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Combustion

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P2/P1 --1/+1 for any finite value of q. Sketch the Rankine - Hugoniot curve for two

different values of q (q1 > q2 ). Indicate its behavior near the limits of P 2 and v2

F

(10 marks)

2. For the configuration shown, indicate the location of the flame. Is it going to be a

premixed or a diffusion flame? Sketch the mass fraction (fuel, air and products), A

temperature profiles and streamlines for this configuration. Assume gravitational effects

to be negligible and that the flow is laminar. (8 marks)

give rise to deflagration (b) detonation. Assume the tube to be filled with a premixed fuel

air combination. Indicate what kind of tube end configuration (closed, open) would lead

to the above. (4 marks).

4. Consider a slot burner (h/b = 10, b = 2 mm) and a burner with a circular port of diameter

10 mm. Assume the flow velocities of both the burners to be uniform at the exit.

Operating with some fuel, the burner has a heat release of 500 W. Determine the flame

length in both the cases. Heat of combustion of fuel with air is 55 MJ/kg, density of fuel

is 0.65 kg/m3 and diffusivity (binary) of fuel air combination is 110-5 m2 /s. Instead of

the uniform velocity profile at the exit, if one had a parabolic profile at the exit would the

flame height increase or decrease? Justify your answer. (8 marks)

5. In a binary mixture of methane (CH4 ) and oxygen, the mole fraction of methane is 0.2.

The mixture temperature and pressure are 300 K and 1 bar. Determine the mass fractions

and concentration in kmol/m3 of methane and oxygen in the mixture.

4 marks

6. LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) is a mixture of 40% butane (C 4 H10 ) and 60% propane

(C3 H8 ) on mass basis. During combustion in a stove an equivalence ratio of = 0.3 is

maintained. What is the amount of oxidizer to be used to burn 1 k g of LPG, if (a) air is

the oxidizer & (b) oxygen is the oxidizer. 6 marks

7. Write down all the equations in terms of the mole fractions to obtain the equilibrium

composition resulting from a mixture of 1 kg of RP1 fuel (composition given by CH 1.96 )

and 2.58 kg of O 2 at 3676 K and 6.89 MPa. Do not solve them. The values of K p the

equilibrium constant at 3676 K are as given below.

0.5

PO2 PH 2

K P1 0.295atm 0.5

PH 2O

2

PH

K P2 0.740atm

PH 2

0.5

PH 2 POH

K P3 0.44atm 0.5

PH 2O

0.5

PO2 PCO

K P4 2.42atm 0.5

PCO2

2

PO

K P5 0.559atm

PO2

10 marks

8. The H2 -O2 reaction mechanism is given as follows. Determine the rate of formation of

H2 O and OH in terms of concentration of H2 and O2 .

H2 + O2 2OH Reaction rate coefficient k1

5 marks

9. For a bimolecular reaction the value of reaction rate coefficient at two different

temperatures 1000 K and 3000 K are 1.00 m3 /(mol s) and 1.092 106 m3 /(mol s)

respectively. Determine the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy for the

reaction. At what temperature would the reaction rate coefficient be 1.092 105 m3 /(mol

s). 5 marks

10.1 kg of methane (CH4) burns in 25 kg of air at constant pressure. Determine the

equivalence ratio. Also, determine the adiabatic flame temperature, if water, carbon

dioxide are the only products formed and nitrogen re mains unreacted. Heat of formation

of methane is -74.5 kJ/mol, water is -242 kJ/mol and carbon dioxide is -394 kJ/mol.

Assume the specific heat of product gases to vary according to temperature as c p = a +

bT, where a= 2.5 kJ/kg K and b = 0.0005 kJ/kg K 2 . What would be the adiabatic flame

temperature for a stoichiometric mixture of methane and oxygen when both methane and

oxygen are pre-heated to 800 K?

10 marks

11. The products of combustion of 2 moles of carbon and one mole of oxygen at 10.13 MPa

and 5000 K. Determine the equilibrium composition of the products (CO 2 , CO and O 2 ).

The equilibrium constant is

ln K p = 19458 (65040 /T). What would be the composition if pressure were to be

increased to 20.26 MPa? Does this confirm Le Chatliers Principle?

10 marks

12. A solid propellant is burning with the reaction A B. Both A and B are in solid state or

the reactions take place in solid phase itself. The density of B is not very small compared

to A. Assuming the burning to be premixed and one dimensional, formulate this problem

and reduce it to the Shvab-Zeldovich form. Do not solve it! What kind of co-ordinate

system do you propose to use for solving this problem? (The marks for the res t of the

problem depend on it!!) List all the assumptions that you need to make. Sketch the

species mass fraction temperature and reaction rate profiles.

10 marks

13. Derive the equations expressing the pressure ratio P 2 /P1 , the temperature ratio T2 /T1 and

the velocity ratio u2 /u1 in terms of Mach numbers, M1 , M2 and ratio of specific heats for

the combustion wave shown below. List out all the assumptions that you need to make.

10 marks

14. A global reaction mechanism is known to depend on pressure as P1.5 in the fuel

lean region and P2.5 in the fuel rich region. Sketch the variation of flame speed

(Su) with O/F for three different pressures (P 1 > P2 > P3 ). Indicate also the stoichiometric

O/F and briefly explain the logic behind the sketch. 5 marks

15. Sketch the dependence of u Su with equivalence ratio for three different initial

temperatures (T1 > T2 > T3 ). Clearly indicate what happens near the two flammability

limits with change in initial temperature and briefly explain the logic behind the sketch.

5 marks

16. The soap bubble method is used to determine the flame speed of a mixture. If V f is the

average rate at which the spherical flame front moves as observed by a photographic

technique. How do you relate Vf to the laminar flame S u measured using a flame tube?

List out at least two disadvantages of the soap bubble method of determining the flame

speed. 6 marks

17. Fuel and air jet coming out of rectangular nozzles as shown in Figure below lead to a pre-

mixed flame. Sketch the fuel, air and product mass fraction profiles at the two y locations

indicated in the Figure below. Also sketch the reaction rate and temperature profiles at

the two y locations (y1 and y2 ) indicated in the Figure below. Assume that the activation

energy is large. If there is heat loss to the ambient through the side walls indicate the

effect of the same on the temperature and reaction rate profile graphs (compare with no

heat loss to the side walls case). Briefly explain the logic behind the sketches.

7 marks

y

18. Prove that if the reaction rates are very small, then the species mass flux balance at the

gas solid interface is given by

dy

g yiu g g D i

dx

The interface location is fixed in space, Ficks law of mass diffusion is valid and there is no

subsurface diffusion. (Hint integrate across 0 + and 0-) 7 marks

19. A gas stream at 1 atm contains a mixture of CO, CO 2 and N 2 in which the mole fraction

of CO and CO 2 are 0.1 and 0.2, respectively. The gas stream temperature is 1200 K.

Determine the enthalpy of the mixture (kJ/kg), if the enthalpies of CO and CO 2 at 298 K

and 1 atm are -110541 kJ/kmol and -393546 kJ/kmol respectively. Also determine the

mass fraction of the three component gases. (4 marks)

20. A H2 O2 combustor (scramjet) is operating at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and a pressure

of 1 bar. H2 enters the combustor (after cooling the combustion chamber walls) at 800 K

and O 2 enters at 300 K. All species have the same constant molar specific heat of (30 +

10 10-3 T) kJ/kmol-K. The heat of formation of water at 298 K is -238,000 kJ/kmol.

What is the adiabatic flame temperature? If there is a heat loss to the walls of the

combustion chamber at the rate of 187 kJ/kg, what is the maximum temperature achieved

in the combustor? (6 marks)

21. For a chemical reaction, if h is negitive and s is also negitive, then such a reaction is

possible at low /high /any temperature. (1 marks)

22. There are two competing designs (G and H) for a gas vessel needed to store H 2 O2 gas

mixture at a pressure of 5 bar and temperature of 450 C. Which of the two designs shown

below would you recommend so that there is lesser chance of vessel explosion? Give

reasons for your choice. Both the vessels have the same internal volume. Would your

choice change if the gas mixture were to be stored at a pressure of 1 mm of Hg? If so why

and if not why? (4 marks)

H

23. In methane combustion, the following reaction pair is important: CH4 +M CH3 +H, k f is

the forward reaction coefficient and k r is backward reaction coefficient and is given by

2.82105 T exp(-9835/T) m6 /kmol2 -s. At 1500 K, the equilibrium constant K p has a value

of 0.003691 at 1atm pressure. What is the rate of H production?

(5 marks)

24. Consider the equilibrium reaction H2 O H2 + 0.5 O2 at 1 atm and 298 K. The mass

fractions (not mole fractions) of H2 O, H2 and O 2 are respectively 0.9. 0.03 and 0.07.

Determine the Gibbs free energy for H2 O at 1 atm and 298 K. (5 marks)

25. A global reaction mechanism is known to depend on pressure as P1.5 in the fuel

lean region and P2.5 in the fuel rich region. Sketch the variation of lean and rich

flammability limits with pressure ( vs P graphs). Briefly explain the logic behind the

sketch. (5 marks)

26. A solid propellant is burning with the reaction A B. Both A and B are in solid state or

the reactions take place in solid phase itself. The density of B is not very small compared

to A. Assuming the burning to be premixed and one dimensional, formulate this problem

and reduce it to the Shvab-Zeldovich form. Do not solve it! What kind of co-ordinate

system do you propose to use for solving this problem? (The marks for the rest of the

problem depend on it!!) List all the assumptions that you need to make. Sketch the

species mass fraction temperature and reaction rate profiles profiles.

(10 marks)

27. A premixed flame is stabilized in a channel of depth b perpendicular to the paper and

the height of the channel varies along x as shown in the figure below. Under what

condition does this problem reduce to the one we solved in class for premixed

combustion? If the flame were to be stabilized in such a fashion so as to have both the

unburnt and burnt speeds to be identical what should the molecular weight be of the burnt

gases? Assume the pressure to be 1 bar, initial temperature 400 K final temperature 1200

If the reaction rates are known at two different temperatures as 0.01 kg/m3 s and 5000

kg/m3 s at 300 K and 1000 K respectively, calculate the flame thickness and the flame

speed. Assume k = 0.1 W/mK and cp = 1 KJ/kgK.

(10 marks)

28. 1 kg of Ethanol (C 2 H5 OH) burns in 25 kg of air. Determine the equivalence ratio. (3

marks)

29. Premixed hydrogen air flame goes through a tube of 0.7 mm diameter. Will a hydrogen-

oxygen flame be able to pass through the same tube? What about methane air flame?

Briefly explain your answer. (3

marks)

30. Sketch the variation of temperature, species mass fractions and reaction rates for a

diffusion flame with the following reaction.

CH4 + 2 (3.76 N 2 +O2 ) CO2 + 2 H2 O + 7.52 N2

Assume the reaction chemistry to be a finite rate one. (4

marks)

31. In a co- flowing fuel and air combination as shown below, sketch the diffusion flame

structure for both fuel rich and fuel lean cases. (3

marks)

F A F

32. Sketch the Rankine-Hugoniot curve for zero heat release and indicate the upper and

lower Chapman-Jouguet points.

(3 marks)

33. Among a square cross section and an equilateral triangular cross section (both having the

same side a) through which a gaseous fuel jet comes out into quiescent air, which one

will have smaller laminar diffusion flame height for the same fuel flow rate and why? (3

marks)

34. The ignition energy required to reignite a gas turbine engine at high altitude is less

than/greater than/equal to the ignition energy required to reignite the same gas turbine

engine at sea level. Briefly explain your answer. (3

marks)

35. The turbulent diffusion flame height for a gaseous fuel jet coming out through a circular

cross section into quiescent air depends on only the flow velocity/ only the diameter of

the jet both the flow velocity and the diameter of the jet/ neither flow velocity nor the

diameter of the jet. Briefly explain your answer.

(3 marks)

36. Consider co-flowing air and fuel as shown in the figure below. Assume the cross-section

through which they are flowing to be rectangular and that the size of these slots in the y

direction (into the paper) is so large that you can neglect the variations in y directions.

Write down the governing equations and the boundary conditions for this geometry.

Reduce the governing equations to the Schvab-Zeldovich form. Do not solve these

equations. List out the assumptions you had to make to reduce the governing equations to

the Schvab-Zeldovich form. Is it possible to reduce the equations that you have derived to

the Bessels function? Justify your answer. Do you end up having to make the constant

density approximation that Burke-Schumann had to make? If the constant density

assumption were to be relaxed, what would be the flame height with and without the

constant density approximation? Justify your answer. (12

marks)

F A F

z

x

x

x

37. Calculate the equilibrium composition resulting from a mixture of 1 kg of RP1 fuel

(composition given by CH1.96 ) and 2.58 kg of O 2 at 3676 K and 6.89 MPa. The values of

K p the equilibrium constant at 3676 K are as given below. (11

marks)

0.5

PO2 PH 2

K P1 0.295atm 0.5

PH 2O

2

PH

K P2 0.740atm

PH 2

0.5

PH 2 POH

K P3 0.44atm 0.5

PH 2O

0.5

PO2 PCO

K P4 2.42atm 0.5

PCO2

2

P

K P5 O 0.559atm

PO2

38. A combustion wave propagates with a mass flux of 3500 kg/m2 s through a mixture

initially at 298 K and 1 atm. The molecular weight and for the mixture (both burnt and

unburnt) are 29 kg/kmol and 1.3, respectively, and the heat release is 3.4 MJ/kg.

Determine the state (P2 ,v2 ) of the burned gas and determine in which region this state lies

on the Rankine-Hugoniot curve. Determine the Mach number of the burned gases. Carry

out the above exercise for a mass flux of 3.5 kg/m2 s. Sketch the same on a Rankine-

Hugoniot curve.

39. Explain what is;

a. premixed flame (b) diffusion flame (c) ignition energy (d) Damkholer numbers

(e) blow off

(f) Lewis number (g) Schmidt number (h) detonation (i) activation energy (j) flash

back 20 marks

40. Consider a slot burner (h/b = 10, b = 2 mm) and a burner with a circular port of diameter

10 mm. Assume the flow velocities of both the burners to be uniform at the exit.

Operating with some fuel, the burner has a heat release of 500 W. Assume no heat loss.

Determine the flame length in both the cases. Heat of combustion of fuel with air is 42

MJ/kg and diffusivity (binary) of fuel air combination is 1105 m2 /s. Assume density of

fuel to be 1.2 kg/m3 . Would the flame be laminar or turbulent? Instead of the uniform

velocity profile at the exit, if one had a parabolic profile at the exit would the flame

height increase or decrease? Justify your answer.

10 marks

41. One kg of methane (CH4 ) burns with 25 kg of air at constant pressure. Determine the

equivalence ratio. If instead of air, oxygen were to be used as oxidizer, what would be the

mass of oxygen required to get the same equivalence ratio? Also determine the adiabatic

flame temperature, if water, carbon dioxide are the only products formed and nitrogen

remains unreacted. Heat of formation of methane is -74.5 kJ/mol, water is -242 kJ/mol

and carbon dioxide -394 kJ/mol. Assume the specific heat (mass basis) of product gases

to vary as C p = a+bT, where a = 2.5kJ/kg K and b =0.0005 kJ/kg K 2 . What would be the

adiabatic flame temperature with oxygen? (use the value of equivalence ratio obtained

earlier in the problem).

10 marks

42. The products of combustion of one mole of oxygen and two mole of carbon @ 10.13

MPa and 3000 K are CO2, CO and O2. Determine the equilibrium composition of

products. The equilibrium constant is ln K p = 19458 (65040/T). What would be the

composition if pressure were to be decreased to 5 MPa? Does this confirm Le Chatliers

principle? 10 marks

43. The ignition energy required to ignite a gaseous mixture is more/less/same as the energy

required to ignite a solid fuel burning in air. Explain your answer.

3 marks

44. For the opposed jet problem shown in the Figure below the combustion take place in a

premixed manner? Sketch the flame in such a situation and show temperature, fuel and

oxidizer mass fractions, product mass fraction and reaction rate profile for the same. Are

the reaction rates infinite or finite? 7 marks

Fuel

Oxidizer

45. What is the flame speed and flame thickness for the following case? Assume the

pressure to be 1 bar, initial temperature 400 K and the adiabatic flame temperature is

reaction rates are known at two different temperatures as 0.01 kg/m3 s and 5000 kg/m3 s at

300 K and 1000 K respectively. Assume k = 0.1 W/mK and c p = 1 KJ/kgK. What is the

quench diameter for this mixture? (8 marks)

46. Explain the reason for flammability limit? There is flame propagating through a glass

tube near its flammability limit. Will it propagate (all other conditions kept same) if the

material of the tube is changed to steel. Explain your answer.

(4 marks)

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