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NOVEMBER 1994

Land Communication Channels

Abdulkader S . Akki, Member, IEEE

munication channels have been developed. In particular, the 1

level-crossing rate and duration of fades of the envelope, the

probability distribution of random FM, the expected number of

crossings of the random phase and random FM of the channel, 0.1

and the power spectrum of random FM of the channel have been

considered.

001

I. INTRODUCTION

munication channels together with the probability dis-

tribution of the received envelope and phase, spatial-time

0.00 1

-40 -35 -30 -25 -20

P dn

-15 -10 -5 0 5

correlation function, and the power spectral density of the com- -a - 0 -a - 0 . 6 ~ a-1

plex envelope were previously developed [I]. The channel was Fig. I . Normalized level-crossing rates of the envelope.

shown to be a narrow-band Gaussian process of symmetrical

spectrum.

This paper is a continuation of Akki and Haber's paper where

[ 11, with emphasis on statistical properties of the channel. The R

p=-

level-crossing rate and duration of fades of the envelope, the

probability distribution of random FM, the expected number of m (4)

crossings of the random phase and random FM of the channel, and ~2 is the second moment of the spectrum S ( f ) of the

and the power spectrum of the random FM of the channel are channel. It is shown in Appendix A that it is given by

particularly developed.

20i 2

P2 = (2w) T f , l ( l + fi2) (5)

11. CHANNEL

CHARACTERISTICS

where a = V2/Vl,f m l = Vl/X, and VI and V2 are the speed

A . Level-Crossing Rate of the Envelope

of the transmitter and the receiver, respectively, X represents

The rate at which the signal envelope crosses a specified the carrier wavelength, and f m l is the Doppler frequency

signal level R in the positive direction is given by the level- corresponding to the speed VI of the transmitting unit. The

crossing rate N R . It is given by [4] normalized level-crossing rate is given by

NR = 1 c

f p ( R, f ) d f (1)

where the dot indicates time derivative, and p(R,f ) is the joint If a = 0, it reduces to that of the case of the base-to-mobile

density function of r and i. at 'r = R. channel shown in [ 5 ] .

Since the channel is Gaussian, it can be shown [4] that the As expected, the level-crossing rate increases as the speed

integral reduces to of the mobile transmitter and receiver increases. With the

transmitter and receiver having the same speed, the level-

crossing rate increases by a factor of & over the case of the

base-to-mobile channel. Fig. 1 shows the normalized level-

which can be written in terms of p (which is the ratio of R crossing rate for (I = 0, 0.5, and 1.

to its nns value) as

The average duration of time during which the envelope T

Manuscript received February 28, 1990; revised May 2, 1990, October 20, spends below some specified value R is given by [4]

1992, and March 4, 1993.

The author is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, AI-Fateh

University, Tripoli, Libya. (7)

IEEE Log Number 9215202.

AKKI: STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF MOBILE-TO-MOBILE LAND COMMUNICATION CHANNELS 827

P48

a-1 -a - 0.5 -a - 0

Fig. 2. Normalized duration of fade of the envelope. Fig. 3. Expected number of times the phase angle 8 increases to 0 or T.

~ R ) ,N R , and pz from (5) to get Substituting for p2 and po from Appendix A gives

example, if fml = 59.3 Hz (which is equivalent to VI = 40

mi/h and f = 1 GHz), the average duration of fades 7 below

the 0 dB level is given by 8.3, 10.6, and 11.8 ms for the cases

Ne=o/ fml is drawn in Fig. 3 for different'values of R l / n

of a = l , a = 0.5, and a = 0, respectively. The duration of

and for different values of a. As an examble, consider the case

fades for a mobile-to-mobile channel reduces by a factor of

when R lies between zero and and fml = 59.3 Hz.

V'W over that of a base-to-mobile channel.

The phase angle 0 increases to zero or T , 24.99, 19.76, and

17.67 timesh for the cases of a = 1 , a = 0.5, and a = 0,

C. Random Phase and Frequency Modulation

respectively.

If a pure carrier AOejWOtis transmitted through the channel, 2 ) Probability Distribution ofRandom FM, b(t): The prob-

the signal at the receiver will have the form R(t)ej(Wot++s(t)), ability density function of e ( t ) for the specific case of a

where R ( t ) is its envelope and 0 is its phase. If a.phase or narrow-band Gaussian process, which is the case here, is given

frequency modulation receiver is used, O(t) and O(t) [Le., by P I

( d / d t ) O ( t ) ] will be the output of the phase and frequency

Vff;

7

p(0)=- -

channel, the apparent phase O(t) and frequency O(t) of the 2 P2

received signal will vary with time in a random manner,

introducing random phase and frequency modulation. . [1 + $821 - 3 / 2 .

The performance of phase and frequency modulation sys-

tems will .be affected considerably if the rate of change of Substituting for p 2 gives

0 ( t ) and 0 ( t ) is the same order of magnitude as that of the

transmitted information signal.

In determining the statistics of the random phase 0 ( t ) and

random frequency O(t) of the mobile channel, the analysis

of Rice [4] of a complex narrow-band Gaussian process is

applied. This is because the low-pass transfer function H ( f , t)

of the mobile channel is characterized as a narrow-band

The cumulative distribution of 0 is also of interest. It is given

Gaussian process.

I ) Expected Number of Crossing of the Phase B ( t ) per by

Second: The expected number of times per second the phase

angle O(t) increases to 0 or T when the envelope R lies p(B < e o ) =

-02

J'"

p(B)dB.

between zero and R1, for the case of a Gaussian process of

symmetrical spectrum, which is the case here, is given by [3] Then,

2l [ W m l ~ i T Z B 0

where

erf ( x ) = J;2; "

e-t' dt. . ( 1 + 2 W;l(l e;+ a2) ) - ' " I . (13)

..,

828 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 43, NO. 4. NOVEMBER 1994

? JWm,

-~

8.0 --a - 0 5 8 - 1

FM 0 increases through the value wml = 27rf,l is given by

67.4,48.8, and 40.6 times/s for the cases when a = 1,a = 0.5,

and a = 0, respectively.

4 ) Power Spectru,m of Random FM: The power spectrum

of the random FM B(t) is important in the sense that it gives

an indication of the bandwidth in which most of the power of

B ( t ) is concentrated. The power spectrum of B(t) is the Fourier

transform of the autocorrelation function Rg(Al),that is [ 5 ] ,

Sg(f)= s_,00

Rg(at)e-J2"fAtdAt

-3 -2

-ta.o

1 0

6,/W.I

.-.I -a.0,5

1

--*--a.l

2 3

=2 Lm R e ( A t )COS w A t dAt.

(b)

Fig. 4. (a) Probability density function of the random FM.(b) Cumulative

distribution of the random FM. 8.

Si(f)= 4

1% Rg(At)coswAtdAt.

(16)

p ( e ) and p ( 6 < eo) are drawn in Fig. 4(a) and (b), respec- Gaussian random process is given by [4]

tively.

3 ) Expected Number of Crossing of 6 ( t ) per Second: The

expected number of times per second N G ~the , random FM

8 ( t ) , increases to the value 6" for the case of a narrow-band

Gaussian process having a symmetrical spectrum is given by

[41

where the dot indicates time derivative. For the mobile chan-

nel, it has been shown [I] that

(14)

R1;(At) = 0:Jo ( K Vi At) Jo ( K V2 A t ) (18)

where

where p4 and p2 are the fourth and second moments of 2T

the channel spectrum S(f).Substituting for p4 and p2 from K=-.

Appendix A, we get

x

Then, for the specific case of V2 = VI, the autocorrelation

(1 + 8a2 + a4 112

function of the random FM is given by

Jl(wmAt)J,(w,Al)

(15) Re(At)= wm

Wkl

26;

(1 + a2)

1 <I;( w , A t )

- (W , at)

In [l - $(w,At)]. (19)

a = 1,a = 0.5, and a = 0. As an example, for the case where

AKKI: STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF MOBILE-TO-MOBILE LAND COMMUNICATION CHANNELS 829

S.(f)I w , ~

and R ( A t ) is the time correlation function of H ( f , t). It is

given by [I]

Because of the symmetry of S(f),the odd moments are zero,

that is, pn = 0 for odd n.

', t \

01

-5 -4 5 -4 -3.5 -3 -2 5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.6 0 0.6 1

log (w/2wm,)

where

been carried out as shown in Appendix B. ~~

It can be shown that [21

d2

R ( 0 ) = -R(A t )

dAt2 I .

At=O

for the case of VI = V2. The result obtained in [5] for the

case of base-to-mobile channel (Le., n = 0) is also shown R ( A t ) = af{?j(KV1)2Jo(KV2At)

for comparison. At frequencies above w = 2w, for the case

. [JZ(KViAt)- Jo(KV1At)l

of a = 0, and above w = 4w,, for the case of a = 1, the

spectrum falls as l / f .Thus, one may regard 2w, and 4w, as + 2( KV1)(KV2)Jo (KViAt) Jo (KV2At)

approximate cutoff frequencies for the two cases, respectively. + (KV2) Jo (KV1A t )

It is interesting to note that these are the same as the cutoff . [Jz(KVzAt)- Jo(KV2At)l).

frequencies of the envelope spectra.

Thus,

111. CONCLUSION U2

R(0)= ' [ - ( K V # - (KV2)2]

Statistical properties of mobile-to-mobile land communi- 2

cation channels have been developed. Since the channel is =-(2r)

2 01"

TIfL + f L l .

characterized as a Gaussian process [l], the derivations of

Rice [4] are used in developing the channel characteristics. It is Substitute for ~ ( in ~(A4)1 to get

shown that the level-crossing rate of the envelope increases by

a factor of J1 +

(Vz/V1)2, and the duration of fades decreases P2 = 27r

2 2 2

.l[f,l+ fLI.

by the same factor over that of the base-to-mobile channel. The

probability distribution, the expected number of crossings per k t vz = avi, i.e., fma = afml. Then,

second, and the power spectrum of the random FM have been

derived. The results are shown to reduce to that of the base- ,LL2 = 27r20;f:l(l + 2).

to-mobile channel if the transmitting or receiving vehicle is

The fourth moment, p4, of the spectrum is given by

considered stationary.

H ( f ,t ) OF THE CHANNEL

COMPLEX ENVELOPE

The moments p n of the spectrum S ( f ) of the complex R(4)(At) = a;{ Jo (KV1A t )'Jo ( KV2A t )

envelope are given by

+j o ( ~ ~ l ~ t ) . l o ( ~ ~ z ~ t )

P~~= ( 2 ~ ) "

00

J-CC

= (.j)-"n(")(o)

+j o ( ~ ~ 2 ~ t ) J o ( ~ ~ l ~ t )

+ 3 [j o( KVlAt) io(KV2A t )

where + j o(K V ~a t )j o(K V ~at)

+ 3 [j o (KVzA t )Jo (KViA t )

+ j o (KV2At)j o ( KV1At)]}. (AS)

830 IEEE TRANSAnIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 43. NO. 4, NOVEMBER 1994

where

- 2J:(wmAt)

1 In [l - J,"(wmAt)] (B3)

possible way to evalutate (Bl) is to divide the range of

Substitute for R(4)(0) in (A7) to get integration into intervals and use appropriate approximation

in (I).'

Region I : 0 < At < At1 = 1/4w,.

Since u = wmAt < 114, then

APPENDIXB u 2 U

&(u) = 1 - (5) and JI(U) -.

2

POWERSPECTRUM

OF RANDOMFM

The one-sided power spectrum of random FM is given by Substitute for these values in (B3) and make the necessary

S(f)= 4 1 0

00

manipulations, then (B 1) reduces to

be shown [4], [2] that for mobile-to-mobile channels,

Rb(At) = - 1

2

{( R( At)

-)2

R(At)

- (-) }

R(At)

WAt)

"(')

Wm

= -2*[ln

W

(w,At,)'

'111 [I - (%)z] where Si( .) is the sine integral function defined by

dt.

and means that

u = wmAt >> 1;

then,

Jo(u) /$cos (u - %)

J1(u) A /A sin (u - f ) and

In [I - J,"(u)] = -J,"(u).

and Substitute in (B3) and make the necessary manipulations, then

(Bl) becomes

R(At) = Jo ( KVi At) Jo (KVzAt).

Evaluation of (Bl) for this general form of the autocorrelation

of the random FM of the channel will give a general form

of the power spectrum for different cases of a = V2/V1. The

+-sin2u +-cos2u

TU TZU3

(7ru)Z + m]

sin4u

evaluation of the above integral is difficult to perform. If we

consider the specific case of VZ = VI, the autocorrelation

+-cos4u

function Re(At) reduces to

Ji(WmAt)Jo(WmAt)

R,j(At) = wm

.J$(w,At)

- J;(w,At)

[ wmAt 'This approach has been used in [ 5 ] for the case of a base-to-mobile

channel.

AKKI: STATISTICAL PROPERTIES Oh MVBILC-IO-MUBILt L A N U CVMMUNICAI IVN I HANNCLS 83 1

+-(4 -4 cos (8(2 - 6)) REFERENCES

A. S. Akki and F. Haber, A statistical model of mobile to mobile land

+-

2

( 4 + b, cos (8(2

4

2

1 :[

+ b)) + - -2Ci(8b) communication channel, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.,vol. VT-35, no. I ,

Feb. 1986.

A, S. Akki, Modeling and characterization of land mobile communi-

cation channel. Ph.D. dissertation. Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1977.

+ -(1

7r

+ 6)Ci(S(l + b ) ) + -(1

7r

- b) S. 0. Rice. Statistical properties of sine wave plus random noise, Bell

Syst. Tech. J., pp. 109-157, Jan. 1948.

. Ci(8(l - b ) ) - si(8(1 + b ) ) -, Mathematical analysis of random noise. Bell Syst. Tech. J.,Jan.

4b 1 1945.

- si(8(1 - h ) ) + - Si(8b) + - W. C. Jakes, Ed., Microwave Mobile Communication. New York:

?T ?T Wiley, 1974.

si(8(2 + b))(2 + b)(4 + b ) X. Gradshteyn and X. Ryzhik, Tables of Inregrals. Series and Products.

New York: Academic, 1965.

+ -1 s1(8(2

.

7r

- b))(2 - b)(4 - b)

where si(%)= Si(x) - (.rr/2) and b = w/2wn,. Abdulkader S. Akki (S74-M77) was born in

February 1946. He received the B.Sc. degree from

AI-Fateh University, Tripoli, Libya, in 1970, and the

M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from the Moore School of

Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania,

Region 2: At, 5 At 5 At2 where At, = 1/4w, and in 1972 and 1977, respectively, all in electrical

At2 = 4 / ~ , . engineering.

Since 1977, he has been a staff member of

The power spectrum & ( f ) in this region is obtained by the Department of Electrical Engineering, AI-Fateh

performing (B 1) numerically, using Gaussian quadrature for- University. From I978 to 1984, he was the Chair-

mulas, i.e., man of the Department, and he is now a Professor.

His current research interests include modeling, performance evaluation of

communication channels. transfer of technology, and engineering education.

Dr. Akki was the Chairman of the Organizing Committee and of the

International Technical Program Committee of the First and Second Libyan

International Conference on Electrical and Electronic Engineering held in

Tripoli in March 1985 and 1989, respectively. He is a member of various

technical committees and serves as a consultant to some national estab-

lishments in his field of specialization. He is listed in the Inlernational

Whos Who in Engineering. and of Inrellectuals (Intemational Biographical

. In [1 - J;(u)]cos

,:( )

-U du. (B7) Center, England, 1984). He is also listed in the International Directory of

Distinguished Leadership (ABC. 1989).

._..

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