability within the
limits of elasticity should be calculated using the formula

2.5
20.8 10 6 E D 100k ( s c )

kB2 n y l D
[]1 = , (48)
where
D D
min 1.0; 9.45
l 100k ( s c)
2 = . (49)
2.4.2.2.2. The permissible external pressure []2 is to be determined starting from the
conditions for the stability of the shell between stiffening rings. The permissible external
pressure []2 when the value for the length
t
b; l2
l= 2

shall correspond to the pressure [] (see clause 2.3.2.2). It is permissible to use []2 found
from formula (41) with the value of factor =1.0 instead of using [] determined from
formula (14).
2.4.2.3. Determining the dimensions of a stiffening ring when there is external pressure
After the dimensions of the ring and shell have been determined in accordance with design
considerations, a check should be carried out in accordance with clause 2.4.2.2.

The wall thickness s or the distance b between stiffening rings for a given design pressure
should be determined with the aid of the nomograms (see Figs. 5 and 6). When the
nomogram given in Fig. 5 is used, it should be taken that l = b. The design effective moment
of inertia of the stiffening ring should be calculated using the formula

0.1 pD 3l1 n y
Ip K5
E 2 .4 . (50)
The coefficient K5 should be determined from Fig. 11.

Graph for determining the coefficient K5


Fig. 11
After the design effective moment of inertia has been obtained using the successive
approximations method, a profile for the stiffening ring with a moment of inertia I, should be
selected which ensures that the requirement of the following condition is fulfilled
I I, (51)
where I - is the effective moment of inertia of the design transverse cross section of the
stiffening ring determined using formula (44).
2.4.3. Shells with stiffening rings which are loaded with axial tensile or compressive
forces, a bending moment or a transverse force
The permissible loadings should be calculated by means of the formulae in clauses 2.3.3-
2.3.6 with l = b. When determining the reduced design length l from Fig. 7, the total length
L should be used instead of l.
2.4.4. Shells with stiffening rings which are subjected to loads acting simultaneously
Calculation should be carried out in a similar manner to the calculation given in clause
2.3.7 and, when doing so, the permissible external pressure is to be determined in accordance
with clause 2.4.2.2.

3. CALCULATION OF CONVEX END PLATES


3.1. C a l c u l a t i o n d i a g r a m s
3.1.1. Fig. 12 shows calculation diagrams for elliptical, hemispherical and torospherical
end plates.

Convex End Plates


a - elliptical end plate; b - hemispherical end plate; c - torospherical end plate
Fig. 12
Note. This Fig. does not define the construction of the end plates and is given only to show
the necessary design dimensions.
3.2. C o n d i t i o n s f o r a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f d e s i g n f o r m u l a e
3.2.1. The design formulae are to apply when the following conditions are fulfilled:
for elliptical end plates
s1 c
0.002 D 0.100,
H
0.2 D 0.5;
for torospherical end plates
s1 c
0.002 D 0.100.
For torospherical end plates, the following types of end plates are to be used in calculations
depending on the relationship between the parameters R, D1 and r1:
type A RD1, r1 0.095 D1;
type R0.9 D1, r1 0.170 D1;
type R0.8 D1, r1 0.150 D1.
3.2.2. The design formulae given in clauses 3.3.2 and 3.4.2 are to apply provided that the
design temperatures do not exceed the values at which creep of materials is taken into
account, i.e. at those temperatures when the permissible stress is determined only by the yield
point or tensile strength (strength limit).
If there is no accurate information available, it is permissible for the formulae to be used
provided that the design temperature of the wall of an end plate made of carbon steel does not
exceed 380C, that of one made of low-alloy steel does not exceed 420C, and that of one
made of austenitic steel does not exceed 525C.
3.3. E l l i p t i c a l a n d h e m i s p h e r i c a l e n d p l a t e s
3.3.1. Elliptical and hemispherical end plates loaded with excess internal pressure
3.3.1.1. The thickness of the wall s1 should be calculated using the formula
s1 s1p+c, (52)
where
pR
s1 p
2 0.5 p . (53)
3.3.1.2. 3.3.1.2. The permissible internal excess pressure [] should be calculated from the
formula
2 s1 c
[p] = R 0.5( s1 c ) . (54)
3.3.1.3. The radius of curvature at the crown of an end plate is to be equal to:
D2
R
4H , (55)
where R = D - for elliptical end plates with = 0.25 D;
R = 0.5 D - for hemispherical ends plates with = 0.5 D.
3.3.1.4. If the length of the cylindrical flanged part of the end plate is
h1 > 0.8 D ( s1 c ) - for an elliptical end plate, or
h1 > 0.3 D ( s1 c ) - for a hemispherical end plate, the thickness of the end plate
shall not be less than the thickness of the shell calculated in accordance with clause 2.3.1 with
= 1.
3.3.1.5. For end plates which are manufactured from a single blank, the safety factor = 1.
For end plates manufactured from a number of blanks, factor should be determined in
accordance with Appendix 5.
3.3.2. Elliptical and hemispherical end plates which are loaded with an external pressure
3.3.2.1. The thickness of the wall is to be determined approximately by means of formulae
(56) and (57) with subsequent checking using formula (58)
s1 s1p+c, (56)
where
K R ny p pR
s1 p max ;
510 10 E 2
6
. (57)
For the preliminary calculation, K is to be taken as being equal to 0.9 for elliptical end
plates, and 1.0 for hemispherical end plates.
3.3.2.2. The permissible external pressure [] should be calculated from the formula

p p
2
p
1
p E , (58)
where the permissible pressure [] obtained from the condition for strength is
2 s1 c
[p] = R 0.5( s1 c ) , (59)
and the permissible pressure [] from the condition for stability within the limits of elasticity
is
2
26 10 6 E 100k ( s1 c )
ny K R
[] = . (60)
3.3.2.3. The coefficient K should be determined in accordance with Fig. 13 or by means of
formula (61) depending on the ratios
D H
s1 c and D

1 ( 2 .4 8 x ) x
K
1 (3.0 10 x ) x , (61)
where
s1 c D 2H
x 10
D 2H D . (62)
Graph for determining the coefficient K

Fig. 13
3.4. T o r o s p h e r i c a l e n d p l a t e s
3.4.1. Torospherical end plates which are loaded with Internal excess pressure
3.4.1.1. The thickness of the wall in the boundary area should be calculated using the
formula
s1 s1p+c, (63)
where
pD1 1
s1 p
2 . (64)
For welded end plates, an additional check of the thickness of the wall in the central area
should be carried out using the formula:
s1 s1p+c, (65)
where
pR
s1 p
2 0.5 p . (66)
3.4.1.2. The permissible excess pressure obtained from the condition of strength of the
boundary area should be calculated using the formula

p 2( s1 c )
D1 2 . (67)
For welded end plates, it is necessary to carry out an additional check of the permissible
excess pressure from the condition for the strength of the central area using the formula
2( s1 c)
p
R 0.5( s1 c) . (68)
The lesser of the pressures determined using formulae (67) and (68) should be taken as the
permissible pressure.
In the case of welding of end plates made up of sheet steel of differing thicknesses, the
relative values for the thickness of the walls in the edge and central areas should be
substituted in formulae (67) and (68).

Graph for determining the coefficient 1

Fig. 14
Graph for determining the coefficient 2

Fig. 15
3.4.1.3. The coefficient 1 should be determined in accordance with fig. 14, and the
coefficient 2 accordance with Fig. 15 or from the formulae:

D1
1.25; 0.25 3 1.00
s1 c
type A 2 = max ;

D1
1.00; 0.12 3 3.75
s1 c
type 2 = max ; (69)

D1
0.90; 0.12 3 3.20
s1 c
type 2 = max .
3.4.1.4. For end plates manufactured from a complete blank, the factor = 1. For end
plates manufactured from a number of parts, factor should be determined from Table 2.
Table 2
for for
Sketches of end plates
formulae (61), (65) formulae (63), (66)
For seam A
1
For seam
1

d
When D <0.6
1
for for
Sketches of end plates
formulae (61), (65) formulae (63), (66)
d
When D 0.6
1

The values of factors and should be determined in accordance with Appendix 5.


3.4.1.5. If the length of the cylindrical flanged part of an end plate h1 0.8 D1 ( s1 c ) ,
the thickness of the cylindrical part of the end plate shall not be less than the thickness of the
shell calculated in accordance with clause 2.3.1 when = 1.
3.4.2. Torospheric end plates which are loaded with an external pressure
3.4.2.1. Torospheric end plates loaded with an external pressure should be calculated in
accordance with clause 3.3.2 using formulae (58), (59) and (60) with K = 1.
In addition, the external pressure shall not exceed the permissible pressure determined
using formula (67).

4. CALCULATION OF FLAT ROUND END PLATES AND COVERS


4.1. F i e l d o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f d e s i g n f o r m u l a e
4.1.1. The formulae are to be used to calculate flat round end plates and covers on the
condition that:
s1 c
0.11
Dp
.
s1 c
0.11
Dp
4.1.2. It is permissible to carry out calculations when , but the value for the
permissible pressure which is obtained by means of formula (75) or (84) should be multiplied
by the corrective factor:

2 .2
Kp
2
s c
1 1 6 1
D p
. (70)
If, when determining the thickness of the end plates in accordance with clauses 4.2.1 or
s1 c
0.11
Dp
4.3.1, it proves to be that , it is necessary to carry out an additional
determination of the permissible pressure in accordance with clause 4.2.7 or 4.3.8 and to
multiply it by the coefficient K.
If K[] < , the thickness of the end plates should be increased so as to satisfy the
condition
K[] .
4.2. C a l c u l a t i o n o f f l a t r o u n d e n d p l a t e s a n d c o v e r s
4.2.1. The thickness of flat round end plates and covers of vessel sand apparatus which
function under internal excess pressure or external pressure is to be calculated using the
formula
s1 s1p + c, (71)
where
p
s1 p KK o D p
( ) . (72)
4.2.2. The value of the coefficient K is to be taken from Table 3 according to the
construction of the end plates and covers.
Table 3
Conditions in which end plate
Type Drawing
and cover ate connected K
1 1.7s 0.53
Dp = D

2 0.85s 0.50
Dp = D

3 sc
0.25
s1 c 0.45
s c
0.25
s1 c 0.41
Dp = D
4 sc
0.5
s1 c 0.41
sc
0 .5
s1 c 0.38
Dp = D
5 sc
0.25
s1 c 0.45
sc
0.25
s1 c 0.41
Dp = D
6 > 0.85s 0.50
Dp = D
Conditions in which end plate
Type Drawing
and cover ate connected K
7 sc
0 .5
s1 c 0.41
sc
0 .5
s1 c 0.38
Dp = D
8 sc
0.5
s1 c 0.41
sc
0 .5
s1 c 0.38
Dp = D
9 max {s; 0.25s1} r se
min{s1; 0.1D} K max 0.11 1 0.23
s1 e
h1 r
0.3
D = D - 2r

10 sc
0 .5
s1 c
sc
0 .5
s1 c 0.41
Dp = D
0.38
0.25s1 r s1 - s2
30 90
11

Dp = D3 0.40

12

Dp = D. 0.11

4.2.3. The value of the coefficient of weakening K for end plates and covers which have a
single opening is to be determined from the formula
2
d d
Ko 1
D p D p
. (73)
4.2.4. The value of the coefficient of weakening (K) for end plates and covers which have
a number of openings is to be determined from the formula
3
d
1 i
Ko Dp
di
1
D
p . (74)
Coefficient K is to be determined for the cross section which is most weakened. The
maximum sum of the lengths of chords of the openings and the most weakened cross section
of the end plate or cover is to be determined in accordance with Fig. 16 using the formula
di = max {(d1 + d2); (b2 + b3)}.
The main design dimensions of the openings are given in Figs 16 and 17.

Fig. 16

Fig. 17
4.2.5. The value of the coefficient of weakening K for end plates and covers without
openings is to be taken as being equal to 1.0.
4.2.6. In all cases of connection of an end plate to a shell, the minimum thickness of the
flat round end plate shall be greater than, or equal to, the thickness of the shell calculated in
according with clause 2.3.
4.2.7. The permissible pressure on the flat end plate or cover is to be determined from the
formula
2

p s1 c

K Ko Dp . (75)
4.2.8. The thickness s2 for connections of types 10, 11 and 12 (see Table 3) are to be
determined using the formula



max 1.1s; s1
D p 2r for type 10

s2 1 sin
1,2s1

p D p D2
max 0 . 5 D c; s 2 for types11 and 12.

p
1
D p
(76)
4.3. C a l c u l a t i o n o f f l a t r o u n d c o v e r s w i t h a n a d d i t i o n a l e d g e
moment
4.3.1. Flat circular covers with an additional edge moment (Fig. 18) are to be calculated for
internal pressure using the formula
s1 s1p + c, (77)
where
D
s1 p KK 6 D p
[ ] . (78)
4.3.2. The value of the coefficient K6 is to be determined from the formula

D3
1 3 1
K 6 0.41 D.
D3
D.
(79)
or by means of the graph in Fig 19, depending on the ratios D3/D. and .
The value of is to be found from the formula
F F6
1 or ,
FQ FQ
(80)
where FQ = 0.785 pD2..

Fig. 18
Fig. 19
4.3.3. The value of the coefficient K is to be determined in accordance with clause 4.2.3,
or 4.2.4 if di 0.7Dp; when doing so, bolt holes are not to be taken into account in the
calculation.
4.3.4. For covers which have a groove to receive an upstand (e.g., the chamber of a heat
exchanger) the value of coefficient K6 for determining the thickness at the position of the
groove (Fig 18b) is to be calculated taking into account the force due to compression of the
gasket in the groove by using the formula

D3 D s
1 3 1 9.6 3 4
K 6 0.41 D. D. D.
D3
D.
. (81)
4.3.5. The thickness of a flat round cover s2 (Fig 18) which has an additional edge
moment at the sealing position (Fig 18a) is to be determined from the formula
0.6
s2 max K 7 ;
D1
, (82)
where
F . F .
max ;
p .
In formula (82), the subscript p denotes that the value relates to the operational state or to
tests, whilst the subscript m denotes that the value relates to installation conditions..
4.3.6. The value of coefficient K7 is to be determined from the formula
D3
K 7 0 .8 1
D.
(83)
or in accordance with Fig. 20, depending on the ratio of the diameters.
4.3.7. The thickness s3 of the edge of a flat round cover with an additional edge moment
outside the sealing zone (Fig 18) is to be determined by means of formula (82), using D2
instead of Dc. when doing so
4.3.8. When check calculations of the permissible pressure for a flat round cover with an
additional edge moment are made, the permissible pressure is to be determined from the
formula
2
s1 c
p K K D



6 p . (84)

Fig. 20

5. CALCULATION OF CONICAL SHELLS


5.1. D e s i g n d i a g r a m s a n d d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s
5.1.1. Figs. 21-26 show design diagrams for the connection arrangements of conical shells
5.1.2. Design parameters
5.1.2.1. The design lengths of the transition parts are to be determined from the following
formulae for conical shells (Figs. 21a, 21b and 21c)
D D
a1 0.7 ( s1 c ) a 2 0 .7 ( s2 c )
cos 1 cos 2
; ;
for conical shells (Figs. 22a and 22b)
D
a1 0.7 ( s c)
cos 1
;
for conical shells (Fig. 21d)
D
a1 ( s1 c )
cos 1
;
for cylindrical shell (Figs. 21b and 21c)
a2 0.7 D ( s2 c) ;

for toroidal transition zones (Figs. 22a and 22b)


D
a 2 0 .5 ( s c)
cos 2
; a2 0.5 D ( s c) ;
for cylindrical shells or pipe connections (see Fig. 21d)
a2 1.25 D ( s2 c) .

Connections of shells which do not have toroidal transition zones

a - connection of two conical shells; b - connection of a conical shell to a cylindrical shell;


c - connection of a conical shell to a cylindrical shell with a reinforcing ring;
d - connection of a conical shell to a cylindrical shell of smaller diameter
Fig. 21
Connection of shells with a toroidal transition zone

a - connection between two conical shells;


b - connection of a conical shell to a cylindrical shell
Fig. 22
Basic dimensions of a conical transition zone
Fig. 23

Connection of skew-symmetric shells

Fig. 24

Conical shell with stiffening ring

Fig. 25

Conical end plates with a gradual slope


a - end plate with toroidal transition zone; b - end plate with reinforcing ring;
c - end plate without a toroidal transition zone and reinforcing ring
Fig. 26
5.1.2.2. The design diameter of a smooth conical shell is to be determined from the
following formulae:
for conical shells without a toroidal transition zone (Figs. 21a, 21b and 21c)
D = D - 1.41sin1;
for conical shells with a toroidal transition zone (Figs. 22a and 22b)
D = D - 2 [r (cos2 - cos1) + 0.71 sin1];
for conical shells with a stepped change in the thickness of the wall; for the second and all
subsequent parts, the internal diameter of the larger base should be taken as the design
diameter D of that particular part of the shell.
5.1.2.3. The design coefficient for the strength of welded seams in the transition zones of
shells is to be obtained from Table 4.
Table 4
Design safety factor for strength of welded seams
in accordance
in accordance in accordance with in accordance
Form of
with with clauses with
connection of
clauses clauses 5.3.5 clauses
shells
5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.7 5.3.6
5.3.4 5.3.8 5.3.9 5.4.6
5.4.5
Internal pressure p p p }
or tensile force p = min{p;
ap = a
Internal pressure } = min{ ; } = min{ ; } p
or compressive p = min{p; p p p p

force ap = 1
Bending moment } = min{ ; } = min{ ; } = min{ ; }
p = min{p; p p p p p p

ap = a
5.2. F i e l d a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f d e s i g n f o r m u l a e
5.2.1. The design formulae are to apply when the relationship between the thickness of an
external shell and its diameter are within the limits
s1 cos 1
0.001 0.050
D .
It is not required that this condition should be fulfilled for a fully conical end plate (1 >
70).
5.2.2. The design formulae given in clauses 5.3.2, 5.4.2 and 5.5.1. are to apply provided
that the design temperatures do not exceed the values at which creep of the metal is taken into
consideration, i.e., at temperatures when the permissible stress is determined only by the yield
point and tensile strength (strength limit). If no precise information is available, the formulae
are to be applied provided that the design temperature of the shell wall does not exceed 380C
if it is made of carbon steel, 480C if it is made of low-alloy steel, and 525C if it is made of
austenitic steel.
5.2.3. The design formulae in this Standard are not applicable for calculations for the
strength of conical transition parts in positions where a jacket is fastened to the casing.
In that case, calculation is to be carried out in accordance with GOST 25867.
5.2.4. The design formulae are not applicable if the distance between two neighbouring
junctions of connections of shells is less than the total of the corresponding design lengths of
the shells, or if the distance from the assembly connections to the supporting elements of the
vessel (other than skirt supports or support rings) is less than double the design length of the
shell in accordance with clause 5.1.2.1.
5.2.5. The design formulae are to apply on condition that the construction length of the
transition parts of the shells are not less than the design lengths 1 and 2.
If this conditioned is not fulfilled, it is necessary to make a check of the permissible
pressure in which the following are substituted for s1 and s2:
for a connection of shells without a toroidal transition zone
a1D a2 D
s1 E max s1 ; s s2 E max s2 ; s
a1 ; a2 ;
for connections of shells with a toroidal transition zone when coefficient is determined by
means of formula (98).
a1D a2 D
s1E max s ; s s2 E max s ; s
a1 ; a2 ;
s, s - are the actual thicknesses of the walls of the shells being connected (Figs. 21a, 21b, 21d
and 22b).
5.2.6. The design formulae for the connection assemblies of conical and cylindrical shells
without a toroidal transition zone are to apply provided that the fillet weld is formed with
continuous double-sided fusion.
5.2.7. The manufactured thickness of the wall of a conical element at the position of
connection of two shells, s1, s2 or s, is always to be taken as being not less than thickness s
determined in accordance with clause 5.3.1 or clauses 5.3.2 and 5.4.1 or clauses 5.4.2 and
5.5.1 for the relative loadings.
The construction thickness of the wall of a cylindrical element at the position where two
shells are joined shall not be less than the minimum wall thickness determined in accordance
with the formulae in Section 2.
5.2.8. Calculation of the reinforcement to the openings of conical shells is to be carried out
in accordance with GOST 24755.
5.2.9. Calculation of the thickness of the walls of the transition parts of shells should be
carried out using either the method of successive approximations based on preliminary
selection with subsequent checking for the selected values of
D s1 c
or
s2 c s2 c
or obtained directly from the diagrams.
Calculation using the diagrams is to be carried out for conical transition zones which have
2 = 0. If the permissible stresses of the materials of the transition zones differ from each
other, the calculation by means of the diagram is to be carried out using the lesser of the
values.
The permissible pressure, axial force and bending moment for conical shells shall be taken
as being the lower of the values obtained from the condition for the strength or stability of a
smooth conical shell and from the condition for the strength of the transition part.
5.2.10. The calculation is also applicable for skew-symmetrical shells which are connected
to cylindrical shells. The design values for 1, D and D1 are to be taken as shown in Fig. 24.
5.3. C o n i c a l s h e l l s w h i c h a r e l o a d e d w i t h a p r e s s u r e
5.3.1. Smooth conical shells loaded with an internal excess pressure
5.3.1.1. The thickness of the wall is to be determined by means of the formula
s s. + , (85)
where
pD 1
s.
2 p p cos 1
. (86)
5.3.1.2. The permissible internal excess pressure is to be determined from the formula
2 p ( s c)
p D
( s c)
cos i . (87)
5.3.2. Smooth conical shells which are loaded with an external pressure
5.3.2.1. The design formulae are to apply provided that 1 70.
5.3.2.2. The wall thickness is to be determined in accordance with the formula given in
clauses 2.3.2.1 in the first approximation, and is subsequently to be checked using formula
(88).
When making the preliminary determination of the wall thickness, values of lE and DE
found from formulae (91) and (92) are to be taken as being the design values.
5.3.2.3. The permissible external pressure is to be determined by means of the formula

p p

p
2

1

p E , (88)
where the permissible pressure from the condition for strength is
2 p ( s c)
p
D
( s c)
cos 1 , (89)
and the permissible pressure obtained from the condition for stability within the limits of
elasticity is
2.5
20.8 10 6 DE 100( s )
p E
1 lE DE
. (90)
The effective dimensions of the conical shell are to be determined by means of the
formulae
D D1
lE
2 sin 1 , (91)
D D1 D D D1
DE max ; 0.31( D D1 ) tg1
2 cos 1 cos 1 s . (92)
The value of the coefficient 1 is to be determined from the formula:
D DE
B1 min 1.0; 9.45 E
lE 100 s c
. (93)
5.3.3. Connection of shells which do not have a toroidal transition zone (see Figs. 21a and
21b)
5.3.3.1. The design formulae are to apply under the following conditions
1 70; 0 2 < 1; (s1 - c) (s2 - c).
If (s1 - c) (s2 - c), a check calculation is to be made using the formula
s1 - c = s2 - c.
5.3.3.2. The thickness of the wall is to be found from the formulae
pD1 1
s2
2 2 p p cos 2
; (94)
s2 s2 + . (95)
In a case where a conical and a cylindrical shell are connected (Fig. 21b), cos2 = 1. When
determining 1 coefficient is to be calculated using formula (98) or is to be found in
accordance with the diagram (Fig. 27).
Calculation of the wall thickness of the conical element of the transition zone is to be
carried out with the aid of the ratio of the wall thicknesses
s1 c

s2 c
s1 c
s1 s 2 p c
s2 c . (96)
Diagram for determining coefficient when calculating the thickness of the walls of the
transition zones of shells

Fig. 27
5.3.3.3. The shape coefficient is to be determined from the formula
1 max{0.5; }. (97)
where is determined by means of the formula

D (tg1 tg 2 ) cos 2
0.4 0.25
s2 c s1 c
2

1 x
1
s2 c x s1 c
cos 2 2 cos 1 s c
2 . (98)
For connections of conical and cylindrical shells (2 = 0) coefficient may be determined
from a diagram (Fig. 27 or Fig. 28).
5.3.3.4. The permissible internal excess or external pressure [] obtained from the
condition for the strength of the transition part is to be determined by means of the formula
2 2 p ( s2 c)
p D 1
( s2 c)
cos 2 , (99)
where the coefficient 1 is determined in accordance with clause 5.3.3.3
5.3.4. Connection of a conical shell to a reinforcing ring (Figs. 21b and 25)
5.3.4.1. The design formulae are to be used provided that
1 70
and when the ring is connected to a cylindrical shell (Fig, 21c) that
(s1 - c) (s2 - c).
If (s1 - c) < (s2 - c), should be used In the check calculation s1 - c = s2 - c;
but if the connection is as shown in Fig. 25, only if there is no bending moment of the ring.
Diagram for determining the coefficient when making the check calculation

Fig. 28
5.3.4.2. The area of the transverse cross section of the reinforcing ring shall be determined
using the formula
when connection is as shown in Fig. 21c

pD 2tg1 0.25
A 1 A
8 ap 0.25
, (100)
where
2 2 p s c
A 1 2
p D . (101)
Coefficient is to be determined either by means of formula (96) or from the diagram
(Fig. 28).
If 0 there is no requirement for reinforcing by means of a stiffening ring
where connection is as shown in Fig. 25
pD 2 tg 1
A
8 ap
. (102)
In cases where there is a loading action from external pressure, an axial compressive force
or a bending moment, the welded seam of the butt joint of the ring shall be welded with a
continuous seam. When determining the area of the transverse cross section , consideration
should also be given to the cross section of the shell walls in the positions between the
external welded seams of the ring and the shells.
5.3.4.3. The permissible internal excess or external pressure obtained from the condition
for the strength of the transition part is to be determined using the formula
when the connection is as shown in Fig. 21c
2 2 p ( s2 c)
p
D 2 ( s2 c) , (103)
when the connection is as shown in Fig. 25
8 ap
p A
D 2 tg 1 .

(104)
5.3.4.4. The general shape coefficient for the transition part is to be found from the formula
2 = max{0.5; }, (105)
where
s c
2
1 x 1
D s2 c s c
0.4 tg1 B3 1 x 1
s2 c 2 cos 1 s2 c

o
s c
2
1 x 1
s2 c s c
B2 1 x 1
2 cos 1 s2 c

. (106)
The coefficients 2 and B3 are to be determined by means of the formula
1.6 A ap
B2
( s 2 c ) D ( s 2 c ) 2 p
; 3 = 0.25.
5.3.4.5. Checking of the welded seam of the reinforcing ring
4 A
t j
D , (107)
where tj - is the sum of all the effective widths of the load-bearing welded joints between the
reinforcing ring and the shell (Fig. 21c).
Where there is an intermittent weld, its actual width is to be reduced in the proportion of
the length of the welded seam to the whole perimeter of the shell. The distance between the
ends of discontinuous welded seams shall be not more than eight times the thickness of the
shell wall, and the sum of all the lengths of the welded seams shall be not less than one half of
the length of the circumference of the ring.
5.3.5. Connection of shells with toroidal transition zones (Fig. 22a and 22b)
5.3.5.1. The design formulae are to apply when the following conditions are met
r
0 0.3
1 70; 0 2 < 1; D .
5.3.5.2. The thickness of the wall is to be determined from the formula
ST sT. + , (108)
where
pD 3 1
sT .
2 p p cos 2
. (109)
Diagram for determining the coefficient T when calculating
the thickness of the walls of transition shells

Fig. 29
In the case of connection of a conical shell to a cylindrical shell (Fig. 22b), cos2 = l. The
coefficient 3 is to be determined from formula (111), and coefficients and are to be
found from formulae (98) and (112) or by means of the diagrams (Figs. 27 and 29).
5.3.5.3. The permissible internal excess or external pressure obtained from the condition
for the strength of the transition part is
2 p ( sT c)
p D 3
( sT c)
cos 2 . (110)
The coefficient 3 is to be found by means of formula (111), and coefficients are to
be determined using formulae (98) and (112) or from the diagrams (Figs. 28 and 30).
Diagram for determining the coefficient when carrying out the check calculation

Fig. 30
5.3.5.4. The shape coefficients are to be found from the following formulae:
coefficient 3 from
3 = max {0.5; , }, (111)
where is to be determined from formula (98) with
s1 c
1
s
2 c
= 1 and ,
and coefficient obtained from
1
T
r D
0.028 (1 2 )
D sT c
1
1 1

cos 1 cos 2
. (112)
5.3.6. Connection of a pipe connection or internal cylindrical shell to a conical shell (Fig.
21d).
5.3.6.1. The design formulae are to apply when the following condition is fulfilled
1 70.
5.3.6.2. The wall thickness is to be determined from the formula
s2 s2p + c, (113)
where
pD 4
s2 p
2 p p
. (114)
Calculation of the wall thickness of the conical element of the transition part is to be
carried out using the ratio of the wall thicknesses
s1 c
s1 s 2 p c
s2 c . (115)
5.3.6.3. The permissible internal excess or external pressure obtained from the condition
for the strength of the transition part is to be determined using the formula
2 2 p ( s 2 c)
p
D 4 ( s 2 c) . (116)
5.3.6.4. The shape coefficient is to be determined from the formula
4 = max{1.0; }, (117)
where
2
s1 c
x 1
= + 0.75 when s2 c ; (118)
D tg1
0 .4 0,5
s2 c s1 c
2

1 x
s1 c s1 c s
2 c
x
s2 c s2 c cos1 2
(119)
when
2
s1 c
x 1
s2 c .
In both cases the coefficient can also be determined from the diagrams (Figs. 31 and
32).
Diagram for determining the coefficient , when calculating the thickness of the walls of
the transition zones of the shells

Fig. 31

5.3.7. Gently sloping end plates with a toroidal transition zone (see Fig. 26a)
5.3.7.1. The design formulae are to apply for the action of an excess internal pressure when
the following condition is satisfied
1 > 70.
5.3.7.2. The wall thickness is to be taken as being
s min {max{s; sT}; Sp + c}; (120)
1 p
sp 0.3( D r )
90 p , (121)
where s is to be determined in accordance with clause 5.3.1 with D = D and sT determined in
accordance with clause 5.3.5.
Diagram for determining the coefficient when carrying out the check calculation

Fig. 32
5.3.7.3. The permissible internal excess pressure is to be taken as being the larger of the
value of
2

p p ( s c) 90

0.3( D r ) 1 (122)
and the lesser of the values of [] determined in accordance with clauses 5.3.1 when s = s
and 5.3.5 when s = s.
5.3.8. Gently sloping conical end plate with reinforcing ring (see Fig. 26b)
5.3.8.1. The design formulae are applicable for the effect of an internal excess pressure
when the following conditions are fulfilled:
1 > 70; s = s.
5.3.8.2. The thickness of the wall of the conical end plate is to be determined in accordance
with clause 5.3.1.1 when D = D.
5.3.8.3. The area of the transverse cross section of the reinforcing ring is to be determined
in accordance with clause 5.3.4.2, in which (s1 - ) = 0 should be used when determining .
5.3.8.4. The permissible internal excess pressure is to be determined for the conical end
plate in accordance with clause 5.3.1.2 with D = D; and for the reinforcing ring in accordance
with clause 5.3.4.3 in which (s1 - ) = 0 = 0 should be used when determining 2. The
calculation is to apply if the requirements of clause 5.3.4.5. are fulfilled.
5.3.9. Gradually sloping conical end plate without a toroidal transition zone and without a
reinforcing ring (see Fig 26c).
5.3.9.1. The design formulae are to apply for the effect of an internal excess pressure when
the following condition is fulfilled
1 > 70.
5.3.9.2. The wall thickness is to be taken as being
s min {max{s; s1}; Sp + c}; (123)
sp is to be determined using formula (119) with r r = 0;
s is to be determined in accordance with clause 5.3.1 with D = D;
s1 is to be determined in accordance with clause 5.3.3.
5.3.9.3. The permissible internal excess pressure is to be taken as being the larger of the
value of [] determined from formula (120) when r = 0 and the lesser of the values of []
found in accordance with clause 5.3.1 when s = s and D = D and in accordance with clause
5.3.3.
5.3.10. Gently sloping conical end plate which is loaded with an external pressure
5.3.10.1. The design formulae are to apply for the effect of an external pressure when the
following condition is fulfilled
1 > 70.
5.3.10.2. The permissible external pressure is to be determined from formula (86), the
permissible pressure within the limits of plasticity from formula (87), and the permissible
pressure within the limits of elasticity from the formula
2
4 EK s c
p cos 2 1
n y D
E

, (124)
where
0,1 5
K min 0.36; max ;0,12
4 ; (125)
D

2( s c ) cos 1 . (126)
5.4. C o n i c a l s h e l l s l o a d e d w i t h a x i a l f o r c e s
5.4.1. Smooth conical shells which are loaded with an axial tensile force
5.4.1.1. The thickness of the wall is to be determined using the formula
s s.p + c, (127)
where
F 1
s.
D1 cos1 . (128)
5.4.1.2. The permissible tensile force is to be
[F] = D1(s - c)[] cos 1. (129)
5.4.2. Smooth conical shells loaded with an axial compressive force
5.4.2.1. The design formula are to apply when the following condition is fulfilled
1 70.
5.4.2.2. The permissible axial compressive force [F] is to be determined from the formula


F min
F D
; 1 F

2 DF
F
1
F E , (130)
where the permissible axial force obtained from the condition for strength is
[F] = DF(s - c)[] cos 1 (131)
and the permissible axial force obtained from the condition for stability within the limits of
elasticity is
2.5
310 10 6 E 2 100( s c )
DF cos 1
ny DF ;
[F] = (132)
0.9 D 0.1D1
DF
cos 1 (133)
5.4.3. Connection of shells without a toroidal transition zone (Figs. 21a and 21b).
5.4.3.1. The design formulae are to apply when the conditions in clause 5.3.3.1 are
fulfilled.
5.4.3.2. The permissible axial tensile or compressive force [F] obtained from the condition
for the strength of the transition part is to be determined by means of the formula
( s2 c ) 2 p cos 2
F D
5 , (134)
where the shape coefficient is 5 = max {1.0; (2+1.2)}. (135)
The coefficient is to be determined using formula (98), or from the diagram (see Fig. 28).
5.4.4. Connection of a conical and a cylindrical shell with a reinforcing ring (Fig21c).
5.4.4.1. The design formulae are to apply when the conditions in clause 5.3.4.1. are
fulfilled.
5.4.4.2. The permissible axial tensile or compressive force [F] obtained from the condition
for the strength of the transition part is to be determined from the formula
( s2 c ) 2 p
F D
6 , (136)
where
6 = max {1.0; 20}. (135)
The coefficient 0 is to be determined by means of formula (106), in which 3 = -0.35
should be used.
5.4.4.3. Checking of the welded seam of a reinforcing ring shall be carried out in
accordance with clause 5.3.4.5.
5.4.5. Connection of shells with a torroidal transition zone (figs. 22a and22b).
5.4.5.1. The design formulae are to apply when the conditions in clause 5.3.5.1 are
fulfilled.
5.4.5.2. The permissible axial tensile or compressive force [F] to satisfy the condition for
the strength of the transition part is to be determined by means of the formula
( s c ) p cos 2
F D
7 , (138)
where
7 = max {1.0; (2+1.2)}. (139)
The coefficients and are to be determined by means of formulae (98) and (112), or
from the diagrams (Figs. 28 and 30).
5.4.6. Connection of a pipe connection or internal cylindrical casing with a conical shell
(Fig. 21d)
5.4.6.1. The design formulae are to apply when the conditions in clause 5.3.6.1 are
fulfilled.
5.4.6.2. The permissible axial tensile or compressive force [F] obtained from the condition
for the strength of the transition part is to be determined by means of the formula
( s2 c ) 2 p
F D
8 , (140)
where 8 = max {1.0; (2-1)}. (141)
The shape coefficient is to be determined by means of formulae (118) or (117), or from
the diagram (Fig. 32).
5.5. C o n i c a l s h e l l s w h i c h a r e l o a d e d w i t h a b e n d i n g m o m e n t
5.5.1. The permissible bending moment is to be calculated using the following formulae:
from the condition for strength
Dp
M F
4 , (142)
where the design diameter Dp = D1 for a conical transition zone (Fig. 23), and [F] is
determined by means of formula (129);
from the condition for stability

M M
2
M
1
M E , (143)
where

M DF F
4 , (144)

M DF F
3,5 , (145)
and DF is determined using formula (133).
The permissible axial forces are to be determined as follows:
[F] in accordance with clause 5.4.1.2; [F] and [F]E in accordance with clause 5.4.2.2.
5.5.2. Connection of shells
5.5.2.1. The permissible bending moment from the condition for the strength of the
transition part is to be determined from the formula

M D F
4 , (146)
where the permissible axial force [F] is to be determined in accordance with clauses
5.4.3.2, 5.4.4.2, 5.4.5.2 and 5.4.6.2.
5.6. Combination of loadings
5.6.1. Conditions for applicability of the formulae
If a conical shell which is loaded with a pressure, an axial force and a bending moment and
the total of the equivalent pressures from these loadings determinedly means of the formulae
4F 16 M
pF pM
D 2p D 3p
; , (147)

makes up less than 10% of the working pressure for the relevant design diameter, the
conical shell should be calculated for the effect of the pressure only.
5.6.2. Combined action of loads
When checking strength or stability for the combined actions of the loadings, minus p is to
be substituted for the design external pressure in formula (148) and (150); and when checking
for the effect of axial compressive force, minus F is to be substituted. The bending moment M
is always to be used with a plus sign.
5.6.2.1. Smooth conical shells
In the case of the effect of external pressure, it is necessary to check the stability condition
using the formula
p F M
- p - F + M 1. (148)
In addition, a check must be carried out for stability under the individual loadings
[p]; F [F]; M [M]. (149)
The permissible loadings [p], [F] and [M] are to be determined in accordance with clauses
5.3.2.3, 5.4.2.2 and 5.5.1. The check is to be carried out even if the conditions in clause 5.6.1
are not fulfilled for only one of the design diameters of a conical shell.
When there is internal pressure, it should be taken that p = 0 in formula (148).
5.6.2.2. Transition parts of conical shells
In addition to checking for the conditions of strength under the individual loadings in
accordance with formulae (149), it is necessary to check that the following condition is
fulfilled
p F M
p + F + M 1, (150)
where [p], [F] and [M] are the permissible loadings for the transition part of the shell. A check
is to be carried out if the conditions given in clause 5.6.1 are not fulfilled when Dp = D.
APPENDIX 1
Obligatory
Table 5
Permissible stresses for carbon and low-alloy steels
Design Permissible stress [], MPa (kg force/cm2) for steels of Types
temperature VSt3 09G2S, 16GS 20, 20K
of wall of Thickness, mm 17G1S
vessel or 10 10G2 17GS
apparatus, up to 20 over 20 up to 32 over 32 up to 160 10G2SI

20 154(1540) 140(1400) 196(1960) 183(1830) 147(1470) 130(1300) 180(1800) 183(1830)
100 149(1490) 134(1340) 177(1770) 160(1600) 142(1420) 125(1250) 160(1600) 160(1600)
150 145(1450) 131(1310) 171(1710) 154(1540) 139(1390) 122(1220) 154(1540) 154(1540)
200 142(1420) 126(1260) 165(1650) 148(1480) 136(1360) 118(1180) 148(1480) 148(1480)
250 131(1310) 120(1200) 162(1620) 145(1450) 132(1320) 112(1120) 145(1450) 145(1450)
300 115(1150) 108(1080) 151(1510) 134(1340) 119(1190) 100(1000) 134(1340) 134(1340)
350 105(1050) 98(980) 140(1400) 123(1230) 106(1060) 88(880) 123(1230) 123(1230)
375 93(930) 93(930) 133(1330) 116(1160) 98(980) 82(820) 108(1080) 116(1160)
400 85(850) 85(850) 122(1220) 105(1050) 92(920) 77(770) 92(920) 105(1050)
410 81(810) 81(810) 104(1040) 104(1040) 86(860) 75(750) 86(860) 104(1040)
420 75(750) 75(750) 92(920) 92(920) 80(800) 72(720) 80(800) 92(920)
430 71* (710) 71*(710) 86(860) 86(860) 75(750) 68(680) 75(750) 86(860)
440 - - 78(780) 78(780) 67(670) 60(600) 67(670) 78(780)
450 - - 71(710) 71(710) 61(610) 53(530) 61(610) 71(710)
460 - 64(640) 64(640) 55(550) 47(470) 55(550) 64(640)
470 - - 56(560) 56(560) 49(490) 42(420) 49(490) 56(560)
480 - - 53(530) 53(530) 46* (460) 37(370) 46** (460) 53(530)
* For design wall temperature of 425C.
* * For design wall temperature of 475C.

Notes:
1. When the design temperatures are less than 20C, the permissible stresses are to be
taken as being the same as when the design temperature is 20C provided that it is permissible
to use the materials for the particular temperature.
2. For intermediate values of design temperatures of walls, the permissible stress is to be
determined by linear interpolation with the results being rounded down to the nearest 0.5 MPa
(5 kg force/cm2).
3. For steel of Type 20 with Re20 < 220 MPa (2200 kg force/cm 2), the permissible stresses
given in Table 5 are to be multiplied by the ratio Re20 /220 (Re20 /2200).
4. For steel of Type 10G2 with RP0.220 < 270 MPa (2700 kg force/cm2), the permissible
stresses given in Table 5 are to be multiplied by the ratio RP0.220;/270 (RP0.220/2700).
Table 6
Permissible stresses for creep-resistant chromium steel
Design temperature Permissible stress [], MPa (kg force/cm2) for steels of Types
of wall of vessel or
apparatus, 12KhM 12MKh 15KhM 15Kh5M 15Kh5M-U

20 147(1470) 147(1470) 155(1550) 146(1460) 240(2400)
100 146.5(1465) 146.5(1465) 153(1530) 141(1410) 235(2350)
150 146(1460) 146(1460) 152.5(1525) 138(1380) 230(2300)
200 145(1450) 145(1450) 152(1520) 134(1340) 225(2250)
250 145(1450) 145(1450) 152(1520) 127(1270) 220(2200)
300 141(1410) 141(1410) 147(1470) 120(1200) 210(2100)
350 137(1370) 137(1370) 142(1420) 114(1140) 200(2000)
375 135(1350) 135(1350) 140(1400) 110(1100) 180(1800)
400 132(1320) 132(1320) 137(1370) 105(1050) 170(1700)
410 130(1300) 130(1300) 136(1360) 103(1030) 160(1600)
420 129(1290) 129(1290) 135(1350) 101(1010) 150(1500)
430 127(1270) 127(1270) 134(1340) 99(990) 140(1400)
440 126(1260) 126(1260) 132(1320) 96(960) 135(1350)
450 124(1240) 124(1240) 131(1310) 94(940) 130(1300)
460 122(1220) 122(1220) 127(1270) 91(910) 126(1260)
470 117(1170) 117(1170) 122(1220) 89(890) 122(1220)
480 114(1140) 114(1140) 117(1170) 86(860) 118(1180)
490 105(1050) 105(1050) 107(1070) 83(830) 114(1140)
500 96(960) 96(960) 99(990) 79(790) 108(1080)
510 82(820) 82(820) 84(840) 72(720) 97(970)
520 69(690) 69(690) 74(740) 66(660) 85(850)
530 60(600) 57(570) 67(670) 60(600) 72(720)
540 50(500) 47(470) 57(570) 54(540) 58(580)
550 41(410) - 49(490) 47(470) 52(520)
560 33(330) - 41(410) 40(400) 45(450)
570 - - - 35(350) 40(400)
580 - - - 30(300) 34(340)
590 - - - 28(280) 30(300)
600 - - - 25(250) 25(250)

Notes:
1. When design temperatures are less than 20C, the permissible stresses are to be taken as
being the same as for 20C provided that it is permissible to use the material at the particular
temperature.
2. For intermediate design temperatures of the wall, the permissible stresses are to be
determined by linear interpolation with the results being rounded down to the nearest 0.5 MPa
(5 kg force/cm2],
3. It is recommended that steels of Types 12MKh, 12KhM and 15 KhM should not be used
when design temperatures are less than 200C.
Table 7
Permissible stresses for high-temperature, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant steels of
the austenitic class

Design Permissible stress [], MPa (kg force/cm2) for steels of Types
temperature 08Kh18N10T, 12Kh18N10T,
of wall of vessel 03Kh21N21M4GB 08Kh18N12T, 12Kh18N12T,
03Kh18N11 03Khl7N14M3
or apparatus, 08Kh17N13M2T, l0Kh17N13M2T,
08Kh17N15M3T 10Kh17M13M3T

20 180(1800) 160(1600) 153(1530) 168(1680) 184(1840)
100 173(1730) 133(1330) 140(1400) 156(1560) 174(1740)
150 171(1710) 125(1250) 130(1300) 148(1480) 168(1680)
200 171(1710) 120(1200) 120(1200) 140(1400) 160(1600)
250 167(1670) 115(1150) 113(1130) 132(1320) 154(1540)
300 149(1490) 112(1120) 103(1030) 123(1230) 148(1480)
350 143(1430) 108(1080) 101(1010) 113(1130) 144(1440)
375 141(1410) 107(1070) 90(900) 108(1080) 140(1400)
400 140(1400) 107(1070) 87(870) 103(1030) 137(1370)
410 - 107(1070) 83(830) 102(1020) 136(1360)
420 - 107(1070) 82(820) 101(1010) 135(1350)
430 - 107(1070) 81(810) 100.5(1005) 134(1340)
440 - 107(1070) 81(810) 100(1000) 133(1330)
450 - 107(1070) 80(800) 99(990) 132(1320)
460 - - - 98(980) 131(1310)
470 - - - 97.5(975) 130(1300)
480 - - - 97(970) 129(1290)
490 - - - 96(960) 128(1280)
500 - - - 95(950) 127(1270)
510 - - - 94(940) 126(1260)
520 - - - 79(790) 125(1250)
530 - - - 79(790) 124(1240)
540 - - - 78(780) 111(1110)
550 - - - 76(760) 111(1110)
560 - - - 73(730) 101(1010)
570 - - - 69(690) 97(970)
580 - - - 65(650) 90(900)
590 - - - 61(610) 81(810)
600 - - - 57(570) 74(740)
610 - - - - 68(680)
620 - - - - 62(620)
630 - - - - 57(570)
640 - - - - 52(520)
650 - - - - 48(480)
660 - - - - 45(450)
670 - - - - 42(420)
680 - - - - 38(380)
690 - - - - 34(340)
700 - - - - 30(300)
Notes:
1. When design temperatures are less than 20C, the permissible stresses are to be taken as
being the same as for 20C provided that it is permissible to use the material at the particular
temperature.
2. For intermediate design wall temperatures, the permissible stress is to be determined by
interpolation between the two nearest values shown in the Table with the results being
rounded down to the nearest 0.5 MPa (5 kg forc6/cnr).
3. For forgings of steel Types 12Khl8N10T, 10Khl7N13M2T and 10Khl7N13M3T, the
permissible stresses given in Table 7 are to be multiplied by 0.83 for temperatures up to
500C.
4. For rolled steel of Types 12Khl8N10T, 10Khl7N13M2T and 10Khl7Nl3M3T, the
permissible stresses in Table 7 for temperatures up to 550are to be multiplied by the ratio
R *p 0.2 R *p 0.2

240 2400
,
where R*p0.2 - is the yield point of the material of the rolled steel determined in accordance
with GOST 5949; for rolled steel of Type 03Khl8Nll the permissible stresses are to be
multiplied by 0.8.
5. For forgings and rolled metal of steel Type 08Khl8NlOT, the permissible stresses given
in Table 7 for temperatures up to 550C are to be multiplied by 0.95 .
6. For forgings of steel Type 03Khl7N14M3, the permissible stresses given in Table 7 are
to be multiplied by 0.9.
7. For forgings of steel Type 03Khl8Nll, the permissible stresses given in Table 7 are to be
multiplied by 0.9; for rolled metal of steel Type 03Khl8Nll, the permissible stresses given in
Table 7 are to be multiplied by 0.8.
^
8. For pipe of steel Type 03Kh21N21M4GB (ZI-35), the permissible stresses given in
Table 7 are to be multiplied by 0.88.
9. For forgings of steel Type 03Kh21N21M4GB (ZI-35), the permissible stresses given in
Table 7 are to be multiplied by the ratio
R *p 0.2 R *p 0.2

250 2500
,
where R*p0.2 - is the yield point of the material of the forging determined in accordance with
GOST 25054 (by correlation).
Table 8
Permissible resistances for high-temperature, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant
steels of the austenitic and austenitic-ferrite class

Design Permissible stress [], MPa (kg force/cm2) for steels of Types
temperature
of wall of
vessel or 08Kh18G8N2 07Kh13G20 02Kh8N22S6 15Kh18N12S4Yu 06KhN28D, 08Kh22M6,
(0-3) (ChS-46) (EP-794) (EI-654) 03Kh28D 08Kh21N62
apparatus,

20 230(2300) 233(2330) 133(1330) 233(2330) 147(1470) 233(2330)
100 206(2060) 173(1730) 106.5(1065) 220(2200) 138(1380) 200(2000)
150 190(1900) 153(1530) 100(1000) 206.5(2065) 130(1300) 193(1930)
200 175(1750) 133(1330) 90(900) 200(2000) 124(1240) 188.5(1885)
250 160(1600) 127(1270) 83(830) 186.5(1865) 117(1170) 166.5(1665)
300 144(1440) 120(1200) 76.5(765) 180(1800) 110(1100) 160(1600)
350 - 113(1130) - - 107(1070) -
375 - 110(1100) - - 105(1050) -
400 - 107(1070) - - 103(1030) -

Notes:
1. When design temperatures are less than 20C, the permissible stresses are to be taken as
being the same as for 20C provided that it is permissible to use the material at the particular
temperature.
2. For intermediate design temperatures of the wall, the permissible stress is to be
determined by linear interpolation with the results being rounded down to the nearest 0.5 MPa
(5 kg force/cm2).
APPENDIX 2
For information
Mechanical characteristics:
for carbon and low-alloy steels - Tables 1 and 2, for creep-resistant chromium steel -
Tables 3 and 4, for high temperature, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant steels of the
austenitic and austenitic-ferrite class Tables 5 and 6
Table 9
Design Design value of yield point Re, P (kg force/m2) for steels of Types
temperature VSt3 09G2S, 16GS 20, 20K
of wall of Thickness, mm 17G1S,
vessel or 10G2,
10 17GS,
apparatus, 09G2
up to 20 over 20 up to 32 over 32 up to 160 10G2SI

20 250(2500) 210(2100) 300(3000) 280(2800) 220(2200) 195(1950) 270(2700) 280(2800)
100 230(2300) 201(2010) 265.5(2655) 240(2400) 213(2130) 188(1880) 240(2400) 240(2400)
150 224(2240) 197(1970) 256.5(2565) 231(2310) 209(2090) 183(1830) 231(2310) 231(2310)
200 223(2230) 189(1890) 247.5(2475) 222(2220) 204(2040) 177(1770) 222(2220) 222(2220)
250 197(1970) 180(1800) 243(2430) 218(2180) 198(1980) 168(1680) 218(2180) 218(2180)
300 173(1730) 162(1620) 226.5(2265) 201(2010) 179(1790) 150(1500) 201(2010) 201(2010)
350 167(1670) 147(1470) 210(2100) 185(1850) 159(1590) 132(1320) 185(1850) 185(1850)
375 164(1640) 140(1400) 199.5(1995) 174(1740) 147(1470) 123(1230) 162(1620) 174(1740)
400 - - 183(1830) 158(1580) - - - 158(1580)
410 - - - 156(1560) - - - 156(1560)
420 - - - 138(1380) - - - 138(1380)
Table 10
Design Design value of tensile strength R, P (kg force/m2) for steels of Types
temperature VSt3 09G2S, 16GS 20, 20K 10G2,
of wall of Thickness, mm 09G2,
vessel or 10 17GS,
apparatus, up to 20 over 20 up to 32 over 32 up to 160 10G2SI,
10G2S1
20 460(4600) 380(3800) 470(4700) 440(4400) 410(4100) 340(3400) 440(4400)
100 435(4350) 360(3600) 425(4250) 385(3850) 380(3800) 310(3100) 385(3850)
150 460(4600) 390(3900) 430(4300) 430(4300) 425(4250) 340(3400) 430(4300)
200 505(5050) 420(4200) 439(4390) 439(4390) 460(4600) 382(3820) 439(4390)
250 510(5100) 435(4350) 444(4440) 444(4440) 460(4600) 400(4000) 444(4440)
300 520(5200) 440(4400) 445(4450) 445(4450) 460(4600) 374(3740) 445(4450)
350 480(4800) 420(4200) 441(4410) 441(4410) 430(4300) 360(3600) 441(4410)
375 450(4500) 402(4020) 425(4250) 425(4250) 410(4100) 330(3300) 425(4250)
Table 11
2
Design temperature Design value of yield point Rp0.2, P (kg force/m ) for steels of Types
of wall of vessel or
apparatus, 12MKh 12KhM 15KhM 15Kh5 15Kh5-U

20 220(2200) 220(2200) 233(2330) 220(2200) 400(4000)
100 219(2190) 219(2190) 230(2300) 210(2100) 352.5(3525)
150 218(2180) 218(2180) 229(2290) 207(2070) 345(3450)
200 217.5(2175) 217.5(2175) 228(2280) 201(2010) 337.5(3375)
250 217.5(2175) 217.5(2175) 228(2280) 190(1900) 330(3300)
300 212(2120) 212(2120) 220(2200) 180(1800) 315(3150)
350 206(2060) 206(2060) 213(2130) 171(1710) 300(3000)
375 202(2020) 202(2020) 210(2100) 164(1640) 270(2700)
400 198(1980) 198(1980) 205(2050) 158(1580) 255(2550)
410 195(1950) 195(1950) 204(2040) 155(1550) 240(2400)
420 194(1940) 194(1940) 202(2020) 152(1520) 225(2250)
Table 12
Design Design value of tensile strength R, P (kg force/m2) for steels of Types
temperature
of wall of vessel
or apparatus, 12Kh 12Kh 15Kh 15Kh5 15Kh5-U

20 450(4500) 450(4500) 450(4500) 400(4000) 600(6000)
100 440(4400) 440(4400) 440(4400) 380(3800) 572(5720)
150 434(4340) 434(4340) 434(4340) 355(3550) 555(5550)
200 430(4300) 430(4300) 430(4300) 330(3300) 535(5350)
250 440(4400) 437(4370) 437(4370) 320(3200) 520(5200)
300 454(4540) 445(4450) 445(4450) 318(3180) 503(5030)
350 437(4370) 442(4420) 442(4420) 314(3140) 492(4920)
375 427(4270) 436(4360) 436(4360) 312(3120) 484(4840)
400 415(4150) 426(4260) 426(4260) 310(3100) 472(4720)
410 413(4130) 424(4240) 424(4240) 306(3060) 468(4680)
420 410(4100) 421(4210) 421(4210) 300(3000) 462(4620)

Table 13
2
Design Design value of yield point Rp0.2, P (kg force/m ) for steels of Types
temperature
of wall of
vessel or 08Kh18G8N2 07Kh13AG20 02Kh8N22S6 15Kh18N12S4Yu 08Kh22N6, 06KhN28D,
(0-3) (ChS-46) (EP-794) (EI-654) 08Kh21N62 03KhN28D
apparatus,

20 350(3500) 350(3500) 200(2000) 350(3500) 350(3500) 220(2200)
100 328(3280) 260(2600) 160(1600) 330(3300) 300(3000) 207(2070)
150 314(3140) 230(2300) 150(1500) 310(3100) 280(2900) 195(1950)
200 300(3000) 200(2000) 135(1350) 300(3000) 283(2830) 186(1860)
250 287(2870) 190(1900) 125(1250) 280(2800) 250(2500) 175(1750)
300 274(2740) 180(1800) 115(1150) 270(2700) 240(2400) 165(1650)
350 - 170(1700) - - - 160(1600)
375 - 165(1650) - - - 157.5(1575)
400 - 160(1600) - - - 155(1550)

Table 14
2
Design Design value of tensile strength R, P (kg force/m ) for steels of Types
temperature
of wall of vessel 08Kh18G8N2 07Kh13AG20 02Kh8N22S6 15Kh18N12S4Y 06KhN28D,
or apparatus, (0-3) (ChS-46) (EP-794) u (EP-654) 03KhN28D

20 600(6000) 670(6700) 550(5500) 700(7000) 550(5500)
100 535(5350) 550(5500) 500(5000) 640(6400) 527.5(5275)
150 495(4950) 520(5200) 480(4800) 610(6100) 512.5(5125)
200 455(4550) 490(4900) 468(4680) 580(5800) 500(5000)
250 415(4150) 485(4850) 450(4500) 570(5700) 490(4900)
300 375(3750) 480(4800) 440(4400) 570(5700) 482.5(4825)
350 - 465(4650) - - 478(4780)
375 - 458(4580) - - 474(4740)
400 - 450(4500) - - 470(4700)
Table 15
Design Design value of yield point Rp1.0, P (kg force/m2) for steels of Types
temperature 12Kh18N10, 08Kh18N10,
of wall of vessel or 12Kh18N12, 08Kh18N12,
03Kh21N214GB 03Kh18N11 03Kh17N143
apparatus, 10Kh17N132, 08Kh17N132,
10Kh17N133 08Kh17N153
20 276(2760) 252(2520) 270(2700) 240(2400) 230(2300)
100 261(2610) 234(2340) 260(2600) 200(2000) 210(2100)
150 252(2520) 222(2220) 257(2570) 187.5(1875) 195(1950)
200 240(2400) 210(2100) 257(2570) 180(1800) 180(1800)
250 231(2310) 198(1980) 250(2500) 173(1730) 170(1700)
300 222(2220) 184.5(1845) 223(2230) 168(1680) 155(1550)
350 216(2160) 169.5(1695) 215(2150) 162(1620) 152(1520)
375 210(2100) 162(1620) 212(2120) 160(1600) 135(1350)
400 205.5(2055) 154.5(1545) 210(2100) 160(1600) 130(1300)
410 204(2040) 153(1530) - 160(1600) 125(1250)
420 202.5(2025) 151.5(1515) - 160(1600) 123(1230)
430 201(2010) 150.75(1508) - 160(1600) 122(1220)
440 199.5(1995) 150(1500) - 160(1600) 121(1210)
450 198(1980) 148.5(1485) - 160(1600) 120(1200)
460 196.5(1965) 147(1470) - - -
470 195(1950) 146(1460) - - -
480 193.5(1935) 145.5(1455) - - -
490 192(1920) 144(1440) - - -
500 190.5(1905) 142.5(1425) - - -
510 189(1890) 141(1410) - - -
520 187.5(1875) 139.5(1395) - - -
530 186(1860) 138(1380) - - -

Note. The yield point for forgings, rolled steel and pipe when the temperature is 20C
should be taken as being:
for forgings of steels Types 12Khl8N10T, 10KH17N13M2T and 10Khl7N13M3T -
R p201.0 of sheet steel
;
1.2
R p201.0 of sheet steel
;
for forgings and rolled steel of Type 08Khl8N10T - 1.05

for rolled steel of Types 12Khl8N10T, 10Khl7N13M2T and 10Khl7N13M3T -


1.15 R p200.2 of rolled steel
R p201.0 of sheet steel
;
for forgings of steel Types 03Khl7Ni4M3 and 03Khl8Nll - 1.11
R p1.0 of sheet steel
20

;
for rolled steel of Type 03Khl811 - 1.25
R p201.0 of sheet steel
;
for pipe of steel Type 03Kh21N21M4GB (ZI-35) - 1.14
1.08 R p200.2
for forgings of steel Type 03Kh21N21M4GB (ZI-35) - (forgings)
R p200.2
where is the yield point of the material of the forgings in accordance with GOST
25054 (by correlation).
Table 16
2
Design Design value of yield point Rp0.2 , P (kg force/m ) for steels of Types
temperature 12Kh18N10, 08Kh18N10,
of wall of vessel 12Kh18N12, 08Kh18N12T,
03Kh21N214GB 03Kh18N11 03Kh17N14M3
or apparatus, 10Kh17N132, 08Kh17N132,
10Kh17N133 08Kh17N13M3T
20 240(2400) 210*(2100) 250(2500) 200(2000) 200(2000)
100 228(2280) 195(1950) 240(2400) 160(1600) 180(1800)
150 219(2190) 180(1800) 235(2350) 150(1500) 165(1650)
200 210(2100) 173(1730) 235(2350) 140(1400) 150(1500)
250 204(2040) 165(1650) 232(2320) 135(1350) 140(1400)
300 195(1950) 150(1500) 205(2050) 130(1300) 126(1260)
350 190(1900) 137(1370) 199(1990) 127(1270) 115(1150)
375 186(1860) 133(1330) 195(1950) 125(1250) 108(1080)
400 181(1810) 129(1290) 191(1910) 122.5(1225) 100(1000)
410 180(1800) 128(1280) - 121.5(1215) 98(980)
420 180(1800) 128(1280) - 121(1210) 97.5(975)
430 179(1790) 127(1270) - 120.5(1205) 97(970)
440 177(1770) 126(1260) - 120(1200) 96(960)
450 176(1760) 125(1250) - 120(1200) 95(950)
460 174(1740) 125(1250) - - -
470 173(1730) 124(1240) - - -
480 173(1730) 123(1230) - - -
490 171(1710) 122(1220) - - -
500 170(1700) 122(1220) - - -
510 168(1680) 120(1200) - - -
520 168(1680) 119(1190) - - -
530 167(1670) 119(1190) - - -
* For steels 08Khl7Nl3M2T, 08KH17N15M3T, the yield point when the temperature is 20C is to be equal
to 200 MPa (2000 kg force/cm2).
Notes:
1. For forgings of steels Types 12Kh18N10, 10Kh17N132, 10Kh17N133, the yield
points given in Table 16 are to be multiplied by 0.83.
2. For rolled steel of Types 12Kh18N10, 10Kh17N132, 10Kh17N133 the yield
points given in Table 16 are to be multiplied by
R *p 0.2 R *p 0.2

240 2400
,
where R*p0.2 - is the yield point of the material of the rolled steel determined in accordance
with GOST 5949.
3. For forgings and rolled steel of Type 08Kh18N10 the yield points given in Table 16 are
to be multiplied by 0.95.
4. For forgings of steel Type 03Kh17N143 the yield points given in Table 16 are to be
multiplied by 0.9.
5. For forgings of steel Type 03Kh18N11 the yield points given in Table 16 are to be
multiplied by 0.9; for rolled steel of Type 03Kh18N11 the yield point is to be multiplied by
0.8.
6. For pipe of steel Type 03Kh21N214GB (ZI-35) the yield points given in Table 16 are
to be multiplied by 0.88.
7. For forgings of steel Type 03Kh2lN21M4GB (ZI-35), the yield points given in Table 16
are to be multiplied by the relationship
R *p 0.2 R *p 0.2

250 2500
,
where R*p0.2 is the yield point of the materials of the forgings determined in accordance with
GOST 25054 (by correlation).
Table 17
Design Design value of tensile strength R, P (kg force/m2) for steels of Types
temperature
of wall of 08Kh18N10, 12Kh18N10,
vessel or 08Kh22N6, 08Kh18N12, 12Kh18N12,
03Kh21N214GB 03Kh17N143 03Kh18N11
08Kh21N62 08Kh17N132, 10Kh17N132,
apparatus, 08Kh17N153 10Kh17N133

20 550(5500) 600(6000) 500(5000) 520(5200) 520(5200) 540(5400)
100 540(5400) 583(5830) 474(4740) 450(4500) 480(4800) 500(5000)
150 535(5350) 550(5500) 453(4530) 433(4330) 455(4550) 475(4750)
200 535(5350) 515(5150) 432(4320) 415(4150) 430(4300) 450(4500)
250 534(5340) 503(5030) 412(4120) 405(4050) 424(4240) 443(4430)
300 520(5200) 500(5000) 392(3920) 397(3970) 417(4170) 440(4400)
350 518(5180) - 376(3760) 394(3940) 408(4080) 438(4380)
375 517(5170) - 368(3680) 392(3920) 405(4050) 437(4370)
400 516(5160) - 360(3600) 390(3900) 402(4020) 436(4360)
410 - - 358(3580) 388(3880) 400(4000) 434(4340)
420 - - 356(3560) 386(3860) 398(3980) 432(4320)
430 - - 354(3540) 384(3840) 396(3960) 431(4310)
440 - - 352(3520) 382(3820) 394(3940) 430(4300)
450 - - 350(3500) 380(3800) 392(3920) 428(4280)
460 - - - - 390(3900) 426(4260)
470 - - - - 388(3880) 424(4240)
480 - - - - 386(3860) 422(4220)
490 - - - - 385(3850) 421(4210)
500 - - - - 383(3830) 420(4200)
510 - - - - 381(3810) 418(4180)
520 - - - - 380(3800) 416(4160)
530 - - - - 374*(3740) 412*(4120)
* For design temperature of the wall of 550C.
APPENDIX 3
for information
Table 18
Coefficient of linear expansion
Design value of coefficient 106, -1, when temperature, C, is
Type of Steel
20-100 20-200 20-300 20-400 20-500
VSt3, 20, 20K 11.6 12.6 13.1 13.6 14.1
09G2S, 16GS, 17GS, 17G1S
10G2S1, 10G2 13.0 14.0 15.3 16.1 16.2
12KhM, 12MKh, 15KhM, 11.9 12.6 13.2 13.7 14.0
15Kh5M, 15KhM-U
08KH22N6T, 08Kh21N6M2T 9.6 13.8 16.0 16.0 16.5
12Kh18N10T, 12Kh18N12T,
03KM7N14M3, 10KH17N13M2T
10K.h17N13M3T, 08KM8N10T
08KM8N12T, 03Kh18N11
08KM7N13M2T, 08Kh17Nl5M3T 16.6 17.0 18.0 18.0 18.0
03Kh21N21M4GB 14.9 15.7 16.6 17.3 17.5
06KHN28MDT,
03KHN28MDT 15.3 15.9 16.5 16.9 17.3
08Kh18GBN2T 12.3 13.1 14.4 14.4 15.3
APPENDIX 4
Obligatory
Design values of the modulus of elasticity

1 - carbon and low-alloy steels; 2 - creep-resisting and corrosion-resistant steels;


3 - high-temperature, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant austenitic steels
Table 19
Modulus of elasticity 105 P (10-6 kg force/m2) when temperature, , is
Steel
20 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 650 600 650 700
Carbon and low-alloy 1.99 1.91 1.86 1.81 1.76 1.71 1.64 1.55 1.40 - - - - -
steels
Creep-resisting and 2.15 2.15 2.05 1.98 1.95 1.90 1.84 1.78 1.71 1.63 1.54 1.40 - -
corrosion-resistant
chrome steels
High-temperature and 2.00 2.00 1.99 1.97 1.94 1.90 1.85 1.80 1.74 1.67 1.60 1.52 1.43 1.32
heat-resistant
austenitic steels
APPENDIX 5
Obligatory
Table 20
Safety factors for the strength of welded joints
Value of safety factor for strength
of welded seams
Form of welded seam Length of monitored Length of monitored
welds of total length is welds of total length is
100%* 10 to 50%*
Butt or Tee-shaped with continuous fusion 1.0 0.9
from both sides, welded automatically or
semi-automatically
Butt with re-welding of the root of the seam 1.0 0.9
or Tee-shaped with weld continuous
through the seam, welded manually
Butt, accessible for welding from one side 0.9 0.8
only and having a metal backing plate held
against the root of the base metal of the root
of the weld for the full length of the seam
during welding
Tee-shaped with a constructional clearance 0.8 0.65
between the welded parts
Butt, welded automatically or semi- 0.9 0.8
automatically from one side using flux or
ceramic backing
Butt welded manually from one side 0.9 0.65
* The extent of monitoring is determined by technical specifications for manufacture and the regulations of
the USSR State Mining Industry Inspectorate.
APPENDIX 6
for information
Table 21
Terms used in this Standard and their symbols
Term Symbol
Area of transverse cross section of stiffening ring, mm2 (m2)
Design lengths of transition parts of shells, mm (m) 1, 2
Actual lengths of the transition parts of shells, mm (m) 1, 2
Non-dimensional coefficients B1, B2, B3,
B4, B5, B6, B7
Distance between two adjacent stiffening rings, mm (m) b
Length of chords of openings in end plates, mm (m) bi (i = 1, 2, 3 ...n)
Sum of additions to design thicknesses of walls, mm (m)
Addition to compensate for corrosion and erosion, mm (m) 1
Addition to compensate for negative tolerance, mm (m) 2
Addition for technological process used, mm (m) 3
Internal diameter of vessel or apparatus, mm (m) D
External diameter of perimeter of end plate or cover having D
a thickness of s1, mm (m)
Average diameter of gasket, mm (m) D.
Effective diameter of conical shell when there is external DE
pressure, mm (m)
Effective diameter of conical shell when there is axial DF
compression and bending, mm (m)
Design diameter of smooth conical shell, mm (m) D
Design diameter of end plate (cover) and conical shell, mm D
(m)
External diameter of vessel or apparatus, and also of D1
diameter of smaller base of conical shell, mm (m)
Smallest diameter of external part of cover with reduced D2
thickness, mm (m)
Diameter of bolt perimeter, mm (m) D3
Diameter of opening in end plate or cover, mm (m) d
Diameter of openings in end plates, mm (m) di (i = 1, 2, 3 ...n)
Modulus of longitudinal elasticity at design temperature, E
MPa (kg force/m2)
Distance between centre of gravity of transverse
cross section of stiffening ring and median surface of
shell, mm (cm)
Design axial tensile or compressive force (without taking F
into account loadings arising because of internal
excess or external pressure), N (kg force)
Loading on securing bolts of cover, N (kg force) F
Resultant of internal pressure, N (kg force) FQ
Reaction of gasket, N (kg force) F
Permissible tensile or compressive force, N (kg force) [F]
Permissible axial compressive force obtained from the [F]
condition for stability within the limits of
elasticity, N (kg force)
Term Symbol
Permissible axial compressive force obtained from the [F]
condition for strength when =1, N (kg force)
Permissible axial compressive force determined from the [F]1
condition for local stability within the limits of
elasticity, N (kg force)
Permissible axial compressive force determined from the [F]2
condition for general stability within the limits of
elasticity, N (kg force)
Height of convex part of end plate without taking the
cylindrical part into account, mm (m)
Length of cylindrical part of flange of end plate, mm (m) h1
Height of cross section of stiffening ring measured from h2
median surface of shell, mm (m)
Effective moment of inertia of design transverse cross I
section of stiffening ring, mm4 (m4)
Moment of inertia of transverse cross section of stiffening I
ring relative to the axis passing through the centre of gravity
of the transverse cross section of the ring (relative to the axis
X-X), mm4 (m4).
Design effective moment of inertia of design transverse cross Ip
section of stiffening ring, mm4 (m4)
Construction coefficient of flat end plates and covers K
Non-dimensional coefficients K1, K2, K3,
K4, K5, K6, K7
Coefficient of rigidity of shell which is reinforced by k
stiffening ring
Coefficient of weakening of flat end plates (covers) by Ko
openings
Correction coefficient Kp
Reduction coefficient for radius of curvature of an elliptical K
end plate
Design length of cylindrical shell reinforced with stiffening L
rings, mm (m)
Design length of smooth shell, mm (m) l
Effective length of conical shell, mm (m) lE
Effective length of wall of shell taken into account when le
determining the effective moment of inertia, mm (m)
Reduced length, mm (m) l
Distance between two stiffening rings measured along the l1
axes passing through the centre of gravity of the cross
sections of the rings, mm (m)
Distance between the outermost stiffening rings and the next l2
effective stiffening elements, mm (m)
Length of adjoining element taken into account when l3
determining the design length l or L, mm (m)
Design bending moment, N*mm (kg forcem) M
Permissible bending moment, N-mm (kg force m) [M]
Permissible bending moment obtained from the condition for [M]E
stability within the limits of elasticity, Nmm (kg force cm)
Permissible bending moment obtained from the condition for [M]
strength when =l, Nmm (kg forcem)
Term Symbol
Safety factor for tensile (strength limit)
Safety factor for rupture stress

Safety factor for limiting creep stress


Safety factor for yield point
Safety factor for stability
Design internal excess or external pressure, MPa (kg
force/m2)
Equivalent pressure when loaded with axial force, F
MPa (kg force/m2)
Equivalent pressure when loaded with a bending moment, pM
MPa (kg force/m2)
Permissible internal excess or external pressure, MPa (kg [p]
force/m2)
Permissible external pressure obtained from the condition for [p]E
stability within the limits of elasticity, MPa (kg force/m2)
Permissible external stress obtained from the condition for [p]
strength when =1, MPa (kg force/m2)
Permissible internal excess or external pressure determined [p]1
from the condition for strength or stability of the complete
shell (with stiffening rings), MPa (kg force/m2).
Permissible external pressure obtained from the condition for [p]1E
stability of the complete shell (with stiffening rings) within
the limits of elasticity, MPa (kg force/m2)
Permissible external pressure obtained from the condition for [p]1
the strength of the complete shell when =1, MPa (kg
force/m2)
Permissible internal excess or external pressure determined [p]2
from the condition for the strength or the stability of the shell
between two adjacent stiffening rings, MPa (kg force/m2)
Permissible transverse force obtained from the condition for [Q]E
stability within the limits of elasticity, N (kg force)
Permissible transverse force obtained from the condition for [Q]
strength when =1, N (kg force)
Design transverse force, N (kg force) Q
Resultant of internal pressure on end plate (cover), N (kg Q
force)
Permissible transverse force, N (kg force) [Q]
Radius of curvature at the crown of an end plate over the R
internal surface, mm (m)
Bolt loading, N (kg force) R
Reaction of gasket, N (kg force) R
Minimum value of yield point at design temperature, MPa R
(kg force/m2)
Minimum value of yield point at temperature of 20C, MPa R20
(kg force/m2)
Minimum value of nominal yield point at design temperature R0.2
(stress at which residual extension is 0.2%), MPa (kg
force/m2)
Minimum value of nominal yield point at temperature of R p200.2
20C, MPa (kg force/m2)
Minimum value of tensile strength (limit of strength) at Rm
Term Symbol
design temperature, MPa (kg force/m2)
Average value of rupture strength over 105 hrs at design Rm/10 5

temperature, MPa (kg force/m2)


Average 1% limiting creep stress over 105 hrs at design R1.0/10 5

temperature, MPa (kg force/m2)


Minimum value of nominal yield point at design temperature R1.0
(pressure at which the residual elongation is 1%), MPa (kg
force/m2)
Internal radius of flange of conical shell (end plate), mm r
(m)
Radius of groove, mm () r
External radius of flange of torospherical end plate, mm (m) r1
Construction thickness of wall of shell, mm (cm) s
Construction thickness of wall of conical shell, mm (m) s
Thickness of cover at sealing position, mm (m) s
Design thickness of wall of shell, mm (m) s
Design thickness of wall of conical shell, mm (m) s.
Design thickness of wall of end plate (cover) or transition s1
part of shell, mm (m)
Design thickness of wall of transition part of shell, mm (m) s2
Construction thickness of wall of toroidal transition zone of s
conical shell, mm (m)
Construction thickness of wall of gently sloping conical end s
plate, mm (m)
Design thickness of wall of transition part with a toroidal s.
transition zone, mm (m)
Design thickness of gently sloping end plate, mm (m) s
Effective thickness of wall of transition part of shells, mm s1; s2
(m)
Construction thickness of wall of end plates (cover) or s1
transition part of conical shell, mm (m)
Construction thickness of wall of transition part of s2
shell, mm (m)
Thickness of cover outside seal, mm (m) s3
Thickness of part of end plate of reduced thickness in the s4
position of circular groove, mm (m)
Width of transverse cross section of stiffening ring at the t
place where it is welded to the shell, mm (m)
Bearing width of circular welded seam, mm (m) tj
Half of angle of flare at crown of conical shell, degrees ; 1; 2
Shape coefficients 1, 2, 3, 4. 5, 6, 7, 8,
, o, , , A
Correction coefficient to permissible stress
1
Ratio of permissible stresses 2
Flexibility of element
Permissible stress at design temperature, MPa (kg force/m2) []
Permissible stress at temperature of 20C, MPa (kg []20
force/m2)
Permissible stress for stiffening ring at design temperature, []
Term Symbol
MPa (kg force/m2)
Permissible stress for transition part of shells (cylindrical and []1; []2
conical) at design temperature, MPa (kg force/m2)
Maximum sum of lengths of chords of openings in the most di
weakened diametric cross section of end plate or cover, mm
(m)
Safety factor for strength of welded seams
Safety factor for strength of welded seams in torospherical ,
end plates (depending on position)
Safety factor for strength of welded seams of stiffening ring
Safety factor for strength for longitudinal welded seams
Design factor for strength of welded seams
Safety factor for strength of circular welded seam
Safety factor for strength of transverse welded seam of
reinforcing ring
Coefficient of reduction of permissible stresses when
calculating for stability:
obtained from the condition for local stability when there 1
is axial compression
obtained from the condition for general stability when 2
there is axial compression
obtained from the condition for local stability when there 3
is bending
CONTENTS
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS..............................................................................................2
1.1. Design temperature...........................................................................................................2
1.2. Working, design, and test pressure...................................................................................2
1.3. Design forces and moments..............................................................................................2
1.4. Permissible stress, safety factors for strength and stability..............................................3
1.5. Design values of the modulus of longitudinal elasticity...................................................5
1.6. Safety factors of welds.....................................................................................................5
1.7. Additions to design thicknesses of construction elements................................................5
1.8. Checking for fatigue strength...........................................................................................6
2. CALCULATION OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS...................................................................6
2.1. Design diagrams...............................................................................................................6
2.2. Conditions for applicability of design formulae...............................................................6
2.3. Smooth cylindrical shells..................................................................................................8
2.4. Cylindrical shells reinforced with stiffening rings.........................................................15
3. CALCULATION OF CONVEX END PLATES..................................................................18
3.1. Calculation diagrams......................................................................................................18
3.2. Conditions for applicability of design formulae.............................................................19
3.3. Eliptical and hemispherical end plates...........................................................................19
3.4. Torospherical end plates.................................................................................................21
4. CALCULATION OF FLAT ROUND END PLATES AND COVERS................................24
4.1. Field of applicability of design formulae.......................................................................24
4.2. Calculation of flat round end plates and covers.............................................................24
4.3. Calculation of flat round covers with an additional edge moment.................................28
5. CALCULATION OF CONICAL SHELLS..........................................................................30
5.1. Design diagrams and design parameters........................................................................30
5.2. Field and conditions of applicability of design formulae...............................................34
5.3. Conical shells which are loaded with a pressure............................................................35
5.4. Conical shells loaded with axial forces..........................................................................45
5.5. Conical shells which are loaded with a bending moment..............................................47
5.6. Combination of loadings................................................................................................48
APPENDIX 1............................................................................................................................49
APPENDIX 2............................................................................................................................54
APPENDIX 3............................................................................................................................59
APPENDIX 4............................................................................................................................59
APPENDIX 5............................................................................................................................60
APPENDIX 6............................................................................................................................61
REFERENCE DATE
1. DEVELOPED AND SUBMITTED by the Ministry of Chemical and Oil Machine
Building
COLLABORATORS
V.I. Rachkov, Candidate of Technical Sciences; S.I. Zusmanovskaya, Candidate of
Technical Sciences (project managers); N.M. Samsonov, Doctor of Technical Sciences; G.V.
Mamontov, Candidate of Technical Sciences; V.D. Babansky, V.F. Kurylev, Candidate of
Technical Sciences; S.M. Kutepov, Candidate of Technical Sciences; L.S. Pritykina, I.V.
Sukharnikova, I.E. Zeyde, A.K. Kuznetsova, Yu.S. Medvedev, Candidate of Technical
Sciences
2. APPROVED AND INTRODUCED INTO OPERATION by Resolution of the State
Committee of the USSR for Standards of 18.05.89, No. 1264
3. Replaces 14249-80
4. The standard fully meets ST SEV 596-86, ST SEV 597-77, ST SEV 1039-78, ST SEV
1040-88, ST SEV 1041-88
5. REFERENCE NORMATIVE AND TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS
Designation of Normative Document to which
Point Number, Appendix
Reference is Made
GOST 5949- Appendix 1
GOST 24755-81 5.2.8
GOST 24756-81 1.3
GOST 25054-81 Appendix 1
GOST 25859-83 1.4.9, 1.8.2
GOST 25867-83 5.2.3