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KEY TO FAMILIES OF FISHES

1 Ventral Fins Present 2


Ventral Fins Absent.............................................................................Order Maseembeliformes
2 Ventral Fins Abdominal 3
Ventral Fins Thoracic 6
3 Ventral Fins Reduced, abdominal Scutes Present 4
Ventral Fins Well Developed, abdominal Scutes absent 5
4 Anal Fins not confluent with caudals; jaws without teeth........................................Clupeidae
Anal Fins confluent with caudals; jaws toothed................................................. Notopteridae
5 Body covered with Cycloid Scales; Barbels if present small; adipose fin absent 8
Body naked; barbells long especially maxillary; adipose fin present or absent 9
6 Jaws produced into beak; cycloid scales deciduous; pectorals elongated wing-like
..................................................................................................................................................Belonida
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Jaws not produced into beak 7
7 Head covered with large plate like scales; ventral fins
spineless...........................Channidae
Head without scales; ventral fin with one spine 15
8 Eyes prominent; barbells four or less; suborbital spines
absent.............................Cyprinidae
Eyes subcutaneous; barbells six or eight; suborbital spine absent or
present.............Cobitae
9 Dorsal fin with spine; adipose dorsal present 10
Dorsal fin spineless; adipose dorsal absent 13
10 Anal fin short with 15-16 rays 11
Anal fin long with 35-73 rays.........................................................................................Shilbeidae
11 Nostrils close together 12
Nostrils far apart; posterior with nasal barbells.........................................................Bagridae
12 Gill openings wide.........................................................................................................Amblycepidae
Gill openings narrow 13
13 Dorsal fin short with 4-5 rays; barbells 4; accessory respiratory organ absent.................Siluridae
Dorsal fin with more than 6 rays; barbells 8; accessory respiratory organ present 14
14 Dorsal fin with 62-76 rays; anal rays 45-58...................................................................Claridae
Dorsal fin with 6-7 rays; anal rays 60-79 ....................................................Heteropneustidae
15 Ventral fins moderately apart 16
Ventral fins close together united to form sucking disc.............................................Gobidae
16 Each ventral fin with one spine and 5 rays 17
Each ventral fin reduced to single filamentous ray .............................................Anabantidae
17 Anal rays 11-12; Lateral line interrupted at 32nd or 40th scale; restarting after leaving
three rows of scales below; continuing up to base of caudal fin.............................Nandidae
Anal rays 16-20; lateral line complete or distinct .................................................Ambassidae