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Small finance bank

Small finance banks are a type of niche banks in India. Banks with a small finance bank license
can provide basic banking service of acceptance of deposits and lending. The aim behind these
to provide financial inclusion sections of the economy not being served by other banks, such as
small business units, small and marginal farmers, micro and small industries and unorganised
sector entities.
The firms must have a capital of Rs.100 crore. Existing non-banking financial companies (NBFC),
micro-finance institutions (MFI) and local area banks (LAB) are allowed to set up small finance
banks. The promoters should have 10 years experience in banking and finance. The promoters
stake in the paid-up equity capital will be 40% initially which must be brought down to 26% in
12 years. Joint ventures are not permitted. Foreign share holding will be allowed in these banks
as per the rules for FDI in private banks in India.
The banks will not be restricted to any region. 75% of its net credits should be in priority sector
lending and 50% of the loans in its portfolio must in 25 lakh range.
On 17 July 2014, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) released the draft guidelines for small finance
banks, seeking comments for interested entities and the general public. The final guidelines
were released by RBI on 27 November 2014. It was also announced that interested parties
should submit applications before 16 January 2015.
In February 2015, RBI released the list of entities which had applied for a small finance bank
license. There were 72 applicants. It was also announced that an external advisory committee
headed by Usha Thorat will evaluate the license applications.
On 17 September 2015, The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced that it had given
provisional licenses to 10 entities who would have to convert into Small Finance Banks within
one year.
First Small Finance Bank of India - Capital Small Finance Bank Ltd (CSFB), the bank has its
headquarters in Jalandhar to start operations on April 24, 2016.
Capital Small Finance Bank Limited becomes India's 1st Small Finance Bank to start operations
on April 24, 2016. Capital Local Area Bank along with nine other entities was granted in-
principle approval by the Reserve Bank of India to set up 'Small Finance Bank' on September 16,
2015. Capital Local Area Bank, the largest Local Area Bank in the country, before conversion to
'Small Finance Bank' has been into operations for last 16 years with excellent performance in
all spheres.
Names of selected applicants
1. Au Financiers (India) Ltd., Jaipur
2. Capital Local Area Bank Ltd., Jalandhar
3. Disha Microfin Private Ltd., Ahmedabad
4. Equitas Holdings P Limited, Chennai
5. ESAF Microfinance and Investments Private Ltd., Chennai
6. Janalakshmi Financial Services Private Limited, Bengaluru
7. RGVN (North East) Microfinance Limited, Guwahati
8. Suryoday Micro Finance Private Ltd., Navi Mumbai
9. Ujjivan Financial Services Private Ltd., Bengaluru
10. Utkarsh Micro Finance Private Ltd., Varanasi
Payments bank
The minimum capital requirement is Rs 100 crore. For the first five years, the stake of the
promoter should be 40% minimum. Foreign share holding will be allowed in these banks as
per the rules for FDI in private banks in India. The voting rights will be regulated by the Banking
Regulation Act, 1949. The voting right of any shareholder is capped at 10%, which can be raised
to 26% by Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Any acquisition of more than 5% will require approval
of the RBI. The majority of the bank's board of director should consist of independent directors,
appointed according to RBI guidelines.
The bank should be fully networked from the beginning. The bank can accept utility bills. It
cannot form subsidiaries to undertake non-banking activities. Initially, the deposits will be
capped at Rs.100,000 per customer, but it may be raised by the RBI based on the performance
of the bank. The bank cannot undertake lending activities. 25% of its branches must be in the
unbanked rural area. The bank must use the term "payments bank" in its to differentiate it from
other types of bank. The banks will be licensed as payments banks under Section 22 of the
Banking Regulation Act, 1949 and will be registered as public limited company under the
Companies Act, 2013.
On 23 September 2013, Committee on Comprehensive Financial Services for Small Businesses
and Low Income Households, headed by Nachiket Mor, was formed by the RBI. On 7 January
2014, the Nachiket Mor committee submitted its final report. Among its various
recommendations, it recommended the formation of a new category of bank called payments
bank. On 17 July 2014, the RBI released the draft guidelines for payment banks, seeking
comments for interested entities and the general public. On 27 November, RBI released the final
guidelines for payment banks.
In February 2015, RBI released the list of entities which had applied for a payments bank licence.
There were 41 applicants. It was also announced that an external advisory committee (EAC)
headed by Nachiket Mor would evaluate the licence applications. On 28 February 2015, during
the presentation of the Budget it was announced that India Post will use its large network to run
a payments bank. The external advisory committee headed by Nachiket Mor submitted its
findings on 6 July 2015. The applicant entities were examined for their financial track record and
governance issues. On 19 August 2015, the Reserve Bank of India gave "in-principle" licences
to eleven entities to launch payments banks:
The "in-principle" license is valid for 18 months within which the entities must fulfill the
requirements. They are not allowed to engage in banking activities within the period. The RBI
will consider grant full licenses under Section 22 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, after it is
satisfied that the conditions have been fulfilled.
Bharti Airtel first entity to get payments bank licence from RBI

1. Aditya Birla Nuvo

2. Airtel M Commerce Services
3. Cholamandalam Distribution Services
4. Department of Posts
5. FINO PayTech
6. National Securities Depository
7. Reliance Industries
8. Dilip Shanghvi, Sun Pharmaceuticals
9. Vijay Shekhar Sharma, Paytm
10. Tech Mahindra
11. Vodafone M-Pesa
Players who dropped out

Tech Mahindra
Dilip Shanghvi
Cholamandalam Investment and Finance
Co-operative Banks

Co-operative banks in India also perform fundamental banking activities but they are different
from commercial banks. Commercial banks have been constituted by an Act passed by
parliament while co-operative banks have been constituted by different States under various
Acts related to co-operative societies of various states.
Co-operative bank organisation in India has three tier set up.
1. State Co-operative Bank is the apex co-operative institution in the state.
2. Central or District Co-operative Bank works as district level.
3. At the lowest level co-operative set-up is Primary Credit Agency which works at village

Regional Rural Banks

Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) were established on 2nd October 1975 under the provisions of the
RRB Act 1976 with a view to develope the rural economy. Initially, five RRBs were set up in the
distrct of Moradabad and Gorakhpur (UP), Bhiwani (Haryana), Jaipur (Rajasthan) and Malda
(West Bengal). Capital share being 50% by the central government, 15% by the state
government and 35% by the scheduled bank. RRBs are working in all states of the country
except Sikkim and Goa.
NABARD gives short term and medium term loans to the RRBs.
South Malabar Gramin Bank, (SMGB) a regional rural bank (RRB) sponsored by Canara Bank is
the largest among the RRBs in the country in term of total business. Uttar Bihar Gramin Bank
sponsored by Central Bannk of India, is one of the largest regional rural bank in india in terms of
branch network, staff strength and area. Prathama Bank, the first Regional Rural Bank of the
country was established on 2nd Otcober, 1975 with its Head Office at Moradabad in terms of
the ordinance issued by the Government of India in 1975. It was sponsored by Syndicate Bank.
1) Which Committee recommended setting up RRBs?
Narasimham Committee in 1975
2) When was the first RRB set up?
Prathama Grameen Bank on 2nd Oct 1975.
3) What is the Ownership ratio of stakeholders in the RRBs?
Central Govt-50%, State Govt-15%, Sponsor Bank-35%
4) Who regulates RRBs?
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
5) What is the total Number of RRBs as of Now?
6) Which Indian States dont have any RRBs as of now?
Goa & Sikkim
7) At Present how many states are having state level RRBs?
8)The Regional Rural Banks (Amendment bill 2014) increased authorised capital from Rs. 5
Crore to?
Rs. 2,000 Crore
9) The first fully Computerised RRB in the Country?
South Malabar Grameen Bank (Malappuramnear Kozhikode).
10) Minimum Capital to Risk Weighted Assets Ratio (CRAR) of RRBs which they have to
11) Presently how much Budget provision for recapitalization of RRBs?
Rs.15 crore
12) RRBs are Classified as which type of Banks?
Commercial Banks
13) The Combined Capital of the Centre, State Govt and Sponsor Banks will not come down
14 RRBs are formed by which act?
RRB Act. 1976.
15) Committee for Recapitalisation of Regional Rural Banks headed by?
KC Chakrabarty
4/ RRB RECAPITALISATION Kamalesh Chandra Chakrabarty COMMITTE
Development Banks
Development banks are specialised financial institutions which perform two functions:
1. Providing medium and long term finance to private entrepreneurs; and
2. Performing various promotional roles conductive to economic development.
Though development banks provide finance like banks do but they are different from
commercial banks in following ways:
1. They do not seek or accept deposits from the public as ordinary banks do;
2. They provide medium and long-term finance whereas commercial banks provide short term
finance; and
3. They do not merely provide long term finance like any other term lending institution but as
development banks their main role is promotion of economic development by way of
promoting investment and enterprise in their priority areas.

Financial Regulataries in India

1. Reserve Bank of India
The Reserve Bank of India is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary
policy of the Indian rupee. It commenced its operations on 1 April 1935 during the British Rule
in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
It is a member bank of the Asian Clearing Union.
The general superintendence and direction of the RBI is entrusted with the 21-member Central
Board of Directors: the Governor, 4 Deputy Governors, 2 Finance Ministry representatives, 10
government-nominated directors to represent important elements from India's economy, and 4
directors to represent local boards headquartered at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and New
23rd Governor-Raghuram Rajan
Headquarters-Shahid Bhagat Singh Marg Mumbai, Maharashtra
Facts about RBI
Name of Central Bank of India: Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
Reserve Bank of India Act passed in 1934.
Reserve Bank of India (RBI) established on 1 April 1935.
Reserve Bank of India (RBI) established on the recommendation of Hilton-Young Commission.
Hilton-Young Commission submitted its report in the year 1926.
Initially RBI was constructed as a Private Share holders bank with fully paid-up capital of Rs 5
RBI was nationalised in the year of 1st January, 1949.
RBI is a statutory body.
RBI is the sole authority in India to issue Bank notes in India.
RBI can issue currency notes as much as the country requires, provided it has to make a
security deposit of Rs. 200 crores, out of which Rs. 115 crores must be in gold and Rs. 85
crores must be FOREX Reserves.
Emblem of RBI: Panther and Palm Tree.
Initially the headquarter of RBI was in Calcutta (Now Kolkata) but in 1937 it was permanently
moved to Mumbai, Maharastra.
The Reserve Bank of India has 4 Zonal offices, 22 regional offices, most of them in state
capitals and 9 Sub-offices
The Executive head of RBI is known as Governor.
RBI is controlled by the Central Board of Directors.
Indian government appoints the directors for four years tenure. The central board of directors
comprises Governor, four deputy governor and fifteen directors.
The bank has also two training colleges for its officers, viz. Reserve Bank Staff College at
Chennai and College of Agricultural Banking at Pune.
RBI is a member bank of the Asian Clearing Union.
Chintaman Dwarkanath Deshmukh (C D Deshmukh) was the governor of RBI at the Time of
nationalization of RBI in 1949.
C D Deshmukh, then Governor of RBI, represented India at the Bretton Woods negotiations in
1st women Deputy Governor of RBI -K.J.Udeshi.
RBI is not a Commercial Bank.
RBI prints currency in 15 Languages.
RBI is a member of IMF (International Monetary Fund).
Its financial year is from 1 July to 30 June. The emblem of RBI is a tiger and a Palm tree.
The first governor of RBI was Sir Osborne Smith (1935-1937). The first Indian governor was
CD Deshmukh (1943-1949).
Manmohan Singh is the only Prime Minister who also was a Governor of RBI.
Printing & security presses:
Govt of India: Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited:
Production: bank notes, coins, nonjudicial stamps, postage stamps, and other government
related documents for India.
Under: Min of finance
Est.: 2006
It contains: 4 Presses + 4 mints + 1 paper mill
4 presses:
1. Currency Note Press (CNP):
CNP was established in 1928 as the first printing press for bank notes in India -- Nashik,
2.Bank Note Press (BNP) -- in Mysore, Karnataka
3. India Security Press -- Nashik
4. Security Printing Press -- Hyderabad
Mints: kolkatta , Mumbai , Hyderabad , Noida
Paper mill: Security Paper Mill was established in 1968 at Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh. It
produces papers for banknotes and nonjudicial stamps.
RBI: Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran Private Limited (Subsidiary)
under: RBI
Est.: 1995
Press Mysore, KN and Salboni, WB
Currency Note Press -- Nashik
Bank Note Press Dewas, MP.

2. Securities and Exchange Board of India

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulator for the securities market in
India. It was established in the year 1988 and given statutory powers on 12 April 1992 through
the SEBI Act, 1992.
Headquarters- at the business district of Bandra Kurla Complex Mumbai, Maharashtra
Chairman-Upendra Kumar Sinha
The Securities and Exchange Board of India
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulator for the securities market in
"Its Basic function is to protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the
development, and to regulate the securities market and for matters connected there with or
incidental there to"
The Securities and Exchange Board of India was established on April 12, 1992 in accordance with
the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.
SEBI has to be responsive to the needs of three groups, which constitute the market:
The issuers of securities
The investors
The market intermediaries.
Its headquarters at the business district of Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai (Maharashtra), and
has Northern, Eastern, Southern and Western Regional Offices in New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai
and Ahmedabad respectively. It has opened local offices at Jaipur and Bangalore.
Management of the Board.
The Board shall consist of the following members, namely: -
(a) A Chairman;
(b) Two members from amongst the officials of the [Ministry] of the Central Government
dealing with Finance
(c) One member from amongst the officials of [the Reserve Bank];
(d) Five other members of whom at least three shall be the whole-time members to be
appointed by the central Government.
Chairman- Upendra Kumar Sinha
For the discharge of its functions efficiently, SEBI has been vested with the following powers:
- To approve bylaws of stock exchanges.
- To require the stock exchange to amend their bylaws.
- Inspect the books of accounts and call for periodical returns from recognized stock exchanges.
- Inspect the books of accounts of financial intermediaries.
- Compel certain companies to list their shares in one or more stock exchanges.

3. Forward Markets Commission

The Forward Markets Commission (FMC) is the chief regulator of commodity futures markets in
The Commission allows commodity trading in 22 exchanges in India, of which 6 are national.
Established in 1953 under the provisions of the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952
Headquarters-Mumbai, India
Agency executive Chairman-Ramesh Abhishek
The three members of the Commission are
Shri Ramesh Abhishek (Chairman) - Appointed 24 September 2012
M. Mathisekaran
Shri Nagendraa Parakh - appointed July 2013
Parent agency-Ministry of Finance

4. Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) is an autonomous apex
statutory body which regulates and develops the insurance industry in India. It was constituted
by a Parliament of India act called Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999
and duly passed by the Government of India.
Headquarters-3rd Floor, Parisrama Bhavan, Basheer Bagh, Hyderabad, Telangana
Chairman, IRDA-T.S. Vijayan

5. Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority

The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) is a pension regulatory
authority which was established by Government of India on August 23, 2003. PFRDA is
authorized by Ministry of Finance, Department of Financial Services.
PFRDA is responsible for appointment of various intermediate agencies such as Central Record
Keeping Agency (CRA), Pension Fund Managers, Custodian, NPS Trustee Bank, etc.
The Authority shall consist of a Chairperson and not more than five members, of whom at least
three shall be whole-time members, to be appointed by the Central Government. Present Board
of the Authority
Hemant Contractor, Chairman
Shri R. V. Verma, Whole-Time Member (Finance)
Dr. B.S.Bhandari, Whole-Time Member (Economics)
Dr. Shashank Saksensa, Part-Time Member
Ms. Annie George Mathew, Part-Time Member
Ms. Vandana Sharma, Part-Time Member
Headquarters-New Delhi, India
National Pension System is a defined contributory pensions system introduced by Government
of India. It is mandatory for all Central Government employees with effect from Jan 1 2004. It
extends to all citizens of India including workers of the unorganized sector on a voluntary basis
with effect from May 1, 2009. On Oct 29, 2015 RBI allowed NRIs to subscribe to NPS.
Credit Rating Agencies of India & World

Important Credit Rating Agencies

Leading Credit Rating Agency in India

Indian credit rating industry mainly comprises of CRISIL, ICRA, CARE, ONICRA, FITCH (India Ratings &
Research) & SMERA.

CRISIL - Credit Rating Information Services of India Limited - Headquarter Mumbai

CRISIL is Indias first credit rating agency, incorporated in 1987 and was promoted by the
erstwhile ICICI Ltd, along with UTI and other financial institutions.
It commenced operations from 1988 onwards. In 1995, in partnership will National Stock
Exchange, CRISIL developed CRISIL500 Equity Index.
In 1996, it made a strategic alliance with the Standard & Poors (S&P) Ratings Group and in the
following year Standard & Poors (S&P) Ratings Group acquired 9.68% shares in it.
In services Industry, the CRISIL in 1998 set up the Indian Index Services Ltd as a joint venture
with the NSE and in 1999, it developed a Risk Assessment Model (RAM) which became a banking
industry standard. S&P acquired the majority stake in the company in 2005 and so today CRISIL
is a S&P company.
ICRA - Investment information and credit rating agency - Headquarter - Gurgaon, India
Indias second credit rating agency is ICRA (Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency)
which was set up in 1991. It was promoted by Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI),
other leading financial/investment institutions, commercial banks and financial services
companies as an independent and professional Investment Information and Credit Rating
Agency. Today, ICRA and its subsidiaries together form the ICRA Group of Companies (Group
ICRA). ICRA Limited is a Public Limited Company, with its shares listed on the Bombay Stock
Exchange and the National Stock Exchange.
CARE - Credit Analysis and Research - Headquarters Mumbai
The third Credit rating Agency in India was CARE, which started working in 1993. It was mainly
promoted by the IDBI.
ONICRA - Headquarter - Gurgaon, India
Later another Credit rating agency ONICRA was established which now Onicra Credit Rating
Agency Of India Ltd. This is a private sector agency set up by Onida Finance. Today it has a niche
market and provides assessment, grading and rating models for individuals & MSMES (micro,
small and medium enterprises.
SMERA - Headquarters Mumbai
Fitch (India Ratings & Research) - Headquarters Mumbai

Note: CRISIL is the largest credit rating agency in India, with a market share of greater than 60%.
Leading Credit Rating Agency in World

Standard & Poor's (S&P) Headquarter New York, US

Moody's Headquarter - New York, US
Fitch - Headquarter - New York, US
Foreign Direct Investment
Development of any nation depends upon the economy of that particular nation. Today we will talk
about the concept of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) and tries to learn the role of FDI in Indian context.

Toady in modern era supremacy of any nation does not depend upon the area and military power.
Economy is the biggest criteria for the development of any nation. Now the war is of economy.
Singapore, Hong Kong, Switzerland etc are some of the example of the dominance of economy in the
world despite of their weak military power and smaller area.

What Is Foreign Direct Investment?

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment made by a company or individual in one country in
business interests in another country, in the form of either establishing business operations or
acquiring business assets in the other country, such as ownership or controlling interest in a foreign

Foreign direct investments are commonly categorized as being horizontal, vertical or conglomerate in

A horizontal direct investment: In this type of investment, investors establish the same type of business
operation in the foreign countries as it operates in its home country.
A vertical direct investment: A vertical investment is one in which different but related business
activities from the investor's main business are established or acquired in a foreign country.

A conglomerate type of foreign direct investment is one where a company or individual makes a foreign
investment in a business that is unrelated to its existing business in its home country.

India open its economy in 1991 and now it has became one of the fastest growing economies in the
world. Infact India has become on the most open economies in the world and its 92% FDI comes through
the automatic route.

In India the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) offers a single window clearance for
applications on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) that are under the approval route.
Where as the sectors under automatic route do not require any prior approval from FIPB and are subject
to only sectoral laws.

Present Indian Government concept of "Make in India" has open its market for the investment of
more and more FDI in Indian economy. Indian PM has invited the foreign investors to invest in Indian
market from the international arena. During FY2015, India received the maximum FDI equity inflows
from Mauritius at US$ 9.03 billion, followed by Singapore (US$ 6.74 billion), Netherlands (US$ 3.43
billion), Japan (US$ 2.08 billion) and the US (US$ 1.82 billion).
There are some concerns from investors point of view especially when they invest in Indian economy.
Many Investors complained about the tax structure, Problem of bureaucracy, clearance at different
stages, Infrastructure, Land acquisition and different government in center and state level are the main

Present government has taken a lot of initiative for FDI reforms, a high-level meeting chaired by Prime
Minister Narendra Modi, paved the way for companies such as Apple and Microsoft to set shop in India.
In defence, foreign investment beyond 49 per cent (and upto 100 per cent) has been permitted
through the government approval route, in cases resulting in access to modern technology in the

To promote the development of pharmaceutical sector, the government has permitted up to 74 per
cent FDI under automatic route in existing pharmaceutical ventures. The government has permitted
100 per cent FDI in India-based airlines. However, a foreign carrier can only own upto 49 per cent
stake in the venture, and the rest can come from a private investors including those based overseas.
These are the some of the initiative taken by the present government to improve the economy of India
and attract more and more FDI in India. Today India is competing with the whole world and especially
with china in that circumstance India need to promote its economy and work on the concern of the
Investors. India needs to change from service sector to manufacturing sector.

FDI in India
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India is the major monetary source for economic
development in India. Foreign companies invest directly in fast growing private Indian
businesses to take benefits of cheaper wages and changing business environment of India.
Economic liberalisation started in India in wake of the 1991 economic crisis and since then FDI
has steadily increased in India. According to the Financial Times, in 2015 India overtook China
and the US as the top destination for the Foreign Direct Investment. In first half of the 2015,
India attracted investment of $31 billion compared to $28 billion and $27 billion of China and
the US respectively.
There are two routes by which India gets FDI.
Automatic route: By this route FDI is allowed without prior approval by Government or Reserve
Bank of India.
Government route: Prior approval by government is needed via this route. Foreign Investment
Promotion Board is the responsible agency to oversee this route.
India replaces China as top FDI destination in 2015: FDI Intelligence Report
According to FDI Intelligence Report India has replaced China as the top Foreign Direct
Investment (FDI) destination by attracting $63 billion worth FDI projects in 2015.
FDI Intelligence is a division of international media company The Financial Times Limited.
India was the highest-ranked country by capital investment in the year 2015, with 63 billion
dollars-worth of FDI projects announced.
India has replaced China as the top destination for FDI by capital investment following of high-
value project announcements.
Top destination states for FDI in 2015 in India: Gujarat was on top which had attracted $12.4
billion. Maharashtra was second attracting $8.3 billion respectively in 2015.
DIPP notifies 49% FDI under automatic route in Insurance and Pension sector
The Union Commerce and Industry Ministry has notified foreign direct investment (FDI) upto
49% in insurance and pension sector will be under automatic route.
In this regard, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) has issued official
notification to liberalise its FDI policy in insurance and pension sector.
However, FDI above 49% will be subject to approval of the Foreign Investment Promotion
Board (FIPB). Prior to this, only up to 26% FDI was permitted through the automatic approval
route in insurance and pension sector.
Union Government in 2015 had increased the FDI cap in insurance and pension sector to 49%
from 26%, respectively. But it was subject to the condition that ownership and control remains
with the Indian promoter at all times.
Thus, existing guidelines on Indian management and control will have to be verified by the
respective regulators, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and
Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).
Presently there are 52 insurance companies operating in India, of which 28 are in general
insurance and 24 are in life insurance business. FDI into the country has grown by record 40%
to $29.44 billion during April-December 2015.
Singapore replaces Mauritius as top source of FDI into India
Singapore has replaced Mauritius as the top source of foreign direct investment (FDI) into India
during the first half of the current fiscal year 2015-16.
It was unveiled by the data during April to September 2015 period released by the Department
of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
India has attracted 6.69 billion dollars FDI from Singapore while it received 3.66 billion dollars
from Mauritius.
Highest foreign investment sector wise: Computer software and hardware (3.05 billion
dollars), trading (2.30 billion dollars), services and automobile (1.46 billion dollars each) and
telecommunications (659 million dollars).
Union Cabinet allows 100 per cent FDI under automatic route for white label ATMs
White labeled ATMs Private non-bank companies that own and operate their own brand of
ATMs are termed as White labeled ATMs. They were meant to expand the reach of ATMs in Tier
III to VI centres.
As per RBI guidelines, it is mandatory to non-bank companies owning white labelled ATMs to
provide banking services to customers based on cards (credit/debit/prepaid) issued by banks.
Government Permits 100% FDI in Online Marketplaces
The government permitted 100% FDI in the marketplace format of e-commerce retailing with a
view to attract more foreign investors.
New FDI Limits
Agriculture - 100%
Asset - 100%
Civil aviation - 49%
Courier service - 100%
Credit rating / Information - 74%
Defence - 49%
Education - 100%
FM radio - 26%
Insurance & Sub-activities - 49%
Medical Devices - 100%
Pension - 49%
Pharma - 100%
Power - 49%
Print media - 26%
Public Sector Banks - 20%
Private bank - 100%
Railway infrastructure - 100%
Single brand Retail - 100%
Multi brand - 51%
Stock exchange - 49%
Telecom Sector - 100%
Tourism - 100%
Financial organizations
African Development Bank
The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) is a multilateral development finance institution
established to contribute to the economic development and social progress of African countries.

Formation 10 September 1964

Type International organization

Legal status Treaty

Purpose Regional development

Headquarters Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Membership 78 countries

President Akinwumi Adesina, Nigeria

Asian Development Bank -

President - Takehiko Nakao, Japan (2013present)

From 31 members at its establishment, ADB now has 67 members, of which 48 are from within
Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside.

Motto Fighting poverty in Asia and the Pacific

Formation 19 December 1966

Type Multilateral Development Bank

Legal status Treaty

Purpose Social and economic development

Headquarters Mandaluyong, Metro Manila,Philippines

Region served Asia-Pacific

Membership 67 countries

President Takehiko Nakao, Japan

As of 31 December 2015, ADB's shareholders consist of 48 developing and developed members

within Asia and the Pacific region, and 19 members from outside the region.
Non-borrowing Shareholders Shareholdings (2015)*

Japan 15.6%

United States 15.5%

Australia 5.8%

Canada 5.2%

Republic of Korea 5.0%

Germany 4.3%
Non-borrowing Shareholders Shareholdings (2015)*

France 2.3%

United Kingdom 2.0%

Italy 1.8%

Others 9.0%

27 Countries 66.7%

Borrowing Shareholders Shareholdings (2015)*

People's Republic of China 6.5%

India 6.3%

Indonesia 5.5%

Malaysia 2.7%

Philippines 2.4%

Pakistan 2.2%
Non-borrowing Shareholders Shareholdings (2015)*

Thailand 1.4%

Bangladesh 1.0%

Others 5.4%

40 Countries 33.3%

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

President - Suma Chakrabarti, India (2012present)

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial
institution founded in 1991. As a multilateral developmental investment bank, the EBRD uses
investment as a tool to build market economies. Initially focused on the countries of the former
Eastern Bloc it expanded to support development in 30 countries from central Europe to central

Founded 1991

Type International financial institution


Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

President - Luis Alberto Moreno, Colombia (2005present)
International Monetary Fund
Managing Director - Christine Lagarde, France (2011present)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in

Washington, D.C., of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure
financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable
economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world.
Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference, it came into formal existence in 1945 with
29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Tiny South Pacific island nation Nauru has become the 189th member of the International
Monetary Fund and the World Bank, the two institutions announced Tuesday.
Nauru applied for membership in the Washington-based IMF and World Bank in April 2014,
after joining the United Nations in 1996 as the world's smallest independent republic.
The World Bank, which helps developing countries to spur growth and fight poverty, welcomed
Nauru as its smallest member by land mass, at 21 square kilometers (eight square miles).
Before Nauru, the last country to join the IMF and World Bank was South Sudan, in April 2012.

Formation 27 December 1945

Type International financial institution

Headquarters Washington, D.C., United States

Parent organization United Nations

Membership 189 countries

The table below shows quota and voting shares for IMF members
Quota: Quota:
IMF Member
Rank millions percentage of Governor Percentage out of total votes
of SDRs the total

1 United States 82,994.2 17.68 Jacob J. Lew 16.73

2 Japan 30,820.5 6.56 Taro Aso 6.23

3 China 30,482.9 6.49 6.16

4 Germany 26,634.4 5.67 5.39

5 France 20,155.1 4.29 Michel Sapin 4.09

6 United Kingdom 20,155.1 4.29 4.09

Pier Carlo
7 Italy 15,070.0 3.21 3.06

8 India 13,114.4 2.79 Arun Jaitley 2.67

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)

President - Ahmad Mohamed Ali, Saudi Arabia (1975present)

The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) is a multilateral development financing institution located
in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It was founded in 1973 by the Finance Ministers at the first
Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now called the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation)
with the support of the king of Saudi Arabia at the time (Faisal), and began its activities on 20
October 1975. There are 56 shareholding member states.

Motto Together We Build A Better Future[1]

Formation 1975
Type Development bank

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


Membership 56 countries

Key people Ahmad Mohamed Ali Al-Madani,


World Bank
President - Jim Yong Kim, United States (2012present)

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing
countries for capital programs. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA).
The World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group, which is part of the United Nations

John Maynard Keynes and Harry Dexter White, the "founding fathers" of both the World Bank
and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Motto Working for a World Free of


Formation July 1944

Type Monetary International Financial


Legal status Treaty

Purpose Crediting

Headquarters Washington, D.C., United States

Region Worldwide

Membership 189 countries (IBRD)

173 countries (IDA)

Key people Jim Yong Kim, president

Parent organization World Bank Group

Chief Economist
Kaushik Basu, India

World Bank Group

World Bank Group logo

Formation 27 December 1945

Type International organization

Legal status Treaty

Purpose Economic development, poverty


Membership 189 states (188 UN countries and


President Jim Yong Kim

Managing Sri Mulyani Indrawati is an
Indonesian economist

India (1945-2015): Largest recipient of loans from World Bank

As per the World Bank lending report, India is the largest recipient of loans from the World
Bank, amounting to $102.1 billion, between 1945 and 2015 (as on July 21, 2015). The World
Bank has been lending funds to India for rural and urban development projects related to
transport, water and irrigation, health, power and agriculture.
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), a part of the World Bank
group, has lent $52.7 billion, the International Development Association (IDA), a multilateral
concessional lender of World Bank, has loaned $49.4 billion to India over the last 70 years.
India is followed by Brazil ($58.8 billion), China ($55.6 billion), Mexico ($54 billion) and Indonesia
($50.5 billion).
About IBRD & IDA:
IBRD is the worlds largest development bank and hopes to eliminate poverty by 2030. IDA is
the largest multi-lateral source of concessional finance to boost growth and cut poverty.
While IBRD provides loans and assistance to primarily middle-income countries, IDA helps the
worlds poorest nations.
Sector-wise funding to India:
Water, sanitation and flood projects in India received the most World Bank funding (27%),
followed by finance (19%), transportation (18%), education (11%), public administration and law
(10%), agriculture (8%), health and social service (4%), information and communication (2%) and
energy and mining (1%).
Region-wise highest funding
India received a loan of $3.8 billion in 2015, the largest in the sub-continent, followed by China
($1.8 billion) in East Asia and Pacific, Nigeria ($1.5 billion) in Africa, Ukraine ($1.3 billion) in
Europe and Central Asia, Morocco ($1.1 billion) in the Middle East and North Africa and Brazil
($0.6 billion) in Latin America and the Caribbean region.
Whats new?
The World Bank and GOI recently signed a $50-million credit line for Nai Manzil, an
educational and skills training programme for minorities. The project size is $100 million (Rs
650crore), of which half will come from the IDA and half from the union budget.
World Bank Group agencies
World Bank Directors-General of Evaluation - Caroline Heider

The World Bank Group consists of 5 agencies

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), established in 1945, which
provides debt financing on the basis of sovereign guarantees;

International Bank for

Reconstruction and Development

IBRD logo

Formation 1945

Type Development finance institution

Legal status Treaty

Purpose Development assistance, Poverty


Headquarters Washington, D.C., United States

Membership 189 countries

President of the World Jim Yong Kim

Parent organization World Bank Group

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), established in 1956, which provides various forms of
financing without sovereign guarantees, primarily to the private sector;

International Finance Corporation

IFC logo

Formation July 20, 1956

Type Development finance


Legal status Treaty

Purpose Private sector

development, Poverty

Headquarters Washington, D.C.

Membership 184 countries

Executive Vice President & Philippe Le Hourou


Parent organization World Bank Group

The International Development Association (IDA), established in 1960, which provides concessional
financing (interest-free loans or grants), usually with sovereign guarantees;

International Development Association

IDA logo

Formation 1960

Type Development finance


Legal status Treaty

Purpose Development assistance,

Poverty reduction

Headquarters Washington, D.C

Membership 173 countries

President of the World Jim Yong Kim


Parent organization World Bank Group

The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), established in 1965, which
works with governments to reduce investment risk;

International Centre for

Settlement of Investment Disputes

ICSID logo

Formation 1965

Type Dispute resolution organization

Legal status Treaty

Purpose International arbitration

Headquarters Washington, D.C.

Membership 161 countries (signatory and

contracting states)
153 countries (contracting states

Secretary- Meg Kinnear


Parent World Bank Group

The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), established in 1988, which provides insurance
against certain types of risk, including political risk, primarily to the private sector.

Multilateral Investment
Guarantee Agency

MIGA logo

Formation 1988

Type Development finance


Legal status Treaty

Purpose Political risk

insurance, foreign direct

Headquarters Washington, D.C.

Membership 181 countries

Executive Vice Keiko Honda


Parent organization World Bank Group

President - KV Kamath, India (2015present)
New Development Bank

The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is a
multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and
South Africa).
BRICS bank to issue first Yuan-denominated bonds
ICICI Bank signs MoU with BRICSs New Development Bank
About New Development Bank
NDB is a multilateral development bank promoted by BRICS nations viz. Brazil, Russia, India,
China and South Africa. It is outcome of 6th BRICS Summit being held in Fortaleza, Brazil.
It is headquartered in Shanghai, China. It will have a regional office in Johannesburg, South
The chairmanship of the bank will be rotational and its first President will come from India for
the first 5 years followed by Brazil and Russia.
Capital: It will have initial capital of US 50 billion dollars and will be raised to US 100 billion
dollars within the next couple of years.
NDB began its operations in July 2015 with an initial capital of 100 billion dollars.
To begin with, the bank will start operating with $50 billion in initial capital with the five BRICS
contributing $10 billion each.
It had started its operations in July 2015 with initial authorized capital of $100 billion.
Renowned Indian banker Kundapur Vaman Kamath is the President (first) of NDB for the first
five years i.e. till 2020.
The goal of the bank is to fund infrastructure projects in emerging economies for sustainable
In the NDB, each participant country has been assigned one vote, and none of the countries
have veto power.
BRICS New Development Bank approves first loans for renewable energy projects
The BRICS New Development Bank (NDB) has approved its first package of loans worth 811
million dollars for four renewable energy projects in Brazil, China, South Africa and India.
The NDB in its first loan tranche will provide $300 million to Brazil, $250 million to India, $180
million to South Africa and $81 million to China.
These funds will be used in area of green and renewable energy projects with a combined
capacity of 2.37MW together. On completion of these projects, they will help to reduce the
amount of harmful emissions by 4 million tons annually.
Union External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj formally unveiled the BRICS Logo for the
duration of Indias BRICS Chairmanship and also launched website.
Logo: Lotus with colours from all the five members and traditional namaste at the centre.
Core theme: Building responsive, inclusive and collective solution for the grouping.
India has assumed BRICS Chairmanship for second time and had hosted the BRICS Summit in
2012 for first time in New Delhi.
The 7th BRICS Summit was held in the Russian city of Ufa in July 2015.
India is going to host BRICS Friendship Cities Conclave in Mumbai (Maharashtra), financial
capital of India from April 14 to 16, 2016.
China hosts 1st BRICS media summit
China hosted the first Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa (BRICS) media summit in Beijing for
creating an alternative media platform for the 5 emerging economies.
Chinas Xinhua news agency is the initiator of the project which adds one more dimension to the
BRICS format.
25 media organisations participated in the 2 day summit which aimed to create a new
institutional framework to benefit the media of five emerging economies of BRICS grouping.

Governors of BRICS Banks

1. Alexandre Tombini - Alexandre Antnio Tombini (born December 9, 1963 in Porto Alegre) is a
Brazilian economist. He is the current Governor of the Central Bank of Brazil.

Central Bank of Brazil Headquarters: Braslia, Federal District, Brazil

Founded: December 31, 1964
2. Elvira Sakhipzadovna Nabiullina (born 29 October 1963) is a Tatar born-Russian economist and
head of the Central Bank of Russia.
Central Bank of Russia Headquarters-12 Neglinnaya str., Moscow, Russian Federation
3. Zhou Xiaochuan (born January 29, 1948) is a Chinese economist, banker, reformist and
bureaucrat. As governor of the People's Bank of China since December 2002, he has been in
charge of the monetary policy of the People's Republic of China. He was reappointed to the
same position in March 2013, making him the longest-serving central bank chief since the
establishment of the People's Republic of China.
People's Bank of China Headquarters-Beijing and Shanghai
Established-December 1, 1948
Currency-Renminbi (RMB)
4. Lesetja Kganyago is a South African economist and central banker. He is the Governor of the
Reserve Bank of South Africa (SARB).
It was established in 1921 after Parliament passed an act, the "Currency and Bank Act of 10
August 1920", as a direct result of the abnormal monetary and financial conditions which World
War I had brought.
South African Reserve Bank Headquarters-Pretoria, South Africa
BRICS is a group of five major emerging economies, comprising 43% of the world population,
having 37% of the world GDP and 17% share in the world trade.
South Africa was the last country which have joined the group in 2010 and completed the
group as BRICS.
History of BRICS
Earlier four nations joined hand to form a group in order to give a recognition to the world
rising economic powers.The acronym BRIC (Brazil,Russia,India and China) was first used in 2001
by Goldman Sachs in their Global Economics Paper, "The World Needs Better Economic BRICs"
on the basis of econometric analyses projecting that the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and
China would individually and collectively occupy far greater economic space and would be
amongst the worlds largest economies in the next 50 years or so. BRIC started after the
meeting of the Leaders of Russia, India and China in St. Petersburg on the margins of G8
Outreach Summit in 2006. The 1st BRIC Summit was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia, on 16 June
After inclusion of South Africa, it attended the 3rd BRICS Summit in Sanya, China on 14 April
2011. BRICS next summit will be held in India (Panaji, Goa)
BRICS Initiative
The BRICS Forum, an independent international organisation encouraging commercial, political
and cultural cooperation between the BRICS nations. BRICS works on the two important pillars -
Iissues of mutual interest through meetings of Leaders as well as of Ministers of Finance, Trade,
Health, S&T, Education, Agriculture, Communication, Labour, etc. and practical cooperation in a
number of areas through meetings of Working Groups/Senior Officials.
The 7th BRICS summit in July 2015 marked the entry into force of the Agreement on the New
Development Bank. The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS
Development Bank, is a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states (Brazil,
Russia, India, China and South Africa).
The initial authorized capital of the bank is $100 bn divided into 1 mn shares having a par
value of $100,000 each.
The initial subscribed capital of the NDB is $50 bn divided into paid-in shares ($10 bln) and
callable shares ($40 bn).The bank is headquartered in Shanghai, China. On 11th May 2015, K. V.
Kamath was appointed as the President of the bank.
Future of BRICS
BRICS has emerged one of the successful organisation which have attracted other nations also
to join hand and work on the foot mark for the development of their respective
economy.Presence of China and India has made this group powerful in terms of economy and
military powers. Recently on 26 september 2016, The Department of Science and Technology
under the BRICS - grouping of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa - framework organized
the first 'Young Scientists Conference' in Bengaluru. The conference will see 50 young scientists
meet over the next four days. The BRICS Young Scientist Forum (BRICS - YSF) was started last
From India's prospective BRICS is an important platform in term of development of its
markets.Co-operation on the economic front is one of the focus areas of Indias policy towards
BRIC. India can also penetrate into African Markets with the help of BRICS organisation.India
need to decide how she can utilize the BRICS platform at an international arena.

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank

The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is an international financial institution that aims
to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region. The bank has 37 member
states (all "Founding Members") and was proposed as an initiative by the government of
China. The initiative gained support from 37 regional and 20 non-regional Prospective
Founding Members (PFM), all of which have signed the Articles of Agreement that form the
legal basis for the bank. The bank started operation after the agreement entered into force on
25 December 2015, after ratifications were received from 10 member states holding a total
number of 50% of the initial subscriptions of the Authorized Capital Stock. Major economies that
did not become PFM include the G7/G8 members Canada, Japan and the United States.

DJ Pandian appointed AIIB Vice-President

Former IAS officer D J Pandian has been appointed vice-president and chief investment officer
(CIO) of Beijing-based Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).
About Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)
AIIB is a multi-lateral lender set up to boost lending for infrastructure projects in the Asia-Pacific
It will fund infrastructural projects such as energy, urban construction, transportation and
logistics as well as education and healthcare.
It has authorised capital of US 100 billion dollars and subscribed capital of USD 50 billion.
China, India and Russia are the three largest shareholders of AIIB, taking 30.34%, 8.52%, 6.66%
stake respectively.
Their voting shares are 26.06%, 7.5% and 5.92% respectively.
Indias Dinesh Sharma elected to board of directors of AIIB
He has been elected to the 12-member board through a secret ballot. This is the first board of
directors of AIIB in which 57 nations are founding members including India.
It should be noted that Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley is the designated governor of the
AIIB from India. However he was represented by Mr. Sharma at the meeting.
Chinas President Xi Jinping formally opens AIIB in Beijing
The bank was formally established in Beijing on 25 December 2015. Chinas former Finance
Minister Lou Jiwei was elected as the first Chairman of the Banks Council while its former
Finance Minister Jin Liqun was elected its first President.
Headquarters: Beijing.
Members: Total there are 57 members, of which 37 are regional and 20 non-regional
Prospective Founding Members (PFM).
Authorized capital: It will be of 100 billion US dollars. The initial subscribed capital will be
around 50 billion US Dollar and the paid-in ratio will be 20 per cent.
Regional character of the Bank: Its regional members (Asian) will be the holding around 75
percent of shares i.e. they will be majority shareholders. They have been allocated their capital
share on quota basis i.e. based on their economic size.
Voting share: For each member country it is based on the size of their economy and not on
authorised capital share to the Bank.
Earlier in June 2015, 54 founding members of the bank had signed the 60-article agreement
provides the legal framework for Institution of AIIB. While, the remaining members are
expected to sign before the end of 2015.
50 founding nations including India have signed 60-article agreement of China-led multilateral
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).
Australia was the first country to sign the agreement and was followed by 49 other members.
Indian Ambassador Ashok Kantha signed the agreement on behalf of country.
It should be noted that there are 57 founder-member countries AIIB. Seven countries were not
able to sign this agreement as it was not ratified by their respective domestic authorities. The
seven countries are Denmark, Malaysia, Kuwait, Holland, Philippines and South Africa and
Australia has decided to join the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) as a
founding member.
In this regard, Australia will contribute paid-in capital of 718.5 million US dollars over next five
years i.e. till 2020. With this investment it will become sixth largest shareholder in AIIB

The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank

The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank (MDB)
conceived for the 21st century. The Bank's foundation is built on the lessons of experience of
existing MDBs and the private sector. Its modus operandi will be lean, clean and green:
Lean- with a small efficient management team and highly skilled staff;
Clean- an ethical organization with zero tolerance for corruption;
Green- an institution built on respect for the environment.
The AIIB, a modern knowledge-based institution, will focus on the development of infrastructure
and other productive sectors in Asia, including energy and power, transportation and
telecommunications, rural infrastructure and agriculture development, water supply and
sanitation, environmental protection, urban development and logistics, etc.
The AIIB will complement and cooperate with the existing MDBs to jointly address the daunting
infrastructure needs in Asia. AIIB welcomes all regional and non-regional countries, developing
and developed countries, that seek to contribute to Asian infrastructure development and
regional connectivity.
Headquarters- Beijing, China
Official language - English
President- Jin Liqun
Main organ- Board of Governors
Board of Directors
Representatives from 22 countries signed the October 2014 Memorandum of Understanding
(MOU) to establish the AIIB and Beijing was selected to host Bank headquarters. Mr. Jin Liqun
was appointed as the Secretary General of the Multilateral Interim Secretariat. By the deadline
of March 31st for submission of membership applications, the Prospective Founding Members
had increased to 57.
The bank started operation after the agreement entered into force on 25 December 2015.
Major economies that did not become PFM (Prospective Founding Members) include the G7/G8
members' Japan and the United States
Share Holders
The capital of the bank is $100 billion, equivalent to 23 of the capital of the Asian
Development Bank and about half that of the World Bank.
Asian countries will contribute up to 75 per cent of the total capital and be allocated a share of
the quota based on their economic size.
BRICS members China, India and Russia are the three largest shareholders, with a voting share
of 26.06 per cent, 7.5 per cent and 5.92 per cent, respectively.
Current News about AIIB
- AIIB 1st Annual Meeting to be held in Beijing on June 25-26, 2016.
- Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and European Investment Bank agree to strengthen
-The Asian Infrastructure Investment Banks Board of Directors approved its first 4 loans totaling
$509 million to finance 4 projects. Three of the 4 projects are co-financing operations with
multilateral development bank (MDB) partners. The approved loans are:
$165 million loan for a Power Distribution System Upgrade and Expansion Project in Bangladesh;
$216.5 million loan for a National Slum Upgrading Project in Indonesia, expected to be co-
financed with the World Bank;
$100 million loan to finance the Shorkot-Khanewal Section of National Motorway M-4 in
Pakistan, co-financed with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the United Kingdoms
Department for International Development (DFID); and
$ 27.5 million loan for the Dushanbe-Uzbekistan Border Road Improvement Project in Tajikistan,
co-financed with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).
- Former IAS officer DJ Pandian has been appointed as vice president and CIO of AIIB
- Indias Dinesh Sharma has been elected to the board of directors of the Asian Infrastructure
Investment Bank (AIIB). He has been elected to the 12-member board through a secret ballot.
This is the first board of directors of AIIB.
Asian Clearing Union
The Asian Clearing Union (ACU), with headquarters in Tehran, Iran, was established on December 9,
1974 at the initiative of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

In October 2013, Iran unveiled a plan suggesting that members of the union Bangladesh, Bhutan,
India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Iran- employ a home-grown system developed
by the Central Bank of Iran to get around SWIFT called SEPAM in Persian.

Headquarters Tehran, Iran

Type Clearing union

Member Economies 9


ACU Chairman Bangladesh

State Central Bank Year

Bangladesh Bangladesh Bank 1974

Bhutan Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan 1999

India Reserve Bank of India 1974

Iran Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran 1974

Maldives Maldives Monetary Authority 2009

Myanmar Central Bank of Myanmar 1977

Nepal Nepal Rastra Bank 1974

Pakistan State Bank of Pakistan 1974

Sri Lanka Central Bank of Sri Lanka 1974

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI)
and are regarded as developed countries.

Secretariat Paris, France

Membership 34 states


Secretary-General Jos ngel Gurra


Deputy Secretary- Yves Leterme



as the OEEC 16 April 1948

reformed as the OECD 30 September 1961

International Energy Agency
The International Energy Agency (IEA) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization
established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

Only the OECD member states can become members of the IEA. Except for Chile, Iceland, Israel,
Mexico, and Slovenia, all OECD member states are members of the IEA. In 2014, Estonia joined the IEA
and became its 29th member.

Secretariat Paris, France

Membership 29 member states


Executive Director Fatih Birol

Deputy Executive Director Paul Simons

Establishment 1974

India to join the International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems

India has decided to become member country of the International Energy Agency Ocean
Energy Systems (IEA-OES) to boost for countrys quest for tapping ocean energy sources.
Proposal for signing the Implementing Agreement (IA) in this regard was approved by Union
Cabinet meeting chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi.
Key facts
By becoming a member India will have access to advanced Research & Development (R&D)
teams and technologies across the world.
India will also become partner in developing test protocols along with other countries which will
in turn help in testing Indian prototypes as per international requirements and norms.
Earth System Science Organisation National Institute of Ocean Technology (ESSO-NIOT)
under the aegis of Union Ministry of Earth Sciences will be the nodal agency for the
It can also help India to leverage benefits from joint cooperative programs with institutes of
member countries could be taken up.
Benefits By becoming member of IEA-OES, India (power deficit country) can leverage study of
ocean renewable energies.
It will also help to acquire modern technologies to harness ocean energy and overcome
technological challenge due vagaries of the sea ocean energy.
Provide technology to India (tropical country) to harness Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
(OTEC) due to high sea surface temperatures.
About International Energy Agency (IEA)
Inter-governmental organization established in 1974 as per framework of the Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Members: Presently it has 29 member countries.
Headquarters (Secretariat): Paris, France.
IEA mandate: To focus on the 3Es of effectual energy policy: energy security, economic
development and environmental protection.
It also seeks to promote alternate energy sources (including renewable energy), rational energy
policies and multinational energy technology co-operation.
It acts as energy policy advisor to 29 member countries and also non-member countries like
China, India and Russia.
About Ocean Energy Systems (OES)
OES is an intergovernmental collaboration between countries which operates under framework
established by the IEA in 2001.
It seeks to harness energy from all forms of ocean renewable resources through international
cooperation and information exchange by promoting advance research, development and
Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central
banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for
central banks". The BIS carries out its work through subcommittees, the secretariats it hosts and
through an annual general meeting of all member banks. It also provides banking services, but only to
central banks and other international organizations. It is based in Basel, Switzerland, with
representative offices in Hong Kong and Mexico City.

Established 17 May 1930

Type International financial institution

Purpose Central bank cooperation

Basel, Switzerland

Membership 60 central banks

General manager Jaime Caruana, Spain

Chairman of the board and president- Jens Weidmann, Germany (November 2015 present)

Name Nationality Dates

Vice-chairman, BIS- Raghuram Rajan India November 2015 present

Election Commission
The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for
administering election processes to Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state legislatures, and the offices of the
President and Vice President in India.

For the conduct of free and fair elections an independent Election Commission has been provided for in
Article 324.

Appointment of Election Commissioners

India has a three member election commission. These all are appointed by the President for a term
which is fixed by the President. However, conditions of service and tenure of office of the chief election
commissioner and other election commissioner are determined by an act of parliament titled The Chief
Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners (Conditions of Service) Act, 1991. This act has
fixed the following:

The chief election commissioner or an election commissioner shall hold office for a term of 6 years or
age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.

The chief election commissioner and other commissioners are paid a salary equal to the salary of a judge
of the Supreme Court. On retirement they are entitled to a pension payable to a judge of the Supreme

All business of the election commission shall, as far as possible, be transacted unanimously. If the chief
election commissioner and other election commissioners differ in opinion on any matter, such matter
shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority.

Formed 25 January 1950 (Later celebrated as

National Voters Day)

Jurisdiction India

Headquarters New Delhi

Syed Nasim Ahmad Zaidi, Chief

Election Commissioner
Heads of Political Parties
(Recognised national parties as of 16 September 2014)

As of 16 September 2014, the total number of parties registered was 1761, with 6 national, 49 state
and 1706 unrecognised parties.

Unrecognised registered notable parties as of 16 September 2014

Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam MDMK 1992 Vaiko Tamil Nadu

No. Name Abbreviation Symbol Current leader(s)

1 Bharatiya Janata Party BJP 1980 Amit Shah


2 Indian National Congress INC 1885 Sonia Gandhi


Communist Party of India

3 CPI-M Hammer, 1964 Sitaram Yechury
sickle and

Suravaram Sudhakar
4 Communist Party of India CPI 1925
Ears of corn
No. Name Abbreviation Symbol Current leader(s)

and sickle

5 Bahujan Samaj Party BSP 1984 Mayawati


Nationalist Congress
6 NCP Clock 1999 Sharad Pawar
United Nations
1. Headquarters-New York City
Membership-193 member states, 2 observer states
8th SecretaryGeneral-Ban Ki-moon
Deputy Secretary-General-Jan Eliasson
General Assembly President-Mogens Lykketoft (Denmark)
In June 2015 he was unanimously elected the President of the United Nations General Assembly
presiding over the 70th session of the General Assembly beginning 15 September 2015
Economic and Social Council President-Oh Joon South Korea
Security Council President-Franois Delattre
UN Charter signed-26 June 1945
Charter entered into force- 24 October 1945

6 Principal organs of the United Nations

1. UN General Assembly
2. UN Secretariat
3. International Court of Justice
4. UN Security Council
The Security Council is made up of fifteen member states, consisting of five permanent
membersChina, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United Statesand ten non-
permanent members
5. UN Economic and Social Council
6. UN Trusteeship Council

United Nations Economic and Social Council

The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is one of the six principal organs of
the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social and related work of 14
UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions. The
ECOSOC has 54 members. It holds one four-week session each year in July, and since 1998, it
has also held a meeting of April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World
Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
International Court of Justice
Established 1945

Country Worldwide, 193 State Parties

Location The Hague, Netherlands

UN Charter
Authorized by
ICJ Statute

Judge term length 9 years

Number of positions 15


Currently Ronny Abraham

Since 6 February 2015

Lead position ends 5 February 2018

Name Nationality Position Term began

Ronny Abraham France President 2005 2018

India's nominee Justice Dalveer Bhandari of the Supreme Court was on Friday (Apr 28, 2012)
elected to the post of Judge of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the elections held in
New York, United States.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Justice is the backbone of humanity in order to maintain peace and promote the prosperity among the
people. Different country have different frame of justice according to their own law. But what about
when two countries came in conflict with each other (eg- South China dispute)?. In order to solve that
kind of problem The International Court of Justice (ICJ) , a judicial organ of the United Nations (UN) was
established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946. The seat of
the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). Of the six principal organs of the United
Nations, it is the only one not located in New York (United States of America).
The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the United
Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. It is assisted by a Registry, its administrative organ.
Its official languages are English and French.

The Court has two functions:

1.To settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted by States, and

2.To give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized
Current Composition

President - Ronny Abraham

Vice-President - Abdulqawui Ahmed Yusuf

Judges - Xue Hanqin, Joan E. Donoghue, Giorgio Gaja

In order to hear any appeal the ICJ sets up ad hoc chambers to hear and decide particular disputes.
While deciding the case, the ICJ applies the principles of international law. It also uses the laws of the
civilized world. This may be the civil and criminal law of major countries. It may also refer to legal
writings, law books, and earlier decisions while deciding any matter.

The first ad hoc chamber was formed in 1982 in the case concerning the Delimitation of the Maritime
Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area between Canada and the United States, and the second in 1985 in
the case concerning the Frontier Dispute between Burkina Faso and the Republic of Mali. The third was
set up in March 1987 in the case concerning Elettronica Sicula S.p.A. (ELSI) between the United States of
America and Italy and the fourth was formed in May 1987 in the case concerning the Land, Island and
Maritime Frontier Dispute between El Salvador and Honduras. The year 2002 saw the formation of the
fifth, to deal with the Frontier Dispute (Benin/Niger) case, and the sixth, to hear the Application for
Revision of the Judgment of 11 September 1992 in the Case concerning the Land, Island and Maritime
Frontier Dispute (El Salvador/Honduras: Nicaragua intervening) (El Salvador v. Honduras).
Recently in the south china disputes the international tribunal delivered a sweeping rebuke regarding
Chinas behavior in the South China Sea, including its construction of artificial islands, and found that its
expansive claim to sovereignty over the waters had no legal basis. Earlier the case brought by
the Philippines under the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
against the People's Republic of China concerning certain issues in the South China Sea including the
legality of China's "nine-dotted line" claim over the South China Sea under the UNCLOS. The five judges
and legal experts on the tribunal ruled unanimously, and the decision in favor of the Philippines. China
had rejected the verdict of International court as the verdict was only recommendary in nature and not

Following Law is the most difficult task but at the same time it is the most respectful task. Whether we
talk about any particular individual or nation, laws are made to promote the peace and humanity. Law is
for the betterment of society and educates people about their rights. The International Court of Justice
main goal is to solve disputes and promote harmony in the world. Today countries are fighting for water,
religion; land etc in that context the concept of International Court of Justice plays a prominent role to
settle the disputes among countries. World would be a beautiful place to live if everyone maintain
peace, follow the law and promote the brotherhood.

Organizations and specialized agencies of the United Nations

No. Acronym Agency Headquarters Head[d]

Food and Agriculture
1 FAO Rome, Italy Graziano da 1945

International Atomic Yukiya

2 IAEA Vienna, Austria 1957
Energy Agency Amano

International Civil Raymond

3 ICAO Montreal, Canada 1947
Aviation Organization Benjamin

International Fund for

Kanayo F.
4 IFAD Agricultural Rome, Italy 1977

International Labour
5 ILO Geneva, Switzerland Guy Ryder 1946 (1919)
Organizations and specialized agencies of the United Nations
No. Acronym Agency Headquarters Head[d]

London, United Koji
6 IMO Maritime 1948
Kingdom Sekimizu

International Washington, Christine

7 IMF 1945 (1944)
Monetary Fund D.C., United States Lagarde

8 ITU Telecommunication Geneva, Switzerland 1947 (1865)

United Nations
Educational, Scientific Irina
9 UNESCO Paris, France 1946
and Cultural Bokova

United Nations
10 UNIDO Vienna, Austria Li Yong 1967

World Tourism
11 UNWTO Madrid, Spain Taleb Rifai 1974

Universal Postal
12 UPU Bern, Switzerland Abdirahman 1947 (1874)
Organizations and specialized agencies of the United Nations
No. Acronym Agency Headquarters Head[d]

13 WBG World Bank Group Jim Y. Kim 1945 (1944)
D.C., United States

World Food Ertharin

14 WFP Rome, Italy 1963
Programme Cousin

World Health Margaret

15 WHO Geneva, Switzerland 1948
Organization Chan

World Intellectual
16 WIPO Property Geneva, Switzerland 1974

World Meteorological Grimes
17 WMO Geneva, Switzerland 1950 (1873)
Organization / Michel
Other organizations
Antarctic Treaty
Executive Secretary - Jan Huber, Netherlands (2004present)
Colombo Plan -
Acting Secretary-General - Mr Tay Bian How, Malaysia (December 2013 present)
Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)
Executive Secretary - Murade Isaac Miguigy Murargy, Mozambique (2012present)
EDU - Intergovernmental Organization (EDU)
Secretary-General - G.Irving Levance, (2011present)[1]
La Francophonie
Secretary-General - Abdou Diouf, Senegal (2003present)
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
Executive Secretary - Mahboub Maalim, Kenya (2008present)
International Committee of the Red Cross
President - Peter Maurer, Switzerland (2012present)
International Court of Justice
President - Hisashi Owada, Japan (2009present)
International Criminal Court
President - Song Sang-Hyun, South Korea (2009present)
International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)
Secretary-General - Ronald Noble, United States (2000present)
President - Mireille Ballestrazzi, France (2012present)
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
President - Tadateru Kono, Japan (2009present)
International Maritime Organization
Secretary-General - Koji Sekimizu, Japan (2012present)
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
Director-general - William Lacy Swing, United States (2008present)
International Telecommunication Union
Secretary-General - Hamadoun Tour, Mali (2007present)
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
Director-General - Ahmet zmc, Turkey (2010present)
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Secretary-General Abdallah Salem el-Badri, Libya (20072016)
Universal Postal Union
Director-General - douard Dayan, France (2005present)
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
Director-General - Francis Gurry (2008present)
Space Organisation

List of Space Centres and Units in India

Location Space Centre
DOS branch secretariate
New Delhi ISRO branch office
Delhi earth station
Indian Institue of remote sensing
Northern RRSC-Regional Remote Sensing Centre
Lucknow ISTRAC ground station
Shillong North eastern space application centre
Kharagpur Eastern RRSC-Regional Remote Sensing Centre
Hyderbad NRSA or NRSC national remote sensing agency /centre
Tirupati NMRF-National Atmospheric Research Laboratory
Sriharikota Satish Dhawan Space Centre
Port Blair Down range station
Kerala ALUVA Ammonium perchlorate experiment plant
Mahendra Giri Liquid Propulsion Test Facilities
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre
Thiruvananthapuram Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre
ISRO Interial Systems Unit
Hassan INSAT master control facility
Space commission
INSAT programme office
NNRMS secretriate- National Natural Resources Management
Banglore System
ANTRIX corporation
ISTRAC-ISRO Telemetry&Tracking and Command Network
ISRO satellite centre
Liquid propulsaion systems centre
Mumbai ISRO Liasion office
Nagapur Central RRSC-Regional Remote Sensing Centre
Mount Abu Infrared Observatory
Space Application Centre
Ahmedabad Physcial Research Laboratory
Development & educational communication unit
Jodhpur Western RRSC-Regional Remote Sensing Centre
Udaipur Solar Obesrvatory
Balasore Remote Sensing Centre

List of Space Centre and Space Agency in the World


Liege Space Center

Euro Space Center
John H. Chapman Space Centre
Telus World of Science, Edmonton
European Space Operations Centre
Germany Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre
European Astronaut Centre
France Toulouse Space Center Guiana Space Centre
Cannes Mandelieu Space Center
India Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre
Space Applications Centre
Satish Dhawan Space Centre
Italy Broglio Space Centre
Uchinoura Space Centre
Tanegashima Space Centre
South Korea Naro Space Center
Netherlands European Space Research and Technology
Norway Norwegian Space Centre
Mabuhaysat Subic Space Center
Mabuhaysat Zamboanga Space Center
Sonmiani (space facility)
Tilla Satellite Launch Center
Babakin Space Centre
Russia Baikonur Cosmodrome
Titov Main Test and Space Systems Control Centre
Leicester Space Centre
Surrey Space Centre
United Kingdom
Harwell Science and Innovation Campus
Jodrell Bank Observatory
Goddard Space Flight Center
United States
John C. Stennis Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Space Center
Marshall Space Flight Center

Name Acronym Country

Belarus Space Agency BSA Belarus
Central American Association for Aeronautics and Space ACAE Costa Rica
Aeronautics and Space Research and Diffusion Center CIDA-E Uruguay
Mexican Space Agency AEM Mexico
Algerian Space Agency ASAL Algeria
Austrian Solar and Space Agency ALR Austria
Azerbaijan National Aerospace Agency AMAKA Azerbaijan
Bahrains National Space Science Agency NSSA Bahrain
Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy BIRA, IASB, BISA Belgium
Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities ABAE Venezuela
Brazilian Space Agency AEB Brazil
UK Space Agency UKSA United Kingdom
Bolivian Space Agency ABE Bolivia
Bulgarian Space Agency SRI-BAS, STIL-BAS Bulgaria
Canadian Space Agency CSA, ASC Canada
China National Space Administration CNSA Peoples Republic of China
Colombian Space Commission CCE Colombia
Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing CRISP Singapore
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO Australia
Croatian Space Agency HAS, CSA Croatia
Danish National Space Center DRC, DNSC Denmark
Danish Space Research Institute DRKI, DSRI Denmark
European Space Agency ESA Europe
Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency GISTDA Thailand
German Aerospace Center DLR Germany
Hungarian Space Office HSO Hungary
Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO India
Institute for Space Applications and Remote , ISARS Greece
Instituto Nacional de Tcnica Aeroespacial INTA Spain
Iranian Space Agency ISA Iran
Israeli Space Agency ISA Israel
Italian Space Agency ASI Italy
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency JAXA Japan
National Space Agency ) NSA Kazakhstan
Korean Committee of Space Technology KCST North Korea
National Aerospace Development Administration NADA North Korea
Korea Aerospace Research Institute KARI South Korea
Lithuanian Space Association LSA Lithuania
Malaysian National Space Agency ANGKASA Malaysia
National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA United States
National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences NARSS Egypt
National Center of Space Research CNES France
National Commission for Aerospace Research and Development CONIDA Peru
National Commission for Space Research CNIE Argentina
National Space Activities Commission CONAE Argentina
National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN Indonesia
National Remote Sensing Center of Mongolia NRSC Mongolia
National Remote Sensing Center of Tunisia] CNT Tunisia
Uzbek State Space Research Agency USSRA (UzbekCosmos) Uzbekistan
National Space Agency of Ukraine , NSAU Ukraine
National Space Organization NSPO Republic of China
National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA Nigeria
Netherlands Institute for Space Research SRON Netherlands
Norwegian Space Centre NRS, NSC Norway
Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission SUPARCO Pakistan
FCT Space Office FCT SO Portugal
Romanian Space Agency ASR, ROSA Romania
Egypt Remote Sensing Center EASRT-RSC Egypt
Royal Centre for Remote Sensing CRTS Morocco
Russian Federal Space Agency ROSCOSMOS Russia
Sri Lanka Space Agency SLSA Sri Lanka
TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute TBTAK UZAY Turkey
Soviet space program Soviet Union
Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization SPARRSO Bangladesh
Polish Space Agency POLSA Poland
South African National Space Agency SANSA South Africa
Space Research Institute of Saudi Arabia KACST-SRI Saudi Arabia
Space Technology Institute ) CNVT or STI , VAST-STI Vietnam
Swedish National Space Board SNSB Sweden
Swiss Space Office SSO Switzerland
Turkmenistan National Space Agency TNSA Turkmenistan
United Arab Emirates Space Agency UAESA United Arab Emirates
Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre MBRSC United Arab Emirates

Indian Space Research Organisation

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO Hindi:

; ), is
the space agency of the Indian government headquartered in the city of Bengaluru. Its vision is
to "harness space technology for national development, while pursuing space science research
and planetary exploration".
Formed in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile Indian National Committee for Space Research
(INCOSPAR) established in 1962 by the efforts of independent India's first Prime Minister,
Jawaharlal Nehru, and his close aide and scientist Vikram Sarabhai. The establishment of ISRO
thus institutionalised space activities in India. It is managed by the Department of Space, which
reports to the Prime Minister of India.
ISRO built India's first satellite, Aryabhata, which was launched by the Soviet Union on 19
April in 1975. In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made
launch vehicle, SLV-3. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite
Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite
Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have
launched numerous communications satellites and earth observation satellites. Satellite
navigation systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. In January 2014, ISRO
successfully used an indigenous cryogenic engine in a GSLV-D5 launch of the GSAT-14.
ISRO sent one lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008 and one Mars orbiter, Mars
Orbiter Mission, which successfully entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014, making India
the first nation to succeed on its first attempt, and ISRO the fourth space agency in the world as
well as the first space agency in Asia to successfully reach Mars orbit. Future plans include
development of GSLV Mk III,(for launch of heavier satellites),ULV, development of a reusable
launch vehicle, human spaceflight, further lunar exploration, interplanetary probes, a solar
spacecraft mission, etc. As of 29 May 2016, ISRO has carried out 76 spacecraft missions, 46
launch missions. Also ISRO has launched 111 satellites using indigenously developed launch
vehicles out of which 57 are foreign. Also 29 Indian satellites have been launched by foreign
launch vehicles. As of October 2015, ISRO has agreed to launch 23 foreign satellites of nine
different nations including Algeria, Canada, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore and the US.
The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was set up in 1962 by
Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first Prime Minister. It had Vikram Sarabhai as its chairman. The first
rocket launch into space from Indian soil took place on 21 November 1963 under the
leadership of project scientist Praful Bhavsar. INCOSPAR eventually grew into ISRO in 1969.
Indian Space Research Organisation

ISRO logo

Acronym ISRO

Owner India

Established 15 August 1969

(1962 as INCOSPAR)

Headquarters Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Primary Satish Dhawan Space

spaceport Centre,Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh

Motto Hindi:   

Mnav jti k sev men antarika
"Space technology in the Service of

Administrator A S Kiran Kumar


Organisation structure and facilities

The Structure of the Department of Space of the Government of India
ISRO is managed by the Department of Space (DoS) of the Government of India. DoS itself falls
under the authority of the Prime Minister and the Space Commission, and manages the
following agencies and institutes:
Indian Space Research Organisation
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram.
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Thiruvananthapuram.
Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC-SHAR), Sriharikota.
ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC), Mahendragiri Tirunelveli District, South Tamil Nadu
ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bengaluru.
Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad.
National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad.
ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU), Thiruvananthapuram.
Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU), Ahmedabad.
Master Control Facility (MCF), Hassan, Karnataka.
ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC), Bengaluru.
Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems (LEOS), Bengaluru.
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), Dehradun.
Antrix Corporation - The marketing arm of ISRO, Bengaluru.
Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad.
National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki, Andhra pradesh.
North-Eastern Space Applications Centre (NE-SAC), Umiam, Meghalaya.
Semi-Conductor Laboratory (SCL), Mohali.
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Thiruvananthapuram - India's space

Other facilities
Balasore Rocket Launching Station (BRLS) Odisha
ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) Thiruvananthapuram
Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS)
Aerospace Command of India (ACI)
Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR)
Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA)
Indian Space Science Data Centre (ISSDC)
Spacecraft Control Centre (SCC)
Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres (RRSSC)
Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU)
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has successfully launched Indian Regional
Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS)
IRNSS System consists of constellation of seven satellites of which three are geostationary and
four are non-geostationary.
IRNSS system is similar to other satellite navigation systems like US GPS (Global Positioning
System), Russias Glonass, Japans Quasi Zenith, Europes Galileo and Chinas Beidou.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the
executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space
program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than
military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National
Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor,
the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational
on October 1, 1958.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Seal of NASA

NASA logo
Motto: For the Benefit of All

Flag of NASA

Agency overview

Formed July 29, 1958

NACA (19151958)
Preceding agency

Jurisdiction United States government

Headquarters Washington, D.C.

Agency Charles Bolden, Administrator

executives Dava Newman, Deputy Administrator

1. Cassini-Huygens
2. Hubble Space Telescope
3. Curiosity rover
4. James Webb Space Telescope
List of Indian Missiles
Missile Name Orgin Type Range Speed

Air-to-air missiles

Astra India Air-to-Air Missiles 60 80 km Mach 4 +

Russia &
K-100 Medium Range air-to-air missile 300400 km Mach 3.3
MICA IAF Air-to-Air Missiles

Surface-To-Air Missiles

Mach 2.5 to
Akash India Medium-range surface-to-air missile 30-35km
Barak 8 Isreal/India Long Range surface to air Missile 100 km Mach 2
Trishul India Short Range surface to air missile 9km

Defence Missile

Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) Mach 5+

India Exo-atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile Altitude- 80km

Advanced Air Defence

India Endoatmospheric Anti-ballistic missile Altitude- 30km Mach 4.5
Prithvi Defence Vehicle Altitude-
India Exo-atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile
(PDV) 120km

Cruise Missiles

Subsonic cruise missile(Ship, submarine,

Nirbhay India 1,000 -1500 km Mach 0.8
aircraft and land)
Russia & Supersonic cruise missile(Ship, submarine, Mach 2.8 to 3
BrahMos 290 km
India aircraft and land) Mach
Hypersonic cruise missile(Ship, submarine,
BrahMos II India 300km Mach 7
aircraft and land)

Surface-to-surface missiles

Agni-I India Medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) 700-1250 km Mach 7.5

Agni-II India Intermediate-range ballistic missile(IRBM) Mach 12
3,500 km
Agni-III India Intermediate-range ballistic missile(IRBM) 56 km/s
5,000 km
3,000 4,000
Agni-IV India Intermediate-range ballistic missile(IRBM) Mach 7
Agni-V India Intercontinental ballistic missile(ICBM) 5000 8000Km Mach 24
Prithvi I India Short Range Ballistic Missile(Tactical) 150 km
Prithvi II India Short Range Ballistic Missile(Tactical) 350 km
Dhanush India Short Range Ballistic Missile(Tactical) 350 600 km
Prahaar(Pragati) India Short Range Ballistic Missile(Tactical) 150 km Mach 2.03
750 to 1,900
Shaurya India Medium-Range Ballistic Missile (MRBM) Mach 7.5

Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles

Sagarika (K-15) India Ballistic Missile 700 1900Km Mach 7+

K-4 India Ballistic Missile Mach 7+
K-5 India Ballistic Missile 6,000 km
Ashwin India Ballistic Missile 150-200km Mach 4.5
Anti-Tank Missile
Nag India Anti-Tank Guided Missile 4km 230 m/s
India Anti-Tank Guided Missile 7-8km
launched NAg)
2.8 km
Amogha-1 India Anti-Tank Guided Missile
Indian States on International boundaries

Bordering Pakistan => Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat

Bordering China =>Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh

Bordering Nepal =>Bihar, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and West Bengal

Bordering Bangladesh => West Bengal, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura and Asom

Bordering Bhutan => West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Asom

Bordering Myanmar => Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram

Bordering Afghanistan => Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan-Occupied Area)

Coastaline of India
7,517 km which connects 78 districts of 13 states.

World Important Lines and Boundaries

Line of Control : : It divides Kashmir between India and Pakistan.

Line of Actual Control:

4,057 km long LAC is the effective border between India and China. It traverses 5 northern
Indian states: Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Arunachal

Durand Line : : The line demarcating the boundaries of India and Afghanistan.

Inter-Entity Boundary Line : : (IEBL) divides Bosnia and Herzegovina into two entities, the Republika
Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Hindenburg Line : : The boundary dividing Germany and Poland, the Germans retreated to this line in
1917 during World War I.

Mason-Dixon Line : : It is line of demarcation between four states in the United State.
Marginal Line : : It is 320 km long line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border drawn up by General

Macmahon Line :: The line drawn up by Sir Henry MacMahon, demarcating the frontier of India and
China. China did not recognize the MacMahon line and crossed it in 1962.

Order-Neisse Line :: The border between Poland and Germany, running along the Order and Neisse
rivers, adopted at the Poland Conference (Aug 1945) after World War II.

Radcliffe Line :: It was named after its architect, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, who as chairman of the Border
Commissions demarcating the boundary between India and Pakistan and was announced on 17 August

Siegfried Line :: The line of fortification drawn up by Germany on its border with France.

Maginot line:: It was built by France on its eastern border between Germany

17th Parallel north :: The line which defines the boundary between North Vietnam and south Vietnam

20th Parallel north : : The boundary line between Libya and Sudan.

22nd Parallel north :: The boundary line between Egypt and Sudan.

25th Parallel north :: The boundary line between Mauritania and Mali.

26th Parallel north : : The boundary line between Western Sahara and Mauritania.

31th Parallel north : : The boundary line between Iraq and Iran.

35th Parallel north :: In the United States it serves as a border between Tennessee / Mississippi

, Tennessee / Alabama, Tennessee / Georgia, North Carolina / Georgia.

36th Parallel north:: In the United States it forms the southernmost boundary of the State of Missouri
with the State of Arkansas.

360 30' Parallel north:: Forms the boundary between the Tennessee and the Commonwealth of
Kentucky between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi River, the boundary between Missouri and
Arkansas west of the White River, and the northernmost boundary between the Texas and the

38th Parallel north :: It is the parallel of latitude which separates North Korea and South Korea.

40th Parallel north :: In the United States it serves as a border between Nebraska / Kansas.

41st Parallel north :: In the united states it forms the boundary between Wyoming / Utah border,

Wyoming / Colorado ,Nebraska / Colorado.

42nd Parallel north :: In the United States it serves as a border of the New York - Pennsylvania Border.

43rd Parallel north :: In the United States it serves as a border between the State of Nebraska and the
State of South Dakota.

45th Parallel north :: In the united states it forms the boundary between Montana and Wyoming.

49th Parallel north :: It is the boundary between USA and Canada.

Group of 20

The members of the G20 are: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany,
India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa,
Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and European Union.
G20 doesn't have a permanent secretariat, its Presidency rotates annually. The G20 President is
responsible for bringing together the G20 agenda in consultation with other members and in
response to developments in the global economy.

Group of Seven (G7)

The Group of 7 (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United
Kingdom, and the United States. The European Union is also represented within the G7.

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

Member states-8 members, 9 observers
8 Members- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri
Secretary-General- Arjun Bahadur Thapa (Nepal)
Establishment-8 December 1985 in Dhaka
Regional Centres

Regional Centre Location Country

SAARC Agricultural Centre (SAC) Dhaka Bangladesh

SAARC Meteorological Research Centre (SMRC) Dhaka Bangladesh

SAARC Forestry Centre (SFC) Thimphu Bhutan

SAARC Development Fund (SDF) Thimphu Bhutan

SAARC Documentation Centre (SDC) New Delhi India

SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC) New Delhi India

SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre (SCZMC) Mal Maldives

SAARC Information Centre (SIC) Kathmandu Nepal

SAARC Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Centre (STAC) Kathmandu Nepal

SAARC Human Resources Development Centre (SHRDC) Islamabad Pakistan

SAARC Energy Centre (SEC) Islamabad Pakistan

SAARC Cultural Centre (SCC) Colombo Sri Lanka

ASEAN Summit
Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Member Countries (10): Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines,
Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam

The First ASEAN summit was held in February 1976 in Bali.

Member states 10 states

Secretary General Le Luong Minh

Establishment 8 August 1967

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies that
promotes free trade throughout the Asia-Pacific region. India is not a member.
Executive Director-Dr. Alan Bollard

NATO summit
A NATO summit is a summit meeting that is regarded as a periodic opportunity for Heads of
State and Heads of Government of NATO member countries to evaluate and provide strategic
direction for Alliance activities.

Formation 4 April 1949

Type Military alliance

Headquarters in Haren, Brussels,


Membership 28 states

Supreme Allied Commander Curtis Scaparrotti


Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg,


Chairman of the NATO Petr Pavel

Military Committee
From the founding of NATO in 1949, there have been a total of twenty-six NATO summits; the
last of which was the 2014 Newport summit held in September 2014. Only the traditional
summits have received an official number, thereby excluding the exceptional summit of 2001 in
NATO headquarters.

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an intergovernmental
organization of 13 nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members, and
headquartered since 1965 in Vienna.
In June 2016, Gabon was approved for re-joining in July.
In October 2015, Sudan formally submitted an application to join OPEC.

Headquarters Vienna, Austria

Membership 13 states


Secretary General Abdallah Salem el-Badri

Secretary Mohammed Sanusi

General-elect Barkindo (August 2016)

Establishment Baghdad, Iraq

Statute 1014 September 1960

In effect January 1961

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a Eurasian political, economic, and military
organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. These countries, except for Uzbekistan had
been members of the Shanghai Five, founded in 1996; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001,
the members renamed the organisation. On July 10, 2015, the SCO decided to admit India and
Pakistan as full members, and they are expected to join by 2016.
Pakistan and India will become member of prestigious Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
in last week of this month at the outset of its 16th summit where 10 heads of states are likely
to turn up for attending it. It will be held in Uzbekistan capital Tashkent.
Nepal joins SCO grouping as dialogue partner
Nepal was officially made a dialogue partner of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), a
Beijing-based regional security grouping.
In this regard, Nepal signed memorandum during Nepalese Prime Minister K P Sharma Oli
official visit to China.
As a dialogue partner, Nepal will be able to participate in the multi-field cooperation of the SCO.
It will also create new opportunities for the SCOs mutually beneficial cooperation and benefit
people living in the extensive region that the SCO covers.
About Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
SCO is a Eurasian economic, political and military organisation.
8 Members: China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India and Pakistan.
Observers: Afghanistan, Iran, Mongolia and Belarus.
Headquarters: Beijing, China.
Established: 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders 6 countries viz. China, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan,
Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
It was an outcome of The Shanghai Five grouping established in 1996 by Kazakhstan, China,
Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan.
SCOs first enlargement was in 2001 with addition of Uzbekistan and second enlargement was in
July 2015 with addition of 2 new members India and Pakistan.

Formation 26 April 1996

Headquarters Beijing, China

Membership 6 Members[

6 Observers[

6 Dialogue Partners

3 Guests

Secretary General Dmitry Fyodorovich Mezentsev

Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation

The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)
is an international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia and South East Asia.
These are: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal.
Establishment-6 June 1997
Chairmanship-Nepal (since 2014)
BIMSTEC priority sectors

BIMSTEC has fourteen priority sectors cover all areas of cooperation.

UNESCO World Heritage sites in India

Cultural (27)
Agra Fort (1983)
Ajanta Caves (1983)
Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) at Nalanda, Bihar (2016)
Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989)
Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park (2004)
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) (2004)
Churches and Convents of Goa (1986)
Elephanta Caves (1987)
Ellora Caves (1983)
Fatehpur Sikri (1986)
Great Living Chola Temples (1987)
Group of Monuments at Hampi (1986)
Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram (1984)
Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (1987)
Hill Forts of Rajasthan (2013)
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi (1993)
Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986)
Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya (2002)
Mountain Railways of India (1999)
Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (1993)
Rani-ki-Vav (the Queens Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat (2014)
Red Fort Complex (2007)
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003)
Sun Temple, Konrak (1984)
Taj Mahal (1983)
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern
Movement (2016)
The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur (2010)

Natural (7)
Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area (2014)
Kaziranga National Park (1985)
Keoladeo National Park (1985)
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1985)
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks (1988)
Sundarbans National Park (1987)
Western Ghats (2012)

Mixed (1)
Khangchendzonga National Park (2016)

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India

This list contains the places chosen by the UNESCO as heritage sites in India. UNESCO is a
specialized agency of United Nations. UNESCO was created for the conservation and protection
of the worlds inheritance of books, works of art and monuments of history and science.As of
now there are 35 world Heritage sites in India, 27 cultural sites and 8 natural sites and also
sites which are on tentative list.

List of 25 cultural Heritage Sites

Name of the Site Location Year of Inscription

Agra Fort Uttar Pradesh 1983

Ajanta Caves Maharashtra 1983

Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi Madhya Pradesh 1989

Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park Gujarat 2004

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) Maharashtra 2004

Churches and Convents of Goa Goa 1986

Elephanta Caves Maharashtra 1987

Ellora Cave Maharashtra 1983

Fatehpur Sikri Uttar Pradesh 1986

Great Living Chola Temples Tamil Nadu 1987

Group of Monuments at Hampi Karnataka 1986

Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram Tamil Nadu 1984

Group of Monuments at Pattadakal Karnataka 1987

Hill Forts of Rajasthan Rajasthan 2013

Humayuns Tomb, Delhi Delhi 1993

Khajuraho Group of Monuments Madhya Pradesh 1986

Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Bihar 2002

Darjeeling, West Bengal

Mountain Railways of India Nilgiri, Tamil Nadu 1999
Kalka-Shimla, Himachal Pradesh

Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi Delhi 1993

Rani-ki-Vav (the Queens Stepwell) Gujarat 2014

Red Fort Complex Delhi 2007

Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka Madhya Pradesh 2003

Sun Temple, Konrak Orissa 1984

Taj Mahal Uttar Pradesh 1983

The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur Rajasthan 2010

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier Chhattisgarh 2016

Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) Bihar 2016

List of Seven Natural Heritage Sites

Year of
Name Of the Site Location

Great Himalayan National Park Conservation

Himachal Pradesh 2014
Kaziranga National Park Assam 1985

Keoladeo National Park Rajasthan 1985

Manas Wildlife Sanctuary Assam 1985

Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks Uttarakhand 1988

Sundarbans National Park West Bengal 1987

Covers Four states

Western Ghats (Kerala ,Karnataka,Tamilnadu and 2012

Khangchendzonga National Park Sikkim 2016

Note: In the case of western ghats a total of thirty nine properties (including national parks, wildlife
sanctuaries and reserve forests) were designated as world heritage sites twenty in the state of Kerala,
ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra

Also there is a tentative list of world heritage sites in India,which is already mentioned in the given
below link.

Three new sites added in 2016 : Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) in Bihar ,The Architectural
Work of Le Corbusier in Chandigarh and Khangchendzonga National Park in Sikkim.

Important Ports
Note: India has 12 major ports at present. They are Kandla, Mumbai, JNPT, Marmugao, New
Managlore, Cochin, Chennai, Ennore, V.O. Chidambarnar, Visakhapatnam, Paradip and Kolkata
(including Haldia).

Major Units

Sail integrated Plants

1. Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) in Odisha set up with German collaboration (The first integrated
steel plant in the Public Sector in India, 1959)
2. Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) in Chhattisgarh set up with Soviet collaboration (1959)
3. Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) at Durgapur, West Bengal set up with British collaboration (1965)
4. Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) in Jharkhand (1965) set up with Soviet collaboration (The Plant is
hailed as the countrys first Swadeshi steel plant, built with maximum indigenous content in
terms of equipment, material and know-how)
5. IISCO Steel Plant (ISP) at Burnpur in Asansol, West Bengal

Special Steel Plants

1. Alloy Steels Plants (ASP), Durgapur, West Bengal

2. Salem Steel Plant (SSP), Tamil Nadu
3. Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited (VISL), at Bhadravathi, Karnataka

Ferro Alloy Plant

1. Chandrapur Ferro Alloy Plant (CFP) in Maharashtra