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1517

ISSN 2321 3361 2016 IJESC

Vrushali V. Nalawade1, Dr. Mrs.S.B.Shinde2

M.E Scholar in Structure1, Professor2

Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College, Aurangabad, India

nalawadevrushali22@gmail.com1, sb_shinde@yahoo.co.in 2

Abstract:

Analysis of masonry dome is very tedious job for existing as well as new construction. Masonry domes are built in the form of

rings without centering and remain stable mainly due to compression in hoop and meridional direction. Finite element thrust line

analysis is nothing but the combination of simplicity of the thrust line and the versatility of the finite element approach. Failure of

masonry structures are generally studied in terms of the formation of unstable mechanism and the thrust line approach is

considered to be the most useful tool for this. And finite element analysis is versatile but computationally more intensive. This

method is able to obtain the thrust line of an axisymmetric masonry dome more accurately than the existing graphical approaches.

Thrust lines are used to visualize the forces within the masonry and to predict possible failure modes. This paper presents a linear

elastic finite element thrust line analysis of masonry dome.

Finite Element Method is a numerical method used to solve

differential & integral equations. This method is also makes the Types of masonry finite element modelling

application of complicated boundary condition to physical Masonry finite element modelling can be divided in three

problems easy. Complicated geometries & variations of categories as:

material properties can also be handled using Finite element 1. Detailed micro-modeling: Units and mortar in the joints are

method. Due to these advantages FEM has emerged as a represented by continuum elements whereas the unit-mortar

versatile and powerful tool in computational engineering. The interface is represented by discontinuum elements. The major

thrust line approach is a relatively simpler approach and cannot difficulty in using this approach is intricacy in predicting

be applied for complicated structures. This paper proposes a mortar joint position or its thickness for new construction as

simple method of combining the thrust line and the finite well for old construction. Buhan and Felice (1997), Milani et al.

element approach so that this shortcoming of the thrust line (2006) have pointed out difficulties with this approach in

approach is eliminated. This paper then discusses the proposed practicing due to numerical difficulties with increased size of

method and provides one demonstration example. The last the problem. (See Figure 1 a).

Figure 1. Advanced modelling approaches

2. Simplified micro-modelling: Expanded units are and the stability is judged by strength criterion. (See Figure 1

represented by continuum elements whereas the unit-mortar c).

interface is lumped in discontinuum elements. The limitation of

micro modeling applies to this approach as well. (See Figure 1 II. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

b). Following are the steps of finite element analysis in ANSYS,

3. Macro-modeling: Units, mortar and unit-mortar interface 1) Pre-processing In preprocessor you provide the majority

are smeared out in a homogeneous continuum. Mostly of the input to the program. In this step we have to create

homogenization approach is used in predicting the stress value or import the model geometry. Its main purpose is to

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, June 2016 6296 http://ijesc.org/

generate the finite element model, which consists mainly b) Stresses: Component and principle stresses are typically

of nodes, elements and material property definition. And available for a 3-D model. Which are best viewed as

then meshing of the geometry is done. contour plots, which allow you to quickly locate the

This step also includes: - Obtaining elemental trouble regions. There two types of solutions Nodal

equation, Assembly and Application of boundary solutions and Element solutions. In Nodal solution, stresses

conditions. are averaged at the nodes, showing smooth, continues

2) Solution In this step we apply loads and then solve the contours. And in Element solution no averaging and

problem. resulting in discontinuous contours.

There are five categories of loads Checking validity of the result: It is always a good idea to do a

a) DOF constraints Specified DOF values, such as sanity check and make sure that the solution is acceptable.

displacements in a stress analysis or temperatures What you need to check is depends on the problem you are

in a thermal analysis. solving.

b) Concentrated loads Point loads, such as forces Proposed Methodology

or heat flow rates. Here the method is proposed to post process the linear

c) Surface loads Loads distributed over a surface, elastic FEA stress results for plotting the thrust line. The

such as pressures or convections. software tool developed, extracts stress output (in Cartesian

d) Body loads Volumetric or field loads, such as coordinate system) generated by the finite element analysis

temperatures or internal heat generation. package ANSYS (http://www.ansys.com/) for nodes in Section

e) Inertia loads Loads due to structural mass or file (generated by user, containing node number for each

inertia, such as gravity and rotational velocity. section). The stresses so extracted and resolved normal to

3) Post-processing In this step we have to review the section, S1 and S2, are used to locate the position of resultant

results and also to check the validity of the solution. This is force as shown in Fig. 2.

the most important step in an analysis. You may be Equivalent resultant moment acting over the section is

required to make design decisions based on the results, so M = (S2 - S1) D2 / 12 (1)

it is good idea not only to review the results, but also to Equivalent resultant axial force over the section is

check the validity of the solution. P = (S1 + S2) D / 2 (2)

ANSYS has two post-processors Resultant distance from midpoint of section is

a) POST1, the General Postprocessor, to review the single set e = M / P (3)

of results over the entire model. This eccentricity e from middle of section O gives point A,

b) POST2, the Time-History Postprocessor. To review results as shown in Figure 1(d). Point A represents the position of the

at selected points in the model over time. Mainly used for resultant of stress over the section. The line of thrust indicates

transient and nonlinear analyses. the position of the resultant of the stress acting at a section

Reviewing results of a stress analysis generally involves: (O'Dwyer 1999); hence, joining such points along the

a) Deformed shape: Gives a quick indication of whether the circumferential length of the arch gives the thrust line. The

loads were applied in the correct direction. Legend column output from software are Thrust line calculation and drawing

shows the maximum displacement. You can also animate in .dxf.

the deformation.

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, June 2016 6297 http://ijesc.org/

Example

Pre-Processing

Problem description: - The geometry and material properties considered for modelling are summarized as in Table1 and 2.

Table 1: Geometry

Problem Radius(mid surface) Thickness Material used Element along thickness

1 5 meter 0.7 meter Solid 45 12

Table 2: Material Properties

Property Value

Boundary Condition Fixed

Modulus of Elasticity 2 x 107 N/m2

Poissons Ratio 0.1

Density 2000 Kg/ m3

Figure 2. Shows the modelling of dome with the given geometry and material properties as mentioned in above problem

description.

The analysis results are summarized in Table 3. Thrust line departs from section 1-1 at bottom to section 10-10 at top as shown in

Fig.3.

Section

Node1 Node2 H1 H2 P M e e/D

Id

1-1 1 3 -65340 -175070 -84143 4480.64 -0.053 -0.076

2-2 2 4 -120346 -99187 -79837 -863.98 0.011 0.015

3-3 7 17 -143817 -57593 -70494 -3520.8 0.050 0.071

4-4 8 18 -136276 -45706 -63694 -3698.3 0.058 0.083

5-5 9 19 -117051 -47200 -57488 -2852.2 0.050 0.071

6-6 10 20 -94805 -54415 -52227 -1649.3 0.032 0.045

7-7 11 21 -76347 -62531 -48608 -564.15 0.012 0.017

8-8 12 22 -61422 -68620 -45515 293.93 -0.006 -0.009

9-9 13 23 -52675 -72457 -43796 807.77 -0.018 -0.026

10-10 14 24 -46364 -74737 -42382 1159 -0.027 -0.039

Solution and Post-processing assumed that masonry is not capable to resist any tension. It

The derivation of thrust line using axisymmetric element is observed that the deviation in the boundary region is

with ANSYS result using Solid-45 element shows that thrust reducing with the fine discretization in ANSYS.

line are matching with some deviations in boundary region Following are the some of the important result contours,

and in crown region of the dome. In this analysis, it is

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, June 2016 6298 http://ijesc.org/

Figure 3. Nodal solution of displacement vector sum Figure 4. X-component of stress

From this study it is apparent that the result of thrust line tension stiffness. The difference in boundary region is

using Solid 45 element with release of hoop tension stiffness reducing with the fine discretization in ANSYS.

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, June 2016 6299 http://ijesc.org/

Fig.7 shows the thrust line plotted using finite [10] Milani, G, Lourenco, P, and Tralli, A (2006).

element output. Hence from above solution this arch is safe as Homogenised limit analysis of masonry walls, Part

the thrust line lies within arch geometry (Heyman, J.1967 & I: Failure Surfaces. Computers and Structures, 84,

Heyman, J.1966). 166-180.

This paper concludes the benefits of using finite element thrust homogenisation - damage model for masonry

line analysis. Below are the some primary advantages of using cracking. Computers and Structures, 82, 917-929.

this method:

This method can achieve versatility and simplicity for [12] Auroville earth institute, Building with arches, vaults

complicated masonry structures. and domes training manual for architects and

This method offers versatility of finite element for engineers, www.earth-auroville.com.

incorporating complex geometry and boundary

condition. [13] The ANSYS software website. [Online].

This method is an extension of finite element method, http://www.ansys.com/

and hence can be readily used by large group of

engineers and researchers, acquainted with finite

element, to study historical masonry structures without

learning new methodology.

The developed method is suitable to heritage masonry

structure stability analysis wherein mechanical

properties of material remain unknown.

REFERANCES

[1] Heyman, J., 1966. The stone skelleton. International

Journal of Solids and Structures 2, 249-279.

domes. International Journal of Solids and

Structures, 3, 227-241.

International Journal Mech. Sci., 11, 368-385.

[4] Varma M., Jangid R., Ghosh S., Oct 2010. Thrust

line analysis using finite element method. Advanced

Materials Research 133-134, 503-508.

Achwal (11) , Tension Ring in Masonry Domes.

Analysis of Large Diameter Concrete Sperical Shell

Domes, Dirasat Enggineering Sciences, Volume 38,

No.1, 2011.

time limit analysis of vaulted masonry buildings.

Computers and Structures, 84, 1841-1852.

approach to the ultimate strength of brick masonry.

J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 45, 1085-1104.

strategy towards constitutive identification of

Masonry. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 128,

688-697.

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, June 2016 6300 http://ijesc.org/

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