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Part - 2/10

Prelims 2017

in 100 Days
Everything for Prelims

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1. Indelible Ink
2. National Health Authority (NEHA)
3. E-pashuhaat Portal
4. Biotech-Kisan Scheme
5. Sendai Framework on Disaster Riskr Eduction
6. Progress Panchayat
7. Delimitation Commission
8. National Policy on Education 2016
9. Pro-active Governance and Timely Implementation (PRAGATI)
10. Hydrocarbon Vision 2030 for North-East
11. National Court of Appeal
12. Introduction of Nota in Elections
13. National Policy for Women, 2016
14. Neeranchal National Watershed Project
15. Hydroponics
16. Lodha Committee Recommendations
17. Motion of Thanks
18. Sagarmala Project
19. Lokpal and Lokayukta
20. Gender Budgeting
21. Mental Health Policy
22. Role of ASHA
23. Ocean Zonation
24. Cold Wave
25. Index of Industrial Production
26. Mission Parivar Vikas
27. Agro Terrorism
28. E-postal Ballots
29. National Academic Depository (NAD)
30. Heart of Asia Conference
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Electoral ink,indelibleink,electoral stainorphosphoric inkis a semi-permanentinkordyethat is applied to
theforefinger(usually) ofvotersduringelectionsin order to preventelectoral fraudsuch as double voting. It is
an effective method for countries where identification documents for citizens are not always standardised or
institutionalized. The most common election ink used worldwide was invented by Filiberto Vzquez Davila,
a Mexican biochemical engineer.
Indelible ink is used as an effective security feature to prevent double voting in elections or the case may be

(like Indian government has structure to use this ink for curbing the corruption and double entry in
demonetization). Ink is normally applied to the left hand index finger, especially to thecuticlewhere it is

almost impossible to remove quickly. Ink may be applied in a variety of ways, depending on circumstance and

This ink typically stays onskinfor 7296 hours, lasting 2 to 4 weeks on thefingernailandcuticlearea. The
election ink used in India puts a permanent mark on the cuticle area which disappears only with the growth
of new nail. It can take up to 4 months for the stain to be replaced completely by new nail growth.
Electoral stain typically contains a pigment for instant recognition; asilver nitratewhich stains the skin on
exposure to ultraviolet light, leaving a mark that is impossible to wash off and is only removed as external skin
cells are replaced. Industry standard electoral inks contain 10%, 14% or 18% silver nitrate solution, depending
on the length of time the mark is required to be visible. Although normally water-based, electoral stains

occasionally contain a solvent such as alcohol to allow for faster drying, especially when used with dipping
bottles, which may also contain a biocide to ensure bacteria arent transferred from voter to voter.

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National eHealth Authority (NeHA) as a promotional, regulatory and standards setting organization to guide
and support Indias journey in e-Health and consequent realization of benefits of ICT intervention in Health
sector in an orderly way.
The National Knowledge Commission (NKC) had recommended in 2008 formation of National Health
Information Authority (NHIA) to support implementation on e-Health.
NeHA will be responsible for development of an Integrated Health Information System (including Telemedicine
and mHealth) in India, while collaborating with all the stakeholders, viz., healthcare providers, consumers,
healthcare technology industries, and policymakers. It will also be responsible for enforcing the laws & regulations

relating to the privacy and security of the patients health information & records.
Core Functions of the NeHA:
Policy and Promotion
Standards Development
Legal Aspects including Regulation

Setting up and Maintaining Health Repositories, Electronic Health Exchanges and National Health
Information Network.
Capacity Building
Aims to formulate NeHA:

To guide the adoption of e-Health solutions at various levels and areas in the country in a manner that
meaningful aggregation of health and governance data and storage/exchange of electronic health records
happens at various levels in a cost-effective manner.
To facilitate integration of multiple health IT systems through health information exchanges.
To oversee orderly evolution of state-wide and nationwide Electronic Health Record Store/Exchange
System that ensures that security, confidentiality and privacy of patient data is maintained and continuity
of care is ensured.
Formulation of policies, strategies and implementation plan blue-print (National eHealth Policy / Strategy)
for coordinated eHealth adoption in the country by all players; regulation and accelerated adoption of e-
health in the country by public and private care providers and other players in the ecosystem; to establish
a network of different institutions to promote eHealth and Tele-medicine/remote healthcare/virtual
healthcare and such other measures;
Formulation and management of all health informatics standards for India; Laying down data management,
privacy & security policies, standards and guidelines in accordance with statutory provisions.
To promote setting up of state health records repositories and health information exchanges (HIEs).
To deal with privacy and confidentiality aspects of Electronic Health Records (EHR).

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The portal will act as a single online e-trading market platform, including availability of bovine germplasm. It
will enable the farmers to buy bovine animals, frozen semen and embryo. The Union Agriculture & Farmers
Welfare launched e-pashuhaat portal to connect farmers and breeders of bovine animals.
About the portal:
e-pashuhaat portal will connect farmers with breeders- State, Central, Co-operative, Milk Federations, and
private agencies.

It will provide information related to certification of the animal, breeding, its picture, volume of milk
given by the cow etc.

It will facilitate farmers to purchase advanced breed of bovine animals at a reasonable price as per as their

It will provide, certified picture of animals, its parents information, breeding, volume of milk given by
bovine animal information.
Besides, it will provide information related to animal fodder varieties, its volume and price. It will have
real time authentic certified information on availability of germplasm.
Importance of the portal:
Earlier there was no single authentic organised market for animals. Information like pet cattle, trading of
bovine animals was not available in any other forum or platform in the country.

This portal is likely to help fill in the vacuum. Since dairying activity is a major supplementary source of
income for farmers.
The portal will play important role in increasing income of framers from animal rearing for achieving the
goal of doubling farmers income by 2022.
It establishes links between farmer to farmer and farmer to institutes. Thus, it minimises the involvement
of middlemen.
It will create a comparative Farm Network that will facilitate farmers to exchange local knowledge and

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The problems faced by the Indian farmer are special, small land holdings are the norm, a very small number
of livestock which is often the primary source of livelihood and 15 different agro climatic zones. Solutions
developed in the lab, primarily in the developed world do not necessarily address the problems faced by the
Indian farmer.
There is a need for direct linkage between science laboratories and farms; it is now imperative that the Indian
scientist understand the problems of the local farmer and provide solutions to those problems.
Biotech-Krishi Innovation Science Application Network (Biotech-KISAN) will be implemented in 15 agro-
climatic zones of India in phased manner with the objective:
Linking available science and technology to the farm by first understanding the problem of the local

farmer and provide solutions to those problems.
The working together, in close conjunction, of scientists and farmers is the only way to improve the
working conditions of small and marginal farmers.
This programme aims to work with small and marginal farmers especially the woman farmer for better
agriculture productivity through scientific intervention and evolving best farming practices in the Indian

The aim is to connect farmers, scientists and science institutions across the country using Biotech-KISAN hubs.
These hubs will be a glue in the existing system allowing small farmers to identify and access scientific
solutions to their problems.
Each Biotech-KISAN hub will have a small team led by a facilitator. The facilitator will connect with the
farmers through visits by the team, meetings by phone and by usingWhatsAppand other modern communication


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The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR) was adopted during the Third
United Nations (UN) World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) held in Sendai, Japan on 14-
18 March, 2015.
It is the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, with seven targets and four priorities for
action. The Sendai Framework is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-
2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters.
The Sendai Frameworks primary focus on risk reduction and resilience is a common element highlighted in
all the 2030 development agendas adopted by all member states of the United Nations, such as the Addis

Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development, the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement
on Climate Change, the Agenda for Humanity and New Urban Agenda.

The Sendai Framework introduces seven global targets to assess global progress toward the expected outcome.
The seven global targets represent a means to quantify and qualify the substantial reduction indicated in the
expected outcome.
Global Targets
Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality
rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower average global figure
per 100,000 in the decade 2020 -2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.

Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them
health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.
Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by
Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable
support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030.
Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk
information and assessments to the people by 2030.
Priorities Areas for Action
SFDRR defined four priorities areas where action is needed:
Understanding disaster risk.
Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk.
Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience.
Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to Build Back Better in recovery, rehabilitation
and reconstruction.

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The government has launched Progress Panchayat, a campaign to reach out to the minorities, particularly
Muslims, to create awareness in these communities about the governments policies and programmes and
remove fears and misconceptions about the government.
TheProgress Panchayatwould educate people of the area about the governments efforts in social, educational,
health and infrastructure sectors and in creating job opportunities.
The panchayats would analyse the level of progress reached by the communities.
Schemes of the Minority Affairs Ministry
Seekho aur Kamao - Under Seekho Aur Kamao (Learn and Earn) schemes, about 2200 people had

been provided training from 2014.
Nai Manzil - Nai Manzil aims to engage constructively with poor Minority youth and help them obtain
sustainable and gainful employment opportunities that can facilitate them to be integrated with mainstream
economic activities.
Nai Raushni - Under Nai Raushni scheme, 3300 people had been provided job-oriented training.
Ustaad - Initiative to preserve, protect and promote ancient art, culture of the Minority communities

Nai Udaan - The Nai Udaan- Scheme for Support for Minority Students is for the support to the
minority community students/candidates clearing Prelims conducted by Union Public Service Commission,
Staff Selection Commission, State Public Service Commissions etc. It expects proactive measures for
those communities that lag behind and become increasingly marginalized. It encourages the students/
candidates by earmarking of targets on Self- employment and Wage employment and Recruitment to
State and Central Services. It provides pre-examination coaching for competitive examinations in government

and private institutions for candidates from minority communities.

Pradhanmantri Jan Vikas Karykram (MsDP) - has been providing basic amenities such as school,
hospitals, roads and other infrastructure in Minority concentrated areas.
Employment oriented schemes are our priority. Employment to every hand is our commitment.

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Delimitation literally means the act or process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a
country or a province having a legislative body.
In India, such Delimitation Commissions have been constituted 4 times - in 1952 under the Delimitation
Commission Act, 1952, in 1963 under Delimitation Commission Act, 1962, in 1973 under Delimitation Act,
1972 and in 2002 under Delimitation Act, 2002.
Under Article 82 of the Constitution, the Parliament by law enacts a Delimitation Act after every census.
After coming into force commencement of the Act, the Central Government constitutes a Delimitation

This Delimitation Commission demarcates the boundaries of the Parliamentary Constituencies as per provisions
of the Delimitation Act.

The present delimitation of constituencies has been done on the basis of 2001 census figures under the
provisions of Delimitation Act, 2002. Notwithstanding the above, the Constitution of India was specifically
amended in 2002 not to have delimitation of constituencies till the first census after 2026. Thus, the present
Constituencies carved out on the basis of 2001 census shall continue to be in operation till the first census
after 2026.

The Delimitation Commission in India is a high power body whose orders have the force of law and cannot
be called in question before any court. These orders come into force on a date to be specified by the President
of India in this behalf. The copies of its orders are laid before the House of the People and the State Legislative
Assembly concerned, but no modifications are permissible therein by them.

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The National Policy on Education has been formulated by the TSR Subramanian Committee. The 2016
National Policy on Education, which is being formulated nearly three decades since the last Policy, recognizes
the criticality of Education as the most important vehicle for social, economic and political transformation.
It reiterates the role of education in inculcating values, and to provide skills and competencies for the citizens,
and in enabling him to contribute to the nation's well-being; strengthens democracy by empowering citizens;
acts as an integrative force in society, and fosters social cohesion and national identity.
The Salient recommendations are:
1) An Indian Education Service (IES) should be established as an all India service with officers being on
permanent settlement to the state governments but with the cadre controlling authority vesting with the

Human Resource Development (HRD) ministry.
2) The outlay on education should be raised to at least 6% of GDP without further loss of time.
3) There should be minimum eligibility condition with 50% marks at graduate level for entry to existing B.Ed
courses. Teacher Entrance Tests (TET) should be made compulsory for recruitment of all teachers. The
Centre and states should jointly lay down norms and standards for TET.
4) Compulsory licensing or certification for teachers in government and private schools should be made

mandatory, with provision for renewal every 10 years based on independent external testing.
5) Pre-school education for children in the age group of 4 to 5 years should be declared as a right and a
programme for it implemented immediately.
6) The no detention policy must be continued for young children until completion of class V when the child
will be 11 years old. At the upper primary stage, the system of detention shall be restored subject to the
provision of remedial coaching and at least two extra chances being offered to prove his capability to

move to a higher class

7) On-demand board exams should be introduced to offer flexibility and reduce year end stress of students
and parents. A National Level Test open to every student who has completed class XII from any School
Board should be designed.
8) The mid-day meal (MDM) program should now be extended to cover students of secondary schools. This
is necessary as levels of malnutrition and anaemia continue to be high among adolescents.
9) UGC Act must be allowed to lapse once a separate law is created for the management of higher education.
The University Grants Commission (UGC) needs to be made leaner and thinner and given the role of
disbursal of scholarships and fellowships.
10) Top 200 foreign universities should be allowed to open campuses in India and give the same degree which
is acceptable in the home country of the said university.
The New National Policy on Education has tried to address these deficiencies and challenges, along with the
need to sharply increase the quality of Indian education, across the board. It offers a framework for change,
make education modern with optimal use of technology, without compromising on India's traditions and

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PRAGATI is a unique integrating and interactive platform. The platform is aimed at addressing common
man's grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the
Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.
Three major objectives of the program
a) Grievance redressal
b) Project implementation
c) Project monitoring

The PRAGATI platform uniquely bundles three latest technologies: Digital data management, video-

conferencing and geo-spatial technology.
It will be a monthly conference call with state chief secretaries and secretaries of the Union government
for the speedy redressal of grievances and monitoring and implementation of projects. The Pragati sessions
will take place every fourth Wednesday.
It is to see that programmes and projects launched by the central and state governments are monitored
properly for timely implementation and desired outcome. For holistic development of the country, it is
necessary to facilitate from central government level the projects of the states.
It also offers a unique combination in the direction of cooperative federalism since it brings on one stage
the Secretaries of Government of India and the Chief Secretaries of the States. With this, the Prime
Minister is able to discuss the issues with the concerned Central and State officials with full information
and latest visuals of the ground level situation. Such an effort has never been made in India. It is also an

innovative project in e-governance and good governance.

The initiative could give rise to concerns about the Centre- State framework. The system may be seen as
bypassing the chief ministers. The move has been criticized for not respecting the federal structure of the
However, the Pragati programme will attempt to find solutions for issues picked up from the available data
base regarding public grievances, on-going programmes and pending projects. This new system of governance
will definitely give a boost to government projects that have been publicized due to their delays. The need
of the hour is speedy implementation and completion of government projects.

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The Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Petroleum and Natural Gas has released the Hydrocarbon
Vision 2030 for North-east India to outline the long term and broad objectives for the exploration,
exploitation of hydrocarbons in North east India and highlight its potential in the economic and social
development of the region.
The vision draft outlines steps to be taken to leverage the hydrocarbon sector for development of the
region and vision to develop a common and shared aspiration for benefiting people of the north-east
The objectives of Hydrocarbon Vision 2030:

a) The objectives of the plan are to leverage the region's hydrocarbon potential, enhance access to clean
fuels, improve availability of petroleum products, facilitate economic development and to link common
people to the economic activities in this sector.
b) It outlines the steps to leverage the hydrocarbon sector for development of the region in Guwahati as well
as in North-east region with involvement and inputs of various stakeholders, industry players and state
governments. It not only includes the ambition for the region but also an actionable road map.
c) It rests on 5 pillars: People, Policy, Partnership, Projects and Production. It aims at doubling Oil and Gas

production by 2030, making clean fuels accessible, fast tracking projects, generating employment
opportunities and promoting cooperation with neighbouring countries.
d) The vision also focuses on other areas including exploring hydrocarbon linkages and trade opportunities
with neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal and Bhutan. It also aims at doubling Oil
and Gas production by 2030, fast tracking projects, generating employment opportunities and promoting
cooperation with neighbouring countries.

Hydrocarbons in North East India

The potential of hydrocarbons in North-east India can be gauged from the fact that the 1st oil well in India
was discovered in Digboi, Assam by the British, and continues to be one of the major oil producing
regions in India. However, vast resources remain unexplored due to various factors as mountainous terrain
of the Himalayas, insurgency in some of the states, and disputed international borders. This has also led
to poor economic and social development of the region, which in turn fuels insurgency and other social
issues, thereby creating a vicious cycle. The draft hopes to cover this gap and focus on exploring hydrocarbon

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The National Court Appeal with regional benches in Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata is meant to act as final
court of justice in dealing with appeals from the decisions of the High Courts and tribunals within their region
in civil, criminal, labour and revenue matters. In such a scenario, a much-relieved Supreme Court of India
situated in Delhi would only hear matters of constitutional law and public law. A National Court of Appeal
is being advocated as an intermediate forum between the Supreme Court and the various high courts of India.
The Supreme Court is saddled with civil and criminal appeals that arise out of everyday and even mundane
disputes. As a result of entertaining these appeals, the Supreme Court's real mandate - that of a Constitutional
Court, the ultimate arbiter on disputes concerning any interpretation of the Constitution - is not fulfilled. By

taking up the Supreme Court's appeals jurisdiction, the NCA will give the former more time for its primal

as the apex court of the land.

A National Court of Appeal will help clear the backlog of cases and maintain the Supreme Court's position

The NCA would relieve the Supreme Court of the weight of hearing regular civil and criminal appeals,
allowing the court to concentrate on determining only fundamental questions of constitutional importance.
Additionally, it has been argued that the NCA's regional benches would allow greater access to litigants from
remote parts of the country, for whom the distance to New Delhi acts as a grave barrier to justice.
A court of appeal can work as an excellent mechanism to sieve cases. If there are areas of law that are
particularly unsettled and need clarification, the court of appeal can club them together and send these forward
to the Supreme Court. Not only can a number of individual cases be disposed of but areas of law can also
be settled and a clear precedent set.

The Supreme Court itself, as early as in 1986, had recommended establishment of an NCA with regional
Benches at Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata to ease the burden of the Supreme Court and avoid hardship to
litigants who have to come all the way to Delhi to fight their cases.
But subsequent Chief Justices of India were not inclined to the idea of bifurcation of judicial powers, and
that of forming regional benches of the apex court. A government order in 2014 too rejected the proposal
that such a court of appeal is constitutionally impermissible. The outlook changed in February 2016 when the
Supreme Court admitted Chennai lawyer V. Vasanthakumar's petition for setting up an NCA.
The Centre rejected Mr. Vasanthakumar's proposal for a National Court of Appeal with regional Benches. The
Ministry cited three grounds for rejecting the idea - The Supreme Court always sits in Delhi as per the
Constitution; the Chief Justices of India in the past have "consistently opposed" the idea of an NCA or
regional benches to the Supreme Court; and the Attorney-General said an NCA would "completely change
the constitution of the Supreme Court".
The Supreme Court in March 2016 decided to form a Constitution Bench to debate the idea of an NCA. A
Bench led by Chief Justice of India T.S. Thakur said that it was time to debate if the Supreme Court was
too burdened to provide equal justice to all. A verdict in favour of NCA would act as a great influence on
Parliament to amend the Constitution itself to make room for NCA.
Ireland has enacted the law for NCA in 2013 after six years' debate.


The government, however, holds that the idea is a "fruitless endeavour" and will not lessen the burden of 2
Crore cases pending in trial courts. On April 26, 2016, Attorney-General told the bench, "We will only be
adding to lawyers' pockets. The Supreme Court should not consider this when its own dockets are full." Legal
experts feel that setting up of regional benches will dilute the constitutional superiority of the Supreme Court.
Dilution of the Supreme Court and its aura as an apex court may not be in line with the concept of the
Supreme Court envisioned by the architects of the Constitution.
Ideally, there is only one Supreme Court. The issue of proximity is relevant only up to high courts and can't
be extended to the Supreme Court. There are enough high court benches to address that issue. Then you need
to have a super Supreme Court to settle the difference of opinions between different benches.


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The Supreme Court in Writ Petition directed to provide a NOTA option on the EVM and ballot papers
so that the electors who do not want to vote for any of the candidates can exercise their option in secrecy.
The Supreme Court held that the provisions of Rule 49-O under which an elector not wishing to vote
for any candidate had to inform the Presiding Officer about his decision, are ultra vires Article 19 of the
Constitution and Section 128 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
Rule 49-O was a rule in the Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961 of India, which governs elections in the
country. It described the procedure to be followed when a valid voter decides not to cast his vote, and
decides to record this fact.

49-O states that if an elector, after his electoral roll number has been duly entered in the register of

voters in Form 17A and has put his signature or thumb impression thereon as required under sub-rule
(1) of rule 49L, decided not to record his vote, a remark to this effect shall be made against the said
entry in Form 17A by the presiding officer and the signature or thumb impression of the elector shall
be obtained against such remark.
Positive features in NOTA:
a) Voter's participation is an essence of democracy. Introducing a NOTA button can increase the public
participation in an electoral process.
b) NOTA option gives the voter the right to express his disapproval with the kind of candidates that are
being put up by the political parties.
c) For democracy to survive, it is essential that the best available men should be chosen as people's

representatives for proper governance of the country. Thus in a vibrant democracy, the voter must be
given an opportunity to choose 'None of the Above' (NOTA) button, which will indeed compel the
political parties to nominate a sound candidate. This situation palpably tells us the dire need of negative
Negative features in NOTA:
a) As per the provisions of clause (a) of Rule 64 of Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961, read with Section
65 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, the candidate who has polled the largest number of
valid votes is to be declared elected by the Returning Officer. NOTA do not mean rejection. That may
sound self-defeating to the whole point of NOTA but according to Indian democracy the rule of first past
the post is declared the winner. Thus, if out of total 10,000 votes, 9999 voters elect NOTA option and
just one candidate gets even a single vote, then the latter wins from that constituency.
NOTA can only work only when it is paired with Right To Recall option where voters can recall
candidates they have elected. This will instill fear in candidates to do well in office and also lead to giving
NOTA importance because it acts as a pre-cursor to public displeasure. Currently, Right To Recall does
not exist in the electoral process in the country, which only weakens NOTA.

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Ministry of Women and Child Development has unveiled the draft National Policy for Women 2016.
Salient features of the National policy for women empowerment:
a) To create a society with women working as equal partners in all spheres of life
b) To develop a framework to ensure equal rights and opportunities for women
c) To make cyber space a safe place for women and to address "redistribution of gender roles, for reducing
unpaid care work, review of personal and customary laws in accordance with the Constitutional provisions
and many more."

d) It also seeks to review the criminalization of marital rape keeping women's rights in mind
e) Health and education of women have been kept a priority in the proposed draft
f) The draft has proposed to "improve access to pre-primary education, enrolment and retention of adolescent
g) To carry out skill development and provide equal employment opportunities

h) To provide suitable benefits related to maternity and child care services

i) The draft plans to increase women's participation in the political, administration, civil services and
corporate boardrooms arena
j) To address all forms of violence against women
k) To improve child sex ratio (CSR)

l) To prevent trafficking at source, transit and destination areas for effective monitoring of the networks
m) Operational strategies
n) To enable safety and security of women with the help of "One Stop Centres, Women Helpline, Mahila
Police Volunteers, Reservation of women in police force, Panic buttons in mobiles, Surveillance mechanisms
in public places.
o) To create eco-systems to encourage entrepreneurship amongst women. This has been proposed to be done
through podiums like Mahila E-Haat et.
p) Aiding women in workplace through "flexi timings, increased maternity leave, provision of child care/
creches at workplace, life cycle health care facilities."

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Neeranchal will lead to reducing surface runoff of rainwater, increasing recharge of ground water and
better availability of water in rainfed areas resulting in incremental rainfed agriculture productivity, enhanced
milk yield and increased cropping intensity through better convergence related programmes in project
The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development.
It is a six-year period (2016-21) will support the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana in hydrology and
water management, agricultural production systems, capacity building and monitoring and evaluation.

The Neeranchal project was approved by the cabinet with Bugdet sharing of 50% by Govt and rest 50%
by the World Bank.

All 28 states which implement the watershed projects will benefit from Neeranchal.
12% of the area which can be called as wasteland will be targeted through this project to make about 336
lakh hectares of land arable.
Neeranchal is primarily designed to address the following concerns:
a) Bring about institutional changes in watershed and rainfed agricultural management practices in India,
b) Build systems that ensure watershed programmes and rainfed irrigation management practices are better
focussed, and more coordinated, and have quantifiable results,
c) Devise strategies for the sustainability of improved watershed. Management practices in programme
areas, even after the withdrawal of project support,

d) Through the watershed plus approach, support improved equity, livelihoods, and incomes through
forward linkages, on a platform of inclusiveness and local participation.

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Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient
solutions in a water solvent. Terrestrial plants may be grown with only their roots exposed to the mineral
solution, or the roots may be supported by an inert medium, such as perlite or gravel. The nutrients in
hydroponics can be from fish waste, duck manure, or normal nutrients.
With hydroponics the plants are grown in an inert growing medium and a perfectly balanced, pH adjusted
nutrient solution is delivered to the roots in a highly soluble form. This allows the plant to uptake its food
with very little effort as opposed to soil where the roots must search out the nutrients and extract them. This
is true even when using rich, organic soil and top of the line nutrients. The energy expended by the roots in
this process is energy better spent on vegetative growth and fruit and flower production.

No soil is needed for hydroponics.
The water stays in the system and can be reused - thus, a lower water requirement.
It is possible to control the nutrition levels in their entirety - thus, lower nutrition requirements.
No nutrition pollution is released into the environment because of the controlled system.

Stable and high yields.

Pests and diseases are easier to get rid of than in soil because of the container's mobility.
Ease of harvesting.
No pesticide damage.

Without soil as a buffer, any failure to the hydroponic system leads to rapid plant death. Other disadvantages
include pathogen attacks such as damp-off due to Verticillium wilt caused by the high moisture levels associated
with hydroponics and over watering of soil based plants. Also, many hydroponic plants require different
fertilizers and containment systems.

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The cricket is the only sport of India which has its place in hearts all people of India. But the Board of Control
for Cricket in India (BCCI) which administers the game in the nation, however, continues to be mired in one
controversy after another as large political interference, corruption, match fixing or betting, etc.
Especially after advent of IPL, match fixing and corruption has become a more common notion in the cricket
of India. This is the reason why Supreme Court interfere in this matter and appoint Lodha committee to give
final verdict for IPL scandal and recommendations for reforms in BCCI.
The Justice RM Lodha Committee made several groundbreaking recommendations to the Supreme Court.
These include almost a complete restructuring of the BCCI, creation of a separate body to govern IPL, a ban

on ministers or government servants holding posts in the BCCI, and more.
The recommendations are:
Lodha panel wants BCCI to come under RTI Act.
Lodha panel recommends legalisation of betting.
c) Lodha panel proposes one person one post. Also no proxy voting of individuals
d) No BCCI office-bearer can have more than two consecutive terms.
e) No BCCI office-bearer can be Minister or government servant, recommends Lodha panel.
f) In no case President will hold post for more than 2 years.
g) Lodha panel recommends a steering committee headed by former Home Secy G K Pillai with Mohinder

Amarnath, Diana Eduljee and Anil Kumble.

h) Panel recommends separate governing bodies for the IPL and BCCI.
i) Lodha Committee recommends relegation of Railways, Services and Universities as Associate members.
They also lose voting rights.
j) Punishment and reforms were the main tasks for the Lodha committee.

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Motion of Thanks is a motion in Indian Parliament which follows the address of the President of India to the
joint sitting of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha at the commencement of first session of a new Lok Sabha and
first session of every year.
Presidents address is the speech delivered by the President of India to both Houses of Parliament
assembled together at the commencement of the first session after each general election to Lok Sabha and
at the commencement of the first session of each year (this is usually the budget session). This speech
is a statement of the government policy and is approved by the cabinet.
The president highlights legislative and policy activities of the government, achievements of the previous

year and broad agenda of the upcoming year.
This address is followed by a Motion of Thanks, which is moved in each house by an MP of the ruling
The deliberations on this motion last for three to four days. The deliberations allow the opposition to
critically discuss the governments vision, scope and policies.
At the end of these discussions, the Prime Minister gives replies to the points or questions raised.

After the reply of the PM is over, the Members of Parliament vote on this motion of thanks. This motion
must be passed in both of the houses. A failure to get motion of thanks passed (which may happen rarely)
amounts to defeat of government and leads to collapse of government.
This is why, the Motion of Thanks is deemed to be a no-confidence motion. However, before such voting,
some members may also move amendment to the address. Such amendments may be: for emphasising

or adding issues addressed by the president for including some issues or highlight some issues which did
not find mention in the speech there have already been three instances so far.
Amendment to Motion of Thanks
For the second year in a row, an Opposition-sponsored amendment to theMotion of Thanks on the Presidents
Addresshas been adopted by the Rajya Sabha. Last year, theMotion of Thankswas amended on the issue of
black money; this year, the amendment focussed on legislation passed by Bharatiya Janata Party governments
in Rajasthan and Haryana limiting the rights of citizens to contest panchayat elections. Before 2015, there were
just three occasions on which the Presidents Address was amended in the Rajya Sabha, once each during the
tenures of Indira Gandhi, V.P. Singh and Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
The first instance of such an amendment to the Motion of Thanks came in 1980 on the issue of engineering
defections. The second was in 1989, when six amendments including on the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri
Masjid dispute and the India-Sri Lanka accord were approved. The third occasion was in 2001, when the
House adopted an amendment on the sale of a public sector undertaking, Balco, to a private company. These
were all politically contentious issues. So was the issue on which the Opposition parties mobilised themselves
this year, and it raises vital questions for democracy.

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Presently, Indian ports handle more than 90% of Indias total EXIM trade volume. However, the current
proportion of merchandize trade in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India is only 42%, whereas for some
developed countries and regions in the world such as Germany and European Union, it is 75% and 70%
The growth of Indias maritime sector is constrained due to many developmental, procedural and policy related
challenges viz. involvement of multiple agencies in development of infrastructure to promote industrialization,
trade, tourism and transportation; presence of a dual institutional structure that has led to development of major
and non-major ports as separate, unconnected entities; lack of requisite infrastructure for evacuation from major

and non-major ports leading to sub-optimal transport modal mix; limited hinterland linkages that increases the
cost of transportation and cargo movement; limited development of centres for manufacturing and urban and
economic activities in the hinterland; low penetration of coastal and inland shipping in India, limited mechanization

and procedural bottlenecks and lack of scale, deep draft and other facilities at various ports in India.
The Sagarmala initiative will address these challenges by focusing on three pillars of development, namely
(i) Supporting and enabling Port-led Development through appropriate policy and institutional interventions
and providing for an institutional framework for ensuring inter-agency and ministries/departments/states
collaboration for integrated development,
(ii) Port Infrastructure Enhancement, including modernization and setting up of new ports, and
(iii) Efficient Evacuation to and from hinterland.
Benefits of Sagarmala Project

Sagarmala will lead to large scale employment generation of skilled and semi-skilled manpower in industrial
clusters and parks, large ports, maritime services, logistics services, and other sectors of the economy that
will be directly and indirectly impacted by port-led development under Sagarmala.
Manufacture of ships, vessels, cruise ships, barges and tugs will also increase industrial output and also
contribute to employment generation.
It will result in sustainable development of the population living in the Coastal Economic Zones (CEZ)
by synergising and coordinating with State Governments and line Ministries of Central Government
through their existing schemes and programmes such as those related to community and rural development,
tribal development and employment generation, fisheries, skill development, tourism promotion etc.
Today about 70 lakhs persons are dependent on fisheries for their livelihood.
It will enhance the capacity of major and non-major ports and modernize them to make them efficient,
thereby enabling them to become drivers of port-led economic development, optimizing the use of
existing and future transport assets and developing new lines/linkages for transport (including roads, rail,
inland waterways and coastal routes), setting up of logistics hubs, and establishment of industries and
manufacturing centres to be served by the ports in EXIM and domestic trade.
It also aims at simplifying procedures used at ports for cargo movement and promotes usage of electronic
channels for information exchange leading to quick, efficient, hassle-free and seamless cargo movement.

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The Lokpal is the central governing body that has jurisdiction over all members of parliament and central
government employees in case of corruption. Whereas, the Lokayukta is similar to the Lokpal, but functions
on a state level. Scope of the Lokpal is based on a national government level basis and the scope of the
Lokayukta relied on a state level.
The main function is to address complaints of corruption, to make inquiries, investigations, and to conduct
trials for the case on respective state and central government with having responsibility to help in curbing the
corruption in the central and state government.
Salient features of the Act

1. TheLokpalto consist of a Chairperson and a maximum of eight Members, of which fifty percent shall
be judicial Members. Fifty per cent of members ofLokpalshall be from amongst SC, ST, OBCs, Minorities
and Women.
2. The selection of Chairperson and Members ofLokpalshall be through a Selection Committee consisting
a) Prime Minister;

b) Speaker ofLokSabha;
c) Leader of Opposition in theLokSabha;
d) Chief Justice of India or a sitting Supreme Court Judge nominated by CJI;
e) An eminent jurist to be nominated by the President of India

3. A Search Committee will assist the Selection Committee in the process of selection.Fifty per cent of
members of the Search Committee shall also be from amongst SC, ST, OBCs, Minorities and Women.
4. Lokpalsjurisdiction will cover all categories of public servants including Group A, B, C & D officers
and employees of Government.On complaints referred to CVC byLokpal, CVC will send its report of
Preliminary enquiry in respect of Group A and B officers back toLokpalfor further decision.With
respect to Group C and D employees, CVC will proceed further in exercise of its own powers under
the CVC Act subject to reporting and review byLokpal.
5. All entities receiving donations from foreign source in the context of the Foreign Contribution Regulation
Act (FCRA) in excess of Rs. 10lakhsper year are brought under the jurisdiction of Lokpal.
6. Lokpalwill have power of superintendence and direction over any investigation agency including CBI for
cases referred to them byLokpal.
7. A high powered Committee chaired by the Prime Minister will recommend selection of the Director, CBI.
8. Attachment and confiscation of property of public servants acquired by corrupt means, even while
prosecution is pending.


Enquiry procedure
The Lokpals inquiry wing is required to inquire into complaints within 60 days of their reference. On
considering an inquiry report the Lokpal shall-
(i) order an investigation; (ii) initiate departmental proceedings; or (iii) close the case and proceed against the
complainant for making a false and frivolous complaint. The investigation shall be completed within 6 months.
The Lokpal may initiate prosecution through its Prosecution Wing before the Special Court set up to adjudicate
cases. The trial shall be completed within a maximum of two years.
The recent amendment has amended Section 44.
Now the every public servantshall make declaration of their assets and liabilities in the form and manner as
prescribed by government. It has abolished the previous 30 days timeline.
b) Gives extension of the time given to public servants and trustees and board members of Non-Governmental
Organisations (NGOs) to declare their assets and those of their spouses.


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Gender Budgeting is a powerful tool for achieving gender mainstreaming so as to ensure that benefits of
development reach women as much as men. It is a tool for gender empowerment. (Gender empowerment
includes opening up access to decision-making processes that make women to perceive themselves as able and
entitled to occupy decision-making space).
Gender Budgeting was introduced by the government in 2005-06 in order to ensure that policy commitments
are backed by financial outlays and that the gender perspective is incorporated in all stages of a policy or a
The purpose of GB is to ensure the translation of Governments policy commitments on gender equity into
budgetary allocations.

The Gender Budgetary allocations of the Union Government are reflected in two parts. The first part- Part A
includes Schemes with 100% allocation for women while Part B of the Statement includes Schemes/Programmes
with 30% to 99% allocation for women.
A gender-sensitive budget aims at examining budgetary resource allocations through a gender lens. It is not a
separate budget for women; rather it is a dissection of the government budget to establish its gender-specific
impact and to translate gender commitments into budgetary commitments. It also examines the gendered
incidence of budgetary policies for effective targeting of public spending, and offsetting any undesirable gender-

specific consequences of previous budgetary measures.

There are a range of different actors who can be involved in Gender Budgeting. They have different roles and
carryout different activities. Some of them are:
Ministry of Finance (both at the Centre &State)

Ministry of Women & Child Development/Social Welfare Department

Comptroller and Auditor General of India /Local Audit Departments
Sectoral ministries like Health, Education, Labour, Agriculture, Power, Roadways, Urban Development,
Researchers, Economists and Statisticians
Civil Society Organizations and Budget Groups
Parliamentarians, Budget Committees of both Houses, and other representatives of the people at district
and sub-district levels.
Development Partners/Donors etc.
But many misleading and patriarchal assumptions limit the scope of Gender Budgeting. Sectors such as Water
Supply, Sanitation, and Food & Public Distribution still remain outside the purview of the Gender Budgeting

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Mental health is defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential,
can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution
to her or his community.
The National Mental Health Policy is based, inter-alia, on the values and principles of equity, justice, integrated
and evidence based care, quality, participatory and holistic approach to mental health.
It enlists the comprehensive list of vulnerable groups, which include the poor (who are linked with mental
illnesses in a negative vicious cycle), the homeless (who have no provision for care and support), persons
in custodial institutions (who face a deprivation of personal liberty), orphans, children, the elderly and people

affected by emergencies and various natural or man-made disasters.
Its goals and objectives include the following:

problems across life-span of a person,
to enhance understanding of mental health in the country,
to reduce distress, disability, exclusion, morbidity and premature mortality associated with mental health
to provide universal access to mental health care,
to increase access to mental health services for vulnerable groups,
to reduce risk and incidence of suicide and attempted suicide,
to ensure respect for rights and protection from harm of persons with mental health problems, and reduce
stigma associated with mental health problems

to enhance availability and distribution of skilled human resources for mental health.
It also recognises the fact that mental health is linked to many other aspects of life, and thus recommends
allocation of funds not just to the governments health department but also to other sectors such as social
welfare, school education and women and child development.
In addition to the treatment of mental illnesses, the policy also stresses the need to prevent such problems and
promote mental health. It places the onus of such promotion on early childhood care itself, by targeting
anganwadi centres for children below six years of age.
The policy aims to train anganwadi workers and school teachers to help parents and care-givers understand the
physical and emotional needs of children to facilitate and affirmative and positive environment for their
growth. It also proposes teaching mandatory life skills education in schools and colleges that, among other
things, includes discussions on issues of gender and social exclusion.
To bring down rates of suicide in India, the policy talks of setting up crisis intervention centres, training
community leaders to recognise risk factors, restricting access to means of suicide and also framing guidelines
for responsible media reporting of the issue.

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The National Health Mission was launched to provide effective health care to the entire rural population
in the country.
The core strategy of the mission is to provide well trained female health activist (Accredited Social
Health Activist- ASHA) in each village (1/1000 population) to fill the gap of unequal distribution of
health services in rural area.
ASHAs are expected to create awareness on health and its determinants, mobilize the community towards
local health planning, and increase utilization of the existing health services.
Responsibilities of ASHA will be as follows:

a) ASHA will take steps to create awareness and provide information to the community on determinants of
health. such as nutrition, basic sanitation and hygienic practices, healthy living and working conditions,
information on existing health services, and the need for timely utilization of health and family welfare services.
b) She will counsel, women on birth preparedness, importance of safe delivery, breast-feeding and
complementary feeding, immunization, contraception and prevention of common infections including
reproductive tract infection/sexually transmitted infection and care of the young child.
c) ASHA will mobilize the community and facilitate them in accessing health and health related services

available at the Anganwadi/sub-centre/primary health centres, such as immunization, ante natal check-up,
post natal check-up, supplementary nutrition, sanitation and other services being provided by the government.
d) She will work with the village health and sanitation committee of the gram panchayat to develop a
comprehensive village health plan.
e) She will arrange escort/accompany pregnant women and children requiring treatment/admission to the nearest

pre-identified health facility i.e. primary health centre/community health centre/First Referral Unit.
f) ASHA will provide primary medical care for minor ailments such as diarrhoea, fevers, and first-aid for
minor injuries. She will be a provider of directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) under revised
national tuberculosis control programme.
g) She will also act as a depot holder for essential provisions being made available to every habitation like
oral rehydration therapy, iron folic acid tablet, chloroquine, disposable delivery kits, oral pills and condoms
etc. A drug kit will be provided to each ASHA. Contents of the, kit will be based on the recommendations
of the expert/technical advisory group set up by the-government of India, and include both AYUSH and
allopathic formulations.
h) Her role as a provider can be enhanced subsequently. States can explore the possibility of graded training
to her for providing newborn care and management of a range of common ailments, particularly childhood
i) She Will inform about the .births and deaths in hervillage and any unusual health problems/disease
outbreaks in the community to the sub-centre/primary health centre.
j) She will promote construction of household toilets under total sanitation campaign.


Role and integration with Anganwadi:

Anganwadi worker will guide ASHA in performing following activities:
(a) Organizing Health Day once/twice a month. On health day, the, women, adolescent girls and children
from the village will be mobilized for orientation on health related issues such as importance of nutritious
food, personal hygiene, care during pregnancy, importance of antenatal check- up and institutional delivery,
home remedies for minor ailment and importance of immunization etc. AWWs will inform ANM to
participate and guide organizing the Health Days at Anganwadi centre;
(b) AWWs and ANMs will act as resource persons for the training of ASHA;
(c) ICE activity through display of posters folk dances etc. on these days can be undertaken to sensitize the
beneficiaries on health-related issues;
(d) Anganwadi worker will be depot holder for drug kits and will be issuing it to ASHA. The replacement of
the consumed drugs can also be done through AWW;

(e) AWW will update the list of eligible couples and also the children less than one year of age in the village
with the help of ASHA; and

ASHA will support the AWW in mobilizing pregnant and lactating women and infants for nutrition
supplement. She would also take initiative for bringing the beneficiaries from the village on specific days
of immunization, health check-ups/ health days etc. to Anganwadi centres.

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Theoceanic zonebegins in the area off shore where the water measures 200 meters (656feet) deep or deeper.
It is the region of open sea beyond the edge of the continental shelf and includes 65% of the oceans
completely open water. The oceanic zone has a wide array of undersea terrain, including crevices that are often
deeper thanMount Everestis tall, as well as deep-sea volcanoes and ocean basins. While it is often difficult
for life to sustain itself in this type of environment, some species do thrive in the oceanic zone.


The ocean can be divided into many zones. The ocean bottom is the benthic zone and the water itself (or the
water column) is the pelagic zone. The neritic zone is that part of the pelagic zone that extends from the high
tide line to an ocean bottom less than 600 feet deep. Water deeper than 600 feet is called the oceanic zone,
which itself is divided on the basis of water depth into the epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic zones.
The epipelagic (euphotic) zone, also called the sunlit zone, receives enough sunlight to support photosynthesis.
The temperatures in this zone range anywhere from 40 to 3C (104 to 27F) (NHPTV).


The mesopelagic (disphotic) zone, where only small amounts of light penetrate, lies below the epipelagic zone.
This zone is often referred to as the Twilight Zone due to its scarce amount of light. Temperatures in the
mesopelagic zone range from 5 to 4C (41 to 39F). The pressure is higher here, it can be up to 1,470 pounds
per square inch (10,100,000Pa) and increases with depth (NHPTV).
90% of the ocean lies in the bathypelagic (aphotic) zone into which no light penetrates. This is also called the
midnight zone. Water pressure is very intense and the temperatures are near freezing (range 0 to 6C (32 to
Marine life:
Oceanographers have divided the ocean into zones based on how far light reaches. All of the light zones can
be found in the oceanic zone. The epipelagic zone is the one closest to the surface and is the best lit. It extends
to 200 meters and contains both phytoplankton and zooplankton that can support larger organisms like marine
mammals and some types of fish. Past 200 meters, not enough light penetrates the water to support life, and
no plant life exists (NHPTV).

There are creatures however, which thrive around hydrothermal vents, or geysers located on the ocean floor
that expel super heated water that is rich in minerals.These organisms feed off of chemosynthetic bacteria,
which use the super heated water and chemicals from the hydrothermal vents to create energy in place of

photosynthesis. The existence of these bacteria allow creatures like squids, hatchet fish, octopuses, tube worms,
giant clams, spider crabs and other organisms to survive (Knight).
Due to the total darkness in the zones past the epipelagic zone, many organisms that survive in the deep oceans
do not have eyes, and other organisms make their own light with bioluminescence. Often the light is blue green
in colour, because many marine organisms are sensitive to blue light.

Two chemicals, luciferin and luciferase that react with one another to create a soft glow. The process by which
bioluminescence is created is very similar to what happens when a glow stick is broken. Deep-sea organisms
use bioluminescence for everything from luring prey to navigation (Knight).
Animals such as fish, whales, and sharks are found in the oceanic zone.

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What is cold wave?
Cold wave is characterized by a rapid and marked fall of temperature. The term cold describes an unusual
fall in temperature that is triggered by the transport of cold air masses into a specific area.
The wave in cold wave is apparent in the upper-air flow (the jet stream), which is usually amplified into a
strong ridge-trough pattern during a major cold outbreak.
Cold waves affect much larger areas than blizzards, ice storms, and other winter hazards.
Formation of Cold Waves

The core requirement of a cold wave at the surface is a strong high pressure center that forms during winter
in high latitudes.

Cold polar or Arctic air masses are relatively shallow, extending one to several kilometre above the surface.

What damage can arise?

The cold wave can negatively impact the safety of aviation operations.
Fatal accidents can occur if people fail to adapt their driving to road conditions.
Ice rain can cause ice fractures in trees and telephone wires.
Exposure to extreme and especially unexpected cold can lead to hypothermia and frostbite, which can
cause death and injury.
Cold waves can be forecast by modern weather forecasting. The weather forecasts can disseminate useful
warnings to prevent traffic accidents.
Contemporary examples of cold waves:
February 2016 North American cold wave
January 2016 East Asia cold wave
February 2015 North American cold wave


November 2014 North American cold wave

Early 2014 North American cold wave
January 2017 North India observed the cold wave.
Cold wave in context with India in 2017:
An active western disturbance is affecting Western Himalayan region and northern India,this disturbance
affects the states like, J&K, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, West Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Chandigarh and
some part of north Rajasthan furthermore, a cold wave at a few places in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Vidarbha
and interior Odisha has been observed.
Effects and weather conditions:
In Himachal Pradesh -Shimla received heavy rainfall, likewise, cold wave intensified in Dharmashala. Uttar
Pradeshs Moradabad received light rain showers, lucknow has records decades coldest days; in Uttarakhand
the upper reaches of Nainital received snowfall. Srinagar- Jammu national highway was closed, virtually cutting

of the vally from rest of the country.
Avalanche prone areas of Baramulla, Kupwara, Bandipora, Kistawar, Rajauri, Doda, Poonch and Riyasi

district of J&K goes on high alert and classified as medium danger for peoples movement.

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The index of Industrial Production (IIP) conveys the status of production in the industrial sector of an
economy in a given period of time, in comparison with a fixed reference point in the past.
IIP is a composite indicator that measures the growth rate of industry groups classified under,
1. Broad sectors, namely, Mining, Manufacturing and Electricity
2. Use-based sectors, namely Basic Goods, Capital Goods and Intermediate Goods.
The IIP numbers, in India use 2004-05 as the base year for comparison. The current Index of Industrial
Production (IIP) with base 2004-05 has a broader coverage of 682 items comprising 61 from Mining &
Quarrying, 620 from Manufacturing and 1 from Electricity Sector having the weightage of 14.16%, 75.53% and

10.32% respectively in the all-India IIP.
The Eight Core Industries comprise nearly 38% of the weight of items included in the Index of Industrial
Production (IIP). They are Coal, Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Petroleum Refinery Products,Fertilizers,Steel, Cement
& Electricity.
It is compiled and published monthly by theCentral Statistical Organisation(CSO) six weeks after the reference
month ends.

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Population is the basic element of the state. With 1,210,000,000 (1.21 billion) people, India is currently the
worlds second largest country in terms of population representing a full 17% of the earths population. Indias
2011 census showed that the countrys population had grown by 181 million people in the prior decade.
Indias high population growth results in increasingly impoverished and sub-standard conditions for growing
segments of the Indian population. Population plays an important role in economic development of the
country. The human resource of the country if skilled and trained contribute to the growth whereas on the
other hand illiterate and unskilled population full of ethnic and linguistic diversities acts as havoc for the nation.
It may pose serious threat to the survival of mankind.

Thus for the improvement in family planning services government has launched Mission Parivar Vikas.
Objectives of the scheme:

The main objective of Mission Parivas Vikas is to accelerate access to high quality family planning
choices based on information, reliable services and supplies within a rights-based framework.
Improve access to contraceptives through delivering assured services, dovetailing with new promotional
schemes, ensuring commodity security.
It will also ensure building capacity (service providers), creating an enabling environment along with close
monitoring and implementation.
District selection criteria for this programme:
The government will implement the programme in all the 145 district in one go. The target of the government
is to reach the replacement level fertility goals of these districts 2.1 by the year 2025.

These 145 districts are in the seven high focus, high TFR (Total Fertility Rate) states of Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Assam that constitute 44% of the countrys
population.They also have a substantial impact on maternal and child health indicators. As about 25 to
30% of maternal deaths and 50% of infant deaths occur in these districts.
These 145 districts have TFR of more than/equal to 3.0 (56% of the 261 districts in the 7 HFS) and are
home to 28% of Indias population (about 33 Crores). However, only 22% of Indias protected couples
and 40% of Indias couples with unmet need reside in these districts.
They also have a substantial impact on maternal and child health indicators. About 25 to 30% of maternal
deaths and 50% of infant deaths occur in these districts.
Moreover, 115 of these districts (79%) have high percentage of adolescent mothers.

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Agro Terrorism refers to disease/pest outbreaks in the agrarian sector, which are deliberately brought about by
malafide intentions.
The goal of agro-terrorism is not to kill cows or plants. These are the means to the end of causing economic
damage, social unrest, and loss of confidence in government. Human health could be at risk if contaminated
food reaches the table or if an animal pathogen is transmissible to humans (zoonotic).
Agro terrorists could release damaging insects, viruses, bacteria, fungi or other microbes as bio-weapons that
are mainly aimed at wiping out crops or farm animals. They also could attempt to poison processed foods also.
Past Incidences:

The incidences of agro terrorism in Colorado during WW II, attacks on Cuban crops, the citrus tanker disease
in Florida and deliberate attacks in Sri Lanka are some of the cited examples.
Dangers from exotic pests:
In the case of crops, the important diseases includebunchy topin banana,potato wart, downy mildewin
sunflower, chickpea blight, San Jose scalein apple,coffee berry borer, the invasive weed Lantana Camara and
more recently thebiotype B of whitefly Bemisiatabaci(most efficient vector of the tomato leaf curl virus).

Agro-Terrorist Weapons:
Diseases that have the potential to be used as bio-weapons by agro terrorists are listed below:
1. Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens
(a) Fire blight in apple and pear.

(b) Black pod in cocoa.

(c) Powdery rust in coffee.
(d) Sudden death in oak.
2. Virus, Viroid and Phytoplasma
(a) Barley stripe virus.
(b) Coconut cadang-cadang.
(c) Palm lethal yellowing.
3. Plant Parasitic Nematodes
(a) Pine wood nematode.
(b) Red ring nematode in coconut.


4. Insect Pests
(a) Mediterranean fruit fly.
(b) Cotton boll weevil.
(c) Russian wheat aphid.
Integrated Pest Surveillance System:
To deal with the agro-terrorism an organised system dedicated to carry out pest risk analysis against identified
quarantine pests need to be established which will
a) Perform field inspection and pest survey activities for the detection, delimitation or monitoring of established
b) Detect new pests.
c) Establish specific systems for identification, establishment and maintenance of -pest-free areas according

to international standards.
Prevention and early detection:

agro terrorists on their crops/ animals/livestock . OR
Proper education and awareness programmes for the Villages to ward off intentional attacks by suspected

Equip them with the emergency curative measures to be taken in such a situation.
c) DDMAsshould ensure that there is enough stock of disinfectants and vaccines for animals and chemicals,
biopesticides and biocontrol agents to save crops from any suspected attack.
d) For imports, the quarantine network need to be be strengthened especially at land frontiers of the country
through which agro terrorists can easily bring in exotic pests.

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The Government has issued Notification on 21st October, 2016 amending rule 23 of the Conduct of Elections
Rules, 1961 enabling service voters, including armed forces personnel, to cast their vote in elections through
e-postal ballot.
What is e-postal ballot?
Under this system a blank postal ballot paper is transmitted to them electronically.
Voters entitled to postal ballot such as service voters, can download the postal ballot and print the blank postal
ballot. After marking his vote in the blank postal ballot, the same would be returned to the concerned
Returning Officer by post as in the present system of postal ballot.

What will be the benefits?
This would cut short the delay experienced in the present system in two-way transmission of ballot paper by
the postal services. The armed forces personnel serving in remote and border areas would be greatly benefitted
since the present system of two-way transmission of ballot paper by the postal services has not been able to
meet the expectations of the service voters.
Who are the main beneficiaries?

On a pilot basis, e-postal ballot system has been introduced for service voters consisting of (a) armed police
forces of the Union; (b) other forces subject to the provisions of the Army Act, 1950; (c) armed forces of
a State serving outside that State; and (d) those employed under the Government of India in a post outside

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Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister approved the establishment of a National Academic Depository (NAD).
The government is creating an online database NAD where all academic certificates will be available in digital
format by the end of next year. In NAD all academic degrees, certificates and awards would be digitally
available for verification. The NAD would be established and operationalize in three months and would be
rolled out throughout the country in 2017-18.
Academic institutions would be directed to upload and authenticate all documents in digital form.
The database will be established in an electronic format by an identified registered depository, with all institutes,
including school boards, the Indian Institutes of Technology, the National Institutes of Technology and

polytechnics from different States having linkages to the depository.
Who will operationalize NAD?

NSDL Database Management Limited (NDML) and CDSL Ventures Limited (CVL), wholly-owned subsidiaries
of the Depositories registered under the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Act, 1992, would
operationalize the NAD.
Would it require a Bill?
No. After the nod from the Union Cabinet the measure would be implemented with this decision and it would
not require the introduction of a Bill.
What are the security features in NAD?
1. It will provide digital or a printed copy of the academic award with security features to the students or
other authorised users.

2. NAD will verify academic awards online on the same day of request initiated by any authorised user.
3. Requests for access to academic awards, for example, from potential employers, and academic institutions
would be only on the basis of consent of the student.
4. NAD shall maintain the authenticity, integrity and confidentiality of its database. It will also train and
facilitate academic institutions/boards/ eligibility assessment bodies to efficiently lodge academic awards
in the database.
The database will help the administration effectively deal with forged certificates and fake degree rackets, and
enable online verification and easy retrieval of particulars of academic qualifications. Students will also benefit
for, they need not worry about spoilage of certificates over time and getting their certificates attested.
How will it improve the current situation?
Once NAD will be operationalize fake degrees would become a thing of the past. However, only recognised
institutions would be asked to upload the degrees.
Benefits of NAD
a) Students & Certificate Holders


Early receipt of online certificates as compared to physical certificates.

Online, 24/7 access to all certificate records and no risk of losing, mutilation etc.
Easy acceptability of online verifiable certificates without requiring attested copies, original presentation.
Easy facility for applying for and obtaining duplicate copy of the certificates.
Easy facility to submit verifiable copy of the certificate to employers, higher educational institutes.
Admissions, Jobs, Loans becomes easier.
b) Academic Institutes
Digital front-end for academic institutes to deliver online services for academic certificates.
Reduction in the cost and efforts for certificate issuance and verification activities.
IT Back-end for maintaining updated data of certificates.
Reduces the menace of Fake & Forged Certificates.

Reports & Analysis
c) Certificate Verification Users
Centralized system enabling verification of academic awards of various academic institutions at a single
Online verification of academic awards thereby reducing the time and cost involved in verification.

Quicker processing of underlying Job application, Loan application and Admission application.
Fully Online, Transparent and Auditable system reduces the need for intermediation and associated risks.

Trending Topics


The Heart of Asia-Istanbul Process (HoA) was founded on November 2nd, 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey to
address the shared challenges and interests of Afghanistan and its neighbours and regional partners. It will
also contribute to the stability and prosperity to Afghanistans extended neighbourhood in South Asia, Central
Asia and West Asia.

The Heart of Asia-Istanbul Process was launched in 2011 and the participating countries include Pakistan,
Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, China, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Turkey,
Turkmenistan and the United Arab Emirates.

Three pillars of this conference process are:

Political Consultations: Political consultation involving Afghanistan and its near and extended neighbours

Confidence Building Measures (CBMs): Areas for CBMs identified in the Istanbul Process document are
Disaster management, Counter-terrorism, Counter-narcotics, Trade, Commerce and Investment, Regional
infrastructure, and Education.

Cooperation with Regional Organizations

Key Highlights of the Sixth Conference

a) Menace of terrorism dominated the Amritsar meet

o Amritsar Declarationnamed the terrorist organisations that are jeopardising the security situation in

This was a big blow to Pakistan asalmost all the terrorist organisations which are named in the
declaration are based in Pakistan.

The declarationmentions two groups targeting India, Lashkar-e-Taiba and the Jaish-e-Mohammad,
in addition to the Haqqani network, among the organisations causing a high level of violence in
Afghanistan and the region.

b) A regional approach to eliminate terrorism is suggested:

o It included dismantling of terrorist sanctuaries and safe havens in the Heart of Asia region, as well as
disrupting all financial, tactical and logistical support for terrorism.

o It also includes tapping the capacities of political and religious leaders, civil society, mass media and
social networks in the fight against terror.

c) The declaration asks for early finalization of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism
with consensus.

d) For the first time, a Heart of Asia declaration has expressed concern at the violence caused in Afghanistan
and the region by groups like al-Qaeda and Daesh, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad etc.


e) The declaration has spoken of the dangers emanating from the increase in production and cultivation of
opium in Afghanistan, the volume of drug trafficking and demand in the HoA Region and beyond.
f) Afghanistan rejected Pakistans offer of $500 million for reconstruction of Afghanistan, and advised it to
use the money to counter terrorist activities emanating from Pakistan.