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826 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 43, NO. 4.

NOVEMBER 1994

Statistical Properties of Mobile-to-Mobile


Land Communication Channels
Abdulkader S . Akki, Member, IEEE

Absfract-Statistical properties of mobile-to-mobile land com-


munication channels have been developed. In particular, the 1
level-crossing rate and duration of fades of the envelope, the
probability distribution of random FM, the expected number of
crossings of the random phase and random FM of the channel, 0.1
and the power spectrum of random FM of the channel have been
considered.
001
I. INTRODUCTION

A STATISTICAL model of mobile-to-mobile land com-


munication channels together with the probability dis-
tribution of the received envelope and phase, spatial-time
0.00 1
-40 -35 -30 -25 -20
P dn
-15 -10 -5 0 5

correlation function, and the power spectral density of the com- -a - 0 -a - 0 . 6 ~ a-1

plex envelope were previously developed [I]. The channel was Fig. I . Normalized level-crossing rates of the envelope.
shown to be a narrow-band Gaussian process of symmetrical
spectrum.
This paper is a continuation of Akki and Haber's paper where
[ 11, with emphasis on statistical properties of the channel. The R
p=-
level-crossing rate and duration of fades of the envelope, the
probability distribution of random FM, the expected number of m (4)

crossings of the random phase and random FM of the channel, and ~2 is the second moment of the spectrum S ( f ) of the
and the power spectrum of the random FM of the channel are channel. It is shown in Appendix A that it is given by
particularly developed.
20i 2
P2 = (2w) T f , l ( l + fi2) (5)
11. CHANNEL
CHARACTERISTICS
where a = V2/Vl,f m l = Vl/X, and VI and V2 are the speed
A . Level-Crossing Rate of the Envelope
of the transmitter and the receiver, respectively, X represents
The rate at which the signal envelope crosses a specified the carrier wavelength, and f m l is the Doppler frequency
signal level R in the positive direction is given by the level- corresponding to the speed VI of the transmitting unit. The
crossing rate N R . It is given by [4] normalized level-crossing rate is given by

NR = 1 c
f p ( R, f ) d f (1)

where the dot indicates time derivative, and p(R,f ) is the joint If a = 0, it reduces to that of the case of the base-to-mobile
density function of r and i. at 'r = R. channel shown in [ 5 ] .
Since the channel is Gaussian, it can be shown [4] that the As expected, the level-crossing rate increases as the speed
integral reduces to of the mobile transmitter and receiver increases. With the
transmitter and receiver having the same speed, the level-
crossing rate increases by a factor of & over the case of the
base-to-mobile channel. Fig. 1 shows the normalized level-
which can be written in terms of p (which is the ratio of R crossing rate for (I = 0, 0.5, and 1.
to its nns value) as

( 3 ) B . Duration of Fades of the Envelope


The average duration of time during which the envelope T
Manuscript received February 28, 1990; revised May 2, 1990, October 20, spends below some specified value R is given by [4]
1992, and March 4, 1993.
The author is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, AI-Fateh
University, Tripoli, Libya. (7)
IEEE Log Number 9215202.

0018-9545/94$04.00 0 1994 LEEE


AKKI: STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF MOBILE-TO-MOBILE LAND COMMUNICATION CHANNELS 827

P48

a-1 -a - 0.5 -a - 0
Fig. 2. Normalized duration of fade of the envelope. Fig. 3. Expected number of times the phase angle 8 increases to 0 or T.

Substitute for p ( <


~ R ) ,N R , and pz from (5) to get Substituting for p2 and po from Appendix A gives

The average duration of fades 7 is shown in Fig. 2. As an


example, if fml = 59.3 Hz (which is equivalent to VI = 40
mi/h and f = 1 GHz), the average duration of fades 7 below
the 0 dB level is given by 8.3, 10.6, and 11.8 ms for the cases
Ne=o/ fml is drawn in Fig. 3 for different'values of R l / n
of a = l , a = 0.5, and a = 0, respectively. The duration of
and for different values of a. As an examble, consider the case
fades for a mobile-to-mobile channel reduces by a factor of
when R lies between zero and and fml = 59.3 Hz.
V'W over that of a base-to-mobile channel.
The phase angle 0 increases to zero or T , 24.99, 19.76, and
17.67 timesh for the cases of a = 1 , a = 0.5, and a = 0,
C. Random Phase and Frequency Modulation
respectively.
If a pure carrier AOejWOtis transmitted through the channel, 2 ) Probability Distribution ofRandom FM, b(t): The prob-
the signal at the receiver will have the form R(t)ej(Wot++s(t)), ability density function of e ( t ) for the specific case of a
where R ( t ) is its envelope and 0 is its phase. If a.phase or narrow-band Gaussian process, which is the case here, is given
frequency modulation receiver is used, O(t) and O(t) [Le., by P I
( d / d t ) O ( t ) ] will be the output of the phase and frequency

Vff;
7

detectors, respectively. Due to the time-varying naFure of the


p(0)=- -
channel, the apparent phase O(t) and frequency O(t) of the 2 P2
received signal will vary with time in a random manner,
introducing random phase and frequency modulation. . [1 + $821 - 3 / 2 .
The performance of phase and frequency modulation sys-
tems will .be affected considerably if the rate of change of Substituting for p 2 gives
0 ( t ) and 0 ( t ) is the same order of magnitude as that of the
transmitted information signal.
In determining the statistics of the random phase 0 ( t ) and
random frequency O(t) of the mobile channel, the analysis
of Rice [4] of a complex narrow-band Gaussian process is
applied. This is because the low-pass transfer function H ( f , t)
of the mobile channel is characterized as a narrow-band
The cumulative distribution of 0 is also of interest. It is given
Gaussian process.
I ) Expected Number of Crossing of the Phase B ( t ) per by
Second: The expected number of times per second the phase
angle O(t) increases to 0 or T when the envelope R lies p(B < e o ) =
-02
J'"
p(B)dB.
between zero and R1, for the case of a Gaussian process of
symmetrical spectrum, which is the case here, is given by [3] Then,

p(b < So) =- 1 + J z .


2l [ W m l ~ i T Z B 0
where
erf ( x ) = J;2; "
e-t' dt. . ( 1 + 2 W;l(l e;+ a2) ) - ' " I . (13)

..,
828 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 43, NO. 4. NOVEMBER 1994

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5


? JWm,
-~
8.0 --a - 0 5 8 - 1

Fig. 5. Expected number of crossings of h ( t ) .

f m l = 59.3 Hz, the number of times per second the random


FM 0 increases through the value wml = 27rf,l is given by
67.4,48.8, and 40.6 times/s for the cases when a = 1,a = 0.5,
and a = 0, respectively.
4 ) Power Spectru,m of Random FM: The power spectrum
of the random FM B(t) is important in the sense that it gives
an indication of the bandwidth in which most of the power of
B ( t ) is concentrated. The power spectrum of B(t) is the Fourier
transform of the autocorrelation function Rg(Al),that is [ 5 ] ,

Sg(f)= s_,00

Rg(at)e-J2"fAtdAt

-3 -2

-ta.o
1 0
6,/W.I
.-.I -a.0,5
1

--*--a.l
2 3
=2 Lm R e ( A t )COS w A t dAt.

The one-sided power spectrum is given by


(b)
Fig. 4. (a) Probability density function of the random FM.(b) Cumulative
distribution of the random FM. 8.
Si(f)= 4
1% Rg(At)coswAtdAt.

The autocorrelation function for the case of narrow-band


(16)

p ( e ) and p ( 6 < eo) are drawn in Fig. 4(a) and (b), respec- Gaussian random process is given by [4]
tively.
3 ) Expected Number of Crossing of 6 ( t ) per Second: The
expected number of times per second N G ~the , random FM
8 ( t ) , increases to the value 6" for the case of a narrow-band
Gaussian process having a symmetrical spectrum is given by
[41
where the dot indicates time derivative. For the mobile chan-
nel, it has been shown [I] that
(14)
R1;(At) = 0:Jo ( K Vi At) Jo ( K V2 A t ) (18)
where
where p4 and p2 are the fourth and second moments of 2T
the channel spectrum S(f).Substituting for p4 and p2 from K=-.
Appendix A, we get
x
Then, for the specific case of V2 = VI, the autocorrelation
(1 + 8a2 + a4 112
function of the random FM is given by
Jl(wmAt)J,(w,Al)
(15) Re(At)= wm

Wkl
26;
(1 + a2)

The value of N j o / w m l is drawn in Fig. 5 for the cases of


1 <I;( w , A t )
- (W , at)
In [l - $(w,At)]. (19)
a = 1,a = 0.5, and a = 0. As an example, for the case where
AKKI: STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF MOBILE-TO-MOBILE LAND COMMUNICATION CHANNELS 829

S.(f)I w , ~
and R ( A t ) is the time correlation function of H ( f , t). It is
given by [I]

R(A t ) = KV1 At)& (KVZA t ) .


Because of the symmetry of S(f),the odd moments are zero,
that is, pn = 0 for odd n.
', t \

The second moment, p2, of the spectrum is given by


01
-5 -4 5 -4 -3.5 -3 -2 5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.6 0 0.6 1
log (w/2wm,)

Fig. 6. One-sided power spectrum of i ( f ) .(I = 0 curve is from [ 5 ] .


where

The integration of (16) is difficult to perform. Thus, it has


been carried out as shown in Appendix B. ~~

The calculated spectrum ( l / w m ) S b ( f ) is drawn in Fig. 6


It can be shown that [21
d2
R ( 0 ) = -R(A t )
dAt2 I .
At=O

for the case of VI = V2. The result obtained in [5] for the
case of base-to-mobile channel (Le., n = 0) is also shown R ( A t ) = af{?j(KV1)2Jo(KV2At)
for comparison. At frequencies above w = 2w, for the case
. [JZ(KViAt)- Jo(KV1At)l
of a = 0, and above w = 4w,, for the case of a = 1, the
spectrum falls as l / f .Thus, one may regard 2w, and 4w, as + 2( KV1)(KV2)Jo (KViAt) Jo (KV2At)
approximate cutoff frequencies for the two cases, respectively. + (KV2) Jo (KV1A t )
It is interesting to note that these are the same as the cutoff . [Jz(KVzAt)- Jo(KV2At)l).
frequencies of the envelope spectra.
Thus,
111. CONCLUSION U2
R(0)= ' [ - ( K V # - (KV2)2]
Statistical properties of mobile-to-mobile land communi- 2
cation channels have been developed. Since the channel is =-(2r)
2 01"
TIfL + f L l .
characterized as a Gaussian process [l], the derivations of
Rice [4] are used in developing the channel characteristics. It is Substitute for ~ ( in ~(A4)1 to get
shown that the level-crossing rate of the envelope increases by
a factor of J1 +
(Vz/V1)2, and the duration of fades decreases P2 = 27r
2 2 2
.l[f,l+ fLI.
by the same factor over that of the base-to-mobile channel. The
probability distribution, the expected number of crossings per k t vz = avi, i.e., fma = afml. Then,
second, and the power spectrum of the random FM have been
derived. The results are shown to reduce to that of the base- ,LL2 = 27r20;f:l(l + 2).
to-mobile channel if the transmitting or receiving vehicle is
The fourth moment, p4, of the spectrum is given by
considered stationary.

THEMOMENTS pn OF THE SPECTRUM OF THE It can be shown that [2]


H ( f ,t ) OF THE CHANNEL
COMPLEX ENVELOPE
The moments p n of the spectrum S ( f ) of the complex R(4)(At) = a;{ Jo (KV1A t )'Jo ( KV2A t )
envelope are given by
+j o ( ~ ~ l ~ t ) . l o ( ~ ~ z ~ t )
P~~= ( 2 ~ ) "
00

f " S s ( f )df +J~(KV~A~)'J~(KV,A~)


J-CC

= (.j)-"n(")(o)
+j o ( ~ ~ 2 ~ t ) J o ( ~ ~ l ~ t )
+ 3 [j o( KVlAt) io(KV2A t )
where + j o(K V ~a t )j o(K V ~at)
+ 3 [j o (KVzA t )Jo (KViA t )
+ j o (KV2At)j o ( KV1At)]}. (AS)
830 IEEE TRANSAnIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 43. NO. 4, NOVEMBER 1994

We make use of different relations of the Bessel function to get

where
- 2J:(wmAt)
1 In [l - J,"(wmAt)] (B3)

The evaluation of (Bl) is still difficult to perform. One


possible way to evalutate (Bl) is to divide the range of
Substitute for R(4)(0) in (A7) to get integration into intervals and use appropriate approximation
in (I).'
Region I : 0 < At < At1 = 1/4w,.
Since u = wmAt < 114, then

APPENDIXB u 2 U
&(u) = 1 - (5) and JI(U) -.
2
POWERSPECTRUM
OF RANDOMFM
The one-sided power spectrum of random FM is given by Substitute for these values in (B3) and make the necessary

S(f)= 4 1 0
00

Rb(At) cos (wAt) dAt


manipulations, then (B 1) reduces to

where Rg(At) is the autocorrelation of the random FM.


be shown [4], [2] that for mobile-to-mobile channels,

Rb(At) = - 1
2
{( R( At)
-)2

R(At)
- (-) }
R(At)
WAt)
"(')
Wm
= -2*[ln
W
(w,At,)'

. sinwAtl - 2Si(wAtl] (B4)


'111 [I - (%)z] where Si( .) is the sine integral function defined by

Si(z) = I' sin t


dt.

Region3: At2 5 At < 03 where At2 = 4/w,, which


and means that

u = wmAt >> 1;

then,

Jo(u) /$cos (u - %)
J1(u) A /A sin (u - f ) and
In [I - J,"(u)] = -J,"(u).
and Substitute in (B3) and make the necessary manipulations, then
(Bl) becomes
R(At) = Jo ( KVi At) Jo (KVzAt).
Evaluation of (Bl) for this general form of the autocorrelation
of the random FM of the channel will give a general form
of the power spectrum for different cases of a = V2/V1. The
+-sin2u +-cos2u
TU TZU3

(7ru)Z + m]
sin4u
evaluation of the above integral is difficult to perform. If we
consider the specific case of VZ = VI, the autocorrelation
+-cos4u
function Re(At) reduces to

Ji(WmAt)Jo(WmAt)
R,j(At) = wm
.J$(w,At)
- J;(w,At)
[ wmAt 'This approach has been used in [ 5 ] for the case of a base-to-mobile
channel.
AKKI: STATISTICAL PROPERTIES Oh MVBILC-IO-MUBILt L A N U CVMMUNICAI IVN I HANNCLS 83 1

integrate to get overall spectrum of the random FM is given by

0.15 sin 8b - 0.026 cos 8h Sdf) = Sl(f)+ S 2 ( f )+ S 3 ( f ) .


+-(4 -4 cos (8(2 - 6)) REFERENCES
A. S. Akki and F. Haber, A statistical model of mobile to mobile land
+-
2
( 4 + b, cos (8(2
4
2
1 :[
+ b)) + - -2Ci(8b) communication channel, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.,vol. VT-35, no. I ,
Feb. 1986.
A, S. Akki, Modeling and characterization of land mobile communi-
cation channel. Ph.D. dissertation. Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1977.
+ -(1
7r
+ 6)Ci(S(l + b ) ) + -(1
7r
- b) S. 0. Rice. Statistical properties of sine wave plus random noise, Bell
Syst. Tech. J., pp. 109-157, Jan. 1948.
. Ci(8(l - b ) ) - si(8(1 + b ) ) -, Mathematical analysis of random noise. Bell Syst. Tech. J.,Jan.
4b 1 1945.
- si(8(1 - h ) ) + - Si(8b) + - W. C. Jakes, Ed., Microwave Mobile Communication. New York:
?T ?T Wiley, 1974.
si(8(2 + b))(2 + b)(4 + b ) X. Gradshteyn and X. Ryzhik, Tables of Inregrals. Series and Products.
New York: Academic, 1965.
+ -1 s1(8(2
.
7r
- b))(2 - b)(4 - b)

where si(%)= Si(x) - (.rr/2) and b = w/2wn,. Abdulkader S. Akki (S74-M77) was born in
February 1946. He received the B.Sc. degree from
AI-Fateh University, Tripoli, Libya, in 1970, and the
M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from the Moore School of
Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania,
Region 2: At, 5 At 5 At2 where At, = 1/4w, and in 1972 and 1977, respectively, all in electrical
At2 = 4 / ~ , . engineering.
Since 1977, he has been a staff member of
The power spectrum & ( f ) in this region is obtained by the Department of Electrical Engineering, AI-Fateh
performing (B 1) numerically, using Gaussian quadrature for- University. From I978 to 1984, he was the Chair-
mulas, i.e., man of the Department, and he is now a Professor.
His current research interests include modeling, performance evaluation of
communication channels. transfer of technology, and engineering education.
Dr. Akki was the Chairman of the Organizing Committee and of the
International Technical Program Committee of the First and Second Libyan
International Conference on Electrical and Electronic Engineering held in
Tripoli in March 1985 and 1989, respectively. He is a member of various
technical committees and serves as a consultant to some national estab-
lishments in his field of specialization. He is listed in the Inlernational
Whos Who in Engineering. and of Inrellectuals (Intemational Biographical
. In [1 - J;(u)]cos
,:( )
-U du. (B7) Center, England, 1984). He is also listed in the International Directory of
Distinguished Leadership (ABC. 1989).

._..