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Education in our Nation

Information Processing- Inductive Model (p. 184-210)


8th grade, History/Social Studies
By: Robert Albright

Lesson plan@ 50 and Reflection @ 50


1. MATERIALS/PREPLANNING
Materials
Student Chromebooks
Handouts
Vocabulary
Primary source
Secondary source
Differentiate
Charter school
Betsy De Voss
Diane Ravich
Lottery (in relation to education)
Proficiency (in relation to education)
Growth (in relation to education)

Literature/Media - List supporting literature or reading materials


Bill Gates on education reform- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-dpNBiNZzg
Diane Ravich on public education- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5rFx9EZsHo
Article- The truth about charter schools http://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/charter-schools-2/
Article- In defense of public education- http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-rusin/chicago-charter-
schools_b_1894337.html
Publication- Charter Schools: Myth vs. Reality
Betsy Devos interview-
http://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/topic/excellence_in_philanthropy/interview_with_betsy_devos
Publication- Why We Still Need Public Schools
Article- The Case Against Charter Schools

2. OBJECTIVE
Students will be able to differentiate between a primary and secondary source after examining 4 examples of each.
Students will be able to create and support an argument for or against charter schools, using at least 3 primary sources and
3 secondary sources discovered through their own research.
Students will be able to present a 5-7minute argument for or against charter schools using a medium of choice- i.e. video,
PowerPoint, speech, poster, etc.
Blooms Taxonomy Levels- 4 analyze, 5 (evaluate) and 6 (create)
Depth of Knowledge Levels- Level 3 (compare/contrast) and Level 4 (critique, synthesize, create)

STANDARDS:
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1- Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.2- Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate
summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.5- Describe how a text presents information (e.g. sequentially, comparatively, casually).

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.6- Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author's point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language,
inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.7- Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other
information in print and digital texts.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.8- Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.


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CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.9- Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.

3. ASSESSMENT Perfect Assessment Tool Rationale:


Pre assessment- Informal, short answer response Provide a rationale as to how this assessment links with
survey or supports this theoretical model.
What is your opinion on charter vs. public school Include a copy or your assessment tool.
education for grades k-12? The pre-assessment used captures baseline information
What experience have you had with public and/or about students prior knowledge, readiness, and interests
charter schools? related to the concept. This can help teachers plan for
What is your current understanding of the political students learning differences and differentiate instruction.
debate between advocates of public and charter This serves as the foundation for the inductive reasoning
schools? that students will use while reading the sources provided by
What types of resources might you use to find more the teacher.
information on these topics? The formative assessment assures that students have
Formative assessment- formal, check-off list for substantial information to create their final presentation. It
requirements that must be met before creating final also ensures that students are understanding the difference
presentation. between primary and secondary sources.
Student has found at least 3 primary sources and 3 The summative assessment shows whether or not the
secondary sources to support his/her argument student has demonstrated mastery of the core aspects of
Student has written a coherent thesis statement understanding intended by inductive lesson plans:
that clearly states his position, as well as the main Explaining what they know, interpreting what they have
points of his argument that will be addressed learned, having perspective about the big picture, and
(minimum of 3).
defending their point of view.
Student has chosen his method of presentation and
can explain how it will be used to display his
position on the issue.
Summative assessment- Rubric (image provided)

4. CENTRAL FOCUS/ PURPOSE (2 parts to include)


The purpose of this assignment is for students to use inductive reasoning to arrive at overarching generalizations about a
topic. Students will learn to utilize both divergent and convergent thinking skills in reaching their conclusion. Finally, this
lesson is designed to help students learn how to distinguish between different types of resources and their relative
importance to an argument.

To students: The current state of education in America is becoming a hot-button issue in politics. It is important that we are
informed about these issues because they will have a long-lasting impact on the future success or failure in educating our
nations youth. The purpose of this assignment is not only to develop a stance on the issue, but also to learn how to review
and use different types of sources to support your argument. Developing this skill will enable you to create well-founded
arguments on virtually any issue that may be discussed in the future.

5. MOTIVATION FOR LEARNING


Intrinsic motivation is appropriate for this theoretical model because students will be challenged to develop an
argument on a sensitive, current issue. Initial classroom discussions are expected to make known the variety of
beliefs and opinions surrounding the issue, which will make students motivated to further develop support of their
position.
I will support motivation to learn by inciting a healthy debate between students on the issue. The goal is for
students to realize that their peers have views in direct opposition to their own. This will lead into a desire to
support their position, especially with their freedom to find their own sources in addition to what has been provided
by the teacher.
The inductive model asserts that there is no right or wrong answer. This supports the growth mindset because
students are less afraid to present their honest opinion on the issue being addressed. Students understand that
they have a right to their own worldview and are able to back it with supporting evidence procured.

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6. PRE-LESSON - Just before teaching the new lesson do the following:
This portion of the lesson will take place after the pre-assessment has been conducted.
Review/Make Connections to Previously Learned Material using a KWL chart
o What do we know about the current debate regarding public and charter schools?
o What do we want to know about the current debate regarding public and charter schools?
o What did we learn about the current debate regarding public and charter schools?
Introduce the main objectives and procedures for the lesson. Explain that students will examine various materials
that will help them think about the content that is being explored. Teacher tells students that they will need to look
for patterns and differences among the primary and secondary sources.
Restate Objectives for the Lesson: The purpose of this assignment is not only to develop a stance on the issue, but
also to learn how to review and use different types of sources to support your argument. Developing this skill will
enable you to create well-founded arguments on virtually any issue that may be discussed in the future.

6. LESSON BODY:

Step 1
Divergent phase- Students examine and compare the primary and secondary sources introduced to them. They make
observations about what they see and attempt to recognize characteristics and patterns. The teacher does not provide any
direction in what they should notice or discover. Afterwards these observations will be discussed in small groups of 4-5 students.

Step 2
Convergent phase- Students are given questions that help them connect or combine information gleaned through examination
of that content to form a precise understanding of the content. Questions will not only relate to the arguments being presented,
but the structure of each source will be critiqued as well.
Does this source seem to support public or charter schools? What leads you to this conclusion?
What types of sources do you see? Do the different types affect the quality of their respective arguments?
Which sources are most effective in presenting an argument and why?
Which sources would you use to defend your personal position?
Afterwards these observations will be discussed in small groups of 4-5 students.

Step 3
Closure phase- Teacher introduces and explains the difference between a primary and secondary source. Students then go on
to identify which of the sources provided are primary and which are secondary. Finally, students develop their own conclusion as
to whether charter schools or public schools should dominate American education. Students will then discuss these conclusions
in their small groups.

7. ASSIGNMENT
Students demonstrate the knowledge they gained about the difference between primary and secondary sources by
finding 3 of each on their own. They will also use these sources to develop a presentation that explains and supports their
stance on the issue. Presentation may be a poster, video, PowerPoint presentation, speech, or any other
medium that students would like to use.
This assignment is effective because it challenges students to make full use of their senses to observe and
recognize details and patterns in materials related to the content under investigation (p. 186). In addition, this
assignment requires students to exercise both convergent and divergent modes of thinking, which combined allow
students to grasp concepts more deeply. According to Kilbane and Milman, true learning occurs when students
can:
o Explain what they know
o Interpret what they have learned
o Have perspective about the big picture and other points of view
o Empathize by valuing others points of views
o Have self-knowledge by demonstrating metacognitive awareness.
This assignment incorporates all of these factors, allowing the brain to truly learn and demonstrate learning of the
new material.
8. Student Work Examples/Technology Support
Technology support:
Planning- Google.com, Weebly.com, Prezi.com, Posterous.com
Implementing- Keynote.com, Smarttech.com, PowerPoint

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Reflective Thinking/Curriculum Evaluation @50 Points
9. Reflective Thinking/Curriculum Evaluation

Reflection is a very important part of each lesson. Please take the time to thoughtfully prepare your reflections. Follow
the format provided below and provide a professional quality reflective analysis of your work.

Relevance: Explain how this lesson demonstrates your competence with one of the Graduate SLOs below? Delete unused
SLOs.

SLO 1: Demonstrate advanced understanding of the trends, issues, and research associated with education in
general and with their respective specialization.

This assignment is dependent on my understanding the current debate in the educational world about the
effectiveness of charter schools vs. public schools. The research I must do in order to collect good sources for
students to review naturally leads to a deeper understanding of this issue altogether.

Significance/competence: Using careful analysis and evaluative thought, address the points listed below. Add other
pertinent information that supports our competence by using this lesson model.

Explain how this lesson supports helping students reach levels of deeper learning.
o This model exercises both divergent and convergent thinking, which are 2 different approaches to learning.
As a result, students are able to grow in both of these areas, which leads to a deeper understanding of the
material.
How does this model make learning stick in long term memory?
o This model requires students to:
Explain what they know
Interpret what they have learned
Have perspective about the big picture and other points of view
Empathize by valuing others points of views
Have self-knowledge by demonstrating metacognitive awareness.
o The ability to successfully complete all of these tasks allows the brain to commit the information to long
term memory because of the variety of ways students must interact with the material.

Provide examples and rationale for appropriate use of this teaching model and where it is suitable throughout your
curriculum. Indicate/discuss strengths/weaknesses based on theology/theory.
o This teaching model can be used across the content areas, with math and science being popular subjects
for inductive reasoning. For example, a geometry lesson may require students to examine shapes and find
similarities and differences between them in order to reach conclusions about them. A language arts lesson
might ask students to read several Shakespearean poems and find differences in the structure he uses
(identifying the characteristics of a sonnet, for example)
o The strength of this teaching method is that it builds on Jerome Bruners theory of discovery learning,
which builds on students prior knowledge and relies on a teachers guided discovery. On the other hand, a
weakness of this method is that in contrast to deductive reasoning, where conclusions are considered the
truth, inductive reasoning does not require conclusions to be truthful. This model is viewed as too open-
ended for some assignments because of its exploratory nature.
How will you support advanced/ELD/Special needs learners through using this model?
o Different mediums of presentation (written, video and audio formats)
o Provide students with multiple ways to demonstrate their learning (different presentation methods)
o Chose materials of varying levels of complexity for students to review
o Conduct small-group instruction to examine different examples in the divergent and convergent phases
with struggling students.
Provide links to the Common Core State Standards and explain how this lesson could support the CCSS.

Link to Theory:

Explain the links between this lesson model and the supporting theory (i.e., behaviorism, info processing, social learning or
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constructivist).
o This teaching model can be linked to the constructivist learning theory which states that when we
encounter something new, we have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and experience, maybe changing
what we believe, or maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant (thirteen.org). This is the purpose
of inductive reasoning, because as students encounter information that refutes and/or confirms their
beliefs, their perspective is either altered or strengthened. In either case, students are learning and
constructing their own understanding of the world.

Link this lesson to the New Learning Sciences and provide rationale for your selection and descriptive examples.
o Research in the learning science traditionally focuses on cognitive-psychological, social-psychological,
and cultural-psychological foundations of human learning, as well as on the design of learning
environments (Wikipedia.com). This lesson places emphasis on learning environments because students
are placed in a position where they are required to share their thoughts with classmates to reach deeper
conclusions. This environment fosters a growth mindset where no ideas are considered wrong, and
students can agree to disagree.

Describe technological resources you have found useful.


o Online survey tools such as flisti.com, google forms, and survey monkey can be used for pre-assessments
in order to determine students current knowledge and interest regarding the topic.
o Google.com and youtube.com were useful for finding articles and videos for students to examine.

Growth Mindset

How does this lesson help a student develop a stronger positive growth mindset? Provide specific examples. Include ideas on how
you might reward learning according to the Growth Mindset research.

A core principle of the inductive teaching model is that there is no wrong answer. The fear of failure is common with
those having fixed mindsets, but this model allows students to relieve their anxiety and explore their own worldview
without the fear of being wrong. Answers/opinions are seen as different as opposed to better or worse.
Students will constantly receive positive feedback on how they are building an argument to support their position.
Students will never be told their argument is incorrect, instead the teacher may suggest further considerations the
student should make in order to ensure that he is viewing the argument from multiple vantage points.

Professional Actions/Areas for growth: What are your next professional steps in this area to keep moving forward as a
professional?

Discuss what went well and what changes you have made for improving learning.
o The discussion during the beginning went well because students were exposed to different viewpoints and
were challenged to consider their own more deeply. This discussion naturally took on the form of a debate,
which energized students and motivated them to further their learning.
o A change I might make is giving students more background information on the issue. An additional lesson
may be conducted prior to this one in order for students to be better equipped to form their personal
opinions. This would be especially helpful for struggling students and for those who have little background
information on the topic. Some students knew little to nothing about charter schools.
What have you learned about how learning happens?
o Learning happens through collaboration. Instructing students to share their thoughts in small groups
allowed them to practice articulating their thoughts and using evidence to support their reasoning.
Students were engaged in this discussion and walked away with multiple perspectives on the issue.
What more do you need to read or learn?
o I need to learn more about the presentation tools that students can use to share their argurments. I
instructed students to use PowerPoint presentations, but I would also like to show students how to use
applications such as weebly.com, prezi.com, and prosterous.com
How does this add to your credibility to supervise student teachers?
o Knowing how to use the inductive model helps me examine whether the teacher is allowing students to
think for themselves. Instead of telling students where to look and what to think, they are challenged to
take ownership of their thinking and make their own discoveries. Student teachers often give students too
much assistance instead of letting them do the higher-order thinking themselves.

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