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# 1.

## On the Rankine-Hugoniot curve show that as P 2 , v2/ v1 -1/+1 and as v2 ,

P2/P1 --1/+1 for any finite value of q. Sketch the Rankine - Hugoniot curve for two
different values of q (q1 > q2 ). Indicate its behavior near the limits of P 2 and v2
F
(10 marks)

2. For the configuration shown, indicate the location of the flame. Is it going to be a
premixed or a diffusion flame? Sketch the mass fraction (fuel, air and products), A
temperature profiles and streamlines for this configuration. Assume gravitational effects
to be negligible and that the flow is laminar. (8 marks)

## 3. Sketch a one-dimensional tube with ignition electrodes at an appropriate location (a) to

give rise to deflagration (b) detonation. Assume the tube to be filled with a premixed fuel
air combination. Indicate what kind of tube end configuration (closed, open) would lead
to the above. (4 marks).

4. Consider a slot burner (h/b = 10, b = 2 mm) and a burner with a circular port of diameter
10 mm. Assume the flow velocities of both the burners to be uniform at the exit.
Operating with some fuel, the burner has a heat release of 500 W. Determine the flame
length in both the cases. Heat of combustion of fuel with air is 55 MJ/kg, density of fuel
is 0.65 kg/m3 and diffusivity (binary) of fuel air combination is 110-5 m2 /s. Instead of
the uniform velocity profile at the exit, if one had a parabolic profile at the exit would the
5. In a binary mixture of methane (CH4 ) and oxygen, the mole fraction of methane is 0.2.
The mixture temperature and pressure are 300 K and 1 bar. Determine the mass fractions
and concentration in kmol/m3 of methane and oxygen in the mixture.
4 marks

6. LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) is a mixture of 40% butane (C 4 H10 ) and 60% propane
(C3 H8 ) on mass basis. During combustion in a stove an equivalence ratio of = 0.3 is
maintained. What is the amount of oxidizer to be used to burn 1 k g of LPG, if (a) air is
the oxidizer & (b) oxygen is the oxidizer. 6 marks

7. Write down all the equations in terms of the mole fractions to obtain the equilibrium
composition resulting from a mixture of 1 kg of RP1 fuel (composition given by CH 1.96 )
and 2.58 kg of O 2 at 3676 K and 6.89 MPa. Do not solve them. The values of K p the
equilibrium constant at 3676 K are as given below.
0.5
PO2 PH 2
K P1 0.295atm 0.5
PH 2O
2
PH
K P2 0.740atm
PH 2
0.5
PH 2 POH
K P3 0.44atm 0.5
PH 2O
0.5
PO2 PCO
K P4 2.42atm 0.5
PCO2
2
PO
K P5 0.559atm
PO2
10 marks

8. The H2 -O2 reaction mechanism is given as follows. Determine the rate of formation of
H2 O and OH in terms of concentration of H2 and O2 .
H2 + O2 2OH Reaction rate coefficient k1

## H + OH + M H2O + M Reaction rate coefficient k5

5 marks

9. For a bimolecular reaction the value of reaction rate coefficient at two different
temperatures 1000 K and 3000 K are 1.00 m3 /(mol s) and 1.092 106 m3 /(mol s)
respectively. Determine the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy for the
reaction. At what temperature would the reaction rate coefficient be 1.092 105 m3 /(mol
s). 5 marks
10.1 kg of methane (CH4) burns in 25 kg of air at constant pressure. Determine the
equivalence ratio. Also, determine the adiabatic flame temperature, if water, carbon
dioxide are the only products formed and nitrogen re mains unreacted. Heat of formation
of methane is -74.5 kJ/mol, water is -242 kJ/mol and carbon dioxide is -394 kJ/mol.
Assume the specific heat of product gases to vary according to temperature as c p = a +
bT, where a= 2.5 kJ/kg K and b = 0.0005 kJ/kg K 2 . What would be the adiabatic flame
temperature for a stoichiometric mixture of methane and oxygen when both methane and
oxygen are pre-heated to 800 K?
10 marks
11. The products of combustion of 2 moles of carbon and one mole of oxygen at 10.13 MPa
and 5000 K. Determine the equilibrium composition of the products (CO 2 , CO and O 2 ).
The equilibrium constant is
ln K p = 19458 (65040 /T). What would be the composition if pressure were to be
increased to 20.26 MPa? Does this confirm Le Chatliers Principle?
10 marks
12. A solid propellant is burning with the reaction A B. Both A and B are in solid state or
the reactions take place in solid phase itself. The density of B is not very small compared
to A. Assuming the burning to be premixed and one dimensional, formulate this problem
and reduce it to the Shvab-Zeldovich form. Do not solve it! What kind of co-ordinate
system do you propose to use for solving this problem? (The marks for the res t of the
problem depend on it!!) List all the assumptions that you need to make. Sketch the
species mass fraction temperature and reaction rate profiles.
10 marks
13. Derive the equations expressing the pressure ratio P 2 /P1 , the temperature ratio T2 /T1 and
the velocity ratio u2 /u1 in terms of Mach numbers, M1 , M2 and ratio of specific heats for
the combustion wave shown below. List out all the assumptions that you need to make.
10 marks

14. A global reaction mechanism is known to depend on pressure as P1.5 in the fuel

lean region and P2.5 in the fuel rich region. Sketch the variation of flame speed
(Su) with O/F for three different pressures (P 1 > P2 > P3 ). Indicate also the stoichiometric
O/F and briefly explain the logic behind the sketch. 5 marks
15. Sketch the dependence of u Su with equivalence ratio for three different initial
temperatures (T1 > T2 > T3 ). Clearly indicate what happens near the two flammability
limits with change in initial temperature and briefly explain the logic behind the sketch.
5 marks
16. The soap bubble method is used to determine the flame speed of a mixture. If V f is the
average rate at which the spherical flame front moves as observed by a photographic
technique. How do you relate Vf to the laminar flame S u measured using a flame tube?
List out at least two disadvantages of the soap bubble method of determining the flame
speed. 6 marks
17. Fuel and air jet coming out of rectangular nozzles as shown in Figure below lead to a pre-
mixed flame. Sketch the fuel, air and product mass fraction profiles at the two y locations
indicated in the Figure below. Also sketch the reaction rate and temperature profiles at
the two y locations (y1 and y2 ) indicated in the Figure below. Assume that the activation
energy is large. If there is heat loss to the ambient through the side walls indicate the
effect of the same on the temperature and reaction rate profile graphs (compare with no
heat loss to the side walls case). Briefly explain the logic behind the sketches.
7 marks

## Air Fuel Air

y

18. Prove that if the reaction rates are very small, then the species mass flux balance at the
gas solid interface is given by
dy
g yiu g g D i
dx
The interface location is fixed in space, Ficks law of mass diffusion is valid and there is no
subsurface diffusion. (Hint integrate across 0 + and 0-) 7 marks

19. A gas stream at 1 atm contains a mixture of CO, CO 2 and N 2 in which the mole fraction
of CO and CO 2 are 0.1 and 0.2, respectively. The gas stream temperature is 1200 K.
Determine the enthalpy of the mixture (kJ/kg), if the enthalpies of CO and CO 2 at 298 K
and 1 atm are -110541 kJ/kmol and -393546 kJ/kmol respectively. Also determine the
mass fraction of the three component gases. (4 marks)
20. A H2 O2 combustor (scramjet) is operating at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and a pressure
of 1 bar. H2 enters the combustor (after cooling the combustion chamber walls) at 800 K
and O 2 enters at 300 K. All species have the same constant molar specific heat of (30 +
10 10-3 T) kJ/kmol-K. The heat of formation of water at 298 K is -238,000 kJ/kmol.
What is the adiabatic flame temperature? If there is a heat loss to the walls of the
combustion chamber at the rate of 187 kJ/kg, what is the maximum temperature achieved
in the combustor? (6 marks)
21. For a chemical reaction, if h is negitive and s is also negitive, then such a reaction is
possible at low /high /any temperature. (1 marks)
22. There are two competing designs (G and H) for a gas vessel needed to store H 2 O2 gas
mixture at a pressure of 5 bar and temperature of 450 C. Which of the two designs shown
below would you recommend so that there is lesser chance of vessel explosion? Give
reasons for your choice. Both the vessels have the same internal volume. Would your
choice change if the gas mixture were to be stored at a pressure of 1 mm of Hg? If so why
and if not why? (4 marks)
H

23. In methane combustion, the following reaction pair is important: CH4 +M CH3 +H, k f is
the forward reaction coefficient and k r is backward reaction coefficient and is given by
2.82105 T exp(-9835/T) m6 /kmol2 -s. At 1500 K, the equilibrium constant K p has a value
of 0.003691 at 1atm pressure. What is the rate of H production?
(5 marks)
24. Consider the equilibrium reaction H2 O H2 + 0.5 O2 at 1 atm and 298 K. The mass
fractions (not mole fractions) of H2 O, H2 and O 2 are respectively 0.9. 0.03 and 0.07.
Determine the Gibbs free energy for H2 O at 1 atm and 298 K. (5 marks)

25. A global reaction mechanism is known to depend on pressure as P1.5 in the fuel

lean region and P2.5 in the fuel rich region. Sketch the variation of lean and rich
flammability limits with pressure ( vs P graphs). Briefly explain the logic behind the
sketch. (5 marks)

26. A solid propellant is burning with the reaction A B. Both A and B are in solid state or
the reactions take place in solid phase itself. The density of B is not very small compared
to A. Assuming the burning to be premixed and one dimensional, formulate this problem
and reduce it to the Shvab-Zeldovich form. Do not solve it! What kind of co-ordinate
system do you propose to use for solving this problem? (The marks for the rest of the
problem depend on it!!) List all the assumptions that you need to make. Sketch the
species mass fraction temperature and reaction rate profiles profiles.
(10 marks)

27. A premixed flame is stabilized in a channel of depth b perpendicular to the paper and
the height of the channel varies along x as shown in the figure below. Under what
condition does this problem reduce to the one we solved in class for premixed
combustion? If the flame were to be stabilized in such a fashion so as to have both the
unburnt and burnt speeds to be identical what should the molecular weight be of the burnt
gases? Assume the pressure to be 1 bar, initial temperature 400 K final temperature 1200

## K, initial density to be 1.3 kg/m3 and = 50 . If = A exp(-E/RuT) and A is in kg/m3 s.

If the reaction rates are known at two different temperatures as 0.01 kg/m3 s and 5000
kg/m3 s at 300 K and 1000 K respectively, calculate the flame thickness and the flame
speed. Assume k = 0.1 W/mK and cp = 1 KJ/kgK.
(10 marks)
28. 1 kg of Ethanol (C 2 H5 OH) burns in 25 kg of air. Determine the equivalence ratio. (3
marks)

29. Premixed hydrogen air flame goes through a tube of 0.7 mm diameter. Will a hydrogen-
oxygen flame be able to pass through the same tube? What about methane air flame?
marks)

30. Sketch the variation of temperature, species mass fractions and reaction rates for a
diffusion flame with the following reaction.
CH4 + 2 (3.76 N 2 +O2 ) CO2 + 2 H2 O + 7.52 N2
Assume the reaction chemistry to be a finite rate one. (4
marks)

31. In a co- flowing fuel and air combination as shown below, sketch the diffusion flame
structure for both fuel rich and fuel lean cases. (3
marks)

F A F

32. Sketch the Rankine-Hugoniot curve for zero heat release and indicate the upper and
lower Chapman-Jouguet points.
(3 marks)

33. Among a square cross section and an equilateral triangular cross section (both having the
same side a) through which a gaseous fuel jet comes out into quiescent air, which one
will have smaller laminar diffusion flame height for the same fuel flow rate and why? (3
marks)

34. The ignition energy required to reignite a gas turbine engine at high altitude is less
than/greater than/equal to the ignition energy required to reignite the same gas turbine
marks)

35. The turbulent diffusion flame height for a gaseous fuel jet coming out through a circular
cross section into quiescent air depends on only the flow velocity/ only the diameter of
the jet both the flow velocity and the diameter of the jet/ neither flow velocity nor the
(3 marks)
36. Consider co-flowing air and fuel as shown in the figure below. Assume the cross-section
through which they are flowing to be rectangular and that the size of these slots in the y
direction (into the paper) is so large that you can neglect the variations in y directions.
Write down the governing equations and the boundary conditions for this geometry.
Reduce the governing equations to the Schvab-Zeldovich form. Do not solve these
equations. List out the assumptions you had to make to reduce the governing equations to
the Schvab-Zeldovich form. Is it possible to reduce the equations that you have derived to
the Bessels function? Justify your answer. Do you end up having to make the constant
density approximation that Burke-Schumann had to make? If the constant density
assumption were to be relaxed, what would be the flame height with and without the
marks)

F A F
z
x
x
x

37. Calculate the equilibrium composition resulting from a mixture of 1 kg of RP1 fuel
(composition given by CH1.96 ) and 2.58 kg of O 2 at 3676 K and 6.89 MPa. The values of
K p the equilibrium constant at 3676 K are as given below. (11
marks)
0.5
PO2 PH 2
K P1 0.295atm 0.5
PH 2O
2
PH
K P2 0.740atm
PH 2
0.5
PH 2 POH
K P3 0.44atm 0.5
PH 2O
0.5
PO2 PCO
K P4 2.42atm 0.5
PCO2
2
P
K P5 O 0.559atm
PO2
38. A combustion wave propagates with a mass flux of 3500 kg/m2 s through a mixture
initially at 298 K and 1 atm. The molecular weight and for the mixture (both burnt and
unburnt) are 29 kg/kmol and 1.3, respectively, and the heat release is 3.4 MJ/kg.
Determine the state (P2 ,v2 ) of the burned gas and determine in which region this state lies
on the Rankine-Hugoniot curve. Determine the Mach number of the burned gases. Carry
out the above exercise for a mass flux of 3.5 kg/m2 s. Sketch the same on a Rankine-
Hugoniot curve.
39. Explain what is;
a. premixed flame (b) diffusion flame (c) ignition energy (d) Damkholer numbers
(e) blow off
(f) Lewis number (g) Schmidt number (h) detonation (i) activation energy (j) flash
back 20 marks
40. Consider a slot burner (h/b = 10, b = 2 mm) and a burner with a circular port of diameter
10 mm. Assume the flow velocities of both the burners to be uniform at the exit.
Operating with some fuel, the burner has a heat release of 500 W. Assume no heat loss.
Determine the flame length in both the cases. Heat of combustion of fuel with air is 42
MJ/kg and diffusivity (binary) of fuel air combination is 1105 m2 /s. Assume density of
fuel to be 1.2 kg/m3 . Would the flame be laminar or turbulent? Instead of the uniform
velocity profile at the exit, if one had a parabolic profile at the exit would the flame
10 marks
41. One kg of methane (CH4 ) burns with 25 kg of air at constant pressure. Determine the
equivalence ratio. If instead of air, oxygen were to be used as oxidizer, what would be the
mass of oxygen required to get the same equivalence ratio? Also determine the adiabatic
flame temperature, if water, carbon dioxide are the only products formed and nitrogen
remains unreacted. Heat of formation of methane is -74.5 kJ/mol, water is -242 kJ/mol
and carbon dioxide -394 kJ/mol. Assume the specific heat (mass basis) of product gases
to vary as C p = a+bT, where a = 2.5kJ/kg K and b =0.0005 kJ/kg K 2 . What would be the
adiabatic flame temperature with oxygen? (use the value of equivalence ratio obtained
earlier in the problem).
10 marks
42. The products of combustion of one mole of oxygen and two mole of carbon @ 10.13
MPa and 3000 K are CO2, CO and O2. Determine the equilibrium composition of
products. The equilibrium constant is ln K p = 19458 (65040/T). What would be the
composition if pressure were to be decreased to 5 MPa? Does this confirm Le Chatliers
principle? 10 marks
43. The ignition energy required to ignite a gaseous mixture is more/less/same as the energy
required to ignite a solid fuel burning in air. Explain your answer.
3 marks
44. For the opposed jet problem shown in the Figure below the combustion take place in a
premixed manner? Sketch the flame in such a situation and show temperature, fuel and
oxidizer mass fractions, product mass fraction and reaction rate profile for the same. Are
the reaction rates infinite or finite? 7 marks

Fuel

Oxidizer
45. What is the flame speed and flame thickness for the following case? Assume the
pressure to be 1 bar, initial temperature 400 K and the adiabatic flame temperature is

## 2400 K, initial density to be 1.3 kg/m3 . If = A exp(-E/Ru T) and A is in kg/m3 s. If the

reaction rates are known at two different temperatures as 0.01 kg/m3 s and 5000 kg/m3 s at
300 K and 1000 K respectively. Assume k = 0.1 W/mK and c p = 1 KJ/kgK. What is the
quench diameter for this mixture? (8 marks)
46. Explain the reason for flammability limit? There is flame propagating through a glass
tube near its flammability limit. Will it propagate (all other conditions kept same) if the