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D4A Series
Diesel Engine

Service Training Guide

1st Edition

Commercial Vehicle
Contents 2

Chapter I Introduction 3

Chapter II Structure 5

Chapter III Lubrication System 12

Chapter IV Cooling System 15

Chapter V Intake and Exhaust System 26

Chapter VI Fuel System 47

Chapter VII Troubleshooting 65


Chapter I


1.1 Overview
1.2 Specification
1.3 Power and Displacement
1.1 Overview 4

This book will mainly introduce the

engine mounted in the medium-size
truck and bus We will focus on seeing
D4A-series engine such as D4AF, D4AE,
D4AL, which is mounted in the medium-
size truck and bus.
D4AF Engine D4AL Engine

These engines are equipped with RLD

governor and PE-A(D)type injection
pump and turbocharger(D4AE) or
turbocharger intercooler(D4AL).
D4AF is natural aspiration type engine
and its cylinder bore inner diameter size
is a little bigger than the other engines.
Turbocharger and Intercooler

D4A-series are excellent fuel efficiency

by direct injection, easy repair with its
simple structure.

Direct Injection type

1.2 Specification 5


Total Displacement 104 105,3.568cc 100 105,3,298cc

Firing Order 1-3-4-2 1-3-4-2

Compression Ratio 17.5 : 1 16.5 : 1

Engine Speed Low/High 67020/380050 730(750)25/385050

Valve Clearance -In 0.4mm(cold) 0.4mm(cold)

Valve Clearance - Ex 0.4mm(cold) 0.4mm(cold)

Injection Pump/Governor PE-AD/RLD-F PE-AD/RLD-F

Injection pump Plunger O / D 10mm 9.5mm

Delivery Valve Open/pressure 20.8kg/ 11.3(25.3)kg/

Timer Deg/rpm 5.5/ 1250~1700 4.5(4.0)/ 1100~1700

Injection Timing 10 9

Nozzle Open/pressure 220kg/ 220kg/

Nozzle Orifice Hole 0.3mm5 0.3mm5

The power, torque and fuel injection timing of engine might be slightly different
by the regional condition.
1.3 Power and Displacement 6

Each engine has different maximum power and torque.

Check the part number carefully to select the correct part before use some part .
Because each different engine can have different durability though they look
same figure.

total maximum
engine Intake type maximum power
displacement torque

natural 24/2000
D4AF 3,568cc 96/3400ps/rpm
aspiration kgm/rpm
D4AE turbocharger 3,298cc 118/3400ps/rpm

turbocharger 30/2000
D4AL 3,298cc 120/3400ps/rpm
& intercooler kgm/rpm

Engine torque and power

D4AF engine D4AE engine D4AL engine


Chapter II


2.1 Combustion Chamber

2.2 Valve Mechanism and Timing Gear
2.3 Piston & Rings,Con-Rod and Bearings
2.1 Combustion Chamber 8

2.1.1 Combustion Chamber

Combustion chamber is consists of
cylinder head and pistons, 4 or 5-hole
type injection nozzles are installed in
the cylinder head .

Combustion occurs when the fuel is

directly injected into the combustion
chamber when the air is compressed
with high pressure in the chamber by

This combustion chamber is

characterized by higher combustion
efficiency and less loss in cooling.

2.1.2 Cylinder Sleeve

Cylinder sleeve(liner) is tightened into Sleeve
the crank case which is made of special
iron with high abrasion-resistance. Water jacket

Crank case
2.2 Valve Mechanism and Timing gear 9

2.2.1 Valve
The angle of both intake and exhaust
valve seats is 45.

2.2.2 Valve Spring

Valve spring prevents the valve-surging
phenomenon, by mounting a valve
spring with a different pitch in the
opposite direction of its coil to the inside
and outside of the spring.

2.2.3 Valve Cap

The cap is mounted between a rocker
and a valve., and the rocker has a
bushing for lubrication inside.

2.2.4 Valve Stem Seal

The valve stem seal is installed on the
top of each valve guide.
If this oil seal is damaged, engine oil
flows down into the combustion chamber
easily , white color smoke is generated.
Mean while this oil seal does very
important role of apply engine oil on the
surface of valve appropriately
2.2 Valve Mechanism and Timing gear 10

2.2.5 Tappet
The tappet is cylindrical, and its contact
surface with camshaft is eccentrically
designed to prevent the partial abrasion by
contacting to the cam while rotating inside.

2.2.6 Camshaft and Bush

Valves are lift by the camshaft located in
the middle of crankcase.
Three camshaft bushes to bear the
camshaft are mounted in the crank case.
The bush bore is designed by getting
smaller backward to make it easy for the
camshaft to be taken away in front of
crank case.
Basic Diameter: 40.080
Lobe Height : 6.81 ~ 6.91
Cam Height : 46.939
Shaft Journal Clearance : 0.05~0.09
Order Stamp/ No. I/D Width
1st 1 54.5 41
2nd 2 54.5 21
3rd 4 53 21
2.2.7 Timing Gear
The timing gear is installed in a timing
gear case in front of the engine. The
timing marks engraved at each gear
needs to be aligned when being
2.3 Piston & Rings,Con-Rod,Bearings 11

2.3.1 Piston
The piston is made of an alloy of molded
aluminum. The engraved mark at the Part Number
upper part of the piston tells weight and
product number of the piston. The mark Weight Mark
indicates a direction toward the engine.
In particular be sure the mark indicates Front
its direction when replacing a piston. And Direction
make sure that 4 pistons should have
same weight.

2.3.2 Piston Ring

Piston rings consist of two compression
rings and one oil ring,
and a slippery surface of the ring is
chrome-plated through a hardening

2.3.3 Piston Ring Assembly

The end of 1st compression is located on

the longest distance position from the Oil Ring Expender 1st Compression
combustion chamber. Joint Ring End
And the end of 2nd compression ring is
opposition position of 1st ring.
The end of oil ring is located short of Engine
distance position from the combustion
2nd Compression Oil Ring End
Ring End

Location of piston ring end

2.3 Piston & Rings,Con-Rod,Bearings 12

2.3.3 Connecting-rod
The connecting rod has an oil passage to
connect the large end and small end part,
to play a part in lubricating small end part
and in cooling the piston.

2.3.4 Main Bearing

The main bearing is a sectioned plane
bearing which is made of a special alloy,
and the upper bearing is grooved inside to
be correspond with an oil hole of
crankshaft. The five pairs necessary for
installation should be in the right direction
when being reassembled.

Chapter III

Lubrication System

3.1 Diesel Engine Oil

3.2 Parts Lubricating
3.3 Oil Pump
3.4 Oil Cooler
3.5 Oil Filter
3.1 Diesel Engine Oil 14

Item D4AF D4AL

Class API CC or Higher API CD or Higher

Capacity 8.2 With Filter <

Pressure at Idle Speed 1.5kg (0.5kg/) <

Pressure at Max Speed 3~5kg/ (2kg/) <

Pump Relief Valve Opening 3.7~4.3kg/ <

Cooler Bypass Open 1.8~2.2kg/ <

Oil & Filter Replace Every 6,000~10,000km <

Good engine oil maintenance is very closely related with engine life time. The
oil quantity, replacement term and oil quality should be kept to the makers
If the engine oil quantity is insufficient in the oil pan total oil life time gets be
shorten, if the oil quantity is excessive so much,engine rotating load is
increased and carbon is generated much more than normal condition.

Specially, severe driving ,driving before warming up in cold season and humid
weather are very bad for engine oil. Consider to the environmental
problem,replacement cost and the probability of inserting foreign material into
engine, the frequent replacement of engine oil is also undesirable way.

For natural aspiration type engine like D4AF engine, CC or higher quality API
classification diesel engine oil is recommended. And for turbocharger diesel
engine like D4AE and D4AL engine, CD or higher grade oil should be used.
Appropriate viscosity of diesel engine oil should be selected between API
5W30 and 20W50 according to the regional temperature.
3.2 Parts Lubricating 15



The engine oil, which flows into its main

passage of a crank case from the oil
filter, through an oil cooler and oil filter
by a gear-typed oil pump and lubricates
all parts of engine before going back to
the oil pan.



To Main Path
3.2 Parts Lubricating 16

3.2.1 Valves
The engine oil flows into the cylinder head
through the oil hole and the pipe at the upper
part of crank case, after lubricating No.1
camshaft bush.
The engine oil lubricates each rocker bush,
flowing in the rocker shaft through the front
rocker shaft bracket, while it lubricates the
slippery surface of the valve cap at the rocker
and valve stem with being sprinkled into the
oil hole at the upper part of the rocker. Also it
lubricates the tappet and the cam of the cam
shaft for flowing back to the oil pan through
the cylinder head and the push rod hole in
the crank case.

3.2.2 Main Bearing and Connecting Rod

The oil main passage has a oil passage to
lubricate each main bearing. The oil flowing
through the oil hole lubricates the main
bearing and connecting rod bearing through
the oil hole in crankshaft. Also it lubricates
small end part bush of the connecting rod
through the oil hole of the connecting rod,
and then it cools the piston by being
sprinkled from the oil jet.
3.2 Parts Lubricating 17

3.2.3 Cam shaft

The oil flowing through the oil passage from
the oil main passage lubricates each cam
shaft bush. It also lubricates the cam shaft
gear and valves through the oil hole as a oil
passage at the journal of the front engine.

3.2.4 Timing Gear

The gear bush in the timing gear idler is
lubricated by some of the oil from the oil
main passage and the oil sprinkled into the
oil hole of the idler gear.Also the oil
lubricates the timing gear through the forced
lubricating system with a automatic timer, or
the oil pipe mounted at the idler shaft.

3.2.5 Injection Pump

The engine oil lubricates the injection pump
and governor and drops to the oil pan from
the oil passage of bearing cover.
Be sure to charge engine oil in the new
serviced injection pump before installation
and run the engine
3.2 Parts Lubricating 18

3.2.6 Turbo Charger

The bearing is lubricated by engine oil. It

takes 23 minutes to circulate the engine
Shaft Bearing
oil when starting the engine. So beware
that the excessive increase in rpm may
cause serious damage to the turbo
charger.In order to lubricate and cool the
turbocharger enough against its high speed
revolution, also make sure that the ignition
should be off after idling for 2~3 minutes, .

3.2.7 Vacuum Pump

Flowing into the vacuum pump through the

oil passage of the timing gear case from
the oil main passage, the engine oil
lubricates the vein parts. And then it flows
back to the oil pan flowing into the timing
gear case, with air from the air nozzle of
the vacuum pump.
3.3 Oil Pump 19

3.3.1 Engine Oil Pump

The gear-typed oil pump is operated by a
skew gear installed in a camshaft. The oil Oil Outlet
pump case has a hole for oil flow, and then
the oil flowing out from it lubricates a skew
gear in cam shaft and an oil pump gear.
If engine oil is contaminated and much
sludge is accumulated on the oil pan. Some
of sludge can flow through the skew gear
lubricating oil hole and clog It .
As the result of it the surface of skew gear
and oil pump gear are worn and broken. The
camshaft also is bend and the cylinder block Relief Valve

and pump case are broken.

3.3.2 Relief Valve

Relief valve in the oil pump prevents the
lubricating system from excessive high
pressure by leaking some of the engine oil
to the oil pan. The minimum oil pressure at
idle speed is 0.5~1.5kg/ and 3~5kg/ at
highest speed.

3.3.3 Oil Pressure Switch

In case the engine oil pressure is lower than
normal , the built-in oil pressure switch will
be closed.If the engine oil warning lamp
turns on at idle speed and disappears as the
engine speed is increased oil pump, bypass
filter or oil switch should be checked .
oil pressure switch
3.4 Oil Cooler 20

3.4.1 Oil cooler element

The engine oil transmitted by the oil pump
is supplied to the oil cooler. The oil cooler
is a device for heat exchange between the
oil supplied from the oil pump and the

3.4.2 oil cooler bypass valve

Oil cooler has a bypass valve which can
Bypass Valve
be opened when the oil temperature is low .
Particularly, in case that the oil viscosity is
high at low temperature, the bypass valve
will be opened in high resistance against
the oil passage according to as how much
the oil cooler element is loaded, in order to
make the engine oil flow directly flown to
the oil filter without going through the oil

3.4.3 Oil cooler element contamination .

Sometimes the engine oil cooling efficiency
become decrease in an old used engine
because of a lot of oil sludge in the cooler.
The oil cooler element needs to be clean
inside when engine oil temperature is
higher abnormally. Whenever the cooler
element is reinstalled it needs to be careful
to get the correct direction and o-ring
3.5 Oil Filter 21

The filtering capacity, amount and

bypass valve(relief valve) opening
pressure is specified by an engine maker.
D4A series engine oil filter has dual
structure with full flow filter and bypass
filter in a can. Oil filters must be changed
with a genuine part when engine oil is

3.5.1 Full flow Filter

Most of engine oil is filtered by the full To Main Path .
flow filter and flows into engine main path.
A bypass valve is open when the filter is To OIL Pan
contaminated severely by the foreign
material and carbon sludge.The viscosity
of engine oil is very high in cold winter
season, it also can be opened . If the
bypass warning lamp turns on, sudden By-pass
acceleration should not be done to avoid Filter
engine lubricating part damage.
3.5.2 Bypass Filter By-pass Valve
It is installed together with the full flow
filter in a can , but outlet way is separate
completely by an O-ring.
Amount of oil filtered by this is very small
because the filtering fine degree is very To Main Path
high. Smaller particles which can not be To OIL Pan
filtered by full flow filter is filtered by this

Chapter IV

Cooling System

4.1 Over View

4.2 Cooling System
4.1 Over View 23

4.1.1 Coolant and Circulation

The engine is cooled by the forced- Radiator Thermostat Oil Cooler

circulated coolant by the water pump.
water pump draws up coolant and send it
to cylinder block water jacket.
if the engine temperature is low the coolant
re-circulate through the bypass way,but if
engine temperature increases the
thermostat is open and the coolant flows
out the radiator

4.1.2 Water Jacket

Between cylinder and cylinder water jacket

is located to contain the coolant and cool
down down the engine heat . If cylinder
block is cracked, coolant leak out into the
cylinder head gasket and oil pan. Water Jacket

Radiator upper hose

Thermostat Cylinder head


Water pump Cylinder water jacket

Oil cooler

Radiator lower hose

4.2 Cooling System 24

4.2.1 Radiator and Cap

Engine cooling radiator is composed of Cap
tube and fin type core. To get the radiator Upper Tank
keep the best condition of cooling
1. Dust and foreign material out side of
the core should be cleaned.
Lower Tank
2. Fin should not be damaged to flow the Drain Cock
3. Soft water and anti-rust liquid should
be used for coolant. If sludge or scale is
covered inside the tube of radiator, clean
it with special cleaner.
In the radiator cap there are two valve
systems. The outside valve is designed
only for outlet the coolant from the
radiator to reservoir to prevent the
Radiator Cap
radiator from swelling by the expansion of
hot temperature. And the other one small
valve in the center of the cap is designed
to intake the coolant to prevent radiator
from the shrinking during engine stop.If Overflowing Absorbing from reservoir
the the sealing rubber of each valve is to the reservoir
damaged, the boiling point of the coolant
is lowed.

And if any sealing problem in the coolant

compensate way is happen from radiator
cap to coolant reservoir tank , the coolant
level in the radiator is getting lower.

Checking points for

coolant compensation defect
4.2 Cooling System 25

4.2.2 Water Pump

The water pump is operated by the V-belt of
crankshaft pulley. There are unit seals
between the impeller and bearing prevent the
coolant leak.
. Small amount of leaking coolant can flow
out through the vent hole bottom side of
pump case so that the leaked water from the
unit seal does not flow into the bearing. The
water pump bearing can also be damaged by
the over tension of fan belt.

4.2.3 Thermostat

The thermostat is controlled by wax. The

Coolant Hot
wax controls the coolant flow with the change To Radiator
in its volume, changing itself from the solid
state into the liquid state when it is heated up.
Also the opening volume of the thermostat
valve will be changed according to the Cool Cylinder
change in temperature of the coolant, and it Head
adjusts the coolant temperature, controlling To
the amount of the coolant flowing into the W/pump

radiator and the water pump. Jiggle valve on

the thermostat case is closed during
thermostat is closed on purpose of warm up
the engine in short time and is opened by its
weight during engine stop to vent the air to
Engine Run
the radiator.
4.2 Cooling System 26

4.2.4 Cooling Fan and Coupling

The cooling fan clutch controls its fan

speed according to the coolant temperature,
and it will be possible for the bimetal to
change the liquid amount of fluid coupler by
detecting temperature of air flowing through
the radiator.
Auto cooling fan clutch is filed with silicon
oil. If the heat came from the radiator
contact, the coil bimetal is shrunken to
Cooling Fan Clutch Section
open the silicon fluid valve. This sticky
material between two clutch discs hold
together .

When the engine is start first all of the

silicon fluid between two discs is
accumulate in the reservoir room by the
centrifugal force and pump but the valve is
closed till heat contact the bimetal. As the
result the fan side disc is free from the
rotation of engine in 2 or 3 minutes.

When checking the coupling of the

automatic cooling fan, check the coupling
first whether the cleanness of the bimetal
and nut tightening condition are good or not.
And then check the condition of coupling

Check and Cleanness


Chapter V

Intake and Exhaust

5.1 Turbocharger and Intercooler
5.1 Turbocharger and Intercooler 28

5.1.1 Advantage of turbocharger

The compressor wheel of the turbo charger
compresses intake air by using wasted
exhaust gas energy and then put the
compressed air to combustion chamber by
force. As a result, engine output power is

5.1.2 Turbo-charging effect

The turbo-charging effect happens when
the engine runs from 12001400 rpm. And
speed of turbocharger at this moment is
90,000170,000 rpm. and 40,000 rpm
when the engine is idling. Vehicles with
turbo charger have characteristics such as
high engine output power, excellent fuel
efficiency and reduction of toxic gases.
High temperature is generated from inside
of the turbocharger while the turbocharger
is rotating at high speed. Intake air
temperature is increased by transmitting
heat from the exhaust gas through turbine
wheel, shaft and compressor wheel. And
also the oxygen density in the actually
inhaled air of the cylinder decreases as
much as the temperature increases.
The intercooler increases the density of
oxygen by decreasing the temperature of
the intake air. When the density of air
increases, it will be able to improve the
combustion efficiency and the engine's
output power. The intercooler is installed on
D4AL engine only.
5.1 Turbocharger and Intercooler 29

5.1.3 Waste-gate
The wastegate actuator mounted on the
turbo charger prevents the turbocharger
from over-running and excessive high
pressure inside of the intake manifold. It
controls the boosting pressure properly by
applying the extra exhaust gas to the
wastgate actuator.
The turbocharger system will be seriously
damaged if the wastegate actuator does
not activate.

5.1.4 Maintenance
The shaft bearing is lubricated by engine
It takes 2-3minutes to circulate the engine
oil after starting the engine.
The turbocharger engine is need to be
careful to operate and maintenance it.
Clean and high quality engine oil and
appropriate fuel injection quantity are very
important for turbocharger engine .
Also beware that the sudden acceleration
or excessive high rpm at the time of
starting the engine may cause serious
damage to the turbo charger.
In order to lubricate and cool the
turbocharger system enough, the engine
should be kept idle 2-3minutes more before
stop the engine.

Chapter VI

Fuel System
6.1 Fuel Flowing
6.2 Injection Nozzle and Holder
6.3 Supply Pump and Feed Pump
6.4 Pump Construction
6.5 Governor
6.6 Timer
6.7 Boost Compensator
6.8 Aneroid Compensator(A.C.S)
6.1 Fuel Flowing 31

6.1.1 Fuel Flowing

The fuel is drawn by the supply pump
through fuel suction pipe in the fuel tank
and sand it to the fuel filter.
Between the fuel tank and supply pump a
water separator is located to separate out
water in the fuel.
The supply pump feeds the fuel to the
fuel injection pump. The fuel inlet port of
injection pump is a kind of regulating
pressure valve to keep somewhat
pressure in the fuel chamber and make it
easy to fill the fuel into the plunger barrel.

6.1.2 Fuel Compression

When the plunger compresses the fuel
the high pressure fuel reaches at the fuel
nozzle and it overcomes the nozzle
spring force. This nozzle spring is called
nozzle opening pressure(N.O.P).
The surplus fuel from the nozzle and
plunger combines and returns to the fuel
6.2 Injection Nozzle and Holder 32

6.2.1 Fuel Injection Nozzle

The hole type nozzle is used for D4A
Fuel Injection
series direct combustion type engines. Nozzle
The nozzle consists of a needle valve and
a body.
T his valve and body is produced as a
combination set in the factory that a valve
or body should be mixed with others even
if the part numbers are same.
This nozzle has 5 holes and 160 degrees
spray angle. Nozzle spring supports the
needle valve.

6.2.2 Fuel Injection Pressure

The fuel pressure to compress and
overcome this spring force is called
nozzle opening pressure. This N.O.P
should be higher than 220kg/.

When the nozzle holder assembly is

installed on the engine, the tightening
torque of mounting bolt should be
followed the specification.
The excessive tightening torque can
damage nozzle holder or stick the valve
6.3 Supply Pump, Feed Pump 33

6.3.1 Supply Pump

The supply pump is installed on the injection
pump body to draw fuel from the tank and
feed it to the pump housing.

6.3.2 Feed Pump

The tappet is moved by a special on the
camshaft to operate the pushrod and the
piston. The reciprocal motion of this of this
piston delivers the fuel to the injection pump.
A priming pump (feed pump) is also
mounted in the same housing. After open
and fit a fuel line, air bleeding is conducted
manually by this pump.

A filter is installed in the supply pumps

intake side bolt pipe joint to clean the fuel
during suction.

6.2.3 The deflector

It is mounted in front of the suction and

discharge port. After fuel injection, high
pressure fuel inside the nozzle and injection
pipe momentarily returns through the suction
and discharge port. This spill pressure
strikes the deflector first to prevent the pump
housing erosion.
6.4 Pump Construction 34

6.4.1 Delivery Valve

It is located on top of the plunger. When the
force of the fuel pressurized by the plunger
exceeds the delivery valve springs set force,
it pushes the delivery valve up and the
pressured fuel is delivered to the nozzle
holder through the delivery valve holder and
injection pipe.

6.4.2 Movement of Plunger

The plunger is pushed up by the cam of the
camshaft trough a tappet assembly. The
plunger spring then pushes the plunger back,
resulting in a constant reciprocal motion. It
increases or decreases the injection rate by
a slanted helix. Fuel oil chamber is always
filled with fuel supplied by the supply
pump.The plunger barrels suction and
discharge port opens onto this fuel oil

6.4.3 Control Sleeve and Rack

Control sleeve is fitted around the outside of
the plunger barrel. It has a groove on the
bottom which fits a flange on the bottom of
plunger. It is also fitted with a pinion gear
which moves together with the sleeve.
The pinion gear engages the control rack.
When the control rack is moved in an axial
direction, the pinion gear rotates and the
plunger results in rotation.
6.5 Governor 35

The main purpose of fuel injection pump

governor is to decrease the fuel injection Adjusting lever Full speed set bolt
Idling set bolt
quantity as the engine speed increases in the Supporting lever
Floating lever Cancel
spring B
Governor spring Qo Control rack
governor range. Guide lever
Po Ro
Start spring
The RLD governor is used for D4A series Sensor lever
Governor shaft
engine. It controls fuel injection quantity Full load set lever

during all speed range. Cancel spring A Full load set bolt
Torque cam
Tension lever
The RLD governor is composed of flyweight, Cam shaft
tension lever and guide lever, floating lever, Sleeve
Idle screw
Idler spring
torque cam, start spring, idling spring and Fly weight

governor spring etc. .

6.5.1 Flyweight
It is mounted on the end of injection pump
camshaft . The flyweight assembly consists
of two flyweights, opens and closes in
response to the centrifugal force of
generated by the rotation of the camshaft.
The sleeve and shifter are moved in an axial
direction by sliders mounted on the ends of Close Open
the flyweight arms.

6.5.2 Tension Lever

It is supported by the tension lever shaft
and also is moved by movement of shifter
pushed by the force which generated by the
engine speed. When this tension lever
overcomes the governor spring set force, the
fuel control rack decreases the fuel injection
The guide lever combined by a cancel
spring is moved to the same direction of it.
6.5 Governor 36

6.5.3 Idling spring

It contacts the shifter and is located in the
lower portion of the governor cover on the
flyweight axis. If this spring compressed
force is strong, the engine idle speed
increases. The spring force is adjusted by a
screw bolt.

6.5.4 The floating lever

It is support by the supporting lever which
is supported by the control lever shaft. Both
end of floating lever are fork shaped. One
end engages the guide lever ball joint, and
the other engages the ball joint of the rack
connecting link, which is attached to the
control shaft.

6.5.5Control lever
Accelerator pedal is linked to the
control lever by a cable. The control lever
and supporting lever are assembled so that
they are moved together by the force of a
cancel spring

6.5.6 Start spring

Its one end is connected to the spring eye
mounted on the governor housing and the
other end is connected to the rack
connecting link. It always work to pull the
control rack in the fuel-increase direction..
6.5 Governor 37

6.5.7 Torque cam

Its shape is the limit position of the sensor
lever. The fuel control rack is not only
moved by the tension lever but also control
lever during L-shaped lever is separated
from the supporting lever which happens
during the engine is loaded by the
accelerator pedal(control lever).

At this moment fuel injection quantity is

maximum and the maximum quantity is
determined by the sensor lever touch
position to the torque cam and the torque
cam is turned by the tension lever moved
according to the engine speed.

The circumference of this cam is designed

specially to improve engine and diving
6.6 Timer 38

An automatic timer SCDM (for D4AE

engine) or SCZ (for D4AF engine) is
mounted for D4A series engine. This is a
mechanical timing device to automatically
control the fuel injection timing according
to the engine speed and load.

The flyweights in the timer assembly are

spread out and compress the springs by
the centrifugal force generated according
to the engine speed.

As the flyweights open the fuel

compression start time (fuel injection Timer Operation
timing ) is advanced. One of engine timing
gears drives the timer directly and is
lubricated by the engine oil.
Timing Advance Angle

Generally timer can advance the fuel

injection timing maximum 7 to 10
according to the engine speed

pump Speed(RPM)
6.7 Boost Compensator 39

6.7.1 construction

The interior of the booster compensator chamber is divided into an

atmospheric chamber and a pressure chamber. A booster compensator spring
with a pre-determined set force is built into the atmospheric chamber. The
pushrod moves together with the diaphragm, and a pin at one end connects it
to the boost compensator spring. The other end is constantly held against a
screw by the boost compensator spring. The bottom end of the compensator
lever contacts the control rack and the top end contacts a spring capsule used
for adjusting the control rack position.

6.7.2 Operation
When the boost pressure is applied on the diaphragm the set spring is
compressed. The bottom of the boost compensator lever is therefore moved in
the direction of arrow(2). As the load control lever of the governor itself is in
the full load position and the floating lever is fixed, the control rack is moved in
fuel-increase direction by the force of cancel spring and a quantity of fuel
adequate for the amount of intake air pressurized by the turbocharger is
injected into the combustion chamber.

To increase
cancel spring amount of fuel
Full load set screw
Push rod A Lever

U- shaped lever

Boost pressure Push rod B

Boost compensator Torque cam
6.8 Aneroid Compensator(A.C.S) 40

6.8.1 Purpose
1. Relationship between atmospheric Relationship atmospheric
750 pressure and altitude
pressure and altitude-pressure decreases as 700
altitude increases. 650
2. Relationship between dry air density and 600
atmospheric pressure- air density decreases 550
as the atmospheric pressure decreases. 500
3. A vehicle adjusted to function at low 450
altitude may experience may experience the 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000
following problems due to excessive fuel
injection when it is driven at high altitudes.

Atmospheric pressure(mmHg)
-high level of black smoke Dry air density
- lowered engine out put and increased fuel 780
consumption 760
- carbon deposits in the combustion chamber 740
and then the engine life is shorten.

6.8.2 Construction 0.110 0.115 0.120 0.125 0.130

The ACS includes a bellows under which a Density(kgS/ m)
spring and pushrod are assembled.
A joint and cap with an air inlet are installed
in the bellows.
Full-load injection quantity(%)

The bellows, which extends and retracts 100

according to the atmospheric pressure 90
moves the pushrod against the pre-adjusted 80
spring. 60
The adjusting bolt attached to the top of the 50
bellows is used to adjust the spring force and 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000
the initial push rod position. Altitude(m)
The clevis at the end of the ACS is the
connected directly to the ACS lever(1) of the
governor, allowing the shaft to move together
with ACS lever(2).
When the ACS functions, ACS lever (2)
contacts the pin of the floating lever(1/2)