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Behavior intervention plan

Jennifer Smutek

Articles in connection with BIP

Saul Axelrod explains how Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and

positive reinforcement can help teachers successfully manage their

What we know


teachers than dealing with classroom management problems. There is a lot of evidence that
Teachers wake up obsessing over a students behavior or ABA can be used to solve
even leave education. Here is what is so sad about this. It is some of the most difficult
unnecessary. For approximately 50 years, there have been behavioral problems.
available to teachers Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
interventions that can solve most classroom management ABA interventions, like
problems in a quick and humane manner. positivereinforcement, work
well and are easy to
ABA is derived from the basic principles of behavior outlined implement.
by famed psychologist B.F. Skinner about three quarters of a
century ago. Thousands of journal articles and books have Students enjoy being in a
demonstrated that ABA can be used to solve some of the classroom where positive
most difficult behavioral problems. Yet, for reasons I have reinforcement procedures are
discussed in other articles, ABA is regularly used in special being used, and teachers
education, but seldom used in regular education. This is enjoy teaching with positive
unfortunate. If ABA procedures were used more often in reinforcement procedures
regular education, inclusion of children with disabilities would because the results are so
be more of a reality in regular education, and teachers lives gratifying.
would be much happier.

Positive reinforcement procedures

There are many complex principles in ABA. Yet, by knowing how to apply a relatively simple principle
positive reinforcement teachers are able to produce large and desirable changes in the behaviors of
their students.

The principle of positive reinforcement indicates that when a pleasant event follows a behavior, the
behavior is more likely to occur in the future. For example, when teachers compliment students for
behaving properly, it is likely that they will behave more appropriately in the future. If the teacher awards
extra marks to students for handing homework in on time, the chances are that students will be more
diligent in handing in their homework next time.

It is surprising to me that people have so many reservations and concerns about positive reinforcement
procedures. The principle of positive reinforcement is a natural, not a contrived, process. People say:
Hello to people who smile back at them. Salespeople make efforts to sell more products, because such
activities increase their commissions. Athletes try hard to meet the incentive clauses of their contracts.
What is so wonderful about positive reinforcement procedures?

There are few things in life that produce only pleasant outcomes. Positive reinforcement comes as close
to this ideal as any other process does. Positive reinforcement works and is humane. Children love being
in a classroom where positive reinforcement procedures are being used. Teachers enjoy teaching with
positive reinforcement procedures because the results are so gratifying. Positive reinforcement
procedures create a loving bond between students and teachers.

How do I find out what childrens positive reinforcers are?

This is not hard to do. There are a number of things you can do to find out what a students possible
positive reinforcers are. I italicized possible because you cannot be sure if an item or activity is a positive
reinforcer until you try it out. Here are some things you can do. First, you can ask the child what they
would like to work for. You can ask the same question to their parents. You can also ask them to pick from
a list of possible reinforcers. Another way of identifying possible positive reinforcers is to note what a child
spends a lot of time doing. If a student frequently runs to the computer, computer time is likely to be a
positive reinforcer. Finally, you can observe what follows an inappropriate behavior. This may be a
positive reinforcer. For example, if you notice that often when a student storms out of the classroom, he or
she gets to spend time with a favorite principal, visiting the principal may be a positive reinforcer. You may
then have the child earn time with the principal for behaving appropriately.

What are some positive reinforcers I can use?

This is easy. The first one falls under the category of social reinforcement and consists of smiles,
compliments, or a call home to a parent reporting how well their child behaved that day. It is helpful to
compliment children when they walk into class each day. This prompts appropriate student behavior,
which should also be praised. The best predictor I know of for successful classroom management is the
number of compliments a teacher gives. The more, the better. Think of how you feel when someone gives
you a sincere compliment. Some teachers are admonished not to smile until Christmas. I say, start
smiling on Labor Day and keep smiling until Flag Day.

There are also a number of activity and tangible reinforcers for students of all ages. These include having
extra free time, collecting student papers, having lunch with the teacher, earning extra points toward a
grade, and reading favored materials.

What are a few examples of successful ABA programs?

Here are a few examples. One first-grade teacher I know had a student who made animal sounds 45
times per day. The teacher divided the day into 15-minute blocks. For every 15-minute block without an
animal sound, the girl earned a minute on the computer to be enjoyed at the end of the day. The girl then
made animal sounds only four times a day.
A middle school teacher found that students were frequently out of theShe set a timer to ring three times a
lesson at unpredictable intervals. If all students were seated when the timer went off, the group earned a
point. Ten points meant a day without homework. Out-of-seat behavior became a rarity.

A high school mathematics teacher found that students were taking a long time to transition between
classes. He solved this by putting bonus problems on the whiteboard at the start of each class. The
problems were removed after fi ve minutes. Most students arrived at class punctually, thereafter, in order
to receive the bonus points on their grades.

What are some pointers for solving classroom problems constructively?

Set reasonable goals. A small improvement in behavior is appropriate at the start. As student
behavior improves, you can increase the requirements for positive reinforcers.

Make adjustments in your procedures. As you use a procedure, you may notice better ways to
apply the intervention. Make these changes. A small adjustment in an intervention can produce a
major change in the outcome.

Talk to other teachers. You have a lot of smart, skillful colleagues. Talk to them. Ask them what
they have found helpful when they have encountered problems similar to yours.

Read teacher-oriented ABA textbooks. They are filled with descriptions of interventions that have
been successful with situations like the ones you are encountering.

Use interventions that are easy to apply and are inexpensive. The best procedures are simple
and powerful, and they exist. A visit toa dollar store is a good start for inexpensive rewards.

Prioritize and work with only one or two behaviors at the start. There may be several behavior
problems in your classroom, but it is too difficult to address all of them at once. Focus on one or
two problems. When they come under control, you can add other behaviors to your program. A
procedure that is effective with one behavior is likely to be effective with other behaviors.

Be an optimist. The situation may be tough, but it is not impossible. Teachers like you have dealt
successfully with more difficult problems. When your intervention does not work, it is not your
failure. It is just a prompt to try something else. Giving up is the only failure.

About the author

Saul Axelrod is professor emeritus of special education and applied behavior analysis at Temple
University. His research and writings have focused on devising and disseminating procedures that
increase teacher effectiveness.
Article Summary:

This article displays the effects of positive reinforcement in not only a special education

but in general education classrooms. According to the article students as well as teachers both are

much happier with a classroom that has a positive behavior management plan. The article

outlines positive reinforcement and how to use it successfully in the classroom. There are a

number of things you can do to find out what a students possible positive reinforces are.

( Axelrod,) This article helps educators to realize that the reinforces must be something the

students are interested in and that the teacher must be flexible in developing the plan because it is

possible that the reinforce will not work. The article also helps the reader by giving examples of

situations where positive reinforcement was successful. The article gives pointers on how to

solve problems in the classroom using a constructive method. In the article the author points out

the necessity of picking behaviors that are most severe and working on one or two behaviors at

time. Behaviors can either be addressed as a whole group or on an individual bases either way a

positive approach is most beneficial for both student and teacher.

Article response:

This article will be beneficial in developing a behavior management strategy for the child

in my classroom. It is crucial that I talk to the parents and through observation find out my

students interests. This article helps to focus on positive behavior plans and this is what my

student needs, as he is not responsive to punishment. It is important to focus on one behavior at a

time and come up with a result that is exciting to him. I have noticed that he takes great interest

in transportation and with that and the help of the article I can come up with a reward system to

be the students individual needs. Through the article I realized that it is crucial to focus on

pointing out the good behaviors as well as rewarding short intervals of desired behaviors.

This article was definitely designed to discuss behavior management for an older age

group. The concepts can be applied to my class and individual student; it just requires a more

simplistic approach. Most importantly it stresses flexibility I may have to change or adjust

procedures to make the process work. Giving up is the only failure. ( Axlerod) this is the

determination and drive that a teacher needs to succeed. Not every intervention is going to work

every time but as educators we must adapt or teaching to our students and if an idea doesnt work

we must have the ability to try something new and work with the students and other teachers to
develop a plan in which the teacher and the student can have success. The best classrooms are

ones of mutual respect and happiness in a room with constant negative consequences the teacher

as well as the students are not enjoying the exciting process of learning,

Teaching Students with ADD / ADHD

Tips for Teachers to Help Students with ADD / ADHD Succeed at School

If youre a teacher, you know these kids: The one who stares out the window, substituting the arc
of a bird in flight for her math lesson. The one who wouldnt be able to keep his rear end in the
chair if you used Krazy Glue. The one who answers the question, Who can tell me what the 6th
Amendment guarantees? with Mrs. M, do you dye your hair?

Students who exhibit ADD/ADHDs hallmarksymptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and

impulsivity can be frustrating. You know the brainpower is there, but they just cant seem to
focus on the material youre working hard to deliver. Plus, their behaviors take time away from
instruction and disrupt the whole class.

Challenges of ADD / ADHD in the classroom

Think of what the school setting requires children to do: Sit still. Listen quietly. Pay attention.
Follow instructions. Concentrate. These are the very things kids with ADD/ADHD have a hard
time doingnot because they arent willing, but because their brains wont let them. That
doesnt make teaching them any easier, of course.

Students with ADD/ADHD present the following challenges for teachers:

They demand attention by talking out of turn or moving around the room.
They have trouble following instructions, especially when theyre presented in
a list.

They often forget to write down homework assignments, do them, or bring

work to school.

They often lack fine motor control, which makes note-taking difficult and
handwriting a
trial to read.

They often have trouble with operations that require ordered steps, such as
long division
or solving equations.

They usually have problems with long-term projects where there is no direct

They dont pull their weight during group work and may even keep a group
accomplishing its task.

Students with ADD/ADHD pay the price for their problems in low grades, scolding and
punishment, teasing from peers, and low self-esteem. Meanwhile, you, the teacher, wind up
taking complaints from parents who feel their kids are being cheated of your instruction and
feeling guilty because you cant reach the child with ADD/ADHD.

What teachers can do to help children with ADD / ADHD

So how do you teach a kid who wont settle down and listen? The answer: with a lot of patience,
creativity, and consistency. As a teacher, your role is to evaluate each childs individual needs
and strengths. Then you can develop strategies that will help students with ADD/ADHD focus,
stay on task, and learn to their full capabilities.

Successful programs for children with ADHD integrate the following three components:

Accommodations: what you can do to make learning easier for students with

Instruction: the methods you use in teaching.

Intervention: How you head off behaviors that disrupt concentration or distract
Your most effective tool, however, in helping a student with ADD/ADHD is a positive attitude.
Make the student your partner by saying, Lets figure out ways together to help you get your
work done. Assure the student that youll be looking for good behavior and quality work, and
when you see it, reinforce it with immediate and sincere praise. Finally, look for ways to
motivate a student with ADD/ADHD by offering rewards on a point or token system.

Dealing with disruptive classroom behavior

To head off behavior that takes time from other students, work out a couple of warning signals
with the student who has ADD/ADHD. This can be a hand signal, an unobtrusive shoulder
squeeze, or a sticky note on the students desk. If you have to discuss the students behavior, do
so in private. And try to ignore mildly inappropriate behavior if its unintentional and isnt
distracting other students or disrupting the lesson.

Classroom accommodations for students with ADD / ADHD

As a teacher, you can make changes in the classroom to help minimize the distractions and
disruptions of ADHD.


Seat the student with ADD/ADHD away from windows and away from the

Put the student with ADD/ADHD right in front of your desk unless that would
be a
distraction for the student.

Seats in rows, with focus on the teacher, usually work better than having
students seated around tables or facing one another in other arrangements.

Information delivery

Give instructions one at a time and repeat as necessary.

If possible, work on the most difficult material early in the day.

Use visuals: charts, pictures, color coding.

Create outlines for note-taking that organize the information as you deliver it.

Student work

Create a quiet area free of distractions for test-taking and quiet study.
Create worksheets and tests with fewer items; give frequent short quizzes
rather than long tests.

Reduce the number of timed tests.

Test the student with ADD/ADHD in the way he or she does best, such as
orally or filling in blanks.

Show the student how to use a pointer or bookmark to track written words on
a page.

Divide long-term projects into segments and assign a completion goal for
each segment.

Let the student do as much work as possible on computer.

Accept late work and give partial credit for partial work.


Have the student keep a master notebook, a three-ring binder with a

separate section for each subject, and make sure everything that goes into
the notebook has holes punched and is put on the rings in the correct section.

Provide a three-pocket notebook insert for homework assignments,

homework, and mail to parents (permission slips, PTA flyers).

Color-code materials for each subject.

Allow time for student to organize materials and assignments for home. Post
steps for
getting ready to go home.

Make sure the student with ADD/ADHD has a system for writing down
assignments and importantdates and uses it.

Teaching techniques for students with ADD/ADHD

Teaching techniques that help students with ADD/ADHD focus and maintain their concentration
on your lesson and their work can be beneficial to the entire class.

Starting a lesson

Signal the start of a lesson with an aural cue, such as an egg timer, a cowbell
or a horn. (You can use subsequent cues to show much time remains in a
List the activities of the lesson on the board.

In opening the lesson, tell students what theyre going to learn and what your
expectations are. Tell students exactly what materials theyll need.

Establish eye contact with any student who has ADD/ADHD.

Conducting the lesson

Keep instructions simple and structured.

Vary the pace and include different kinds of activities. Many students with
ADD do well
with competitive games or other activities that are rapid and intense.

Use props, charts, and other visual aids.

Have an unobtrusive cue set up with the student who has ADD/ADHD, such as
a touch
on the shoulder or placing a sticky note on the students desk, to remind the
student to stay on task.

Allow a student with ADD/ADHD frequent breaks.

Let the student with ADHD squeeze a rubber ball or tap something that
doesnt make
noise as a physical outlet.

Try not to ask a student with ADD/ADHD perform a task or answer a question
that might be too difficult.

Ending the lesson

Summarize key points.

If you give an assignment, have three different students repeat it, then have
the class say it in unison, and put it on the board.

Be specific about what to take home.

More help for teaching children with ADD/ADHD

Is stress and worry adding to your child's ADD/ADHD symptoms? FEELING LOVED can help you. LEARN MORE

ADD / ADHD and School: Helping Children with ADHD Succeed at School
General Information for ADD / ADHD in Children and Teens: Signs and Symptoms of
Attention Deficit Disorder in Kids
ADD / ADHD Parenting Tips: Helping Children with Attention Deficit Disorder
Treatment for ADD / ADHD in Children and Teens: Signs and Symptoms of Attention
Deficit Disorder in Kids
Did this article help you? Please make a donation that will help someone else who is
dealing with this problem. LEARN MORE

Resources and references

Teaching students with ADD / ADHD

Motivating the Child with Attention Deficit Disorder Clear and concise information about how ADD/ADHD
symptoms interfere with classroom expectations and how to realistically motivate your child
with ADD/ADHD. (LD Online)
Teaching Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource Guide for Teachers This multi-page
Canadian site goes well beyond questions of teaching strategies, covering every aspect of
ADD/ADHD that can affect the classroom. (British Columbia Ministry of Education)
Teaching Children with ADHD In-depth guide to teaching children with ADD/ADHD. Includes
articles on lesson planning, instructional techniques, behavioral strategies, and communication
with parents. (Teach ADHD)
Teaching Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Instructional Strategies and Practices (PDF) Must-read
guide for teachers dealing with ADD/ADHD in school, full of tips for the classroom and
innovative teaching strategies. (U.S. Department of Education)
Suggested Classroom Interventions for Children with ADD and Learning Disabilities Practical suggestions for
teaching children with ADD/ADHD that can be used in the regular classroom as well as the
special education classroom. (Child Development Institute)

Special education services for children with ADD / ADHD

(PDF) Briefing paper for parents and teachers. Section III

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
addresses school issues and special education for students with ADD/ADHD. (National
Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities)
Advocate for Your Child: Getting ADHD Accommodations Eight steps for meeting your child's educational
needs with ADHD accommodations at school. (ADDitude)
Contents of the IEP Guide to the Individualized Education Program (IEP), a document developed
by the child's parents and school staff that addresses the special educational services that the
child will receive. (Center for Parent Information and Resources)
and are trying to get back into school again this year. ~ Ecuador

Authors: Jeanne Segal, Ph.D. and Melinda Smith, M.A. Last updated:
February 2016.
Article Summary:
This article is about students with ADHD and ADD in the classroom. The article starts

out by giving a brief discussion of the symptoms of ADD and ADHD. These symptoms can

include but are not limited to restlessness the inability to sit still or pay attention to many step

directions. The next part of the article discusses the challenges faced in the classroom. These can

include the student being a distraction to others and interrupting the lessons by shouting out or

moving around the room. The article then begins to give strategies for helping students with

ADD and ADHD. One way is to offer reward system and immediate praise to positive behaviors.

Allowing the student to be part of the intervention and behavior plan helps them to realize the

undesirable behavior and understand the reasons why the teacher is implementing a behavior

plan. Having a warning signal that lets a student know they are performing an undesirable

behavior is a strategy introduced in this article. Classroom accommodations for students with

ADD and ADHD would include setting up the classroom to limit distractions and helping a

student be organized are just two ways listed in the article. It is important to remember that the

students usually work better with one or two step instructions so restructuring the way the

teacher gives instructions can be helpful. And finally the article discusses some ideas for

structuring lessons to help students to succeed in the classroom. Using auditory signals along

with consistency helps to cue to the student the start of a lesson being clear and concise about

expectations and finishing with a summary of the lesson are all ways to ensure the student

received the information provided in the lesson.

Article review

This article was extremely helpful to further my understanding of ADD and ADHD and

how I can adjust my teaching instruction and classroom to meet the needs of the students.

Sometimes we forget that when dealing with ADD or ADHD the entire classroom is affected.

This article helps to focus on developing a plan that the student can be proactive in. This in turn

can help the all the students benefit from the minimal distractions. This article made me aware as

a teacher I must change my strategies and perhaps even the layout of my classroom to help the

students be less distracted and more organized. It is important to make expectations clear to the

students and not overload them with too many directions at once. This applies directly to my

classroom as I am working with a much younger group and many times can create chaos and

behavior issues if the directions prior to a task are unclear. It is evident that students with ADD

and ADHD have trouble with the expectation of sitting for long periods of time and being forced

to focus on lecture based instruction, knowing this makes me aware that my lessons have to

involve detailed instruction but cannot be to lengthy. I do not want to overwhelm my students by

pacing unrealistic expectations on them.

Suggested Classroom Interventions
For Children With ADD & Learning

Children with attention deficit disorder and/or learning disabilities can be a

challenge for any classroom teacher. This page provides some practical
suggestions that can be used in the regular classroom as well as the special
education classroom. By looking through a given list of interventions, a teacher
will be able to select one or more strategies that are suited to a specific child in
a specific environment.

Ideas for Attention Deficit Children

Children whose attention seems to wander or who never seem to be with the
rest of the class might be helped by the following suggestions:

Pause and create suspense by looking around before asking questions.

Randomly pick reciters so the children cannot time their attention.
Signal that someone is going to have to answer a question about what is
being said.
Use the childs name in a question or in the material being covered.
Ask a simple question (not even related to the topic at hand) to a child
whose attention is beginning to wander.
Develop a private running joke between you and the child that can be
invoked to re-involve you with the child.
Stand close to an inattentive child and touch him or her on the shoulder
as you are teaching.
Walk around the classroom as the lesson is progressing and tap the place
in the childs book that is currently being read or discussed.
Decrease the length of assignments or lessons.
Alternate physical and mental activities.
Increase the novelty of lessons by using films, tapes, flash cards, or small
group work or by having a child call on others.
Incorporate the childrens interests into a lesson plan.
Structure in some guided daydreaming time.
Give simple, concrete instructions, once.
Investigate the use of simple mechanical devices that indicate attention
versus inattention.
Teach children self monitoring strategies.
Use a soft voice to give direction.
Employ peers or older students or volunteer parents as tutors.

Strategies for Cognitively Impulsive Children

Some children have difficulty staying with the task at hand. Their verbalizations
seem irrelevant and their performance indicates that they are not thinking
reflectively about what they are doing. Some possible ideas to try out in this
situation include the following:

Provide as much positive attention and recognition as possible.

Clarify the social rules and external demands of the classroom.
Establish a cue between teacher and child.
Spend personal discussion times with these children emphasizing the
similarities between the teacher and child.
Get in a habit of pausing 10 to 16 seconds before answering.
Probe irrelevant responses for possible connections to the question.
Have children repeat questions before answering.
Choose a student to be the question keeper.
Using a well known story, have the class orally recite it as a chain story.
When introducing a new topic in any academic area, have the children
generate questions about it before providing them with much information.
Distinguish between reality and fantasy by telling stories with a mix of
fact and fiction and asking the children to critique them.
Assign a written project that is to contain elements that are true, could
happen but didnt, and pretend, cant happen.
Do not confront lying by making children admit they have been untruthful.
Play attention and listening games.
Remove un-needed stimulation from the classroom environment.
Keep assignments short.
Communicate the value of accuracy over speed.
Evaluate your own tempo as teacher.
Using the wall clock, tell children how long they are to work on
an assignment.
Require that children keep a file of their completed work.
Teach children self talk.
Encourage planning by frequently using lists, calendars, charts, pictures,
and finished products in the classroom.
Suggested Classroom Accommodations for
Specific Behaviors

Try this accommodation

h aspirations but lacks follow- Use a questioning strategy with the student; ask, What do y
, ends up with Fs (sets unrealistic Keep asking that question until the student has reached an
ange goals: break the goal into Have student set clear timelines of what he needs to do toa
student progress frequently).

ng steps to accomplish specific Break up task into workable and obtainable steps.
m paper, organized paragraphs, Provide examples and specific steps to accomplish task.

ivity to another without closure. Define the requirements of a completed activity (e.g. your m
problems are complete and corrected; do not begin on the next ta

ructions from others. Gain students attention before giving directions. Use alerti
with written directions.
Give one direction at a time. Quietly repeat directions to the
to the rest of the class. Check for understanding by having the stu

east important. Prioritize assignment and activities.

Provide a model to help students. Post the model and refer

uracy over time. Reduce assignment length and strive for quality (rather tha
Increase the frequency of positive reinforcements (catch th
know it.

List and/or post (and say) all steps necessary to complete e

Reduce the assignment into manageable sections with spec
Make frequent checks for work/assignment completion.
Arrange for the student to have a study buddy with phone

es memory. Combine seeing, saying, writing and doing; student may ne

Teach memory techniques as a study strategy (e.g. mnemo
oral rehearsal, numerous repetitions).

Allow extra time for testing; teach test-taking skills and stra
tested orally.
Use clear, readable and uncluttered test forms. Use test for
comfortable with. Allow ample space for student response. Consid
essay or short answer tests.

misreads body language, etc.) Directly teach (tell the student) what non-verbal cues mean
reading cues in a safe setting.

difficulty finding main idea from a Provide student with copy of reading material with main ide
ance to minor details) Provide an outline of important points from reading materia
Teach outlining, main-idea/details concepts.
Provide tape of text/chapter.

difficulty finding main idea from a Provide student with a copy of presentation notes.
ance to minor details) Allow peers to share carbon-copy notes from presentation (
compare own notes with a copy of peers notes).
Provide framed outlines of presentations (introducing visua
auditory cues to important information).
Encourage use of tape recorder.
Teach and emphasize key words (the following, the most

asks or other activities (easily Reward attention. Break up activities into small units. Rewa
Use physical proximity and touch. Use earphones and/or stu
place, or preferential seating.

. Teach organizational skills. Be sure student has daily, weekl

sheets; list of materials needed daily; and consistent format for pa
students to turn in and receive back papers; reduce distractions.
Give reward points for notebook checks and proper paper fo
Provide clear copies of worksheets and handouts and consis
Establish a daily routine, provide models for what you want
Arrange for a peer who will help him with organization.
Assist student to keep materials in a specific place (e.g. pen
Be willing to repeat expectations.
rsive with manuscript and capitals Allow for a scribe and grade for content, not handwriting. A
Consider alternative methods for student response (e.g. voi
Dont penalize student for mixing cursive and manuscript (a
Use pencil with rubber grip.

ing e.g. good letter/word Allow for shorter assignments (quality vs. quantity).
us. Allow alternate method of production (computer, scribe, ora
Use pencil with rubber grip.

Teach study skills specific to the subject area organization

calendar), textbook reading, notetaking (finding main idea / detai

ors in spelling, arithmetic, reading) Teach specific methods of self-monitoring (e.g. stop-look- lis
Have student proof-read finished work when it is cold.

en material (takes hours on a 10 Allow for alternative method for completing ssignment (ora
presentation, graphs, maps, pictures, etc. with reduced written re
Allow for alternative method of writing (e.g. computer, curs

vement, daydreaming, not there) Get students attention before giving directions (tell studen
while I talk, watch my eyes while I speak). Ask student to repeat d
Attempt to actively involve student in lesson (e.g. cooperat

hout being interruptive; difficulty Seat student in close proximity to the teacher.
Reward appropriate behavior (catch
student being good).
Use study carrel if appropriate.

n (clowns around, exhibits loud Show student (model) how to gain others attention approp
as attention-seeking behavior, Catch the student when appropriate and reinforce.
activities, needles others)

Teach student hand signals and use to tell student when an

Make sure student is called when it is appropriate and reinf

m activity to activity or class to Program child for transitions. Give advance warning of when
time to find pencil, gives up, (now we are completing the worksheet, next we will ) and the e
rs agitated during change. you will need)
Specifically say and display lists of materials needed until a
necessary to complete each assignment.
Have specific locations for all materials (pencil pouches, tab
Arrange for an organized helper (peer).

a particular position when required Give student frequent opportunities to get up and move aro

et or objects, squirming in seat. Break tasks down to small increments and give frequent po
accomplishments (this type of behavior is often due to frustration
Allow alternative movement when possible.

often blurted out; answers given to Seat student in close proximity to teacher so that visual and
mpleted. behavior can be done by theteacher.
State behavior that you do want (tell the student how you e

mpetition (athletic or academic) Stress effort and enjoyment for self, rather than competitio
Minimize timed activities; structure class for team effort an

m or large group sport or athletic Give the student a responsible job (e.g. team captain, care
es or group situations) keeping, etc.); consider leadership role.
Have student in close proximity of teacher.

y dangerous activities without Anticipate dangerous situations and plan for in advance.
Stress Stop-Look-Listen.
Pair with responsible peer (rotate responsible students so th

thority. Sucks up. Hangs on. Provide positive attention.

Talk with student individually about the inappropriate behav
better way of getting what you need or want is).

sonal care and posture, negative Structure for success.

self-esteem Train student for self-monitoring, reinforce improvements, t
(What am I doing? How isthat going to affect others?)
Allow opportunities for the student to show his strength.
Give positive recognition.
recess, hallways, lunchroom, Provide student with a definite purpose during unstructured
the library is to check out..the purpose ofis).
Encourage group games and participation (organized schoo

or activities at school or at home Help students organize. Frequently monitor notebook and d
ore, during and after completion of bag, desks. A place for everything and everything in its place.
Provide positive reinforcement for good organization. Provi
materials and locations.

off into space, doodling, not Teach reminder cues (a gentle touch on the shoulder, hand
Tell the student your expectations of what paying attention
look like you are paying attention when)
Give the student a time limit for a small unit of work with po
Use a contract, timer, etc. for self-monitoring.

Article summary:

This article is a great resource for identifying problem behaviors and developing

strategies for solving those behaviors. The article suggests that when developing lessons to make

them thematic to the students likes this will help to keep the students attention throughout the

lesson. The article also suggests a variety of cues that can be used to keep the student on task.

These cues can be a touch on the shoulder a tap on the book in front of the student or using the

students name when giving an example. On topic that remains consistent in all three articles is

that of organization and clearness of expectations. A strategy introduce through this article is

stating the desired behaviors for example what you want the student to do instead of what you

dont want from the students. Making tasks short and mixing in physical activity with lessons

will help to keep students on task and limit fidgeting and moving around. The structure of the
article allows for the reader to see undesirable behavior and possible ways to structure the

classroom and lessons to diminish or lesson the behaviors. Students with ADD benefit from

structure and lists for organization purposes, this organization may help them to stay focused on

a task longer or be aware of what is to come


I really liked the structure of this article it made it very easy to read and follow. The

article also helps the reader to see the many ways of problem solving and reworking the

classroom to meet the needs of the students. My target student has a difficult time sitting through

instructions and short stories. Through reading this article I decided that perhaps I make sure that

I am giving the student positive feedback for short intervals of successful behavior. Although the

article suggests the student uses a timer to self monitor it is my belief that this will be extremely

distracting for the student. Students with the inability to stay on task or are easily distracted may

be distracted by the presence of a timer. Once the student has successfully completed a task they

may be involved in the reward process. All articles suggest giving the student a time for

movement; this is something I will incorporate into my behavior intervention plan. Allowing for
my student to have time to move and release some energy may result in the ability to pay

attention longer. Due to the age of my target student his attention span is something we are

working on building. After reading the article I also need to be aware of my lessons and make

sure that they are engaging for my target student as he is academically above the norm for his

age group. So when doing whole group lessons he may not be focused due to lack of interest.


Peter is a five year old boy in a universal pre-k classroom. The

classroom consists of twenty one students, one certified teacher and two

teacher assistances. Both teacher assistances have had experience with

children with disruptive behaviors. Each has had the opportunity in their

career to be one on one aid for students with mild to severe behavior issues.

The class is located in a daycare setting, Peter eats lunch and spends eight

hours a day in the day care two days a week the other three days Peter is

picked up at the end of his three hour program and goes to grandmas

house. Peters classroom contains a wide variety of academic abilities as well

as three students with IEPs.

When transitioning from table activity to carpet time (circle time) Peter

runs around the classroom on and does not go to assigned spot on carpet

unless directed my teacher, in some instances student needs physical

guidance to reach carpet spot. Once on the carpet the student spins around

in circles or rocks up and down and sideways on occasion student will get

face to face with a classmate and try to talk to them throughout instruction.

Teacher and staff interview:

Through teacher and staff interview it appears that the student works

better alone or on a one on one basis. Teachers say that through testing and

observation peter is academically above his peers. When it comes to math

lessons and requirements for his age group he is functioning at a level of a

first grader. He thrives on equations and puzzles that challenge him as long

as he is doing this alone or with an adult. The major areas of trouble are

when transitioning peter seems to lose direction and start to run around the

room and cause distraction to the class and according to his teachers he

struggles when in whole group activities. The teachers have currently

adapted a method of removing the student from activities in whole group

and giving him an independent activity of sorting pennies into piggy banks.

This method is working for them and the student calms down and returns to

whole group only after all coins are sorted. It is my belief that this process of

removing the student from the group

Student interview:
After interviewing the student it is evident that he likes school. He

enjoys the activities yet is unclear of what the classroom rules are. When

asked what were the rules in the classroom he responded with a playground

rule. The student shows remorse for in appropriate actions and seems to be

aware of the fact that he is off task throughout the day. His favorite time of

the day is reading books; this is a one on one activity he does at the end of

the day while waiting for dad to pick him up. He enjoys center time and

playing with Legos these activities require the least amount of self control.

Base line data and Function:


When transitioning from table activity to carpet time (circle time) Peter

runs around the classroom on and does not go to assigned spot on carpet

unless directed my teacher, in some instances student needs physical

guidance to reach carpet spot. Once on the carpet the student spins around

in circles or rocks up and down and sideways on occasion student will get

face to face with a classmate and try to talk to them throughout instruction.


The students behavior is the result of lack of impulse control mixed

with not being engaged in the lesson. Lessons appear to be much too easy

for the student and he quickly looses interest, as a result of his behavior he
is frequently removed from the situation and receives one on one attention

from a teacher. The teacher then provides the student with a quiet toy or

activity to play with while the remaining students sit on the carpet and

continue the lesson. The function of the behavior is to avoid an

unchallenging lesson and receive one on one educational time with an adult.

Summary and reflection of baseline data:

For the baseline data I used a time sampling record sheet, this form

allowed for me to assess how many times throughout the day the behavior

was occurring and at what times during the day the behavior took place.

The behavior occurred when the student would walk into the room and once

settled at a table activity the behavior would subside. It appear that the

behavior most frequently occurred in large organized group activities. When

the student had to sit for calendar and math lessons he was very disruptive,

this resulted in being taken away by a teacher and given a quiet activity. By

the third day of observation it became aware to me that the student was

expecting to be removed from the group and looking forward to the quiet

game. The behavior did not occur very often during centers, this was when

the student would work in a small group for a short ten to fifteen minute

period. It appeared that the student was much more engaged and the

activities in the small group were differentiated to meet and challenge the

students abilities.
Baseline time of occurrence:

Behavior Intervention Plan:

Preventative action: Due to the fact that the lessons on the carpet

were easy for a group of students on of the preventative actions will be to

split into smaller groups and individualize the lessons based on academic

ability, this should challenge the student and keep his attention, this also will

minimize the amount of time the student is expected to sit and be under

control on the carpet. The student will also have a spot located more to the

rear of the room and next to another adult in the classroom. This adult will

position themselves to model the appropriate behavior and remind the

student when off task. In the event that the student is off task on the carpet

and the behavior cannot be corrected on the carpet the student will be

brought away but will not receive a game or adult attention.

The student will also have the opportunity to earn pieces to a train set

for every ten minutes the student is on task a teacher will take him to a

bucket where he can take one train piece and place it into his bucket at the

end of the day the student will be allotted a 15 min time slot to build and

play with train set. The students parents also have set a goal that if the

student receives at least ten train pieces each day they will purchase hockey

cards for him.

Eventually the intervals for rewards will get further between we will go

from every ten minutes to every twenty, as we see progress. Ideally fading

out the reward and perhaps making the train a center toy.
Reflection data:

Over all the intervention is off to a good start the behavior is

decreasing. The intervention took a slight set back when the student started

to have the same train pieces each day. When this happened I introduced

some new pieces to the set. It was important in this classroom of twenty kids

to keep the behavior plan simple and easy for all adults in the room. I had to

reflect on how I introduce the plan to the teachers as some teacher though it

would be a good idea to take the pieces away if he was not doing well. This

could have resulted in an ineffective intervention. The student very easily

could have ended up with no pieces the idea was to encourage the student

and let him feel success. It was also crucial throughout the intervention to

make sure the behavior was being rewarded consistently. In a classroom with

such a busy schedule and other behaviors that needed to be addressed it

was easy to miss a 10 minute opportunity to reward the student. The

classroom contains one teacher and two teacher aids, we decided it best to

assign one of the teacher aides to work with the student and monitor

progress. The process is proving to be a good fit for the student and this is a

result of parent and teachers working together to find what motivates the

student to assure the reward is worth working for. The idea of splitting the

group at calendar time worked well for all the students as a future

professional I will differentiate more in the classroom to avoid behavior

issues due to lack of interest of lack of challenge.