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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL

OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING STUDIES Volume V /Issue 5 /OCT 2015

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A DISC BRAKE


1
KAMANA.VISHNU VARDHAN CHOWDARY, 2 D.V.S.R.B.M SUBHRAMANYAM
1
PG Scholar, Department of MECH, NALANDA INSTITUTE OF ENGINERING & TECHNOLOGY, Guntur, A.P, India.
2
Assosiate Professor, Department of MECH, NALANDA INSTITUTE OF ENGINERING & TECHNOLOGY, Guntur, A.P,
India.

Abstract The disc brake is a device for slowing or some have disc brakes on all four wheels. This is the part
stopping the rotation of a wheel. A brake disc (or of the brake system that does the actual work of stopping
rotor), usually made of cast iron or ceramic composites the car.
(as well as Kevlar, carbon and silica), is coupled to the
wheel and/or the axle. To stop the wheel, resistance
material in the form of brake pads (mounted on a
device called a brake caliper) is forced hydraulically,
pneumatically, mechanically or electromagnetically
against both sides of the disc.

Friction causes the disc and attached


wheel to slow or stop. Brakes alter frictional energy
into thermal energy, but if the brakes get red hot, they
will struck and stop work because they cannot dissipate Fig. 1.1 Disc Brake
enough temperature. This situation of failure is known
as brake fade.
In todays growing automotive market the
Disc brakes bare to large thermal
competition for better performance vehicle in growing
stresses during regular braking and extraordinary
enormously. The racing fans involved will surely know the
thermal stresses during hard braking.
importance of a good brake system not only for safety but
The aim of the project is to model a also for staying competitive As we are aware of the fact
disc brake used. Coupled field analysis (Structural) is that races are won over split of a second therefore the
done on the disc brake. The materials used are alloy capacity of the brake system to slow down quickly at turns
steel, aluminum alloy and cast alloy steel. Modeling and or corners is very important The brakes designed for the
analysis was carried out in solid works premium 2014 purpose of racing need to have very high braking
software. efficiency. The wear and tear of the pads or the cost is not
of great concern to the manufacturer of the racing car
Keywords Disc brakes, Rotary, NVH (Noise, Vibration, brakes.
Harshness), SOLID WORKS, Structural Analysis,
Disc brakes have become the predominant
I INTRODUCTION automotive braking mechanism due to their superior brake
torque and fade resistant properties when compared to
The disc brake is a device for slowing or stopping
braking methods employed since the early days of theft
the rotation of a wheel. A brake disc usually made of cast
automobile, most commonly drum brakes. Nevertheless,
iron or ceramic composites (including carbon, Kevlar and
many brake engineers agree that conventional caliper disc
silica), is connected to the wheel and/or the axle. To stop
brakes leave room for improvements in the following
the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads
areas:
(mounted on a device called a brake caliper) is forced
mechanically, hydraulically, pneumatically or
NVH ISSUES: Noise, vibration and harshness are
electromagnetically against both sides of the disc. Friction
complex issues that involve the entire system of
causes the disc and attached wheel to slow or stop. Most
components from the brake system. Ongoing
modern cars have disc brakes on the front wheels, and

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING STUDIES Volume V /Issue 5 /OCT 2015

investigations in the industry have identified several each will be attempted. Finally, conclusions and
initiating factors relating to the brake elements themselves recommendations on what to look out for and how to
which can be grouped into the following sections: decide on a brake rotor design for a specific
automotive application will be made. Applications
1. Brake disc hot spots which typically result in thermal such as daily driving, spirited driving with some track
judder. exposure, and racing will all be considered.
Limpert, Rudolf, examined the study of fade in
2. Uneven rotor wear and rotor thickness variation
conventional disc brakes results from two basic
3. Rotor defection and oscillation. causes. (1) The brake pads overheat, reducing their
coefficient of friction which decreases braking ability,
THERMAL MANAGEMENT ISSUES and (2) Excessive heat in the brake pads is transferred
via the hydraulic pistons to the brake fluid, which
1. Uneven heating of brake rotors can temporarily cause, boils and produces bubbles in the brake lines. The full
or increase, thickness variation, and sometimes can circle disc Brake resists these fade inducing causes
produce a primary thermal buckling that warps the rotor. by: (1) Distributing in-pad heat over a greater area
and conducting heat both away from and through the
2. Uneven rotor cooling in the case of a vehicle parked
brake pads into the brake body structure to enable
immediately following strenuous braking activity can
more efficient heat dissipation, and (2) isolating the
cause the area of rotor under the brake pads to cool more
hydraulic cylinder from the brake pads so that direct
slowly than the portion of the rotor open to the
heat is not transferred to the brake fluid.
atmosphere, resulting in uneven thermal stresses in the
DESIGN OF BRAKE ROTORS
rotor and leading to pad imprinting, residual internal
The design or capacity of a brake depends upon the
stresses, and material failure.
following factors:
OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
1. The unit pressure between the brake surfaces.
To design the disc rotors with cross drilled and
2. The coefficient of friction between the brake surfaces.
without cross drilled type (including material
selection). (Using Solid works). 3. The peripheral velocity of the brake disc
To do the structural analysis above specified type
(using solid works simulation). 4. The projected area of the brake surfaces and
Analyzing and comparison of different material.
BENEFITS OF THE PROPOSAL 5. The ability of the brake to dissipate heat equivalent to
the energy being absorbed.
Brake performance can be improved.
Optimization of rotor. ROTOR SPECIFICATIONS
Improves cooling performance.
A. Hardness: It is a direct correlation to wear

characteristics. Friction materials can be very aggressive
LITERATURE REVIEW
and achieve high temperatures.

Mirza Grebovic, (2007) examined the report is to


`B. Run out: In order to ensure no free running drag, when
present the reader with some common vented brake
mounted on a hub rotors must not have any wobble that
rotor designs, specifically rotors of the blank, cross
would take up any pad clearance and drag on the pads.
drilled, and slotted rotor face designs and how each of
these effects performance parameters and service life
C. Thickness Variation: It must be kept to a minimum.
of the component. Furthermore, different cooling or
Thickness differences in the rotor can cause pulsing in
venting vanes and their effects will be discussed as
both the vehicle and the lever as thicker and thinner
well. Data from various literature sources will be
sections pass through the caliper pads.
compiled to explain to the reader why these different
brake rotor designs exist and a comparison between

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Rub Area Design design tool which advantage of the easy to learn windows
TM
graphical user interface. We can create fully associate
The rub area of a rotor (fig 3.1) must be designed 3-D solid models with or without while utilizing automatic
carefully. The rub area must provide adequate surface area or user defined relations to capture design intent.
to support the brake pads while braking. They must also
have the proper cutouts to provide pad cleaning during Parameters refer to constraints whose values
braking. determine the shape or geometry of the model or assembly.
Parameters can be either numeric parameters, such as line
Finally, burnish, power, heat and noise issues are lengths or circle diameters, or geometric parameters, such
also considered when designing a rub area pattern. as tangent, parallel, concentric, horizontal or vertical, etc.
Numeric parameters can be associated with each other
Rotor wear is usually much less than pad wear
through the use of relations, which allow them to capture
because the rotors are harder. The amount of heat that is
design intent.
created at the rotors depends on the speed and weight of
the vehicle, and how hard the brakes are applied. A normal
stop from 60 mph can easily raise the temperature of the
front rotors 150 to 250 degrees. Several hard stops in quick DIFFERENT MODULES IN SOLID WORKS
succession can send rotor temperatures soaring into the
600, 700 or even 800 degree range.
PART DESIGN
ASSEMBLY
DRAWING
SHEETMETAL
ANALYSIS

By using the solid works software was designed


the 3D model of solid and ventilated disc rotors because
compared to the other 3D softwares solid works is easy to
design..
Fig 3.1 Rotor thickness variation

If rotor temperatures keep going up because the


driver is riding the brakes (as when traveling down a steep
mountain) or is driving aggressively, the brakes may get so
hot they start to fade. Once this occurs, it takes more and
more pedal effort to slow the vehicle.

ROTOR DESIGN

Rotors are made of cast iron for three reasons

1. It is relatively hard and resists wear.


2. It is cheaper than steel or aluminum.
3. It absorbs and dissipates heat well to cool the brakes.

INTRODUCTION TO SOLID WORKS: Fig 4.1 external plate

Solid works mechanical design automation The Fig 4.1 shows the design of solid external
software is a feature-based, parametric solid modeling plate

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Fig 4.2 Aluminum block


Fig 4.5 Brake rotor

Fig 4.3 Pad plate


Fig 4.6 Assembly outer plates and stopper

INTRODUCTION TO SOLID WORKS


SIMULATION

Solid works Simulation is a design analysis


system fully integrated with Solid works. Solid works
Simulation provides simulation solutions for linear and
nonlinear static, frequency, buckling, thermal, fatigue,
pressure vessel, drop test, linear and nonlinear dynamic,
and optimization analyses.

Powered by fast and accurate solvers, Solid works


Fig 4.4 Stopper
Simulation enables you to solve large problems intuitively
while you design. Solid works Simulation comes in two
bundles: Solid works Simulation Professional and Solid
works Simulation Premium to satisfy your analysis needs.

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Solid works Simulation shortens time to market by saving Harmonic Analysis--Used to determine the response of a
time and effort in searching for the optimum design.. structure to harmonically time-varying loads.

STEPS INVOLVED IN ANSYS Transient Dynamic Analysis--Used to determine the


response of a structure to arbitrarily time-varying loads.
In general, a finite element solution can be broken into the
All nonlinearities mentioned under Static Analysis above
following these.
are allowed.
The steps needed to perform an analysis depend on the
study type. You complete a study by performing the Spectrum Analysis--An extension of the modal analysis,
following steps: used to calculate stresses and strains due to a response
spectrum or a PSD input (random vibrations).
Create a study defining its analysis type and
options. Buckling Analysis--Used to calculate the buckling loads
and determine the buckling mode shape. Both linear
If needed, define parameters of your study. A (eigenvalue) buckling and nonlinear buckling analyses are
parameter can be a model dimension, material possible.
property, force value, or any other input.
Fatigue Analysis--Fatigue is the prime cause of the failure
Define material properties.
of many objects, especially those made of metals.
Examples of failure due to fatigue include, rotating
Specify restraints and loads.
machinery, bolts, airplane wings, consumer products,
The program automatically creates a mixed mesh offshore platforms, ships, vehicle axles, bridges, and
when different geometries (solid, shell, structural bones. Linear and nonlinear structural studies do not
members etc.) exist in the model. predict failure due to fatigue. They calculate the response
of a design subjected to a specified environment of
Define component contact and contact sets. restraints and loads. If the analysis assumptions are
observed and the calculated stresses are within the
Mesh the model to divide the model into many allowable limits, they conclude that the design is safe in
small pieces called elements. Fatigue and this environment regardless of how many times the load is
optimization studies use the meshes in referenced applied. Results of static, nonlinear, or time history linear
studies. dynamic studies can be used as the basis for defining a
fatigue study. The number of cycles required for fatigue
Run the study. failure to occur at a location depends on the material and
the stress fluctuations. This information, for a certain
View results.
material, is provided by a curve called the SN curve.

TYPES OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS


In addition to the above analysis types, several special-
purpose features are available:
Static Analysis--Used to determine
displacements, stresses, etc. under static loading
Fracture mechanics
conditions. Both linear and nonlinear static analyses.
Nonlinearities can include plasticity, stress stiffening, large Composites
deflection, large strain, hyper elasticity, contact surfaces, p-Method
and creep. Beam Analyses

Modal Analysis--Used to calculate the natural frequencies By using the solid works simulation software was analyzed
and mode shapes of a structure. Different mode extraction the structural analysis of solid and ventilated disc for three
methods are available. different type of materials named as alloy steel, cast
carbon steel and aluminum alloy (1060 alloy)

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF BRAKE DISC

MATERIAL: ALLOY STEEL

The above fig shows the pressure model of a solid disc


rotor. We have applied load to the meshed model the
applied pressure is visible to see in blue color.

SOLID MODEL OF A BRAKE DISC

Element Type: Solid 20 node 95

Material Properties:

Youngs Modulus (EX) : 200000 N/mm2

Poissons Ratio (PRXY) : 0.28

Density : 7700 Kg/m3 DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE SOLID DISC

The above figs and below figure shows the nodal


displacement, stress analysis of a solid disc rotor for
stainless material. Stress is not that much effect on the disc
rotor.

MESHED MODEL OF A DISC BRAKE

FORCE 10000N
STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE SOLID DISC

MATERIAL: CAST CARBON STEEL

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Element Type: solid 20 nodes 95 Poissons Ratio (PRXY): 0.33

Material Properties: Youngs Modulus (EX) : 193000 Density : 2700 Kg/m3


N/mm2

Poissons Ratio (PRXY): 0.26

Density : 7300Kg/m3

DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE SOLID DISC

The above fig shows the displacement analysis of a solid


disc rotor for aluminum alloy material. It can withstand
maximum displacement of 0.06mm

DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE SOLID DISC

The above fig shows the displacement analysis of a solid


disc rotor for cast iron material. It can withstand maximum
displacement of 0.02mm

STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE SOLID DISC

The above fig shows the stress analysis of a solid disc rotor
for aluminum material. Stress is not that much effect on
the disc rotor.

RESULTS
STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE SOLID DISC

The above figs stress analysis of a solid disc rotor for cast
iron material. Stress is not that much effect on the disc
rotor.

MATERIAL: ALUMINIUM ALLOY TABLE 1. STRESS AND DISPLACEMENT VALUES


OF ALLOY STEEL
Element Type: solid 20 nodes 95

Material Properties:

Youngs Modulus (EX) : 69000 N/mm2

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TABLE 2. STRESS, STRAIN AND DISPLACEMENT 4 David A. Johnson, Bryan A. Sperandei, et.al.,
VALUES OF CAST ALLOY STEEL Analysis of the Flow Through a Vented
Automotive Brake Rotor,2011

5 David Antanaitis and Anthony Rifici, The Effect


of Rotor Crossdrilling on Brake Performance.
SAE 2006-01-0691

TABLE 3. STRESS, STRAIN AND DISPLACEMENT 6 Brake Design and Safety, 2nd Ed., Rudolf
OF ALUMINIUM 1060 ALLOY Limpert, 2010.

7 Dr. N.K. Giri, Automobile Mechanics, Khanna


publishers, 2010.
CONCLUSIONS
8 James D. Halderman, Automotive Braking S
1. Designing of disk brake has been done in solid works ystem, 2007.
2014 software.
9 Dr. Kirpal Singh, Automobile Engineering,
2. Analysis has been carried out by using fea software Volume1,
solid works simulation.
Standard Publishers Distributors,2007.
3. Different material properties were applied to study the
static load behavior of the disk brake. 10 http://www.stoptech.com

4. Load of 1000n was applied on the disk brake under 11 http://www.brakeinfo.com


static conditions.

5. Stress, displacement and strain values are obtained and


given below as tabular form.

FUTURE SCOPE:

Structural Analysis of the disc brake with


different materials
Thermal analysis of the disc brake with different
materials
Structural analysis and thermal analysis on the
assembly body of the brake plate and housing

REFERENCES

1 Mirza Grebovic, Investigation of the Effects on


Braking Performance of Different Brake Rotor
Designs.2013

2 Limpert, Rudolf Brake Design and Safety,


Society of Automotive Engineers., Inc, PA, USA,
2012

3 Warren Chan, Analysis of Heat Dissipation in


Mechanical Braking Systems. 2012

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