You are on page 1of 12

AASHTOLRFDDesignConsiderations Prestressed ConcreteBridges

forPrestresed ConcreteBridges Prestressed concreteoffersmanyadvantages


overothermaterials:
Costsavings Reducedinitialconstructioncosts
andlowermaintenancecosts.
Durability ConcreteBridgescaneasilywithstand
extremetemperaturechangesandcorrosive
chemicalsinavarietyofconditions.
Competitiveness thevalueofconcreteis
Dr.SamiW.Tabsh,P.E. repeatedlyrecognizedincompetitivebidding
CivilEngineeringDepartment
situations.
AmericanUniversityofSharjah

Prestressed ConcreteBridges TypesofBridges


Thestructuralsystemofprestressed concrete
bridgesmayconsistof:
Slab
Beam/girder
Rigidframe
Cantilever
Cablestayed

BridgetrendintheUnitedStates

TypesofBridges TypesofBridges

CompositeIGirder

Pretensioned concrete Posttensionedconcrete


AASHTOBackground AASHTOBackground
AASHTObeganpublishingthe AASHTOmadethechangefromASDtoLFDinthe
StandardSpecificationsforHighway formofinterimrevisionstotheStandard
Bridgesinthe1930s. Specifications.AASHTOhadnevertotally
Upuntil1970,theallowablestress rewrittenitsStandardSpecifications.
design(ASD)wasthemainmethod Thisintroducedgapsandinconsistenciesinthe
ofstructuraldesign. LFDspecificationsthatmadeitdifficultto
Inthe1970s,AASHTObeganvaryingthefactor maintainandmodernize.
ofsafetyforeachloadinrelationtothe Today,thebridgedesignprofessionhasmovedto
uncertaintyintheload,referredtoastheload LoadandResistanceFactorDesign(LRFD).
factordesign(LFD).

DesignPhilosophy ContentsofAASHTOsLRFD
TheLoadandResistanceFactorDesign(LRFD)
philosophyinAASHTOisbasedon:

where =factorrelatedtotheductility,
redundancyandoperationalimportance,
Qi =loadeffect,
i =loadfactor(statisticallybased),
Rn =nominalresistance,
=strengthreductionfactor(statisticallybased).

MajorChangesofAASHTOsLRFD SpanCapability
ThemajorchangesintheLRFDspecification Foroptimizeddesign,considerthefollowingissues:
fromthestandardLFDspecificationsare: Continuousspansaremoreeconomicalthanaseriesof
Newliveloadmodelandloaddistributionfactors. simplespans.
Calibratedloadandresistancefactors. Incontinuousspans,proportionthespanlengthssuch
thattheendspansare75%82%oftheinteriorspans.
Adoptionofthemodifiedcompressionfieldtheory, ThisresultsinM+ nearlyequalinallspans.
andstrutandtiemodelingforconcretestructures.
Formaximumeconomy,thelengthofdeckslaboverhangs
Limitstatebasedprovisionsforfoundationdesign. is0.280.35oftheinteriorgirderspacing.
Considerationofshipcollision. Usethesamesizeforbothinteriorandexteriorgirders.
Guidanceonthedesignofcurvedsteelgirderand Usingfewergirdersatwidespacing(upto5m)ismore
segmentalconcretebridges. economicalthanusingmanygirdersatsmallspacing.
CAST-IN-PLACE, POSTTENSIONED CONCRETE BOX GIRDER
PC/PS I-GIRDER

SPAN RANGE (m) DEPTH/SPAN COST/SQ-FT


SIMPLE CONT SPAN RANGE (m) DEPTH/SPAN COST/SQ-FT

25-75 0.045 0.040 $75-$145 SIMPLE CONT

Advantages Disadvantages 15-40 0.055 0.050 $90-$170


Commonly used in the UAE
Longer construction time than Advantages Disadvantages
Low cost
precast concrete Simple construction method
Low depth/span ratio Has to be prismatic
Labor intensive Low cost
High seismic resistance due to Poor seismic resistance
Requires shoring for falsework No false-work required
large torsional stiffness Low negative moment capacity
Require little or no maintenance
Note: Costsareforyear2000dollarsinCalifornia Note: Costsareforyear2000dollarsinCalifornia

TypesofLoads TypesofLoads
Ingeneral,loadsimposedonbridgescanbe Transientloadsareloadsthatarenotalways
classifiedinto:(1)Permanent,and(2)Transient. presentonthebridge,orchangeinmagnitude
Permanentloadsareloadsthatarealways duringitslife.Theyinclude:
presentonthebridgeanddonotchangein BR:VehicleBrakingForce IC:IceLoad
magnitudeduringitslife.Theyinclude: CE:Vehicle Centrifugal Force PL:PedestrianLiveLoad
DC:weightofStructuralComponentsandAttachments SE:Settlement
CT:Vehicle CollisionForce
DW:WeightofWearingSurfacesandUtilities
CV:Vessel CollisionForce TG:TemperatureGradient
EH:HorizontalEarthPressure
ES:EarthSurchargeLoad EQ:Earthquake TU:UniformTemperature
EV:VerticalPressureofEarthFill LL:VehicleLiveLoad WL:WindonLiveLoad
IM:DynamicLoadAllowance WS:WindonStructure

TypesofLoads TypesofLoads

Earthquake PedestrianLoad Vessel Collision Vehicle Collision

17 18
Wind VehicleLiveLoad Settlement IceLoad
LoadCombinations LoadCombinations
Therearefiveloadcombinationsforthe Therearetwoloadcombinationsfortheextreme
strength limitstate: event limitstateandonefatiguelimitstate:

*determinedonaprojectspecificbasis.

LoadCombinations ApplicationofDeadLoad
Therearefourloadcombinationsforthe Inadditiontoselfweight,provisionsareoften
serviceability limitstate: madeinthedesignfor:
1.0to1.5kPa forfuture
wearingsurfacetothedeck.
0.75kPa foruseofstayin
placemetaldeckformsin
projectsinvolvingstructural
steelorprecastconcrete.
Theweightoftheintegral
sacrificialwearingsurface
(thickness=10 to30mm).

ApplicationofLiveLoad ApplicationofLiveLoad
35kN 145kN 145kN 110kN 110kN
4300mm 4300to 1200mm
TheDesignLiveLoadisHL93consistsofadesign 9000mm 9.3N/mm 9.3N/mm
truckordesigntandemappliedsimultaneously OR
withadesignlaneload,whichevergivesthe designtruck+designlane designtandem+designlane
largereffectonthebridge.
Fornegativemomentbetweeninflectionpoints,
145kN
145kN

145kN
145kN
35kN

35kN

90%oftheeffectoftwodesigntrucksspacedat 15000mm
0.90x
aminimumof15000mmcombinedwith90%of MIN
9.3N/mm
thedesignlaneload.
ForNegativeMomentBetweenInflectionPoints
ApplicationofLiveLoad ApplicationofLiveLoad
DesignTruck,DesignTandem andDesignLane loadsare
appliedovera3.0mwidth,withinthe3.6mlanewidth. Theextremeliveloadeffect
shallconsideranumberof
DesignTruckLoad 145kN
145kN transverselyloadedlanes
1.8m 35kN multipliedbyamultiple
1.8m presencefactortoaccount
DesignLaneLoad 3.0m 3.0m fortheprobabilityof
3.1kPa simultaneouslane
occupationbythefullHL93
3.0mlane
designliveload.
Adpated from:Cole(PCAseminar)

ApplicationofLiveLoad AnalysisofDeckSlab
Thedynamicload AASHTOapprovesthe
allowance,IM,accounts analysisoftheconcrete
forthedynamicportion slabbysubdividingit
ofthetruckloadonthe intostripsoriented
bridge.Itisequalto: perpendiculartothe
DeckJoints:75% supportingcomponents
Fatigue:15% (girder)andtreatingthe
Allothercases:33% stripasabeamonrigid
appliedtothetruck supports.
AASHTOsstripmethodforslabs
portionofliveload.

AnalysisofDeckSlab AnalysisofDeckSlab
AppendixA4.1includesliveloadmomentsfor
typicalconcretedecks,inlieuofmoreprecise
=660+0.55S
calculations,iftheymeetspecifiedcondition.
=1140+0.833X =1220+0.25S

Definitionofthestripwidth,SW(mm)
GirderDistributionFactors GirderDistributionFactors
TheAASHTOSpecificationsusethedistribution Thegirderdistributionfactordependson:
factorconcepttoapproximatethesharingofloadby Consideredlimitstate(flexureversusshear)
thegirdersinabridge. Locationofgirder(exteriorversusinterior)
Thedistributionfactor(DF)allowsa3dimensional Typeofbridgesuperstructure
loadtransfermechanismtobereplacedwithamuch Geometryofbridge(i.e.skewness,overhangwidth)
simpleronedimensionalsystem. Spacingandstiffnessofgirders
Thicknessofthedeckslabandlengthofbridge
P
Theyareappliedasfollows:
Mdesign/girder =DF (Mper lane)LL
Vdesign/girder =DF (Vper lane)LL

GirderDistributionFactorsforMoment GirderDistributionFactorsforShear

TableDistributionofLiveLoadperLaneforShearinInteriorBeams.

GirderDistributionFactorsforMoment&Shear Prestressed Concrete


Prestressing consistsofpreloadingthestructure
(d) beforeapplicationofdesignloadsinsuchaway
TableDistributionofLiveLoadperLaneforMomentinInteriorBeams.
soastoimproveitsgeneralperformanceby:
Reducingoreliminatingtensilestressesinthe
concrete
Controllingdeflection
Allowingtheuseofhighstrengthsteelandconcrete
TableDistributionofLiveLoadperLaneforShearinInteriorBeams.
Permittingtheuseofshallowerstructures
Eliminatingfatigueproblems
Increasingdurability
TypesofPrestressing Pretensioned Concrete
Prestressing ofconcretecanbeachievedby: Pretensioning Sequence:
Prestensioning: requirestensioning 1. Thesteelstrandsare
betweenrigidabutments,ina stretchedthroughtheform
fabricationplantandtransporting betweentwoendanchors.
theelementtothesite.Thus,itis 2. Apredeterminedamountof
suitedformassproduction. stressisappliedtothesteel
strands.
Posttensioning: requirestensioning
againsthardenedconcreteonsite.It 3. Theconcreteisthenpoured,
allowsforvaryingtheprestressing
encasingthesteel.
eccentricityalongthememberto 4. Strandsarecutwhenthe
suittheparticularloadeffectwithin concretereachesaspecified
thestructure. earlystrength.

Pretensioned Concrete Pretensioned Concrete

PosttensionedConcrete PosttensionedConcrete
Posttensioningsequence:
1. Placesteelcageandpost
tensioningductsinformwork.
2. Castconcreteintheformwork
andcuretheconcrete.
3. Afterconcreteishardened,
thetendonsaretensionedand
anchoredagainstthemember.
4. Theductisthengroutedto
completetheposttensioning
operation.
Prestress Losses Concrete
Levelofprestress varieswithtime.Lossesdueto Prestressed concretecanbenefitfromhigh
anchorageset,frictionandelasticshorteningare strengthconcrete(5070MPa)becauseweget:
instantaneous.Lossesduetocreep,shrinkageand
relaxationaretimedependent. Higherallowablestresses(to
prestress atanearlystage)
Increasedelasticmodulus
(lesslossofprestress dueto
elasticshortening)
Reducedcreepandshrinkage
(lesslossofprestress dueto TypicalStressStrainCurvesfor
volumechanges) ConcreteinCompression

Prestressing Steel Prestressing Steel


Widerangeofwires,strandsand Uncoated,stressrelievedorlowrelaxation,7
barsavailable
Highstrength(1860MPa for
wirestrand,oruncoatedplainordeformedhigh
strands&1000MPa forbars) strengthbarsshallconformto(5.4.4.1):
Diameters:
Wires<Strands<Bars
12.7mmdiameter,7wirestrand
(Area=98.7mm2)ismost
commoninprestressed concrete
Recently,the15.2mmdiameter,
7wirestrand(Area=140mm2) StressStrainCurvesfor
Prestressing andMildSteel
hasbeenintroduced.

Prestressing Steel FlexuralDesignConsiderations

DesignofPrestressed ConcreteMembers:
ServiceLimitState Flexure
determinemagnitudeandlocationofP/Sforce
Satisfystresslimits
Considerstagesofconstruction
Almostalwaysgoverns

StrengthLimitState Flexure
StrengthLimitState Shear
Materials:TypesofPrestressing Steel
FlexuralDesignConsiderations FlexuralDesignConsiderations
GeneralAssumptionsforFlexuralDesignof
Prestressed ConcreteMembers
ServiceLoadDesign:
Concreteisuncracked
Stressinprestressing steelislinearlyrelatedtostrain
Iteratetodeterminestrandpatternandsatisfystress
limits
CheckStrengthatCriticalSections:
Concrete
inelasticincompressiveregions
tensilestrengthisneglected
Prestressing steel
BehaviorofPrestressed ConcreteMembers inelastic

StrengthReductionFactors ServiceLimitState
1.ComputeStressesatRelease
Theresistancefactorsforthestrengthlimitstate
NonCompositeSection(BareGirder)
forprestressed concreteare:
Flexure:
Loads:
Girderselfweight
Tensioncontrolledregion: 1.00
Initialprestress
Compressioncontrolledregion: 0.75 Pi Pi e M gdl
Topofgirder: ftR
Shearandtorsion: 0.90 A St St
Compressioninanchoragezone: 0.80
Tensioninanchoragezone: 1.00 Bottomofgirder: f Pi Pi e M gdl
bR
A Sb Sb

ServiceLimitState ServiceLimitState
2.ComputeStressesatService LimitStateAfter
LosseswithPermanent&TransientLoads:
LoadsonNonCompositeSection
Girder,deckdeadloads
Otherdeadloadsappliedbeforeplacingdeck(e.g.
diaphragms)
Finalprestress (afterlosses)
LoadsonCompositeSection
Barrierandfuturewearingsurface
Otherdeadloads(utilities,etc.)
ComputeStressesatRelease Vehicularliveloadandimpact
ServiceLimitState ServiceLimitState
ComputeStressesatServiceLimitStateAfter
LosseswithPermanentandTransientLoads
M cdl M LL I
Topofdeck: f td P L
Stcd

Pe Pe e M gdl M ncdl M cdl M LL I


Topofgirder: f tg P L
A St St Stcg

Pe e M gdl M ncdl M cdl M LL I


Bottomofgirder: f bg P L Pe StressesatServiceLimitStateAfterLosseswith
A Sb Sb Sbcg
PermanentandTransientLoads

ServiceLimitState ServiceLimitState
StressLimitsforPrestressing Tendons(5.9.31)for
StressLimitsforPrestressing Tendons(5.9.31) Posttensioned Construction:
forPretensioned Construction:

ServiceLimitState ServiceLimitState
Tensile StressLimitsforConcrete forTemporary
Compression StressLimitsforConcrete (5.9.4.1.1
StressesBeforeLosses(Pretensioned orPost
&5.9.4.1.2):
tensioned):
ForTemporary StressesBeforeLosses
(FullyPrestressed,Pretensioned orPost
tensionedComponents):0.60fci
ServiceLimitState ServiceLimitState
Tensile StressLimitsforConcrete atService Limit
Compression StressLimitsforConcrete atService
State(SERVICEIII)AfterLosses(FullyPrestressed
LimitState(SERVICEI)AfterLosses(Fully
Components,Pretensioned orPosttensioned):
Prestressed,Pretensioned orPosttensioned):

wherew =1.0formemberswithspan/thicknessratio<15.SeeLRFD5.7.4.7.2.

StrengthLimitState StrengthLimitState

Thenominalflexuralstrengthofaprestressed
concretesectionatultimateisequalto:
Rectangular:
a 1c
a C 0.85fcba
M n Aps f ps (d p )
2 T Apsfps

Flanged(TorL):
a a hf
M n Aps f ps (d p ) 0.85 f 'c (b bw )h f ( ) Equivalentrectangularconcretestressblockatnominal
2 2 2 flexuralresistance (5.7.3.2)

StrengthLimitState StrengthLimitState
TheStrengthreductionfactorforflexure,,

P/S
dependsonmaximumnettensilestrain,t,at 1.00
nominalresistance,Mn:
=0.583+83.3t
=0.583+0.25(dt/c1)
t =0.003(dt c)/c
0.003
c
0.75
dp dt Compression- Transition Tension -
Controlled Controlled
t 0.002 0.005
StrainDiagram NetTensileStrain,t
StrengthLimitState Conclusions
Theminimumflexuralreinforcementisbasedon Therearemanybenefitsforusingprestressed
(LRFD5.7.3.3.2): concreteinbridgestructures.
NewAASHTOLRFDcoderequirementsaremuch
Mr =Mn 1.2Mcr
differentfromtheoldStandardrequirements.
NotethatthecrackingmomentMcr isobtained Prestressed concretetakesfulladvantageofhigh
from: performanceconcreteandhighstrengthsteel.
S Structuraldesignofprestressed concrete
M cr Sc (f r f cpe ) - M dnc c 1 S c f r membersrequirescheckingserviceabilityand
S nc
ultimatestrengthatvariousstagesofloading.
where fr =0.97fc