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PROGRAM: SECTION

THEORY MANUAL
&
VERIFICATION DOCUMENTATION

Jan-2004 Issued for version 4.1 AR


April-2003 Issued for version 4.0 AR
Nov-2001 Company name changed to StruProg AR
Oct-2001 Issued for program version 3.5 AR
Oct-1999 Issued for program version 3.0 AR
March-1998 Issued for program version 2.0 AR
DATE REASON FOR ISSUE / REVISION Made by

StruProg AB
Virkesgrnd 4
S-183 63 Tby
Sweden
Phone: +46 (0)8 732 87 20
www.struprog.se Fax: +46 (0) 732 87 20
E-mail: info@struprog.se
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Update information
Following has been changed from version 3.0 to 3.5:

UPE-profile is based on new standard


HSQ-profiles height h changed and coordinated with COLBEAM-program
Plastic section modulus also calculated for general section, type 1
Up to 16 elements for general section type 1 and 2
Profiles shown in color

Update information
Following has been changed from version 3.5 to 4.0:

Multy forms (profile types) can be opened


Profile filename extension changed. All profile types have the same file extension (.sect)
Section 4.0 compatible with Section 3.5 or less
7 new "old standard" profiles added as DIP, DIPEX, DIMEL
New solid profile (built-up type)
New railway rail profile
Screen layout updated
New Print heading
All profiles can be drawn to scale or with detailed inforamtion
Shear center calculated for Single Symmetric I-profile
Y-Z-axis can be transferred to profil CoG for built-up profiles
Up to three characteristic calculating points can be added to built up profiles
Units and format can be changed for dimensions/properties and density
Units dimensions/properties can be chosen from mm, cm, m, inch and ft
Density can be chosen from kg/m3, t/m3, lb/ft3 and lb/inch3
Perimeter area calculated for all profiles
Corner radius given for RHS (cold and hot formed)
Tab key is activated

Following has been changed from version 4.0 to 4.1:

Minor adjustment to shear center calculation for non symmetrical I-profile


Printer error (Profile data input thickness t = 8 for all profiles) for profiles RHS/CFRHS -rectangular
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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

NOTATIONS................................................................................................................................. 5
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 6
1.1. Database profiles............................................................................................................ 6
1.2. Solid profile .................................................................................................................... 7
1.3. General profiles.............................................................................................................. 7
1.4. Stiffened plate................................................................................................................. 7
1.5. Built-up section .............................................................................................................. 8
1.6. Old profiles ..................................................................................................................... 8
1.7. Units ................................................................................................................................ 8
2. REFERENCES.................................................................................................................... 9
3. THEORY MANUAL AND VERIFICATION DOCUMENTATION ............................ 10
3.1. DATABASE PROFILES............................................................................................... 10
3.1.1. HEA....................................................................................................................... 10
3.1.2. HEB ....................................................................................................................... 12
3.1.3. HEM ...................................................................................................................... 13
3.1.4. IPE......................................................................................................................... 14
3.1.5. INP......................................................................................................................... 16
3.1.6. UPE ....................................................................................................................... 17
3.1.7. UNP ....................................................................................................................... 18
3.1.8. L-equal flanges ..................................................................................................... 20
3.1.9. L-unequal flanges................................................................................................. 23
3.1.10. L-ship .................................................................................................................... 24
3.1.11. HP.......................................................................................................................... 27
3.1.12. RHS - square - hot formed.................................................................................. 30
3.1.13. CFRHS - square - cold formed ........................................................................... 31
3.1.14. RHS rectangular - hot formed......................................................................... 32
3.1.15. CFRHS - rectangular - cold formed................................................................... 33
3.1.16. CHS ....................................................................................................................... 35
3.1.17. I-profile data base............................................................................................. 36
3.1.18. T-profile data base............................................................................................ 36
3.1.19. Tb-profile.............................................................................................................. 37
3.2. SOLID PROFILES ........................................................................................................ 38
3.2.1. Solid square .......................................................................................................... 38
3.2.2. Solid rectangle ...................................................................................................... 39
3.2.3. Solid roundbar ..................................................................................................... 41
3.2.4. Railway rails ......................................................................................................... 42
3.3. WELDED PROFILES................................................................................................... 44
3.3.1. I-profile symmetrical flanges ........................................................................... 44
3.3.2. I-profile unsymmetrical flanges....................................................................... 46
3.3.3. T-profile ................................................................................................................ 50
3.3.4. L-profile ................................................................................................................ 51
3.3.5. Box type 1........................................................................................................... 54
3.3.6. Box type 2........................................................................................................... 56
3.3.7. HSQ profile symmetric bottom flange ......................................................... 58
3.3.8. HSQ profile unsymmetric bottom flange..................................................... 61
3.3.9. U - profile .............................................................................................................. 63
3.3.10. C profile cold formed..................................................................................... 65
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3.3.11. X-profile................................................................................................................ 67
3.3.12. Tube ...................................................................................................................... 69
3.4. STIFFENED PLATE..................................................................................................... 71
3.4.1. Plate + flatbar....................................................................................................... 71
3.4.2. Plate + L-rolled..................................................................................................... 73
3.4.3. Plate + L-welded................................................................................................... 76
3.4.4. Plate + HP ............................................................................................................. 78
3.4.5. Plate + I-profile .................................................................................................... 80
3.4.6. Plate + T-database................................................................................................ 83
3.4.7. Plate + T-built-up and T-bulb............................................................................. 85
3.4.8. Plate+ U-horizontal.............................................................................................. 87
3.4.9. Plate + U-vertical.................................................................................................. 89
3.4.10. Plate + square stiffener........................................................................................ 92
3.4.11. Plate + rectangle stiffener ................................................................................... 94
3.4.12. Plate + bridgeprofile............................................................................................ 97
3.5. BUILT-UP ...................................................................................................................... 100
3.5.1. Type 1.................................................................................................................... 100
3.5.2. Type 2.................................................................................................................... 106
3.5.3. Type 3.................................................................................................................... 112
3.6. OLD PROFILES............................................................................................................ 123
3.6.1. DIMEL .................................................................................................................. 123
3.6.2. DIP......................................................................................................................... 124
3.6.3. DIMAX ................................................................................................................. 125
3.6.4. DIPEX ................................................................................................................... 126
3.6.5. INP......................................................................................................................... 128
3.6.6. L-equal flanges ..................................................................................................... 129
3.6.7. L-unequal flanges................................................................................................. 130
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NOTATIONS

Following notation is used

alfa : angle of main principle axis for non-symmetric section


h : profile height
b : flange width
b1 : flange width - upper flange
b2 : flange width - lower flange
ey : distance to CoG, y-direction - elastic
ez : distance to CoG, z-direction - elastic
ezb : distance to CoG, z-direction T-bulb
ezpl : distance to CoG, z-direction plastic
tw : web thickness
tf : flange thickness
tf1 : flange thickness - upper flange
tf2 : flange thickness - lower flange
r : corner radius
dens : material density
g : profile weight kg/m
Ax : cross section area
Axb : cross section area T-bulb
Ay : cross section area in y-direction (flange area)
Az : cross section area in z-direction (web area)
Iy : moment of inertia of section, y-axis
Iyb : moment of inertia of T-bulb section, y-axis
Iz : moment of inertia of section, z-axis
Ix : St. Venant torsional constant
I1 : moment of inertia of section, 1-axis (main principle axis)
I2 : moment of inertia of section, 2-axis
Ip : Polar moment of inertia
S: : Superficial area (perimeter area)
Wey : elastic section modulus - y-axis
Wez : elastic section modulus - z-axis
Wpy : plastic section modulus - y-axis
Wpz : plastic section modulus - z-axis
Cw/Iw : warping constant
Sqr() : square root of a numerical expression
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1. INTRODUCTION

The aim of this document is to explain the theory, give references and make a verification calculation for each
of the profiles included in the SECTION-program.

The program is divided in six main section types according to following flow chart:

SECTION

Database Solid General Stiffened Built-up Old


profile profile profile plate profiles

In chapter 3, the different profiles are documented with theory documentation/references and verification
calculations.

In the following, the different section types are described.

1.1. Database profiles

Database profiles are standard profiles, with section property taken from litterature. The following profiles are
included:

HEA
HEB
HEM
IPE
INP
UPE
UNP
L-equal flanges
L-unequal flanges
L-shipprofile
HP
RHS square - hot formed
CFRHS square - cold formed
RHS rectangular - hot formed
CFRHS rectangular - cold formed
CHS
I-girder
T-girder
T-bulb girder
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The section property data is saved on files with extension .dat. Those files are binary files based on data from
ascii files named .da1. The content of each .da1-file is mainly based on data from Tibnor tables /2/

1.2. Solid profile

Solid profiles can be chosen from three different types according to

Square section
Rectangular section
Circular section
Railway rails (data from Bygg /1/)

1.3. General profiles

General can be chosen from 12 different types according to

I-girder equal flanges


I-girder unequal flanges
T-girder
L-profile
Box type 1 equal flanges
Box type 2 unequal flanges
Box type 3 equal flanges
Tube
C/U-profile
X-profile

1.4. Stiffened plate

Stiffened plates can be chosen from 12 different types according to

Plate + flatbar
Plate + L-rolled
Plate + L-welded
Plate + HP
Plate + I-profile
Plate + T-girder
Plate + T-girder alterantive T-bulb
Plate + U-profile
Plate + C-profile
Plate + square hollow section
Plate + rectangular hollow section
Plate + bridge-profile
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1.5. Built-up section

Built-up profiles can be chosen from three types, one with rectangles located parallell to the y-z-axis, one with
rectangles locaated arbitrary in the axis-system and one with solid elements.

1.6. Old profiles

Old profiles are database profiles from earlier standard. The following profiles are included:

DIMEL
DIP
DIMAX
DIPEX
INP
L-equal flanges
L-unequal flanges

Those files are binary files based on data from ascii files named .da1. The content of each .da1-file is mainly
based on data from Bygg-old version /11/

1.7. Units

The units can be chosen according to:

Density: kg/m3, t/m3, lb/ft3 and lb/inch3


Painting area: mm2/mm,cm2/cm,m2/m
Dimension, properties: mm, cm, m, inch and ft

The conversion between the units are:

kg/m3 ==> t/m3 0.001


kg/m3 ==> lb/ft3 0.062428
kg/m3 ==> lb/inch3 0.0000361273

mm ==> cm 0.1
mm ==> m 0.001
mm ==> inch 0.0393701
mm ==> ft 0.00328084
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2. REFERENCES

/1/ Handboken Bygg, band T, LiberFrlag, Stockholm

/2/ Konstruktionstabeller Balk-Stng-Rr, Tibnor, 01-05-01

/3/ Fundia, Shipbuilding profiles, 1996

/4/ RHS Handboken, British Steel, E/98

/5/ Rautaruukkis Hlprofiler EN 10219, MEF 6/98, Rautaruukki

/6/ ROARKSs Formulas for Stress & Strain, Warren C. Young, Sexth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book
Company

/7/ Mechanics of Materials, Gere & Timoshenko, Chapman & Hall, Third Edition

/8/ NS3472, 2. utg. juni 1984, Norges Standardiseringsforbund, Norway

/9/ T-bulb, Technical Specifications, Fundia, 1997

/10/ DIN 1025

/11/ Handboken fr Hus- Vg- och Vattenbyggnad, Tredje upplagan, AB Byggmstarens Frlag,
Stockholm 1961
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3. THEORY MANUAL AND VERIFICATION DOCUMENTATION

In the following chapters, the differenet profiles are documented with theory description and verification
calculation.

3.1. DATABASE PROFILES

3.1.1. HEA

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file HEA.dat that is based on the ascii file HEA.da1. The
ascii file HEA.da1 consists of 23 profiles with property data (h, b, tf ,tw, Ax, Iy, Iz, Ix and Iw) taken from Bygg
T, table M08:3b /1/. The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Ay = (h-2tf) tw

Az = 2 b*tf

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)
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Effect of radius

zl

ezl yl

eyl
CoGlocal

eyl = ezl = 0.2234 r

Ax = (1-pi/4)* r2

hw = h-2*tf

The plastic section modulus can then be calculated as:

Wpy = (b * tf) * (h - tf) + (hw2 * tw )/ 4 + 4 * r2 * (1 - pi / 4) * (hw / 2 - 0.2234 * r)

Wpz = 4 * (b / 2) 2 * tf / 2 + 2 * hw * (tw / 2)2 / 2 + 4 * r2 * (1 - pi / 4) * (tw / 2 + 0.2234 * r)

Verification calculation

A HEA 550 is used as verification.

According to Bygg T, table M08:3b /1/, the profile has following properties

h= 540 mm
b= 300 mm
tf = 24 mm
tw = 12.5 mm
r= 27 mm

Ax = 21180 mm2
Ay = 2x300x24 = 14400 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = 6150 mm2
g= 166 kg/m
S= 2.21 m2/m
Ix = 3.53 E6 mm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 1119 E6 mm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 108.2 E6 mm4 (in ref Iy)
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Wey = 4150 E3 mm3 (in ref Wx)


Wez = 721 E3 mm3 (in ref Wy)
Wpy = 4620 E3 mm3 (in ref Zx)
Wpz = 1110 E3 mm3 (in ref Zy)
Iw = 7190 E9 mm6 (in ref Kw)

The attached file DP_HEA01.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.2. HEB

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file HEB.dat that is based on the ascii file HEB.da1. The ascii
file HEB.da1 consists of 23 profiles with property data (h, b, tf ,tw, Ax, Iy, Iz, Ix and Iw) taken from Bygg T,
table M08:3c /1/. The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Ay = (h-2tf) tw

Az = 2 b*tf

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

Wpy and Wpz are calculated in the same way as for HEA.

Verification calculation

A HEB 340 is used as verification.

According to Bygg T, table M08:3c /1/, the profile has following properties
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h= 340 mm
b= 300 mm
tf = 21.5 mm
tw = 12.0 mm
r= 27 mm

Ax = 17090 mm2
Ay = 2x300x21.5 = 12900 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = 3564 mm2
g= 134 kg/m
S= 1.81 m2/m
Ix = 2.58 E6 mm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 366.6 E6 mm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 96.90 E6 mm4 (in ref Iy)
Wey = 2160 E3 mm3 (in ref Wx)
Wez = 646 E3 mm3 (in ref Wy)
Wpy = 2410 E3 mm3 (in ref Zx)
Wpz = 986 E3 mm3 (in ref Zy)
Iw = 2450 E9 mm6 (in ref Kw)

The attached file DP_HEB.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.3. HEM

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file HEM.dat that is based on the ascii file HEM.da1. The
ascii file HEM.da1 consists of 23 profiles with property data (h, b, tf ,tw, Ax, Iy, Iz, Ix and Iw) taken from
Bygg T, table M08:3d /1/. The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens
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Ay = (h-2tf) tw

Az = 2 b*tf

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

Wpy and Wpz are calcualted in the same way as for HEA.

Verification calculation

A HEM 600 is used as verification.

According to Bygg T, table M08:3d /1/, the profile has following properties:

h= 620 mm
b= 305 mm
tf = 40.0 mm
tw = 21.0 mm
r= 27 mm

Ax = 36370 mm2
Ay = 2x305x40 = 24400 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = 11340 mm2
g= 285 kg/m
S= 2.37 m2/m
Ix = 15.7 E6 mm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 2374 E6 mm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 189.8 E6 mm4 (in ref Iy)
Wey = 7660 E3 mm3 (in ref Wx)
Wez = 1240 E3 mm3 (in ref Wy)
Wpy = 8770 E3 mm3 (in ref Zx)
Wpz = 1930 E3 mm3 (in ref Zy)
Iw = 15900 E9 mm6 (in ref Kw)

The attached file DP_HEM.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.4. IPE

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.


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The database for the profile is saved in the binary file IPE.dat that is based on the ascii file IPE.da1. The ascii
file IPE.da1 consists of 18 profiles with property data (h, b, tf ,tw, Ax, Iy, Iz, Ix and Iw) taken from Bygg T,
table M08:3a /1/. The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Ay = (h-2tf) tw

Az = 2 b*tf

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

Wpy and Wpz are calculated in the same way as for HEA.

Verification calculation

A IPE 500 is used as verification.

According to Bygg T, table M08:3a /1/, the profile has following properties

h= 500 mm
b= 200 mm
tf = 16.0 mm
tw = 10.2 mm
r= 21 mm

Ax = 11550 mm2
Ay = 2x200x16 = 6400 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = 4774 mm2
g= 90.7 kg/m
S= 1.74 m2/m
Ix = 0.897 E6 mm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 482.0 E6 mm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 21.42 E6 mm4 (in ref Iy)
Wey = 1930 E3 mm3 (in ref Wx)
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Wez = 214 E3 mm3 (in ref Wy)


Wpy = 2190 E3 mm3 (in ref Zx)
Wpz = 336 E3 mm3 (in ref Zy)
Iw = 1250 E9 mm6 (in ref Kw)

The attached file DP_IPE.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.5. INP

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file INP.dat that is based on the ascii file INP.da1. The ascii
file INP.da1 consists of 21 profiles with property data (h, b, tf, tw, r, Ax, Iy, Wpy, Iz, Wpz, Ix and Iw) taken
from DIN 1025 /10/. The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Ay = (h-2tf) tw

Az = 2*b*tf

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

Wpy and Wpz are read from the file.

Verification calculation

A INP 320 is used as verification.

According to DIN 1025 /10/, the profile has following properties


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h= 320 mm
b= 131 mm
tf = 17.3 mm
tw = 11.5 mm
r= 11.5 mm

Ax = 7770 mm2
Ay = 2x131x17.3 = 4533 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = (320-2*17.3)*11.5= 3282 mm2 (not given in reference)
g= 61.0 kg/m
S= 1.09 m2/m
Ix = 725 E3 mm4 (in ref It)
Iy = 125.1 E6 mm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 5.55 E6 mm4 (in ref Iy)
Wey = 782 E3 mm3 (in ref Wx)
Wez = 84.7 E3 mm3 (in ref Wy)
Wpy = 914 E3 mm3 (in ref Wpx)
Wpz = 136 E3 mm3 (in ref Wpy)
Iw = 128.8 E9 mm6 (in ref C)

The attached file DP_INP.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.6. UPE

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below. The profile is the second generation of the UPE, also
named UPE.2.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file UPE.dat that is based on the ascii file UPE.da1. The ascii
file UPE.da1 consists of 14 profiles with property data (h, b, tw, tf, r, e, Ax, Iy, Iz, Wpy, Wpz, Ix and Iw) taken
from Tibnor, /2/. The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens
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Ay = (h-2tf) tw

Az = 2 b*tf

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b-e)

Wpy and Wpz are read from file.

Verification calculation

A UPE 240 is used as verification.

According to Tibnor, /2/, the profile has following properties

h= 240 mm
b= 90 mm
tf = 12.5 mm
tw = 7.0 mm
r= 15 mm
et = 27.9 mm
es = 34.7 mm

Ax = 3850 mm2
Ay = 2x90x12.5 = 2250 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = (240-2*12.5)*7 = 1505 mm2 (not given in reference)
g= 30.2 kg/m
S= 0.81 m2/m
Ix = 0.159 E6 mm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 3600 E4 mm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 311 E4 mm4 (in ref Iy)
Wey = 300 E3 mm3 (in ref Wx)
Wez = 50.1 E3 mm3 (in ref Wy2)
Wpy = 347 E3 mm3 (in ref Zx)
Wpz = 90.7 E3 mm3 (in ref Zy)
Iw = 27.8 E9 mm6 (in ref Kw)

The attached file DP_UPE.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.7. UNP

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.


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The database for the profile is saved in the binary file UNP.dat that is based on the ascii file UNP.da1. The ascii
file UNP.da1 consists of 21 profiles with property data (h, b, tw, tf, r1, r2, e, Ax, Iy, Iz, Ix, Iw, Wpy and Wpz)
taken from Tibnor, konstruktionstabeller /2/. The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Ay = (h-2tf) tw

Az = 2 b*tf

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b-e)

Wpy and Wpz are read from file.

Verification calculation

A UNP240 is used as verification.

According to Tibnor, konstruktionstabeller /2/, the profile has following properties

h= 240 mm
b= 85 mm
tf = 13.0 mm
tw = 9.5 mm
r1 = 13 mm
r2 = 6.5 mm
e= 22.4 mm

Ax = 4231 mm2
Ay = 2x85x13 = 2210 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = (240-2*13)*9.5 = 2033 mm2 (not given in reference)
g= 33.2 kg/m
S= 0.776 m2/m
Ix = 0.197 E6 mm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 3599 E4 mm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 247.4 E4 mm4 (in ref Iy)
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Wey = 300 E3 mm3 (in ref Wx)


Wez = 39.5 E3 mm3 (in ref Wy)
Wpy = 358 E3 mm3 (in ref Wpy)
Wpz = 76.8 E3 mm3 (in ref Wpz)
Iw = 22.1 E9 mm6 (in ref Kw)

The attached file DP_UNP.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.8. L-equal flanges

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file L1.dat that is based on the ascii file L1.da1. The ascii file
L1.da1 consists of 59 profiles with geometry and section property data taken from Tibnor, konstruktionstabeller
/2/. Following input data is read from file:

h, t, r, ey, u2, Ax, Iy, Iz, Iu, Iv

The program calculates then following properties:

v2 = ez*cos(alfa) ey*sin(alfa)= 0 (equal flanges)

v3 and u3 are defined to the mid of the profile thickness, see figure below
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v3

t
alfa
t/2

u3

Figure Definition of u3 and v3

v3 and u3 are by the program calculated according to:

v3 = b*sin(alfa)+v2-t/2*cos(alfa)

u3 = b*cos(alfa)-u2+t/2*sin(alfa)

v1 and u1 are defined to the mid of the profile thickness, see figure below

v1

t/2
alfa

u1

Figure Definition of v1 and u1

u1 and v1 are by the program calculated according to:

u1 = h*sin(alfa)-u2+t/2*cos(alfa)

v1 = h*cos(alfa)-v2-t/2*sin(alfa)

g = Ax * dens
Program
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Ay = (h-t/2) t

Az = Ay

Wey = Wez = Iy/(h-ez)

Wev1= Iv/u1

Wev2 = Iv /u2

Wev3 = Iv /u3

Weu1= Iu /v1

Weu2= Iu /v2

Weu3= Iu /v3

Ix = 2/3 * (b-t/2) * t^3

Verification calculation

A L70x70x7 is used as verification.

According to Tibnor, konstruktionstabeller /2/, the profile has following properties

h= 70 mm
b= 70 mm
t= 7.0 mm
r= 9 mm
ey = 19.7 mm (in ref cy)
ez = 19.7 mm (in ref cx)
u2 = 27.9 mm (in ref ev)
Ax = 940 mm2
S= 0.272 m2/m
Iy = 42.4 E4 mm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = Iy
Iu = 67.1 E4 mm4
Iv = 17.6 E4 mm4
Wey1 = 8.43 E3 mm3 (in ref Wx,y)
Wev2 = 6.31E3 mm3 (in ref Wv)

Following is then calculated

u1 = 70*sin(45)-27.9+7/2*cos(45)=24.07
v1 = 70*cos(45)-7/2*sin(45) = 47.0226
v3 = v1
Ay = (70-7/2) 7 = 466 mm2
Az = Az
g= 7.38 kg/m
Ix = 2/3 * (70-7/2) * 7^3 = 1.5206E4 mm4
Wey2 = 42.4E4/19.7=2.152E4
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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Weu1 = 67.1 E4/47.0226 = 1.427E4 mm3


Wev1 = 17.6 E4/24.07 = 7.312E3 mm3

The attached file DP_L_EQ.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.9. L-unequal flanges

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file L1.dat that is based on the ascii file L2.da1. The ascii file
L2.da1 consists of 49 profiles with geometry and section property data taken from Tibnor, konstruktionstabeller
/2/. Following input data is read from file:

h, b, t, r, ey, ez, u2, Ax, tan alfa, Iy, Iz, Iu, Iv

The program calculates then properties as described for the L-equal profile.

Verification calculation

A L120x80x10 is used as verification. According to Tibnor, konstruktionstabeller /2/, the profile has following
properties

h= 120 mm
b= 80 mm
t= 10.0 mm
r= 11 mm
ey = 19.5 mm (in ref cy)
ez = 39.2 mm (in ref cx)
u2 = 33.7 mm (in ref ev)
Ax = 1910 mm2
S= 0.391 m2/m
Iy = 276 E4 mm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 98.1 E4 mm4 (in ref Iy)
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Iu = 318 E4 mm4
Iv = 56.1 E4 mm4
Wey1 = 34.1 E3 mm3 (in ref Wx)
Wez3 = 16.2 E3 mm3 (in ref Wy)

The program calculates then following:

Tan alfa = 0.438 => alfa = 23.65 deg


u1 = 120*sin(23.65)-33.7+10/2*cos(23.65)=19.02
v2 = 39.2*cos(23.65)-19.5*sin(23.65) = 28.083
v1 = 120*cos(23.65)-28.083-10/2*sin(23.65) = 79.829
Ay = (80-10/2) 10 = 750 mm2
Az = (120-10/2) 10 = 1150 mm2
g= 15.0 kg/m
Ix = 1/3 * ((80-10/2)+ (120-10/2)) * 10^3 = 6.333E4 mm4

Weu1 = 318E4/79.829 = 3.983E4 mm3


Weu2 = 318E4/28.083 = 1.132E4 mm3
Wev1 = 56.1E4/19.02 = 2.9495E4 mm3
Wev2 = 56.1E4/33.7 = 1.665E4 mm3

The attached file DP_L_UNEQ.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.10. L-ship

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file L3.dat that is based on the ascii file L3.da1. The ascii file
L3.da1 consists of 49 profiles with geometry and section property data (h, b, tw, tf, r1, r2) taken from Fundia,
shipprofiles /3/:
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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The contribution for radius are taken into account based on following calculations, ref Mechanics of
Materials /7/ that is explained for the inner radius. For the outer radie, the calculations are in principle the
same Section properties (Ax, Iy and Iz) for the square parts are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter
3.5.1. but the contribution is negative.Inner radie:

CoGglobal
zl
ey
y

r
ez

ezl
yl

eyl
CoGlocal

eyl = ezl = 0.2234 r

Iyl = Izl = 0.007545 r4 (local axis)

Ax = (1-pi/4)* r2

Iy = Iyl + Ax * ez2 (global axis)

Iz = Izl + Ax * ey2 (global axis)

The program calculates then following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Ay = b tf

Az = (h-tf) tw

Wey = Iy/ez (min)

Wez = Iz/(b-ey) (min)

Ix = 1/3 * (b*tf 3 + (h-tf)*tw 3 )


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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Verification calculation

A L300x100x10.5x15 is used as verification.

According to Fundia /3/, the profile has following properties

h= 300 mm
b= 100 mm
tw = 10.5 mm
tf = 15 mm
r1 = 15 mm
r2 = 7.5 mm
ez = 193.4 mm
Ax = 4530 mm2
S= 0.78 m2/m
Iy = 4291E4 mm4

Calculations:

The program calculates all section properties, since the Iz property not is given in the reference.
zl

Square parts:
Part 2
b(1) 100
h(1) 15
y(1) 0
z(1) 0 z
b(2) 10.5 y Part 1
h(2) 285
y(2) 0
z(2) 15
yl

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part Ax yl zl Ax*yl Ax*zl Ax*yl2 Ax*zl2 Iyl Izl
1 1500 50 7.5 75000 11250 3.750E+06 8.438E+04 2.813E+04 1.250E+06
2 2992.5 5.25 157.5 15710.63 471318.75 8.248E+04 7.423E+07 2.026E+07 2.749E+04
4492.5 90710.63 482568.75 3.8325E+06 7.4317E+07 2.0284E+07 1.2775E+06

Inner radius:

Ax = (1-pi/4)*152 = 48.29 mm2

Iyl = 0.007545*154 + 48.29*(15 + 0.2234*15) 2 = 16644.07 mm4

Izl = 0.007545*154 + 48.29*(10.5 + 0.2234*15) 2 = 9646.41 mm4


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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Outer radius:

Ax = - (1-pi/4)*7.52 = - 12.07 mm2

Iyl = - 0.007545*7.54 12.07*(15 - 0.2234*7.5) 2 = -2166.81 mm4

Izl = - 0.007545*7.54 12.07*(100 - 0.2234*7.5) 2 = -116713.1 mm4

Summary:

Ax = 4492.5+ 48.29 12.07 = 4528.71 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 35.55 kg/m

Ay = 1500 mm2

Az = 2992.5 mm2

ey = (90710.63 + 48.29* (10.5+0.2234*15) - 12.07*(100-0.2234*7.5))/Ax = 19.916 mm

ez = 300 (482568.75 + 48.29* (15 +0.2234*15) 12.07*(15-0.2234*7.5))/Ax = 193.28 mm

Iyl = 7.4317E7 + 2.0284E7 + 16644.07 - 2166.81 = 9.4615E7 mm4

Iy = Iyl 4528.71*(300 193.28) 2 = 4.3037E7 mm4

Izl = 3.8325E6 + 1.2775E6 + 9646.41 -116713.1 = 5.0029E6 mm4

Iz = Izl 4528.71*19.9162 = 3.2066E6 mm4

Wey = 4.3037E7 /193.28 = 2.2267E5 mm3

Wez = 3.2066E6/(100-19.916) = 4.004E4 mm3

Ix = 1/3*(100*153 + 285* 10.53) = 2.2247E5 mm4

The attached file DP_L_SHIP.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.11. HP

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.


Program
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file HP.dat that is based on the ascii file HP.da1. The ascii
file HP.da1 consists of 47 profiles with geometry and section property data taken (h, tw, c, r, Ax) from Fundia,
shipprofiles /3/.

The HP-profile is converted to a L-profile with the same area as Ax in the file. The L-profile is planned to have
minimum deviation for Iy-and Iz- properties compared to the real bulb profile. The converted profile has then
properties as shown in the figure to the right with b and tf calculated as:

b = tw + c - 0.5r

tf = (Ax-h*tw)/(b-tw)

This profile is then used for calculating Ay, Az, Ix, Iy, Iz, Wey and Wez- properties in the same way as for the
square parts for the L-profile, ch 3.10.

Verification calculation

A HP 300x11 is used as verification.

According to Fundia /3/, the profile has following properties

h= 300 mm
c= 43 mm
tw = 11 mm
r= 13 mm
ez = 189 mm
Ax = 4670 mm2
S= 0.681 m2/m
Iy = 4190E4 mm4

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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

b = 11+ 43 - 0.5*13 = 47.5 mm


zl
tf = (4670-300*11)/(47.5-11) = 37.534 mm

b(1) 47.5 Part 2


h(1) 37.534
y(1) 0
z(1) 0 z
b(2) 11
y Part 1
h(2) 262.466
y(2) 0
z(2) 37.534
yl

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part Ax Y Z Ax*Y Ax*Z Ax*Y2 Ax*Z2 IY (local) IZ (local)
1 1782.865 23.75 18.767 42343.04 33459.03 1.006E+06 6.279E+05 2.093E+05 3.352E+05
2 2887.126 5.5 168.767 15879.19 487251.59 8.734E+04 8.223E+07 1.657E+07 2.911E+04
4669.991 58222.24 520710.62 1.0930E+06 8.2860E+07 1.6783E+07 3.6433E+05

Ax = 4670 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 36.7 kg/m

Ay = 1782.9 mm2

Az = 2887.1 mm2

ey = 58222.24/Ax = 12.4673 mm

ez= 300- 520710.62/Ax = 188.5 mm

Iyl = 8.2860E7 + 1.6783E7 = 9.9643E7 mm4

Iy = Iyl 4670*(300 188.5) 2 = 4.1584E7 mm4

Izl = 1.0930E6 + 3.6433E5 = 1.45733E6 mm4

Iz = Izl 4670*12.46732 = 7.31455E5 mm4

Wey = 4.1584E7 /188.5 = 2.2061E5 mm3

Wez = 7.31455E5/(47.5-12.4673) = 2.0879E4 mm3

Ix = 1/3*(47.5*37.5343 + 262.466* 113) = 9.5368E6 mm4

The attached file DP_HP.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.
Program
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

3.1.12. RHS - square - hot formed

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file SHS.dat that is based on the ascii file SHS.da1. The ascii
file SHS.da1 consists of 101 profiles with property data (h, b, t, Ax, Iy, Iz, Wpy, Wpz and Ix) taken from
RHS Handboken , British Steel /4/ and Konstruktionstabeller Balk-Stng-Rr, Tibnor /2/ .

The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Ay = Az =2*(h-2t)*t

Wey = Wez =Iy/(h/2)

Wpy=Wpz is read from file.

Verification calculation

A profile RHS 200x200x10 is used as verification.

According to Hot finished Structural Hollow Sections, British Steel /4/, ,the profile has following properties:

h= 200 mm
b= 200 mm
t= 10 mm
r =1.5*t = 15 mm

Ax = 74.9E2 mm2
Ay = 2x(200-2*10)*10 = 3600 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = Ay
g= 58.8 kg/m
S= 0.774 m2/m
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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Ix = 7031 E4 mm4
Iy = 4471 E4 mm4
Iz = Iz
Wey = 447 E3 mm3
Wez = Wey
Wpy = 531 E3 mm3
Wpz = Wpy

The attached file DP_RHS.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.13. CFRHS - square - cold formed

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file CFSHS.dat that is based on the ascii file CFSHS.da1. The
ascii file CFSHS.da1 consists of 99 profiles with property data (h, b, t, Ax, Iy, Iz, Wpy, Wpz and Ix) taken from
Rautaruukkis Hlprofiler EN 10219, Rautaruukki /5/ and Konstruktionstabeller Balk-Stng-Rr, Tibnor
/2/.

The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Ay = Az =2*(h-2t)*t

Wey = Wez =Iy/(h/2)

Wpy=Wpz is read from file.

Verification calculation
Program
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

A profile CFRHS 200x200x10 is used as verification.

According to Rautaruukkis Hlprofiler EN 10219, Rautaruukki /5/, the profile has following properties:

h= 200 mm
b= 200 mm
t= 10 mm
r = 2.5*t = 25 mm
Ax = 72.57E2 mm2
Ay = 2x(200-2*10)*10 = 3600 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = Ay
g= 57.0 kg/m
S= 0.757 m2/m
Ix = 7072 E4 mm4
Iy = 4251 E4 mm4
Iz = Iz
Wey = 425.1 E3 mm3
Wez = Wey
Wpy = 508.1 E3 mm3
Wpz = Wpy

The attached file DP_CFRHS.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.14. RHS rectangular - hot formed

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file RHS.dat that is based on the ascii file RHS.da1. The ascii
file RHS.da1 consists of 153 profiles with property data (h, b, t, Ax, Iy, Iz, Wpy, Wpz and Ix) taken from
RHS Handboken , British Steel /4/ and Konstruktionstabeller Balk-Stng-Rr, Tibnor /2/ .
Program
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SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Ay = 2*(b-2t)*t

Az = 2*(h-2t)*t

Wey =Iy/(h/2)

Wez =Iz/(b/2)

Wpy and Wpz are read from file

Verification calculation

A profile RHS 200x100x10 is used as verification.

According to from RHS Handboken , British Steel /4/, the profile has following properties:

h= 200 mm
b= 100 mm
t= 10 mm
r =1.5*10= 15 mm

Ax = 54.9E2 mm2
S= 2*(0.2+0.1)-8*0.015+2*pi*0.015=0.574 m2/m
Ay = 2x(100-2*10)*10 = 1600 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = 2x(200-2*10)*10 = 3600 mm2 (not given in reference)
g= 43.1 kg/m
S= 0.570 m2/m
Ix = 2156 E4 mm4
Iy = 2664 E4 mm4
Iz = 869 E4 mm4
Wey = 266 E3 mm3
Wez = 174 E3 mm3
Wpy = 341 E3 mm3
Wpz = 206 E3 mm3

The attached file DP_RHS_REQ.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.15. CFRHS - rectangular - cold formed

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.


Program
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file CFRHS.dat that is based on the ascii file CFRHS.da1.
The ascii file CFRHS.da1 consists of 116 profiles with property data (h, ,b ,t ,Ax, Iy, Wply, Iz, Wplz and Ix)
taken from from Rautaruukkis Hlprofiler EN 10219, Rautaruukki /5/ and Konstruktionstabeller Balk-
Stng-Rr, Tibnor /2/.

The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Ay = 2*(b-2t)*t

Az = 2*(h-2t)*t

Wey =Iy/(h/2)

Wez =Iz/(b/2)

Wpy and Wpz are read from file.

Verification calculation

A profile CFRHS 200x100x10 is used as verification.

According from Rautaruukkis Hlprofiler EN 10219, Rautaruukki /5/, the profile has following properties:

h= 200 mm
b= 100 mm
t= 10 mm
r = 2.5*10=25 mm
Ax = 5257 mm2
Ay = 2x(100-2*10)*10 = 1600 mm2 (not given in reference)
Az = 2x(200-2*10)*10 = 3600 mm2 (not given in reference)
g= 41.3 kg/m
S= 0.557 m2/m
Ix = 2154E4 mm4
Iy = 2444E4 mm4
Iz = 818E4 mm4
Wey = 244E3 mm3
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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wez = 164E3 mm3


Wpy = 318E3 mm3
Wpz = 195E3 mm3

The attached file DP_CFRHS_REQ.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.16. CHS

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file CHS.dat that is based on the ascii file CHS.da1. The ascii
file CHS.da1 consists of 82 profiles with property data (d and t) taken from RHS Handboken , British Steel
4/. The program calculates following properties:

Ax = pi / 4 * (d2 (d-2*t)2)

g = Ax * dens

S = pi*d

Ay = Ax/2

Az = Ay

Ix = pi / 32 * (d4 (d-2*t)4) (ref table 20, Roark /6/)

Note! Ix = Ip = Iy + Iz

Iy = pi / 64 * (d4 (d-2*t)4) (ref table 1, Roark /6/)

Iz = Iy

Wey = Wez = Iy/(d/2)


Program
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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wpz =4/3*[(d/2)3- (d/2-t)3]

Verification calculation

A profile CHS 219.1x16 is used as verification. According to RHS Handboken , British Steel 4/, the profile
has following properties:

d= 219.1 mm
t= 16 mm

Ax = 102E2 mm2
Ay = Az = Ax/2= 51E2 mm2 (not given in reference)
g= 80.1 kg/m
S= 0.688 m2/m
Ix = 10590E4 mm4
Iy = Iz = 5297E4 mm4
Wey = Wez = 483 E3 mm3
Wpy = Wpz = 661 E3 mm3

The attached file DP_CHS.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.17. I-profile data base

This profile is identical to the profile in chapter 3.3.1. The only change to this profile is that the user can build
up its own database with up to 20 profiles. The profile data is saved in the readable textfile i.dat. For theory
documentation, see chapter 3.3.1. For the verification documentation, the same profile as the I-profile in
chapter 3.3.1 is used, i.e.:

h= 600 mm
b= 300 mm
tw = 15 mm
tf = 30 mm

The attached file DP_I.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.18. T-profile data base

This profile is identical to the profile in chapter 3.3.3. The only change to this profile is that the user can build
up its own database with up to 20 profiles. The profile data is saved in the readable textfile t.dat. For theory
documentation, see chapter 3.3.3. For the verification documentation, the same profile as the I-profile in
chapter 3.3.3 is used, i.e.:

h= 300 mm
b= 300 mm
tw = 15 mm
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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

tf = 30 mm

The attached file DP_T.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.1.19. Tb-profile

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile (rolled topflange) is saved in the ascii-file TB.dat. The file consists of 4 profiles
with geometry and section property data taken from Fundia, T-bulb technical specifications /9/:

Profile (B) tf ezb Axb Iyb S


mm mm mm cm2 cm4 m2/m
160 40 23.41 50.08 53.62 0.327
160 45 26.03 58.08 78.76 0.337
200 45 27.11 65.67 87.102 0.405
200 50 29.79 75.67 123.229 0.415

Note: ezb is the distance from the center of gravity of the bulb to the bottom side of the bulb (where the web
plate will be welded).

The section property for the complete T-bulb with web plate is then calculated.

Verification calculation

A TB 160x40/500x14 is used as verification.

According to Fundia /9/, the profile has following properties

h= 500 mm
Program
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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

tw = 14 mm
Axb = 5008 mm2 (bulb)
ezb = 23.41 mm (bulb)
Iyb = 53.62E4 mm4 (bulb)
S= 0.327 m2/m (only TB)

Ax = (500-40)*14 + 5008 = 11448 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 89.3 kg/m


S = 0.327+ 2*(0.5-0.04) +0.014=1.261 m2/m

Ay = (500-40)*14 = 6440 mm2

ey = 500 - (14/2*(500-40) 2 + ((500-40) + 23.41)* 5008)/Ax = 159.144 mm

Iyl = 53.62E4 +((500-40) + 23.41) 2* 5008+14/12*(500-40) 3 +14/4*(500-40) 3 = 1.62507E9 mm4

Iy = Iyl 11448*(500 159.144) 2 = 2.95007E8 mm4

Wey1 = Iy /159.144 = 1.85371E6 mm3

Wey2 = Iy/(500-159.44) = 8.6549E5 mm3

The attached file DP_TB.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.2. SOLID PROFILES

3.2.1. Solid square

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The program calculates following properties:

Ax =Ay = Az = b2
Program
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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

g = Ax * dens

S = 4*b

Ix = 2.25/16*b4 (ref table 20, Roark /6/)

Iy = Iz = b4/12

Wey = Wez = b3/6

Wpy = Wpz = b3/4

Verification calculation

A profile 300x300 is used as verification. The profile has following properties:

b = 300 mm

Ax =Ay = Az = 3002 = 9E4 mm2

g = 9 E4 * 7850E-6 = 706.5 kg/m

S = 4*0.3= 1.2 m2/m

Ix = 2.25/16*3004 = 1.139E9 mm2

Iy = Iz = 3004 /12 = 6.75E8 mm4

Wey = Wez = 3003 /6 = 4.5E6 mm3

Wpy = Wpz = 3003 /4 = 6.75E6 mm3

The attached file SoP_SQ.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.2.2. Solid rectangle

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.


Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The program calculates following properties:

Ax =Ay = Az = b*h

g = Ax * dens

S = 2*(b+h)

Ix = h*b3 * (1 / 3 - 0.21 * b / h* (1 - b4 / 12 / h4)) (ref table 20, Roark /6/)

Iy = b*h3 /12

Iz = h*b3 /12

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

Wpy = b*h2/4

Wpy = h*b2/4

Verification calculation

A profile 300x100 is used as verification. The profile has following properties:

h = 300 mm

b = 100 mm

Ax =Ay = Az = 100*300 = 3E4 mm2

g = 3 E4 * 7850E-6 = 235.5 kg/m

S = 2*(0.3+0.1) = 0.8 m2/m

Ix = 300*1003 * (1 / 3 - 0.21 * 100 / 300* (1 - 1004 / 12 / 3004)) = 7.9021 E7 mm4


Program
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SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Iy = 100*3003 /12 = 2.25E8 mm4

Wey = Iy/150 = 1.5E6 mm3

Iz = 300*1003 /12 = 2.5E7 mm4

Wez = Iz/50 = 5E5 mm3

Wpy = 100*3002/4 = 2.25E6 mm3

Wpz = 300*1002/4 = 7.5E5 mm3

The attached file SoP_REQ.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.2.3. Solid roundbar

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The program calculates following properties:

Ax = pi / 4 * d2

g = Ax * dens

S = pi*d

Ay = Az = Ax/2

Ix = pi / 32 * d4 (ref table 20, Roark /6/)

Note! Ix = Ip = Iy + Iz

Iy = Iy = pi / 64 * d4 (ref table 1, Roark /6/)


Program
Page:42
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wey = Wez = Iy/(d/2)

Wpy = Wpz = 4/3*(d/2)3

Verification calculation

A profile D300 is used as verification. The profile has following properties:

d = 300 mm

Ax = pi / 4 * 3002 = 7.0686E4 mm2

g = Ax * dens = 554.9 kg/m

S = pi*0.3= 0.942 m2/m

Ay = Az = Ax/2 = 3.5343E4 mm2

Ix = pi / 32 * 3004 = 7.9522E8 mm4

Iy = Iy = pi / 64 * 3004 = 3.97607E8 mm4

Wey = Wez = Iy/150 = 2.6507E6 mm3

Wpy = Wpz = 4/3*(300/2)3 =4.5E6 mm3

The attached file SoP_BAR.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.2.4. Railway rails

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the ascii file rail.dat, The file consists of 14 profiles with property data
taken from Bygg T, table M08:3o /1/.
Program
Page:43
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Rail type H(mm) b2(mm) b1(mm) t(mm) A(cm2) Iy(cm4) ez(cm)


S64 172 150 76 16 82.6 3252 8.1
UIC60 172 150 74.3 16.5 76.9 3055 8.1
UIC54 159 140 72.2 16 63.3 2346 7.5
SJ50 155 133 72 14 63.7 2045 7.5
S54 154 125 70 16 69.5 2073 7.5
S49 149 125 70 14 62.9 1819 7.3
SJ40 138 110 72 14 52.3 1352 7
S41 138 125 67 12 41 1368 6.8
S33 134 105 58 11 42.5 1040 6.7
SJ43 133 133 70 14 55 1310 6.9
SJ41 133 133 69 13 51.5 1265 6.2
SJ34 126.5 122 64 13 43.3 148 6.2
SJ33nya 125 108 57 13 43.3 140 6
SJ33 125 108 57 13 42 909 6

The program calculates following properties:

g = Ax * dens

Az = H*t

Wey1 = Iy/(h-ez)

Wey2 = Iy/(ez/2)

Verification calculation

A Rail UIC60 is used as verification.

According to Bygg T, table M08:3o /1/, the profile has following properties

h= 172 mm
b1= 74.3 mm
b2 150 mm
t= 16.5 mm
ez = 8.1 cm
Ax = 76.6 cm2
g= 60.3 kg/m
Iy = 3055 cm4 (in ref Ix)

The program calculates following parameters:

Az = 172*16.5 = 2838 mm2 (not given in reference)


Wey1 = 3055E4/(172-81)= 335.7 E3 cm3 (in ref Wx =334.9 cm3)
Wey2 = 3055E4/81= 377.2 E3 cm3 (not given in reference)
Program
Page:44
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The attached file SoP_Rail is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.3. WELDED PROFILES

3.3.1. I-profile symmetrical flanges

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

Section properties (Ax, Iy and Iz) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Ay = 2*b*tf

Az = (h-2*tf) tw

S= 2*(h+2*b-tw)

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

hw = h 2*tf

Wpy = (b * tf) * (h - tf) + (hw2 * tw )/ 4

Wpz = 4 * (b / 2) 2 * tf / 2 + 2 * hw * (tw / 2)2 / 2

Ix = 1/3 * (2*b*tf 3 + (h-2*tf)*tw3)

Iw = tf * b3 * (h - tf)2 /24 (ref tillegg C, NS3473 /8/)

Verification calculation
Program
Page:45
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

A I 600x300x15x30 is used as verification.

h= 600 mm
b= 300 mm
tw = 15 mm
tf = 30 mm

b(1) 300
Upper flange h(1) 30
y(1) 0
z(1) 570
b(2) 15
Web h(2) 540
y(2) 142.5
z(2) 30
b(3) 300
Lower flange h(3) 30
y(3) 0
z(3) 0

... Column
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 9000 150 585 1350000 5265000 2.025E+08 3.080E+09 6.750E+05 6.750E+07
2 8100 150 300 1215000 2430000 1.823E+08 7.290E+08 1.968E+08 1.519E+05
3 9000 150 15 1350000 135000 2.025E+08 2.025E+06 6.750E+05 6.750E+07
Summary: 26100 3.915E+06 7.830E+06 5.8725E+08 3.8111E+09 1.9818E+08 1.3515E+08

Ax = 26100 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 204.89 kg/m

S= 2*(0.6+2*0.3-0.015) = 2.37 m2/m

Ay = 2*300*30 = 18000 mm2

Az = (600-2*30) 15 = 8100 mm2

Iy = 3.8111E9 + 1.9818E8 26100 * 3002 = 1.66028E9 mm4

Wey = Iy/300 = 5.534E6 mm3

Iz = 1.3515E8 mm4
Program
Page:46
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wez = Iz/150 = 9.01E5 mm3

hw = 600 2*30=540

Wpy = (300*30) * (600 - 30) + (5402 *15 )/ 4 = 6.2235E6 mm3

Wpz = 4 * (300 / 2) 2 *30 / 2 + 2 * 540 * (15 / 2)2 / 2 =1.3804E6 mm3

Ix = 1/3 * (2*300*30 3 + (600-2*30)*15 3 ) = 6.0075E6 mm4

Iw = 30 * 3003/(600-30)2 /24 = 1.0965E13 mm6

The attached file GP_I.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.3.2. I-profile unsymmetrical flanges

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figures below.

Alternative 1 Alternative 2

Section properties (ez, Ax, Iy and Iz) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Ay = tf1*b1+tf2*b2

Az = (h-tf1-tf2) tw

S= 2*(h+b1+b2-tw)

Wey1 = Iy/ (h-ez)

Wey2 = Iy/ ez
Program
Page:47
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

where b = max of b1 and b2

Ix = 1/3 * (b1*tf13 + b2*tf23 + (h-tf1-tf2)*tw 3)

Iw = tf1*tf2*b13*b23*(htf1/2-tf2/2)2 /(12*(tf1*b13 + tf2*b23) (ref tillegg C, NS3473 /8/)

Shear center

Iz1 = tf1*(b1)3

Iz2 = tf2*(b2)3

ht = h-tf1/2-tf2/2

zs = Iz1*ht/(Iz1+Iz2) + tf2/2 - ez

Plastic cross section

The CoG for the plastic cross section is calculated according to following, ref figure below:

fyk

az1

az2
ezpl

Figure Definition of plasic cross section

If the CoG is to be placed in the web, ezpl is calculated as:

b2*tf2+(ezpl-tf2)*tw = Ax/2

and then

ezpl = (Ax/2-b2*tf2)/tw + tf2

az1 = h-ezpl-tf1

az2 = ezpl-tf2
Program
Page:48
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The plastic section modulus can then be calculated as

Wy1 = b1*tf1*(az1+tf1/2)+tw/2*az12

Wy2 = b2*tf2*(az2+tf2/2)+tw/2*az22

Wpy = (Wy1 + Wy2)

Wpz = tf1*b12 /4 + tf2*b22 /4 + hw*tw2 /4

Verification calculation

A I 600x300/150x15x30/15 is used for the verification

h= 600 mm
b1 = 300 mm
b2 = 150 mm
tw = 15 mm
tf1 = 30 mm
tf2 = 15 mm

b(1) 300
Upper flange h(1) 30
y(1) 0
z(1) 570
b(2) 15
Web h(2) 555
y(2) 142.5
z(2) 15
b(3) 150
Lower flange h(3) 15
y(3) 75
z(3) 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 9000 150 585 1350000 5265000 2.025E+08 3.080E+09 6.750E+05 6.750E+07
2 8325 150 292.5 1248750 2435062.5 1.873E+08 7.123E+08 2.137E+08 1.561E+05
3 2250 150 7.5 337500 16875 5.063E+07 1.266E+05 4.219E+04 4.219E+06
Summary 19575 2.9363E+06 7.7169E+06 4.4044E+08 3.7924E+09 2.1441E+08 7.1875E+07

Ax = 19575 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 153.66 kg/m

S= 2*(0.6+0.3+0.15-0.015)= 2.07 m2/m

Ay = 300*30 + 150 *15 = 11250 mm2


Program
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SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

hw = 600-30-15 = 555

Az = 555*15 = 8325 mm2

ez = 7.7169E6/19575 = 394.22

Iy = 2.1441E8 + 3.7924E9 19575*394.222 = 9.64636E8 mm4

Wey1 = Iy/(600-394.22) = 4.6877E6 mm3

Wey2 = Iy/394.22 = 2.4469E6 mm3

Iz = 7.18775E7 mm4

Wez1 = Iz/150 = 4.7918E5 mm3

ezpl = (19575/2-150*15)/15 + 15 = 517.5 mm

az1 = 600-517.5-30 = 52.5 mm

az2 = 517.5 - 15 = 502.5 mm

The shear center is calculated as:

Iz1 = 30*3003 = 810E6

Iz2 = 15*1503 = 50.625E6

ht = 600-30/-15/2 =577.5

zs = 810E6*577.5/(810E6+50.625E6) + 15/2 - 394.22 = 156.8

The plastic section modulus can then be calculated as

Wy1 = 300*30*(52.5+30/2)+15/2*52.52 = 628171.875

Wy2 = 150*15*(502.5+15/2)+15/2*502.52 = 3041296.875

Wpy = (Wy1 + Wy2) = 3.669468 E6 mm3

Wpz = 30*3002 /4 + 15*1502 /4 + 555*152 /4 = 7.9059375 E5 mm3

Ix = 1/3 * (300*303 + 150*153 + (600-30-15)*153) = 3.4931E6 mm4

Iw = 30*15*3003*1503*(60030/2-15/2)2 /(12*(30*3003 + 15*1503) = 1.3242E12 mm6

The attached file GP_I_SS.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.
Program
Page:50
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

3.3.3. T-profile

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

Section properties (ez, Ax, Iy and Iz) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Ay = tf*b

Az = (h-tf) tw

S = 2*(b+h)

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(h-ez)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

Ix = 1/3 * (b*tf3 + (h-tf)*tw3)

Verification calculation

A T 300x300x15/30 is used for the verification

h= 300 mm
b= 300 mm
tw = 15 mm
tf = 30 mm

Program
Page:51
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

b(1) 300
Flange h(1) 30
y(1) 0
z(1) 270
b(2) 15
Web h(2) 270
y(2) 142.5
z(2) 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 9000 150 285 1350000 2565000 2.025E+08 7.310E+08 6.750E+05 6.750E+07
2 4050 150 135 607500 546750 9.113E+07 7.381E+07 2.460E+07 7.594E+04
Summary 13050 1.9575E+06 3.1118E+06 2.9363E+08 8.0484E+08 2.5279E+07 6.7576E+07

Ax = 13050 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 102.44 kg/m

S = 2*(0.3+0.3) = 1.2 m2/m

Ay = 300*30 = 9000 mm2

Az = (300-30)*15 = 4050 mm2

ez = 300 - 3.1118E6/13050 = 61.55 mm

Iy = 2.5279E7 + 8.0484E8 13050 * (300-61.55)2 = 8.8104E7 mm4

Wey1 = Iy/61.55 = 1.4314E6 mm3

Wey2 = Iy/(300-61.55) = 3.6949E5 mm3

Iz = 6.7581E8 mm4

Wez1 = Iz/150 = 4.5054E5 mm3

Ix = 1/3 * (300*303 + (300-30)*153) = 3.00375E6 mm4

The attached file GP_T.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.3.4. L-profile

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.


Program
Page:52
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

If a = 0, the figure in the figure is below.

Section properties (ey, ez, Ax, Iy and Iz) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Ay = tf*b

Az = (h-tf) tw

S = 2*(h+b)

Wey = Iy/ez

Wez = Iz/(b-ey-a)

Ix = 1/3 * (b*tf3 + (h-tf)*tw3)

Verification calculation

A L300x100x10.5*15 (a=10) is used for the verification

h= 300 mm
Program
Page:53
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

b= 100 mm
a= 10 mm
tw = 10.5 mm
tf = 15 mm

b(1) 10.5
Web h(1) 285
y(1) 10
z(1) 15
b(2) 100
Flange h(2) 15
y(2) 0
z(2) 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 2992.5 15.25 157.5 45635.625 471318.75 6.959E+05 7.423E+07 2.026E+07 2.749E+04
2 1500 50 7.5 75000 11250 3.750E+06 8.438E+04 2.813E+04 1.250E+06
Summary 4492.5 1.2064E+05 4.8257E+05 4.4459E+06 7.4317E+07 2.0284E+07 1.2775E+06

Ax = 4492.5 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 35.3 kg/m

S = 2*(0.3+0.1) = 0.8 m2/m

Ay = 100*15 = 1500 mm2

Az = (300-15)*10.5 = 2992.5 mm2

ey = 1.2064E5/4492.5 -10 = 16.854 mm

ez = 300 - 4.8257E5/4492.5 = 192.58 mm

Iy = 2.0284E7+ 7.4317E7 4492.5 * (300-192.58)2 = 4.2765E7 mm4

Wey = Iy/192.58 = 2.2206E5 mm3 (min)

Iz = 1.2775E6 +4.4459E6 4492.5*(ey+10) 2 =2.48369E6 mm4

Wez = Iz/(100-10-ey) = 3.3955E4 mm3

Ix = 1/3 * (100*153 + (300-15)*10.53) = 2.2247E5 mm4

The attached file GP_L.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.
Program
Page:54
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

3.3.5. Box type 1

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

Section properties (Ax, Iy and Iz) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Ay = 2*tf*b

Az = 2*(h-2*tf) tw

S = 2*(h+b) + 4*a

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

bw = b -2*a-tw

ht=h-tf

hw = h 2*tf

Wpy = (b * tf) * (h - tf) + hw2 * tw / 2

Wpz = b2* tf / 2 + hw * tw* (b - 2 * a - tw)

Ix = 2*bw2*ht2/(bw/tf+ht/tw) + 2*tf3*(b-bw)/3 (ref tillegg C, NS3473 /8/)

Iw = ht2/24*(bw2*ht*tw+b3*tf)*[(bw2*tw-ht*b*tf)/ (bw2*tw+ht*b*tf)] 2 (ref tillegg C, NS3473 /8/)

Verification calculation

A Box 800x500x15*25 (a=25) is used for the verification


Program
Page:55
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

h= 800 mm
b= 500 mm
a= 25 mm
tw = 15 mm
tf = 25 mm

b(1) 500
Upper flange h(1) 25
y(1) 0
z(1) 775
b(2) 15
Left web h(2) 750
y(2) 25
z(2) 25
b(3) 15
Right web h(3) 750
y(3) 460
z(3) 25
b(4) 500
Lower flange h(4) 25
y(4) 0
z(4) 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 12500 250 787.5 3125000 9843750 7.813E+08 7.752E+09 6.510E+05 2.604E+08
2 11250 32.5 400 365625 4500000 1.188E+07 1.800E+09 5.273E+08 2.109E+05
3 11250 467.5 400 5259375 4500000 2.459E+09 1.800E+09 5.273E+08 2.109E+05
4 12500 250 12.5 3125000 156250 7.813E+08 1.953E+06 6.510E+05 2.604E+08
Summary 47500 1.1875E+07 1.9000E+07 4.0331E+09 1.1354E+10 1.0560E+09 5.2126E+08

Ax = 47500 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 372.875 kg/m

S = 2*(0.8+0.5) + 4*0.025 =2.7 m2/m

Ay = 2*500*25 = 25000 mm2

Az = 2*(800-2*25)*15 = 22500 mm2

Iy = 1.0560E9+ 1.1354E10 47500 * 4002 = 4.81E9 mm4

Wey = Iy/400 = 1.2025E7 mm3

Iz = 5.2126E8+4.0331E947500*250 2 =1.58561E9 mm4


Program
Page:56
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wez = Iz/250 = 6.34244E6 mm3

bw = 500 -2*25-15 = 435 mm

ht = 800-25 = 775 mm

hw = 800 2*25 = 750

Wpy = (500*25) * (800 - 25) + 7502 *15 / 2 = 1.390625E7

Wpz = 5002* 25 / 2 + 750 * 15* (500 - 2 *25 - 15) = 8.01875E6

Ix = 2*4352*7752/(435/25+775/15) + 2*253*(500-435)/3 = 3.2918E9 mm4

Iw = 7752/24*(4352*775*15+5003*25)*[( 4352*15-775*500*25)/ (4352*15+775*500*25)] 2 = 3.9842E13 mm6

The attached file GP_BOX_1.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.3.6. Box type 2

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figures below.

h>b b>h b=h

Section properties are calculated as:

Ax = b*h-(b-2*tw)*(h-2*tf)

Ay = 2*(b-2*tw)*tf

Az = 2*(h-2*tf)*tw

S = 2*(h+b)

Iy = 1/12 * (b*h3 (b-2*tw)*(h-2*tf)3)


Program
Page:57
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Iz = 1/12 * (h*b3 (h-2*tf)*(b-2*tw)3)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

Wpy = b*tf*(h-tf) + tw*(h-2*tf)2 /2

Wpz = h*tw*(b-tw) + tf*(b-2*tw)2 /2

bw = b - tw

ht=h-tf

Ix = 2*bw2*ht2/(bw/tf+ht/tw) (ref tillegg C, NS3473 /8/)

Iw = ht2/24*(bw2*ht*tw+bw3*tf)*[(bw2*tw-ht*bw*tf)/ (bw2*tw+ht*bw*tf)] 2 (ref tillegg C, NS3473 /8/)

Note: b is set to bw in the above formula.

Verification calculation

A Box 400x300x15x25 is used for the verification

h= 400 mm
b= 300 mm
tw = 15 mm
tf = 25 mm

Ax = 300*400-(300-2*15)*(400-2*25)= 25500

g = Ax * 7850 = 200.175 kg/m

S = 2*(0.4+0.3) = 1.4 m2/m

Ay = Ay = 2*(300-2*15)*25 = 13500 mm2

Az = 2*(400-2*25)*15 = 10500 mm2

Iy = 1/12 * (300*4003 (300-2*15)*(400-2*25)3) = 6.35312E8 mm4

Wey = Iy/(400/2) = 3.17656E6 mm3

Iz = 1/12 * (400*3003 (400-2*25)*(300-2*15)3) = 3.2591E8 mm4

Wez = Iz/(300/2) = 2.17275E6 mm3

Wpy = 300*25*(400-25) + 15*(400-2*25)2 /2 = 3.73125E6

Wpz = 400*15*(300-15) + 25*(300-2*15)2 /2 = 2.621E6


Program
Page:58
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

bw = 300 15 =285 mm

ht= 400-25 = 375 mm

Ix = 2*2852*3752/(285/25+375/15) = 6.27597E8 mm4

Iw = 3752/24*(2852*375*15+2853*25)*[(2852*15-375*285*25)/ (2852*15+375*285*25)] 2 = 8.47084E10 mm6

The attached file GP_BOX_2.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.3.7. HSQ profile symmetric bottom flange

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

Section properties (Ax, ez and Iy) are calculated with no further description. The program calculates then
following properties:

g = Ax * dens

S = 2*(h+tf2+b)

hw = h-tf1-tf2

b1 = b-2*(a+c)

Az = 2*hw*tw

Wey1 = Iy/(h-ez)

Wey2 = Iy/ez
Program
Page:59
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Plastic cross section

The CoG for the plastic cross section divides the area in two equal areas (A1 and A2) with cross section Ax/2,
ref figure below.

A1
fyk

az1

tw
az2
ezpl

A2

Figure Definition of plasic cross section

This means that the ezpl can be calculated as:

A1=A2=Ax/2

ezpl = tf2 + (A1-b*tf2)/(2*tw)

az1 = h-ezpl-tf1

az2 = hw-az1

The plastic section modulus can then be calculated as

Zy1 = b1*tf1*(az1+tf1/2)+tw*az12

Zy2 = b*tf2*(az2+tf2/2)+tw*az22

Wpz = Zy1 + Zy2

Verification calculation

A Box 775x600x15*20/25 (a=50) is used for the verification

h= 775 mm
b= 600 mm
a= 50 mm
c= 0 mm
tw = 15 mm
tf1 = 20 mm
Program
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

tf2 = 25 mm

b(1) 500
Upper flange h(1) 20
y(1) 50
z(1) 780
b(2) 15
Left web h(2) 755
y(2) 50
z(2) 25
b(3) 15
Right web h(3) 755
y(3) 535
z(3) 25
b(4) 600
Lower flange h(4) 25
y(4) 0
z(4) 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 10000 300 790 3000000 7900000 9.000E+08 6.241E+09 3.333E+05 2.083E+08
2 11325 57.5 402.5 651187.5 4558312.5 3.744E+07 1.835E+09 5.380E+08 2.123E+05
3 11325 542.5 402.5 6143812.5 4558312.5 3.333E+09 1.835E+09 5.380E+08 2.123E+05
4 15000 300 12.5 4500000 187500 1.350E+09 2.344E+06 7.813E+05 4.500E+08
Summary 47650 1.4295E+07 1.7204E+07 5.6205E+09 9.9128E+09 1.0770E+09 6.5876E+08

Ax = 47650 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 374.053 kg/m

S = 2*(0.8+0.6) = 2.8 m2/m

Ay = (600-2*50)*20+25*600 = 25000 mm2

hw = 775 20 = 755

b1 = 600-2*(50+0) = 500

Az = 2*755*15 = 22650 mm2

ez = 1.7204E7/47650 = 361.049 mm

Iy = 1.0770E9+ 9.9128E9 47560 * (800-438.951)2 = 4.77831E9 mm4

Wey1 = Iy/(800-361.049) = 1.08857E7 mm3


Program
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wey2 = Iy/361.049 = 1.32345E7 mm3

ezpl = 25 + (47650/2-600*25)/(2*15) = 319.167

az1 = 800-319.167-20 = 460.833

az2 = 755-460.833 = 294.167

The plastic section modulus can then be calculated as

Zy1 = 500*20*(460.833+20/2)+15*460.8332 = 7.8938E6

Zy2 = 600*25*(294.167+25/2)+15*294.1672 = 5.898E6

Wpz = Zy1 + Zy2 = 1.37918E7

The attached file GP_HSQ_1.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.3.8. HSQ profile unsymmetric bottom flange

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

This profile is identical to HSQ with symmetric bottomflange, ref ch 3.3.7. For theory documentation see ch
3.3.7.

Verification calculation

The same type of box as for HSQ-symmetriq flange is used for verification, thus following input is given:

h= 775 mm
b1 = 500 mm
b2 = 600 mm
Program
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

a= 50 mm
c= 0 mm
tw = 15 mm
tf1 = 20 mm
tf2 = 25 mm

b(1) 500
Upper flange h(1) 20
y(1) 50
z(1) 780
b(2) 15
Left web h(2) 755
y(2) 50
z(2) 25
b(3) 15
Right web h(3) 755
y(3) 535
z(3) 25
b(4) 600
Lower flange h(4) 25
y(4) 0
z(4) 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 10000 300 790 3000000 7900000 9.000E+08 6.241E+09 3.333E+05 2.083E+08
2 11325 57.5 402.5 651187.5 4558312.5 3.744E+07 1.835E+09 5.380E+08 2.123E+05
3 11325 542.5 402.5 6143812.5 4558312.5 3.333E+09 1.835E+09 5.380E+08 2.123E+05
4 15000 300 12.5 4500000 187500 1.350E+09 2.344E+06 7.813E+05 4.500E+08
Summary 47650 1.4295E+07 1.7204E+07 5.6205E+09 9.9128E+09 1.0770E+09 6.5876E+08

Ax = 47650 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 374.053 kg/m

S = 2*(0.8 +0.6) = 2.8 m2/m

Ay = (600-2*50)*20+25*600 = 25000 mm2

hw = 775 20 = 755

b1 = 500

Az = 2*755*15 = 22650 mm2

ez = 1.7204E7/47650 = 361.049 mm

Iy = 1.0770E9+ 9.9128E9 47560 * (800-438.951)2 = 4.77831E9 mm4


Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wey1 = Iy/(800-361.049) = 1.08857E7 mm3

Wey2 = Iy/361.049 = 1.32345E7 mm3

ezpl = 25 + (47650/2-600*25)/(2*15) = 319.167

az1 = 800-319.167-20 = 460.833

az2 = 755-460.833 = 294.167

The plastic section modulus can then be calculated as

Zy1 = 500*20*(460.833+20/2)+15*460.8332 = 7.8938E6

Zy2 = 600*25*(294.167+25/2)+15*294.1672 = 5.898E6

Wpz = Zy1 + Zy2 = 1.37918E7

The attached file GP_HSQ_2.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.3.9. U - profile

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figures below.

a>0 a=0

Section properties (ez, Ax, Iy and Iz) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Ay = 2*b*tf

Az = (h-2*tf)*tw
Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

S =2*(h+2b-tw)

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wez = Iz/(b-ez) (min)

Wpy = b*tf*(h-tf) + tw*(h-2*tf)2 /4

Ix = (2*b*t3 +(h-2*tf)*tw3)/3

Verification calculation

A U400x200x15*25 (a=15) is used for the verification

h= 400 mm
b= 200 mm
a= 15 mm
tw = 15 mm
tf = 25 mm

b(1) 200
Upper flange h(1) 25
y(1) 0
z(1) 375
b(2) 15
Web h(2) 350
y(2) 15
z(2) 25
b(3) 200
Lower flange h(3) 25
y(3) 0
z(3) 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 5000 100 387.5 500000 1937500 5.000E+07 7.508E+08 2.604E+05 1.667E+07
2 5250 22.5 200 118125 1050000 2.658E+06 2.100E+08 5.359E+07 9.844E+04
3 5000 100 12.5 500000 62500 5.000E+07 7.813E+05 2.604E+05 1.667E+07
Summary 15250 1.1181E+06 3.0500E+06 1.0266E+08 9.6156E+08 5.4115E+07 3.3432E+07

Ax = 15250 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 121.675 kg/m

S =2*(0.4+2*0.2-0.015) = 1.57 m2/m

Ay = 2*200*25 = 10000 mm2


Program
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Az = (400-2*25)*15 = 5250 mm2

ey = 1.1181E6/15250 = 73.32 mm

Iy = 5.4115E7 + 9.6156E8 15250 * 2002 = 4.05675E8 mm4

Wey = Iy/200 = 2.028375E6 mm3

Wpy = 200*25*(400-25) + 15*(400-2*25)2 /4 = 2.3344E6 mm3

Iz = 3.3432E7+1.0266E815250*ey 2 = 5.41151E7 mm4

Wez = Iz/(200-ey) = 4.2718E5 mm3 (min)

Ix = (2*200*253+350*153) /3 = 2.47708E6 mm4

The attached file GP_U.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.3.10. C profile cold formed

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figures below.

b1 = b2 b2 > b1 b1 > b2

The program calculates section properties according the verification of a profile shown on the following pages.
Note that for the following caclulations, r is defined as the inside radius of the profile.
Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Profile data: h 310 b1 60 b2 140


t 10 r 10

R r t
R = 20

t .( h 2 .R) Axw = 2.7.10


3
Axw webarea

t .( b1 t .( b2 Axf = 1.6.10
3
Axf R) R) flangearea

. R
2 2
r
Axr area of radius Axr = 235.619
4

Axw Axf 2 .Axr Ax = 4.771.10


3
Ax
7850
g Ax. g = 37.454
1 .10
6

t .( h 2 .t ) Az = 2.9.10
3
Az

R r
R.
(R r) R
e2 4. e2 = 9.903
.
(3 )

t t (h 2 .R)
t .( b1 R) . h t .( b2 R) . Axw. R Axr.( h R e2 R e2 )
2 2 2
ez ez = 129.849
Ax

t .( ( b1 t .( h 2 .R)
3 3
R) ( b2 r) )
Iy1 = 1.642.10
7
Iy1
12

. R
4 4
r
Axr.e2 Iyr = 6.345.10
2 3
Iyr
16
2 2
t t
Iy Iy1 2 .Iyr t .( b1 R) . h ez ( b2 R) .t . ez
2 2

Iy = 4.741.10
7

Iy
Wey1
Wey1 = 2.631.10
5
(h ez )

Iy
Wey2 = 3.651.10
5
Wey2
ez
Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Ax
Axr t .( b2 R)
2
ezpl R ezpl = 115
t

t t
Wpy1 t .( b1 R) . h ezpl ( b2 R) .t . ezpl
2 2
2 2
(h R ezpl) ( ezpl R)
Wpy Wpy1 Axr.( ( h R e2 ezpl) ( ezpl R e2 ) ) t. t.
2 2

Wpy = 4.745.10
5

1 .
b1 .t b2 .t 2 .t ) .t
3 3 3
Ix (h
Ix = 1.633.10
5
3

S = 2*(h+b1+b2)-8*r+pi*r+pi*(r-t)+2*t= 2*(0.31+0.06+0.14)-8*0.02+pi*0.02+pi*(0.02-
0.01)+2*+2*0.01=0.974 m2/m

The attached file GP_C.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.3.11. X-profile

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The program calculates following properties:

Ax = b*t1 + (h-t1)*t2
Program
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Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

g = Ax * dens

S = 2*(b+h)

Ay = b*t1

Az = (h-t1)*t2

Ix = 1/3*(b*t13 + (h-t1)*t23)

Iy = 1/12*(t2*h3 +(b-t2)*t13)

Wey = Iy/(h/2)

Wpy = t2*h2/4 + (b-t2)*t12 /4

Iz = 1/12*(t1*b3 +(h-t1)*t23)

Wez = Iz/(b/2)

Wpy = t1*b2/4 + (h-t1)*t22 /4

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification

b= 600 mm
h= 400 mm
t1 = 20 mm
t2 = 10 mm

Ax = 600*20 + (400-20)*10 = 15800 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 124.03 kg/m

S = 2*(0.6+0.4) =2 m2/m

Ay = 600*20 = 12000 mm2

Az = (400-20)*10 =3800 mm2

Ix = 1/3*(600*203 + (400-20)*103) = 1.7267E6 mm4

Iy = 1/12*(10*4003 +(600-10)*203) = 5.372E7 mm4

Wey = Iy/(400/2) = 2.686E5 mm3

Wpy = 10*4002/4 + (600-10)*202 /4 = 4.59E5 mm3

Iz = 1/12*(20*6003 +(400-20)*103) = 3.6003E8 mm4


Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wez = Iz/(600/2) = 1.2001E6 mm4

Wpy = 20*6002/4 + (400-20)*102 /4 = 1.8095E6 mm3

The attached file GP_X.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.3.12. Tube

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The program calculates following properties:

Ax = pi / 4 * (d2 (d-2*t)2)

g = Ax * dens

S = pi*d

Ay = Ax/2

Az = Ay

Ix = pi / 32 * (d4 (d-2*t)4) (ref table 20, Roark /6/)

Note! Ix = Ip = Iy + Iz

Iy = pi / 64 * (d4 (d-2*t)4) (ref table 1, Roark /6/)

Iz = Iy

Wey = Wez = Iy/(d/2)

Wpy=Wpz = 1/6*(d3- di3)


Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Verification calculation

A profile D219.1x16 is used as verification

d= 219.1 mm
t= 16 mm

Ax = pi / 4 * (219.12 (219.1-2*16)2) = 10209 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 80.14 kg/m

S = pi*0.2191=0.688 m2/m

Ay = Az = Ax/2= 5104 mm2

Ix = pi / 32 * (219.14 (219.1-2*16)4) = 1.05931E8 mm4

Iy = Iz = pi / 64 * (219.14 (219.1-2*16)4) = 5.2966E7 mm4

Wey = We = Iy/(219.1/2) = 4.83486E5 mm3

Wpy=Wpz = 1/6*(219.13- (219.1-2*16)3 = 6.6136E5 mm3

The attached file GP_TUBE.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.
Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

3.4. STIFFENED PLATE

3.4.1. Plate + flatbar

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the flatbar is saved in the binary file fb.dat that is based on the ascii file fb.da1. The ascii file
fb.da1 consists of 253 profiles with property data taken from Tibnor, Konstruktionstabeller, /2/.

Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Az = h*t

S = 2*(b1+h)

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(h+t1-ez)

Plastic cross section:

1. ezpl<t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + h*t*(h/2+t1-ezpl)

2. ezpl>t1

b1*t1+t*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/t + t1


Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + t*(ezpl-t1)2/2 + t*(h+t1-ezpl)2/2

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 300 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: Fb 100x10 mm

b(1) 300
Plate h(1) 10
z(1) 100
b(2) 10
Fb h(2) 100
z(2) 0

1 2 3 4 5
Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc
1 3000 105 315000 3.308E+07 2.500E+04
2 1000 50 50000 2.500E+06 8.333E+05
Summary 4000 3.6500E+05 3.5575E+07 8.5833E+05

Ax = 4000 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 31.4 kg/m

S = 2*(0.3+0.1)=0.8 m2/m

Az = 100*10 = 1000 mm2

ez = 100+10 - 3.65E5/4000 = 18.75 mm

Iy = 8.5833E5+ 3.5575E7 4000 * (110-18.75)2 = 3.12708E6 mm4

Wey1 = Iy/18.75 = 1.66778E5 mm3

Wey2 = Iy/(110-18.75) = 3.4269E4 mm3

ezpl = 4000/2/300 = 6.67

Wpy = 300/2*(6.672 + (10-6.67)2) + 100*10*(100/2+10-6.67) = 6.16667E4 mm3


Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The attached file SP_FB.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.4.2. Plate + L-rolled

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the L-profile is based on the same database as described for the L-ship profile in chapter
3.1.10. Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated as for the L-profile together with the plate, for details
of the L-profile calculations, see chapter 3.1.10. The program calculates then following properties:

Az = (h-tf)*tw

S = 2*(b1+h+b-tw)+b2*(r1+r2)+pi/2*(r1+r2)

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(h+t1-ez)

Plastic cross section:

1. ezpl<t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + h*tw*(h/2+t1-ezpl) + (b-tw)*tf*(h+t1-ezpl-tf/2) +


+ (1-pi/4)*r12 (h+t1-ezpl-tf-0.2234*r1)-(1-pi/4)*r22 (h+t1-ezpl-tf+0.2234*r2)

2. ezpl>t1

b1*t1+tw*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/tw + t1


Program
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SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + tw*(ezpl-t1)2/2 + tw*(h+t1-ezpl)2/2 + (b-tw)*tf*(h+t1-ezpl-tf/2) +


+ (1-pi/4)*r12 (h+t1-ezpl-tf-0.2234*r1)-(1-pi/4)*r22 (h+t1-ezpl-tf+0.2234*r2)

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 300 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: L 300x100x10.5x15

Calculations:

The program calculates all section properties, since the Iz property for the L-profile not is given in the
reference.

Square parts: zl Part 1


b(1) 300
Plate h(1) 10
z(1) 300 Part 2
b(2) 10.5
Web h(2) 285
z(2) 15
b(3) 100
z
Lower flange h(3) 15 y Part 3
z(3) 0

yl

1 2 3 4 5
Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc
1 3000 305 915000 2.791E+08 2.500E+04
2 2992.5 157.5 471318.75 7.423E+07 2.026E+07
3 1500 7.5 11250 8.438E+04 2.813E+04
Summary 7492.5 1397569 3.5339E+08 2.0309E+07

Inner radius:

Ax = (1-pi/4)*152 = 48.29 mm2


Program
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SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Iyl = 0.007545*154 + 48.29*(15 + 0.2234*15) 2 = 16644.07 mm4

Outer radius:

Ax = - (1-pi/4)*7.52 = - 12.07 mm2

Iyl = - 0.007545*7.54 12.07*(15 - 0.2234*7.5) 2 = -2166.81 mm4

Summary:

Ax = 7492.5 + 48.29 12.07 = 7528.72 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 59.1 kg/m

S = [2*(300+300+100-10.5) 2*(15+7.5)+pi/2*(15+7.5)]/1000=1.369 m2/m

Az = (300-15)*10.5 = 2992.5 mm2

ez = 310 (1397569+ 48.29* (15 +0.2234*15) 12.07*(15-0.2234*7.5))/Ax = 124.272 mm

Iyl = 2.0309E7+ 3.5339E8+ 16644.07 - 2166.81= 3.73713E8 mm4

Iy = Iyl 7528.72*(310 124.272) 2 = 1.14011E8 mm4

Wey1 = 1.14011E8/124.272 = 9.174E5 mm3

Wey2 = 1.14011E8/(310-124.272) = 6.1386E5 mm3

ezpl = (7528/2 300*10)/10.5 + 10 =82.7962

Wpy = 300*10*(82.7962-10/2) + 10.5*(82.7962-10)2/2 + 10.5*(300+10-82.7962)2/2 + (100-

-10.5)*15*(300+10-82.7962-15/2) +(1-pi/4)*152 (300+10-82.7962-15-0.2234*15)-(1-pi/4)*7.52 (300+10-

- 82.7962-15+0.2234*7.5) =8.34678E5

The attached file SP_L_ROLL.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.
Program
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SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

3.4.3. Plate + L-welded

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

If a is set to 0 in the input, the figure is printed as

Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Az = (h-tf)*tw

S = 2*(b1+h+b1) 2*tw

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(h+t1-ez)

Plastic cross section:

1. ezpl<t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1
Program
Page:77
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + h*tw*(h/2+t1-ezpl) + (b-tw)*tf*(h+t1-ezpl-tf/2)

2. ezpl>t1

b1*t1+tw*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/tw + t1

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + tw*(ezpl-t1)2/2 + tw*(h+t1-ezpl)2/2 + (b-tw)*tf*(h+t1-ezpl-tf/2) +

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 300 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: L 300x100x10.5x15

b(1) 300
Plate h(1) 10
z(1) 300
b(2) 10.5
Web h(2) 285
z(2) 15
b(3) 100
Lower flange h(3) 15
z(3) 0

1 2 3 4 5
Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc
1 3000 305 915000 2.791E+08 2.500E+04
2 2992.5 157.5 471318.75 7.423E+07 2.026E+07
3 1500 7.5 11250 8.438E+04 2.813E+04
Summary 7492.5 1397569 3.5339E+08 2.0309E+07

Ax = 7492.5 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 58.8 kg/m

S = 2*(0.3+0.3+0.1) 2*0.0105=1.379

Az = (300-15)*10.5 = 2992.5 mm2

ez = 310 1397569/Ax = 123.471 mm

Iy = 2.0309E7 + 3.5339E8 7492.5*(310 123.471) 2 = 1.13011E8 mm4


Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wey1 = 1.13011E8 /123.471 = 9.1529E5 mm3

Wey2 = 1.13011E8 /(310-123.471) = 6.05867E5 mm3

ezpl = (7492.5/2 300*10)/10.5 + 10 =81.0714

Wpy = 300*10*(81.0714-10/2) + 10.5*(81.0714-10)2/2 + 10.5*(300+10-81.0714)2/2 + (100-


10.5)*15*(300+10-81.0714-15/2) = 8.27144E5

The attached file SP_L_WELD.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.4.4. Plate + HP

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the HP-profile is based on the same database as described for the HP-profile in chapter 3.1.11.
The HP-profile is converted to a L-profile with the same area as Ax in the database file. The L-profile is
planned to have minimum deviation for Iy- property compared to the real bulb profile. The converted profile
has then properties with b and tf calculated as:

b = tw + c - 0.5r

tf = (Ax-h*tw)/(b-tw)

This profile is then used for calculating ez, Ay, Iy, and Wey and Wpy properties together with the plate in the
same way as for the square parts for the L-profile, ref chapter 3.4.3.

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:


Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Plate: b1 = 300 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: HP 300x11

According to Fundia /3/, the profile has following properties

h= 300 mm
c= 43 mm
tw = 11 mm
r= 13 mm

b = 11+ 43 - 0.5*13 = 47.5 mm

tf = (4670-300*11)/(47.5-11) = 37.534 mm

b(1) 300 zl Part 1


Plate h(1) 10
z(1) 300
b(2) 11 Part 2
Web h(2) 262.466
z(2) 37.534
b(3) 47.5 z
Lower flange h(3) 37.534 y Part 3
z(3) 0

yl

1 2 3 4 5
Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc
1 3000 305 915000 2.791E+08 2.500E+04
2 2887.13 168.767 487251.5936 8.223E+07 1.657E+07
3 1782.87 18.767 33459.02746 6.279E+05 2.093E+05
Summary 7669.99 1435711 3.619349E+08 1.6808E+07

Ax = 7669.99 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 60.21 kg/m

S = 2*0.3- 0.011 + 0.681 = 1.270 m2/m

Az = 2887.13 mm2

ey = 310 - 1435711/Ax = 122.8145 mm

Iy = 1.6808E7+ 3.619349E8 7669.99*(310 122.8145) 2 = 1.099986E8 mm4


Program
Page:80
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wey1 = 1.099986E8 /122.8145 = 8.9565E5 mm3

Wey2 = 1.099986E8 /(310-122.8145) = 5.8764E5 mm3

ezpl = (7669.99/2 300*10)/11 + 10 = 85.9086

Wpy = 300*10*(85.9086-10/2) + 11*(85.9086-10)2/2 + 11*(300+10-85.9086)2/2 +


(47.5-11)* 37.534*(300+10-85.9086-37.534/2) = 8.3190E5

The attached file SP_HP.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.4.5. Plate + I-profile

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Az = (h-2*tf)*tw

S = 2*(b1+h+b)-2*tw

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(h+t1-ez)

Plastic cross section:

1. ezpl < t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1
Program
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SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + b*tf*(t1+tf/2-ezpl) + tw*(h-2*tf)*(h/2+t1-ezpl) + b*tf*(h+t1-tf/2 - ezpl)

2. t1<= ezpl < t1+tf

b1*t1+b*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/b + t1

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + b*(ezpl-t1) 2/2 + b*(t1+tf-ezpl)2/2+ tw*(h-2*tf)*(h/2+t1-ezpl) +


+ b*tf*(h+t1-tf/2 - ezpl)

3. t1+tf <= ezpl

b1*t1+b*tf+tw*(ezpl-t1-tf)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1-b*tf)/tw + t1 + tf

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + b*tf*(ezpl-t1-tf/2) + tw*(ezpl-t1-tf)2/2 + tw*(h+t1-tf-ezpl)2/2 +


+ b*tf*(h+t1-tf/2-ezpl)

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 300 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: I 300x100x10x15

b(1) 300
Plate h(1) 10
z(1) 300
b(2) 100
Upper flange h(2) 15
z(2) 285
b(3) 10
Web h(3) 270
z(3) 15
b(4) 100
Lower flange h(4) 15
z(4) 0
Program
Page:82
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

1 2 3 4 5
Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc
1 3000 305 915000 2.791E+08 2.500E+04
2 1500 292.5 438750 1.283E+08 2.813E+04
3 2700 150 405000 6.075E+07 1.640E+07
4 1500 7.5 11250 8.438E+04 2.813E+04
Summary 8700 1770000 4.682438E+08 1.6484E+07

Ax = 8700 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 68.295 kg/m

S = 2*(0.30+0.30+0.1)-2*0.01 = 1.38 m2/m

Az = (300-2*15)*10 = 2700 mm2

ez = 310 1770000/Ax = 106.5517 mm

Iy = 1.6484E+07+ 4.682438E+08 8700*(310 106.5517) 2 = 1.24624E8 mm4

Wey1 = 1.24624E8 /106.5517 = 1.16961E6 mm3

Wey2 = 1.24624E8 /(310-106.5517) = 6.1256E5 mm3

ezpl = (8700/2 300*10)/100 + 10 =23.5

Wpy = 300*10*(23.5-10/2) + 100*(23.5-10) 2/2 + 100*(10+15-23.5)2/2+ 10*(300-2*15)*(300/2+10-23.5) +


+100*15*(300-15/2+10-23.5) = 8.51775E5

The attached file SP_I.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.
Program
Page:83
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

3.4.6. Plate + T-database

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the T-profile is based on the same database as described for the T-profile in chapter 3.1.18.
Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated as for the T-profile together with the plate. The program
calculates then following properties:

Az = (h-tf)*tw

S = 2*(b1+h+b)-2*tw

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(h+t1-ez)

Plastic cross section:

1. ezpl<t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + tw*(h-tf)*((h-tf)/2+t1-ezpl) + b*tf*(h+t1-tf/2 - ezpl)

2. t1<= ezpl

b1*t1+tw*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/tw + t1

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) +tw*(ezpl-t1)2/2 + tw*(h+t1-tf-ezpl)2/2 + b*tf*(h+t1-tf/2-ezpl)

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:


Program
Page:84
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Plate: b1 = 300 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: T 300x200x10x15

b(1) 300
Plate h(1) 10
z(1) 300
b(2) 10
Web h(2) 285
z(2) 15
b(3) 200
Lower flange h(3) 15
z(3) 0

1 2 3 4 5
Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc
1 3000 305 915000 2.791E+08 2.500E+04
2 2850 157.5 448875 7.070E+07 1.929E+07
3 3000 7.5 22500 1.688E+05 5.625E+04
Summary 8850 1386375 3.499416E+08 1.9372E+07

Ax = 8850 = mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 69.47 kg/m

S = 2*(0.3+0.3+0.2)-2*0.01=1.58 m2/m

Az = (300-15)*10 = 2850 mm2

ez = 310 1386375/Ax = 153.3475 mm

Iy = 1.9372E7+ 3.499416E8 8850*(310 153.3475) 2 = 1.52134E8 mm4

Wey1 = 1.52134E8 /153.3475 = 9.9209E5 mm3

Wey2 = 1.52134E8 /(310-153.3475) = 9.7116E5 mm3

ezpl = (8850/2 300*10)/10 + 10 = 152.5

Wpy = 300*10*(152.5-10/2) +10*(152.5-10) 2/2 + 10*(300+10-15-152.5)2/2 + 200*15*(300+10-15/2-152.5) =


= 1.095562E6

The attached file SP_T.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.
Program
Page:85
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

3.4.7. Plate + T-built-up and T-bulb

Theory documentation

This profile can be chosen with the stiffener as a traditional welded T-profile or as a T-bulb as described in
chapter 3.1.19. Definition of the profiles are according to the figures below.

Traditional T-profile

T-bulb

Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated for the T-welded profile as for a plate+T-database profile, ref
chapter 3.4.6. For the T-bulb profile, the T-bulb data property from the TB-dat file as described in chapter
3.1.19 is added to the plate. The program calculates then following properties:

Az = (h-tf)*tw

S = 2*(b1+h-tf)- tw +Atb

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(h+t1-ez)
Program
Page:86
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Plastic cross section:

1. ezpl<t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + tw*(h-tf)*((h-tf)/2+t1-ezpl) + Axb*(h+t1-tf+ezb-ezpl)

2. t1<= ezpl

b1*t1+tw*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/tw + t1

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) +tw*(ezpl-t1)2/2 + tw*(h+t1-tf-ezpl)2/2 + Axb*(h+t1-tf+ezb-ezpl)

Verification calculation Example 1 T-welded

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 300 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: T 300x200x10x15

Since the input is the same as for Plate+T-database (chapter 3.4.6), the calculations are described in chapter
3.4.6. The attached file SP_T_DB.sect is in accordance with the calculated properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the properties.

Verification calculation Example 2 T-bulb

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 300 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: h = 500 mm
tw = 14 mm

TB 160x40

According to Fundia /9/, the bulb has following properties

Axb = 5008 mm2


ezb = 23.41 mm
Iyb = 53.62E4 mm4

Ax = (500-40)*14 + 5008 +300*40 = 14448 mm2


Program
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Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

g = Ax * 7850 = 113.4 kg/m

S = 2*(0.3+0.5-0.04)- 2*0.014 +0.327 = 1.819 m2/m

Az = (500-40)*14 = 6440 mm2

ey = 10 + (14/2*(500-40) 2 + ((500-40) + 23.41)* 5008 - 300*10*5)/Ax = 279.04 mm

Iyl = 53.62E4 +14/12*(500-40) 3 +300/12 *10 3= 1.62507E9 mm4

Iy = Iyl +((500-40) + 23.41) 2* 5008+14/4*(500-40) 3 +300*10*5 2 = 1.625166E9 mm4

Iy = Iy 14448*(279.04 10) 2 = 5.7937E8 mm4

Wey1 = Iy /279.04 = 2.076E6 mm3

Wey2 = Iy/(510-279.04) = 2.5085E6 mm3

ezpl = (14448/2 300*10)/14 + 10 = 311.71

Wpy = 300*10*(311.71-10/2) +14*(311.71-10)2/2 + 14*(500+10-40-311.71)2/2 +


+ 5008*(500+10-40+23.41-311.71) = 2.6427E6

The attached file SP_TB.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.4.8. Plate+ U-horizontal

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:
Program
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SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Az = (b-tw)*2*tf

S = 2*(b1+b)

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(b+t1-ez)

Plastic cross section:

1. ezpl<t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + 2*tf*(b-tw)*((b-tw)/2+t1-ezpl) + h*tw*(b+t1-tw/2 - ezpl)

2. t1<= ezpl

b1*t1+2*tf*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/(2*tf) + t1

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) +2*tf*(ezpl-t1)2/2 + 2*tf*(b+t1-tw-ezpl)2/2 + h*tw*(b+t1-tw/2-ezpl)

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 600 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: U 300x100x10x15

b(1) 600
Plate h(1) 10
z(1) 100
b(2) 30
Web h(2) 90
z(2) 10
b(3) 300
Lower flange h(3) 10
z(3) 0
Program
Page:89
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

1 2 3 4 5
Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc
1 6000 105 630000 6.615E+07 5.000E+04
2 2700 55 148500 8.168E+06 1.823E+06
3 3000 5 15000 7.500E+04 2.500E+04
Summary 11700 793500 7.439250E+07 1.8975E+06

Ax = 11700 = mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 91.845 kg/m

S = 2*(0.6+0.1) = 1.4 m2/m

Az = (100-10)*2*15 = 2700 m2

ez = 110 793500/Ax = 42.1795 mm

Iy = 7.439250E7+ 1.8975E6 11700*(110-42.1795) 2 = 2.2474E7 mm4

Wey1 = 2.2474E7 /42.1795 = 5.3283E5 mm3

Wey2 = 2.2474E7 /(110-42.1795) = 3.3138E5 mm3

ezpl = 11700/2/600 = 9.75

Wpy = 600/2*(9.752 + (10-9.75)2) + 2*15*(100-10)*((100-10)/2+10-9.75) + 300*10*(100+10-10/2 - 9.75) =


= 4.3646E5

The attached file SP_U1.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.4.9. Plate + U-vertical

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.


Program
Page:90
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Az = (h-2*tf)*tw

S = 2*(b1+b+h-tw)

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(b+t1-ez)

Plastic cross section:

1. ezpl < t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + b*tf*(t1+tf/2-ezpl) + tw*(h-2*tf)*(h/2+t1-ezpl) + b*tf*(h+t1-tf/2 - ezpl)

2. t1<= ezpl < t1+tf

b1*t1+b*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/b + t1

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + b*(ezpl-t1) 2/2 + b*(t1+tf-ezpl)2/2+ tw*(h-2*tf)*(h/2+t1-ezpl) +


+ b*tf*(h+t1-tf/2 - ezpl)

3. t1+tf <= ezpl

b1*t1+b*tf+tw*(ezpl-t1-tf)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1-b*tf)/tw + t1 + tf

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + b*tf*(ezpl-t1-tf/2) + tw*(ezpl-t1-tf)2/2 + tw*(h+t1-tf-ezpl)2/2 +


Program
Page:91
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

+ b*tf*(h+t1-tf/2-ezpl)

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 600 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: U 300x100x10x15

b(1) 600
Plate h(1) 10
z(1) 300
b(2) 100
Upper flange h(2) 15
z(2) 285
b(3) 10
Web h(3) 270
z(3) 15
b(4) 100
Lower flange h(4) 15
z(4) 0

1 2 3 4 5
Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc
1 6000 305 1830000 5.582E+08 5.000E+04
2 1500 292.5 438750 1.283E+08 2.813E+04
3 2700 150 405000 6.075E+07 1.640E+07
4 1500 7.5 11250 8.438E+04 2.813E+04
Summary 11700 2685000 7.473188E+08 1.6509E+07

Ax = 11700 = mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 91.845 kg/m

S = 2*(0.6+0.1+0.3-0.01)=1.98 m2/m

Az = (300-2*15)*10 = 2700 mm2

ez = 310 2685000/Ax = 80.5128 mm

Iy = 7.473188E8+ 1.6509E7 11700*(310-80.5128) 2 = 1.47655E8 mm4

Wey1 = 1.47655E8 /80.5128 = 1.8339E6 mm3

Wey2 = 1.47655E8 /(110- 80.5128) = 6.43411E5 mm3

ezpl = 11700/2/600=9.75
Program
Page:92
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wpy = 600/2*(9.752 + (10-9.75)2) + 100*15*(10+15/2-9.75) + 10*(300-2*15)*(300/2+10-9.75) +


+ 100*15*(300+10-15/2 -9.75) = 8.84963 E5

The attached file SP_U2.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.4.10. Plate + square stiffener

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties (h=b):

Az = (h-2*t)*2*t

S = 2*(b1+h)

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(h+t1-ez)

Plastic cross section:

1. ezpl < t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + h*t*(t1+t/2-ezpl) + 2*t*(h-2*t)*(h/2+t1-ezpl) + h*t*(h+t1-t/2 - ezpl)

2. t1<= ezpl < t1+t

b1*t1+h*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2
Program
Page:93
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/h + t1

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + h*(ezpl-t1) 2/2 + h*(t1+t-ezpl)2/2+ 2*t*(h-2*t)*(h/2+t1-ezpl) +


+ h*t*(h+t1-t/2 - ezpl)

3. t1+t <= ezpl

b1*t1+h*t+2*t*(ezpl-t1-t)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1-h*t)/(2*t) + t1 + t

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + h*t*(ezpl-t1-t/2) +2*t*(ezpl-t1-t)2/2 + 2*t*(h+t1-t-ezpl)2/2 +


+ h*t*(h+t1-t/2-ezpl)

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 600 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: SHS 300x10

b(1) 600
Plate h(1) 10
y(1) 0
z(1) 300
b(2) 300
Upper flange h(2) 10
y(2) 0
z(2) 290
b(3) 20
Web h(3) 280
y(3) 0
z(3) 10
b(4) 300
Lower flange h(4) 10
y(4) 0
z(4) 0

1 2 3 4 5
Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc
1 6000 305 1830000 5.582E+08 5.000E+04
2 3000 295 885000 2.611E+08 2.500E+04
3 5600 150 840000 1.260E+08 3.659E+07
4 3000 5 15000 7.500E+04 2.500E+04
Summary 17600 3570000 9.453000E+08 3.6687E+07
Program
Page:94
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Ax = 17600 = mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 91.845 kg/m

S = 2*(0.6+0.3)=1.8 m2/m

Az = (300-2*10)*2*10 = 5600 m2

ez = 310 3570000/Ax = 107.1591 mm

Iy = 9.453000E8+ 3.6687E7 17600*(310-107.1591) 2 = 2.57845E8 mm4

Wey1 = 2.57845E8 /107.1591 = 2.40618E6 mm3

Wey2 = 2.57845E8 /(310-107.1591) = 1.271169E6 mm3

ezpl = (17600/2 600*10)/300 + 10 =19.333

Wpy = 600*10*(19.333-10/2) + 300*(19.333-10) 2/2 + 300*(10+10-19.333)2/2+ 2*10*(300-2*10)*(300/2+


+ 10-19.333) + 300*10*(300+10-10/2 - 19.333) = 1.74387E6

The attached file SP_SQ.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.4.11. Plate + rectangle stiffener

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figures below. If h>=b, the figure is printed according to:

If h<b, the figure is printed as


Program
Page:95
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.1. The program
calculates then following properties:

Az = (h-2*t)*2*t

S = 2*(b1+h)

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(h+t1-ez)

Plastic cross section:

1. ezpl < t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + b*t*(t1+t/2-ezpl) + 2*t*(h-2*t)*(h/2+t1-ezpl) + b*t*(h+t1-t/2 - ezpl)

2. t1<= ezpl < t1+t

b1*t1+b*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/b + t1

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + b*(ezpl-t1) 2/2 + b*(t1+t-ezpl)2/2+ 2*t*(h-2*t)*(h/2+t1-ezpl) +


+ b*t*(h+t1-t/2 - ezpl)

3. t1+t <= ezpl

b1*t1+b*t+2*t*(ezpl-t1-tf)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1-b*t)/(2*t) + t1 + t

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + b*t*(ezpl-t1-t/2) + 2*t*(ezpl-t1-t)2/2 + 2*t*(h+t1-t-ezpl)2/2 +


+ b*t*(h+t1-t/2-ezpl)
Program
Page:96
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 600 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: RHS 300x200x10

b(1) 600
Plate h(1) 10
y(1) 0
z(1) 300
b(2) 200
Upper flange h(2) 10
y(2) 0
z(2) 290
b(3) 20
Web h(3) 280
y(3) 0
z(3) 10
b(4) 200
Lower flange h(4) 10
y(4) 0
z(4) 0

1 2 3 4 5
Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc
1 6000 305 1830000 5.582E+08 5.000E+04
2 2000 295 590000 1.741E+08 1.667E+04
3 5600 150 840000 1.260E+08 3.659E+07
4 2000 5 10000 5.000E+04 1.667E+04
Summary 15600 3270000 8.582500E+08 3.6670E+07

Ax = 15600 = mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 91.845 kg/m

S = 2*(0.6+0.3)=1.8m2/m

Az = (300-2*10)*2*10 = 5600 m2

ez = 310 3270000/Ax = 100.3846 mm

Iy = 8.582500E8+ 3.6670E7 15600*(310-100.3846) 2 = 2.094776E8 mm4


Program
Page:97
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Wey1 = 2.094776E8 /100.3846 = 2.08675E6 mm3

Wey2 = 2.094776E8 /(310-100.3846) = 9.99343E5 mm3

ezpl = (15600/2 600*10)/200 + 10 = 19

Wpy = 600*10*(19-10/2) + 200*(19-10) 2/2 + 200*(10+10-19)2/2+ 2*10*(300-2*10)*(300/2+10-19) +


+ 200*10*(300+10-10/2 - 19) = 1.4538E6

The attached file SP_REQ.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.4.12. Plate + bridgeprofile

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The intersection between the web and the flanges is according to the figure below.

a b
Program
Page:98
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Section properties (ez, Ax and Iy) are calculated as for built-up sections, ref chapter 3.5.2. The program
calculates then following properties:

Az = (h-t)*2*t

S = 2*(b1+h-a) + 2*(a2+h2)1/2

Wey1 = Iy/ez

Wey2 = Iy/(h+t1-ez)

Plastic cross section:

h1 = Sqr(a2 + (h-t/2)2)

1. ezpl<t1

ezpl = Ax/2/b1

Wpy = b1/2*(ezpl2 + (t1-ezpl)2) + 2*t*h1*((h-t/2)/2+t1-ezpl) + b*t*(h+t1-t/2 - ezpl)

2. t1<= ezpl

b1*t1+2*t*h1/h*(ezpl-t1)=Ax/2

ezpl = (Ax/2 b1*t1)/(2*t*h1/h) + t1

Wpy = b1*t1*(ezpl-t1/2) + 2*t*h1/(h-t/2)*(ezpl-t1)2/2 + 2*t*h1/(h-t/2)*(h+t1-t/2-ezpl)2/2 +


+ b*tw*(h+t1-t/2-ezpl)

Verification calculation

Following profile is used as verification:

Plate: b1 = 600 mm
t1 = 10 mm

Stiffener: h = 300 mm
b= 100 mm
t= 10 mm
a= 50 mm
Program
Page:99
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

y1(i) 0
z1(i) 305
y2(i) 600
Upper flange z2(i) 305
t(i) 10
l(i) 600
alfa(i) 0
y1(i) 200
z1(i) 300
y2(i) 250
Web 1 z2(i) 5
t(i) 10
l(i) 299.207
alfa(i) -1.4029
y1(i) 400
z1(i) 300
y2(i) 350
Web 2 z2(i) 5
t(i) 10
l(i) 299.207
alfa(i) 1.4029
y1(i) 250
z1(i) 5
y2(i) 350
Bottom flange z2(i) 5
t(i) 10
l(i) 100
alfa(i) 1.5708

Part A Zc A*Zc A*(Zc)2 Iyc


1 6000 305 1830000 5.582E+08 5.000E+04
2 2992.07 152.5 456291.1112 6.958E+07 2.170E+07
3 2992.07 152.5 456291.1112 6.958E+07 2.170E+07
4 1000 5 5000 2.500E+04 8.333E+03
Summary 12984.1 2.7476E+06 6.9734E+08 4.3457E+07

Ax = 12984.1 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 101.925 kg/m

S = 2*(0.6-0.05) + 2*(0.052+0.32)1/2 = 1.708 m2/m

Az = 2*299.207*10 * sin(1.4029) = 5899.99 mm2

ez = 2.7476E6/Ax = 211.61 mm (from bottom flange)

Iy = 4.3457E7 + 6.9734E8 12984.1*211.612 = 1.59384E8 mm4


Program
Page:100
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

ez = 310 - 211.61 = 98.39 mm (from upper plate)

Wey1 = 1.59384E8 /98.39 = 1.619928E6 mm3

Wey2 = 1.59384E8 /211.61 = 7.5320E5 mm3

h1 = Sqr(502 + (300-10/2)2) =299.207

ezpl = (12984.1/2 600*10)/(2*10*299.207/295) + 10 = 34.268

Wpy = 600*10*(34.268 - 10/2) + 2*10*299.207/(300-10/2)*(34.268 -10)2/2 +


+2*10*299.207/(300-10/2)*295*(300+10-10/2- 34.268)2/2 + 100*10*(300+10-10/2-34.268) = 1.195724E6

The attached file SP_BRIDGE.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.5. BUILT-UP

3.5.1. Type 1

This profile is based on rectangels, located parallell to the axis system. Up to 10 sections can be located in the
program.

Theory documentation

Every section part is located in the axis system as follows:

z-cog
Z

CoGglobal

CoGlocal

y-cog
h(i)
ez Zc z(i) b(i)

Y
y(i)

ey

Yc
Program
Page:101
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Input parameters for each section are:

Width: b(i)
Height: h(i)
Distance from origo to lower left corner of section: y(i), z(i)

Following matrix table is used:

... Column
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 b(1)*h(1) y(1)+b(1)/2 z(1)+h(1)/2 A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 b(1)*(h(1)) 3 /12 h(1)*(b(1)) 3 /12
...
i b(i)*h(i) y(i)+b(i)/2 z(i)+h(i)/2 A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 b(i)*(h(i)) 3 /12 h(i)*(b(i)) 3 /12
...
n b(n)*h(n) y(n)+b(n)/2 z(n)+h(n)/2 A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 b(n)*(h(n)) 3 /12 h(n)*(b(n)) 3 /12
A (A*Yc) (A*Zc) (A*(Yc)2 (A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc

The section properties are calculated as follows:

Ax = A

Ay =b(i)*h(i) (for sections where b(i)>h(i))

Az =b(i)*h(i) (for sections where h(i)>b(i))

S =2*b(i) (for sections where b(i)>h(i))

S =2*h(i) (for sections where h(i)>b(i))

ey = (A*Yc)/Ax

ez = (A*Zc)/Ax

Iy = Iyc+ (A*(Zc)2)- Ax*(ez)2

Iyz = (A*Zc*Yc)-Ax*ey*ez

Weyt = Iy/(zmax-ez)

Weyb = Iy/(ez- zmin)

Iz = Izc+ (A*(Yc)2)- Ax*(ey)2

Wezl = Iz/(ey-ymin)

Wezr = Iz/(ymax-ey)

Ix =1/3 (b(i)*h(i)3) ; b(i)>h(i) else h(i)*b(i)3

ey = ey-ymin (to local origo)


Program
Page:102
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

ez = ez-zmin (to local origo)

R = Sqr(((Iy-Iz)/2)2 + Iyz2)

alfa = (arccos((Iy-Iz)/(2*R)))/2

I1 = (Iy+Iz)/2 +R

I2 = (Iy+Iz)/2 - R

Plastic cross section

The CoG for the plastic cross section is placed where the cross section area is divided in two equal sizes, see
figure below:

Ax/2
az1 Z

Ax/2 az2 ezpl

Figure Definition of plasic cross section

The plastic section modulus can then be calculated as

Wpy = zdA

Wpz = ydA

Verification calculation

Two identical examples are calculated, one with origo in (0,0) and one with origo in (-125,-75).

Verification example 1

Following profile is used as verification:


Program
Page:103
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

b(1) 300
Section 1 h(1) 25
y(1) 25
z(1) 475
b(2) 200
Section 2 h(2) 20
y(2) 0
z(2) 0
b(3) 15
Section 3 h(3) 455
y(3) 142.5
z(3) 20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 7500 175 487.5 1312500 3656250 2.297E+08 1.782E+09 3.906E+05 5.625E+07
2 4000 100 10 400000 40000 4.000E+07 4.000E+05 1.333E+05 1.333E+07
3 6825 150 247.5 1023750 1689187.5 1.536E+08 4.181E+08 1.177E+08 1.280E+05
Summary 18325 2.7363E+06 5.3854E+06 4.2325E+08 2.2009E+09 1.1827E+08 6.9711E+07

Ax = 18325 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 143.851 kg/m

S = 2*(0.3+0.2+0.455) = 1.91 m2/m

Ay = 300*25 + 200*20 = 11500 mm2

Az = 15*455 = 6825 mm2

ey = 2.7363E6/Ax = 149.32 mm

ez = 5.3854E6/Ax = 293.88 mm

Iy = 1.1827E8 + 2.2009E9 18325*293.88 2 = 7.36494E8 mm4

Iyz = 7500*175*487.5+4000*100*10+6825*150*247.5 18325*293.88*149.32 = 9.3081E7

Weyt = 7.36494E8 /(500-293.88) = 3.573E6 mm3

Weyb = 7.36494E8 /293.88 = 2.50608E6 mm3

Iz = 6.9711E7 + 4.2325E8 18325*149.32 2 = 8.4375E7 mm4

Wezl = 8.4375E7 /149.32 = 5.6506E5 mm3

Wezr = 8.4375E7 /(325-149.32) = 4.8028E5 mm3


Program
Page:104
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

It = 1/3*(300*25 3 +200*203+455*15 3) = 2.6077E6 mm3

R = Sqr(((7.36494E8-8.4375E7)/2)2 + Iyz2)= 3.39085E8

alfa = (arccos((7.36494E8-8.4375E7)/(2*3.39085E8)))/2 = 7.966 deg

I1 = (7.36494E8+8.4375E7)/2 +3.39085E8 = 7.4952E8 mm4

I2 = (7.36494E8+8.4375E7)/2 - 3.39085E8 = 7.1349E7 mm4

ezpl = (18325/2-200x20)/15+20=364.17

Wpy=200x20*(ezpl-10)+300x25*(500-25/2-ezpl)+15(ezpl-20)2 /2 + 15(475-ezpl)2 /2 =3.322E6 mm3

eypl =142.5+ (18325/2-142.5*20-117.5*25)/500=149.25

Wpz=20*eypl2/2 +20*(200-eypl) 2/2 + 25*(eypl-25) 2/2 + 25*(325-eypl) 2/2 + 455*(eypl-142.5) 2/2 +


+ 455*(157.5-eypl) 2/2 = 8.534E6

The attached file BU_TYPE1_EX1.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.

Verification example 2

Following profile is used as verification: (identical to example 1 but with origo in (-125,-75)

b(1) 300
Section 1 h(1) 25
y(1) -100
z(1) 400
b(2) 200
Section 2 h(2) 20
y(2) -125
z(2) -75
b(3) 15
Section 3 h(3) 455
y(3) 17.5
z(3) -55

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 7500 50 412.5 375000 3093750 1.875E+07 1.276E+09 3.906E+05 5.625E+07
2 4000 -25 -65 -100000 -260000 2.500E+06 1.690E+07 1.333E+05 1.333E+07
3 6825 25 172.5 170625 1177312.5 4.266E+06 2.031E+08 1.177E+08 1.280E+05
Summary 18325 4.4563E+05 4.0111E+06 2.5516E+07 1.4962E+09 1.1827E+08 6.9711E+07

Ax = 18325 mm2
Program
Page:105
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

g = Ax * 7850 = 143.851 kg/m

S= 2*(0.3+0.2+0.455)=1.91 m2/m

Ay = 300*25 + 200*20 = 11500 mm2

Az = 15*455 = 6825 mm2

ey = 4.4563E5/Ax = 24.32 mm ( to (0,0) )

ez = 4.0111E6/Ax = 218.89 mm ( to (0,0) )

Iy = 1.1827E8 + 1.4962E9 18325*218.89 2 = 7.36493E8 mm4

Iyz = 7500*50*412.5+4000*(-25)*(-65)+6825*25*172.5 18325*24.32*218.89 = 9.3069E7 mm4

Weyt = 7.36493E8 /(425-218.89) = 3.573E6 mm3

Weyb = 7.36493E8 /(218.89-(-75)) = 2.50604E6 mm3

Iz = 6.9711E7 + 2.5516E7 18325*24.32 2 = 8.4388E7 mm4

Wezr = 8.4388E7 /(200-24.32) = 4.8035E5 mm3

Wezl = 8.4388E7 /(24.32 - (-125)) = 5.6515E5 mm3

ey = ey (-125) = 149.32 mm (to local origo)

ez = ez (-75) = 293.89 mm (to local origo)

It = 1/3*(300*25 3 +200*203+455*15 3) = 2.6077E6 mm3

R = Sqr(((7.36493E8-8.4388E7)/2)2 + 9.3069E72)= 3.39082E8

alfa = (arccos((7.36493E8-8.4388E7)/(2*3.39082E8)))/2 = 7.965 deg

I1 = (7.36493E8+8.4388E7)/2 +3.39082E8 = 7.4952E8 mm4

I2 = (7.36493E8+8.4388E7)/2 - 3.39082E8 = 7.1352E7 mm4

ezpl = (18325/2-200x20)/15+20=364.17

Wpy=200x20*(ezpl-10)+300x25*(500-25/2-ezpl)+15(ezpl-20)2 /2 + 15(475-ezpl)2 /2 =3.322E6 mm3

eypl =142.5+ (18325/2-142.5*20-117.5*25)/500=149.25

Wpz=20*eypl2/2 +20*(200-eypl) 2/2 + 25*(eypl-25) 2/2 + 25*(325-eypl) 2/2 + 455*(eypl-142.5) 2/2 +


+ 455*(157.5-eypl) 2/2 = 8.534E6

The attached file BU_TYPE1_EX2.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.
Program
Page:106
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

3.5.2. Type 2

This profile is based on rectangles, located arbitrary in the axis system. Up to 10 sections can be located in the
program.

Theory documentation

Every section part is located in the axis system as follows:

t(i)

2
z-cog CoGglobal
l(i)

z2(i)
y-cog
alfa(i)
CoGlocal
ez 1
z1(i)

Y
y1(i)
y2(i)

ey

Input parameters for each section are:

Distance from origo to midpoint of end 1: y1(i), z1(i)


Distance from origo to midpoint of end 2: y2(i), z2(i)
Thickness: t(i)
Program
Page:107
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Following matrix table is used:

... Column
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 l(1)*t(1) Yc(1) Zc(1) A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc(1) Izc(1)
...
I l(i)*t(i) Yc(i) Zc(i) A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc(i) Izc(i)
...
N l(n)*t(n) Yc(n) Zn(i) A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc(n) Izc(n)
A (A*Yc) (A*Zc) (A*(Yc)2 (A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc

Explanations to parameters in the table above:

l(i) = [(z2(i)-z1(i)) 2 +(y2(i)-y1(i)) 2)] 1/2

S = 2* l(i)

If y2(i)=y1(i) then alfa(i) =pi/2 else

alfa(i) = arctan((z2(i)-z1(i)) /(y2(i)-y1(i)))

Yc(i) = (y1(i)+y2(i))/2

Zc(i) = (z1(i)+z2(i))/2

Iyc(i) = 1/12*(l(i)*t(i) 3 * (cos(alfa(i))2 + 1/12*(t(i)*l(i) 3 * (sin(alfa(i))2

Izc(i) = 1/12*(l(i)*t(i) 3 * (sin(alfa(i))2 + 1/12*(t(i)*l(i) 3 * (cos(alfa(i))2

The section properties are then calculated as follows:

Ax = A

Ay =l(i)*t(i)* cos(alfa(i))

Az =l(i)*t(i)* sin(alfa(i))

ey = (A*Yc)/Ax

ez = (A*Zc)/Ax

Iy = Iyc+ (A*(Zc)2)- Ax*(ez)2

Iyz = (A*Zc*Yc)-Ax*ey*ez

Weyt = Iy/(zmax-ez)

Weyb = Iy/(ez - zmin)


Program
Page:108
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

Iz = Izc+ (A*(Yc)2)- Ax*(ey)2

Wezr = Iz/(ymax-ey)

Wezl = Iz/(ey-ymin)

Ix =1/3 (l(i)*t(i)3)

ey = ey- ymin

ez = ez- zmin

R = Sqr(((Iy-Iz)/2)2 + Iyz2)

alfa = (arccos((Iy-Iz)/(2*R)))/2

I1 = (Iy+Iz)/2 +R

I2 = (Iy+Iz)/2 - R

Verification calculation

Two examples are calculated, one identical to eaxmple 2 in chapter 3.5.1 and one with L-profile. Th L-profile
has also been verified towards formulas in Roark /6/.

Verification example 1

Following profile is used as verification:

y1(i) -100
z1(i) 412.5
y2(i) 200
Section 1 z2(i) 412.5
t(i) 25
l(i) 300
alfa(i) 0
y1(i) -125
z1(i) -65
y2(i) 75
Section 2 z2(i) -65
t(i) 20
l(i) 200
alfa(i) 0
y1(i) 25
z1(i) -55
y2(i) 25
Section 3 z2(i) 400
t(i) 15
l(i) 455
alfa(i) 1.5708
Program
Page:109
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 7500 50 412.5 375000 3093750 1.875E+07 1.276E+09 3.906E+05 5.625E+07
2 4000 -25 -65 -100000 -260000 2.500E+06 1.690E+07 1.333E+05 1.333E+07
3 6825 25 172.5 170625 1177312.5 4.266E+06 2.031E+08 1.177E+08 1.280E+05
Summary 18325 4.4563E+05 4.0111E+06 2.5516E+07 1.4962E+09 1.1827E+08 6.9711E+07

Ax = 18325 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 143.851 kg/m

S = 2*(0.3+0.2+0.455)=1.91 m2/m

Ay = 7500 + 4000 = 11500 mm2

Az = 6825 mm2

ey = 4.4563E5/Ax = 24.32 mm (from (0,0))

ez = 4.0111E6/Ax = 218.89 mm (from (0,0))

Iy = 1.1827E8 + 1.4962E9 18325*218.89 2 = 7.3649E8 mm4

Iyz = 7500*50*412.5+4000*(-25)*(-65)+6825*25*172.5 18325*24.32*218.89 = 9.30689E7 mm4

Weyt = 7.3649E8 /(425-218.89) = 3.5733E6 mm3

Weyb = 7.3649E8 /(218.89-(-75)) = 2.5060E6 mm3

Iz = 6.9711E7 + 2.5516E7 18325*24.32 2 = 8.4390E7 mm4

Wezr = 8.4390E7/(200-24.32) = 4.80362E5 mm3

Wezl = 8.4390E7 /(24.32-(-125)) = 5.65163E5 mm3

It = 1/3*(300*25 3 +200*203 +455*153) = 2.60771E6 mm3

ey = 24.32 (-125) = 149.32 mm (from min y-coordinate)

ez = 218.89 (-75) = 293.89 mm (from min z-coordinate)

R = Sqr(((7.3649E8-8.4390E7)/2)2 + 9.30689E72)= 3.3907E8

alfa = (arccos((7.3649E8-8.4390E7)/(2*3.3907E8)))/2 = 7.966 deg

I1 = (7.3649E8+8.4390E7)/2 +3.3907E8 = 7.49512E8 mm4

I2 = (7.3649E8+8.4390E7)/2 - 3.3907E8 = 7.1367E7 mm4


Program
Page:110
SECTION
Document title:
Made by: AR
Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The attached file BU_TYPE2_EX1.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties

Verification example 2

Following profile is used as verification: (origo in (-50,-100)

y1(i) -50
z1(i) -100
y2(i) 150
Section 1 z2(i) 100
t(i) 20
l(i) 282.843
alfa(i) 0.7854
y1(i) 150
z1(i) 85.9
y2(i) 335.9
Section 2 z2(i) -100
t(i) 20
l(i) 262.902
alfa(i) -0.7854

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Part A Yc Zc A*Yc A*Zc A*(Yc)2 A*(Zc)2 Iyc Izc
1 5656.85 50 0 282842.712 0 1.414E+07 0.000E+00 1.895E+07 1.895E+07
2 5258.05 242.95 -7.05 1277442.28 -37069.224 3.104E+08 2.613E+05 1.523E+07 1.523E+07
Summary 10914.9 1.5603E+06 -3.7069E+04 3.2450E+08 2.6134E+05 3.4181E+07 3.4181E+07

Ax = 10914.9 mm2

g = Ax * 7850 = 85.68 kg/m

S = 2*(0.283+0.263)=1.092 m2/m

Ay = 282.843*20 * cos(0.7854) + 262.902*20* cos(0.7854) = 7718 mm2

Az = 282.843*20 * sin(0.7854) + 262.902*20* sin(0.7854) = 7718 mm2

ey = 1.5603E6/Ax = 142.95 mm ( to (0,0) )

ez = - 3.7069E4/Ax = -3.40 mm ( to (0,0) )

Iy = 3.4181E7+ 2.6134E5 10914.9*3.42 = 3.4316E7 mm4

Iyz = 5258.05*242.95*(-7.05) =-3.7010E6 mm4

Weyt = 3.4316E7 /(100+10*cos(0.7854) (-3.40)) = 3.10637E5 mm3

Weyb = 3.4316E7 /((-3.40)-(-100)+10*cos(0.7854)) = 3.3101E5 mm3

Iz = 3.4181E7 + 3.2450E8 10914.9*142.952 = 1.35633E8 mm4


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Wezr = 1.35633E8 /(335.9+10*cos(0.7854) - 142.95) = 6.781E5 mm3

Wezl = 1.35633E8/(142.95 (-50) +10*cos(0.7854)) = 6.781E5 mm3

ey = 142.95 (-50) + 10*cos(0.7854) = 200.02 mm (to local origo)

ez = -3.40 (-100) + 10*cos(0.7854) = 103.67 mm (to local origo)

It = 1/3*(262.902 + 282.843)*203) = 1.455E6 mm3

R = Sqr(((3.4316E7-1.35633E8)/2)2 + 3.701E62)= 5.0793E7

alfa = (arccos((3.4316E7-1.35633E8)/(2*5.0793E7)))/2 = 7.966 deg

I1 = (3.4316E7+1.35633E8)/2 +5.0793E7= 1.35768E8 mm4

I2 = (3.4316E7+1.35633E8)/2 - 5.0793E7= 3.4181E7 mm4

According to Roark (ch 5, table 1 /6/), the section property can be calculated as:

b = 282.84 20 = 262.84

ey = 800001/2 /21/2 = 200

ez = 80000 /21/2 /(2*800001/2 -20) = 103.67

Iy = (282.844 - 262.844)/12 0.5* 202*282.842 *262.842/(282.84 + 262.84) = 3.43056E7 mm4

Iz = (282.844 - 262.844)/12 = 1.35586E8 mm4

The attached file BU_TYPE2_EX2.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.
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3.5.3. Type 3

This profile is a solid profile with up to two inside cut-outs. The outer contour can have up to 16 brake-points
and the inner countours can have up to 6 brake-points. The program calculates following properties

Ax, ey, ez, g, S, Ix, Iy, Iz, I1, I2, alfa, Wy, Wz

The torsional contant Ix is calculated as:

Ix = Ax4/(40*Ip) (ref Roark formulas for stress&strain, table 20, item 21)

Where Ip = Iy+Iz

This is an apporximate method.

The properties is calculated by splicing the body into vertical and horizontal slices of 1/2000 of the
width/height.

Verification calculation

Four examples are calculated, one based on calculations from earlier calculations and three with complex
shape, verified with the 3D Finite Element program ROBOT Millenniums (www.robobat.com) section
calculation module.

In the table below, the deviations are shown

Deviations (%)
Parameter Ex 1 Ex2 Ex3 Ex4
Ax -0.11 0 0 0
S -perimeter 0 *) 0 0 0
CoG 0.07 0 0 0
CoG -0.07 0 0 0
Ix +31 -21.7 **) 6.57 **) -40 **)
Iy 0.20 -0.01 0 0
Iz -0.59 -0.01 0 0
I1 0.20 -0.01 0 0
I2 -0.63 -0.01 0 0
Angle -1.25 0 0 0
*) Exact value 1.97 m2/m
**) Reference calculations based on plastic torsional constant calculated by ROBOT

The deviations in the table above are less than 1% ecept for Ix calculations. The used method to calculate Ix is
approximately and is mainly used for section shapes similar to example 3.
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Verification example 1

This exmple is the same as the Example 1 for the built-up type 1 (ref ch 3.5.1 and example
BU_TYPE1_EX1.sect).

The calculation from solid body is shown below.

This is an example of a body, not suitable as a solid body, since it has many thin areas in vertical and horisontal
directions. The deviations is below 1% compared to example 1 for built-up type 1 profile (except Ix)

The example is saved in the file BU_TYPE3_EX1.sect


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Verification example 2

This exmple is calculated with SECTION, and then compared with calculations from ROBOT.

The calculation from SECTION is shown below.


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The calculation from ROBOT is shown below.

0.0 500.0 1000.0 1500.0 2000.0 2500.0 3000.0 3500.0 4000.0 4500.0 5000.0 5500.0 6000.0 6500.0
2000.0

2000.0
y
1500.0

1500.0
1 2
3
1000.0

1000.0
8 7z 4
500.0

500.0
Z

Y
0.0

0.0
6 5
-500.0

-500.0
0.0 500.0 1000.0 1500.0 2000.0 2500.0 3000.0 3500.0 4000.0 4500.0 5000.0 5500.0 6000.0 6500.0

Geometry description

Point no. Y Z

1 0.0 mm 1400.0 mm
2 6405.0 mm 1400.0 mm
3 6405.0 mm 1220.0 mm
4 4455.0 mm 1080.0 mm
5 4455.0 mm 0.0 mm
6 2655.0 mm 0.0 mm
7 2655.0 mm 1080.0 mm
8 0.0 mm 1080.0 mm

General results

Area A = 3.857e+006 mm2


Center of gravity Yc = 3289.8 mm
Zc = 891.2 mm
Perimeter S = 15475.0 mm

Principal system

Angle alpha = 87.0 Deg


Moments of inertia Ix = 9.399e+011 mm4
Iy = 6.843e+012 mm4
Iz = 6.708e+011 mm4

Central system

Moments of inertia Iyc = 6.879e+011 mm4


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Izc = 6.826e+012 mm4


Iyczc = -3.237e+011 mm4

The example is saved in the file BU_TYPE3_EX2.sect


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Verification example 3

This exmple is calculated with SECTION, and then compared with calculations frpm ROBOT.

The calculation from SECTION is shown below.


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The calculation from ROBOT is shown below.

SECTION ANALYSIS
-8000.0 -6000.0 -4000.0 -2000.0 0.0 2000.0 4000.0 6000.0 8000.0 10000.0 12000.0 14000.0
8000.0

8000.0
2

3
6000.0

6000.0
1
z
4000.0

4000.0
9

5
2000.0

2000.0
y
Z

Y
0.0

0.0
8

6
-2000.0

-2000.0
-8000.0 -6000.0 -4000.0 -2000.0 0.0
7
2000.0 4000.0 6000.0 8000.0 10000.0 12000.0 14000.0

Geometry description

Point no. Y Z

1 -1000.0 mm 6000.0 mm
2 7000.0 mm 8000.0 mm
3 8200.0 mm 6700.0 mm
4 8300.0 mm 4500.0 mm
5 6500.0 mm 3000.0 mm
6 4700.0 mm -1000.0 mm
7 2300.0 mm -2200.0 mm
8 300.0 mm 0.0 mm
9 -2000.0 mm 4000.0 mm

General results

Area
A = 6.327e+007 mm2
Center of gravity
Yc = 3215.5 mm
Zc = 3448.7 mm
Perimeter
S = 31453.8 mm

Principal system

Angle
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alpha = -47.9 Deg


Moments of inertia
Ix = 5.266e+014 mm4
Iy = 4.495e+014 mm4
Iz = 2.644e+014 mm4

Central system

Moments of inertia
Iyc = 3.477e+014 mm4
Izc = 3.663e+014 mm4
Iyczc = 9.206e+013 mm4

The example is saved in the file BU_TYPE3_EX3.sect


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Verification example 4

This exmple is calculated with SECTION, and then compared with calculations frpm ROBOT.

The calculation from SECTION is shown below.


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The calculation from ROBOT is shown below.

SECTION ANALYSIS
-8000.0 -6000.0 -4000.0 -2000.0 0.0 2000.0 4000.0 6000.0 8000.0 10000.0 12000.0 14000.0
8000.0

8000.0
2

3
6000.0

6000.0
1 13
z
17 14
4000.0

4000.0
9
10 5
2000.0

2000.0
16 y
Z
11 15
Y
0.0

12

0.0
8

6
-2000.0

-2000.0
-8000.0 -6000.0 -4000.0 -2000.0 0.0
7
2000.0 4000.0 6000.0 8000.0 10000.0 12000.0 14000.0

Geometry description

Point no. Y Z

1 -1000.0 mm 6000.0 mm
2 7000.0 mm 8000.0 mm
3 8200.0 mm 6700.0 mm
4 8300.0 mm 4500.0 mm
5 6500.0 mm 3000.0 mm
6 4700.0 mm -1000.0 mm
7 2300.0 mm -2200.0 mm
8 300.0 mm 0.0 mm
9 -2000.0 mm 4000.0 mm
10 2200.0 mm 3000.0 mm
11 0.0 mm 1300.0 mm
12 2000.0 mm 500.0 mm
13 4000.0 mm 6000.0 mm
14 7000.0 mm 5000.0 mm
15 5000.0 mm 1500.0 mm
16 3500.0 mm 2500.0 mm
17 3000.0 mm 5200.0 mm

General results

Area
A = 5.002e+007 mm2
Center of gravity
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Yc = 2981.0 mm
Zc = 3426.3 mm
Perimeter
S = 31453.8 mm

Principal system

Angle
alpha = -44.5 Deg
Moments of inertia
Ix = 4.053e+014 mm4
Iy = 3.958e+014 mm4
Iz = 2.485e+014 mm4

Central system

Moments of inertia
Iyc = 3.236e+014 mm4
Izc = 3.208e+014 mm4
Iyczc = 7.364e+013 mm4

The example is saved in the file BU_TYPE3_EX4.sect .


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3.6. OLD PROFILES

3.6.1. DIMEL

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file Dimel.dat that is based on the ascii file Dimel.da1. The
ascii file Dimel.da1 consists of 33 profiles with property data (h, b, tf ,tw, Ax, Iy, Iz, Ix and Iw) taken from
table II:10, Handboken fr Hus- Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/. The program calculates the same parameters as
for a HEA profile, ref ch 3.1.1.

Verification calculation

A DIMEL 55 is used as verification.

According to Handboken fr Hus-, Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/, the profile has following properties

h= 539 mm
b= 297 mm
tf = 24,5 mm
tw = 13 mm

Ax = 214.18 cm2
g= 168,13 kg/m
Ix = 376 cm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 111981 cm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 10715 cm4 (in ref Iy)
Wey = 4155 cm3 (in ref Wx)
Wez = 722 cm3 (in ref Wy)
Iw = 7090000 cm6 (in ref Kw)

The program calculates following:

hw = 539-2*24.5= 490 mm
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Ay = 2x297*24.5 = 145.53 cm2


Az = 490*13= 63.7 cm2
r= Sqr(Ax-(2*b*tf+(h-2*tf)*tw)/(4-pi))=24.0 mm
S= 2*(539+2*297-13) 8*24+2*pi*24 = 2.1988 m2/m

Wpy = (b * tf) * (h - tf) + (hw2 * tw )/ 4 + 4 * r2 * (1 - pi / 4) * (hw / 2 - 0.2234 * r) =


= (297*24.5)*(53924.5)+ 4902*13/ 4+4*242 *(1-pi /4)*(490/2-0.2234*24) = 4642.6 cm3

Wpz = 4 * (b / 2) 2 * tf / 2 + 2 * hw * (tw / 2)2 / 2 + 4 * r2 * (1 - pi / 4) * (tw / 2 + 0.2234 * r) =


= 4*(297/2) 2 *24.5/2+2*490*(13/2)2/2+4*242*(1-pi/4)*(13/2+0.2234*24) = 1107.1 cm3

The attached file OP_DIMEL.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.6.2. DIP

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file Dip.dat that is based on the ascii file Dip.da1. The ascii
file Dip.da1 consists of 33 profiles with property data (h, b, tf ,tw, Ax, Iy, Iz, Ix and Iw) taken from table II:10,
Handboken fr Hus- Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/. The program calculates the same parameters as for a HEA
profile, ref ch 3.1.1.

Verification calculation

A DIP 55 is used as verification.

According to Handboken fr Hus-, Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/, the profile has following properties

h= 550 mm
b= 300 mm
tf = 30 mm
tw = 16 mm
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Ax = 263.34 cm2
g= 206,72 kg/m
Ix = 698 cm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 140342 cm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 13527 cm4 (in ref Iy)
Wey = 5103 cm3 (in ref Wx)
Wez = 902 cm3 (in ref Wy)
Iw = 9140000 cm6 (in ref Kw)

The program calculates following:

hw = 550-2*30 = 490 mm
Ay = 2x300*30 = 180.00 cm2
Az = 490*16= 78.4 cm2
r= Sqr(Ax-(2*b*tf+hw*tw)/(4-pi))=23.99 mm
S= 2*(550+2*300-16) 8*24+2*pi*24 = 2.227 m2/m

Wpy = (b * tf) * (h - tf) + (hw2 * tw )/ 4 + 4 * r2 * (1 - pi / 4) * (hw / 2 - 0.2234 * r) =


= (300*30)*(55030)+ 4902*16/ 4+4*242 *(1-pi /4)*(490/2-0.2234*24) = 5758.8 cm3

Wpz = 4 * (b / 2) 2 * tf / 2 + 2 * hw * (tw / 2)2 / 2 + 4 * r2 * (1 - pi / 4) * (tw / 2 + 0.2234 * r) =


= 4*(300/2) 2 *30/2+2*490*(16/2)2/2+4*242*(1-pi/4)*(16/2+0.2234*24) = 1388.0 cm3

The attached file OP_DIP.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.6.3. DIMAX

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file Dimax.dat that is based on the ascii file Dimax.da1. The
ascii file Dimax.da1 consists of 33 profiles with property data (h, b, tf ,tw, Ax, Iy, Iz, Ix and Iw) taken from
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table II:10, Handboken fr Hus- Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/. The program calculates the same parameters as
for a HEA profile, ref ch 3.1.1.

Verification calculation

A DIMAX 55 is used as verification.

According to Handboken fr Hus-, Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/, the profile has following properties

h= 570 mm
b= 305 mm
tf = 40 mm
tw = 21 mm

Ax = 351.85 cm2
g= 276,20 kg/m
Ix = 1673 cm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 195098 cm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 18965 cm4 (in ref Iy)
Wey = 6846 cm3 (in ref Wx)
Wez = 1244 cm3 (in ref Wy)
Iw = 13320000 cm6 (in ref Kw)

The program calculates following:

hw = 570-2*40 = 490 mm
Ay = 2x305*40 = 244.00 cm2
Az = 490*21= 102.9 cm2
r= Sqr(Ax-(2*b*tf+hw*tw)/(4-pi))=24.0 mm
S= 2*(570+2*305-21) 8*24+2*pi*24 = 2.276 m2/m

Wpy = (b * tf) * (h - tf) + (hw2 * tw )/ 4 + 4 * r2 * (1 - pi / 4) * (hw / 2 - 0.2234 * r) =


= (305*40)*(57040)+ 4902*21/ 4+4*242 *(1-pi /4)*(490/2-0.2234*24) = 7845.0 cm3

Wpz = 4 * (b / 2) 2 * tf / 2 + 2 * hw * (tw / 2)2 / 2 + 4 * r2 * (1 - pi / 4) * (tw / 2 + 0.2234 * r) =


= 4*(305/2) 2 *40/2+2*490*(21/2)2/2+4*242*(1-pi/4)*(21/2+0.2234*24) = 1922.4 cm3

The attached file OP_DIMAX.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also
checked and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.6.4. DIPEX

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.


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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file Dipex.dat that is based on the ascii file Dipex.da1. The
ascii file Dipex.da1 consists of 24 profiles with property data (h, b, tf ,tw, Ax, Iy, Iz, Ix and Iw) taken from
table II:10, Handboken fr Hus- Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/. The program calculates the same parameters as
for a HEA profile, ref ch 3.1.1.

Verification calculation

A DIPEX 55 is used as verification.

According to Handboken fr Hus-, Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/, the profile has following properties

h= 550 mm
b= 300 mm
tf = 30 mm
tw = 13.5 mm

Ax = 251.10 cm2
g= 197.11 kg/m
Ix = 667 cm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 137894 cm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 13517 cm4 (in ref Iy)
Wey = 5014 cm3 (in ref Wx)
Wez = 901 cm3 (in ref Wy)
Iw = 9140000 cm6 (in ref Kw)

The program calculates following:

hw = 550-2*30 = 490 mm
Ay = 2x300*30 = 180.0 cm2
Az = 490*13.5= 66.15 cm2
r= Sqr(Ax-(2*b*tf+hw*tw)/(4-pi))=24.0 mm
S= 2*(550+2*300-13.5) 8*24+2*pi*24 = 2.232 m2/m

Wpy = (b * tf) * (h - tf) + (hw2 * tw )/ 4 + 4 * r2 * (1 - pi / 4) * (hw / 2 - 0.2234 * r) =


= (300*30)*(55030)+ 4902*13.5/ 4+4*242 *(1-pi /4)*(490/2-0.2234*24) = 5608.8 cm3

Wpz = 4 * (b / 2) 2 * tf / 2 + 2 * hw * (tw / 2)2 / 2 + 4 * r2 * (1 - pi / 4) * (tw / 2 + 0.2234 * r) =


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= 4*(300/2) 2 *30/2+2*490*(13.5/2)2/2+4*242*(1-pi/4)*(13.5/2+0.2234*24) = 1378.3 cm3

The attached file OP_DIPEX.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.6.5. INP

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file inpold.dat that is based on the ascii file inpold.da1. The
ascii file inpold.da1 consists of 23 profiles with property data (h, b, tf ,tw, Ax, Iy, Iz, Ix and Iw) taken from
table II:9, Handboken fr Hus- Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/. The program calculates the same parameters as
for a HEA profile, ref ch 3.1.1.

Verification calculation

A INP 55 is used as verification.

According to Handboken fr Hus-, Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/, the profile has following properties

h= 550 mm
b= 200 mm
tf = 30 mm
tw = 19 mm

Ax = 213.0 cm2
g= 167 kg/m
S= 1.80 m2/m (other reference)
Ix = 613 cm4 (in ref Kv)
Iy = 99180 cm4 (in ref Ix)
Iz = 3490 cm4 (in ref Iy)
Wey = 3610 cm3 (in ref Wx)
Wez = 349 cm3 (in ref Wy)
Iw = 2360000 cm6 (in ref Kw)
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The program calculates following:

hw = 550-2*30 = 490 mm
Ay = 2x200*30 = 120.0 cm2
Az = 490*19= 93.1 cm2
r= tw =19.0 mm

The attached file OP_INP.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked
and found in accordance with the above properties.

3.6.6. L-equal flanges

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file L1_old.dat that is based on the ascii file L1_old.da1. The
ascii file L1_old.da1 consists of 62 profiles with geometry and section property data taken from table II:6,
Handboken fr Hus- Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/. Following input data is read from file:

h, t, r, ey, u2, Ax, Iy, Iz, Iu, Iv

The program calculates the same parameters as for a normal standard L-profile, ref ch 3.1.8.

Verification calculation

A L90x90x13 is used as verification.

According to Handboken fr Hus- Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/, the profile has following properties

h= 90 mm
b= 90 mm
t= 13 mm
r= 11 mm (from SIS 21 27 11)
ey = ez 2.7 cm (in ref c)
u2 = 3.81 cm (in ref f)
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Ax = 21.8 cm2
g= 17.1 kg/m
S= 0.272 m2/m
Iy = 158 cm4
Iz = Iy
Iu = 250 cm4
Iv = 65.9 cm4
Wey1 = 25.1 cm3 (min)
Wev2 = 17.3 cm3

Following is then calculated

u1 = 90*sin(45)-38.1+13/2*cos(45)=30.1 mm
v1 = 90*cos(45)-13/2*sin(45) = 59.0 mm
v3 = v1
S = 4*90-2*11+pi*11/2= 0.3553 m2/m
Ay = (90-13/2) 13 = 10.86 cm2
Az = Az
Ix = 2/3 * (90-13/2) * 13^3 = 12.23 cm4
Wey2 = 158/2.7=58.5 cm4
Weu1 = 250/5.9 = 42.37 cm3
Wev1 = 65.9/3.01 = 21.89 cm3

The attached file OP_L1.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.

3.6.7. L-unequal flanges

Theory documentation

Definition of the profile is according to the figure below.

The database for the profile is saved in the binary file L2_old.dat that is based on the ascii file L2_old.da1. The
ascii file L2_old.da1 consists of 62 profiles with geometry and section property data taken from table II:6,
Handboken fr Hus- Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/. Following input data is read from file:

h, b, t, r, ey, ez, u2, Ax, tan alfa, Iy, Iz, Iu, Iv


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Theory & Verification Manual Date: Jan - 2004

The program calculates then properties as described for the L-equal profile.

Verification calculation

A L130x90x14 is used as verification. According to Handboken fr Hus- Vg- och Vattenbyggnad /11/, the
profile has following properties

h= 130 mm
b= 90 mm
t= 14.0 mm
r= 12 mm /from SIS 21 27 12)
ey = 2.34 cm (in ref f)
ez = 4.32 cm (in ref e)
u2 = 3.96 cm (in ref h)
Ax = 29 cm2
g= 22.8 kg/m
Iy = 480 cm4
Iz = 187 cm4
Iu = 560 cm4
Iv = 106 cm4
Wey1 = 55.3 cm3
Wez3 = 28.1 cm3

The program calculates then following:

Tan alfa = 0.465 => alfa = 24.94 deg


u1 = 130*sin(24.94)-39.6+14/2*cos(24.94)=21.56
v2 = 43.2*cos(24.94)-23.4*sin(24.94) = 29.30
v1 = 130*cos(24.94)- 29.30-14/2*sin(24.94) = 85.62
Ay = (90-14/2) 14 = 11.62 cm2
Az = (130-14/2) 14 = 17.22 cm2
Ix = 1/3 * ((90-14/2)+ (130-14/2)) * 14^3 = 18.84 cm4

Weu1 = 560/8.562 = 65.405 cm3


Weu2 = 560/2.93 = 191.11 cm3
Wev1 = 106/2.156 = 49.165 cm3
Wev2 = 106/3.96 = 26.768 cm3

The attached file OP_L2.sect is in accordance with the above properties. The screen output is also checked and
found in accordance with the above properties.