You are on page 1of 3


A. Saturated Synchronous Machine

1. A 5-MVA, 6.6-kV, 3-phase, wye-connected synchronous generator has the following test
Open-circuit curve:
Generated emf (line), kV 3 5 6 7 7.5 7.9 8.4 8.6 8.8
Field current, A 25 42 57 78 94 117 145 162 181
Short-circuit curve: Field current is 62 A at rated armature current.
Assume that the air-gap line passes through the origin and the first point of the open-
circuit curve. The armature resistance and leakage reactance are 0.25 and 2.64 ,
Find the unsaturated synchronous reactance. For rated terminal voltage at rated load
0.85 power factor lagging, find (b) the saturation factor k and (c) field current.

2. The following readings were taken from the results of an open- and a short-circuit test
on a 9375-kVA three-phase Y-connected 13,800-V (line-to-line) two-pole 60-Hz turbine
generator driven at synchronous speed:
Field current, A 169 192
Armature current, short-circuit test, A 392 446
Line voltage, open-circuit characteristic, V 13,000 13,800
Line voltage, air-gap line, V 15,400 17,500
The armature resistance is 0.064 /phase. Find (a) the unsaturated value of the
synchronous reactance, (b) the saturated synchronous reactance (approximate), and (c)
the short-circuit ratio.

3. A 40-MVA, 14-kV, three-phase, Y-connected synchronous generator has negligible

armature resistance and a leakage reactance of 1 /phase. Other pertinent data are as
Short-Circuit Characteristic: Ia = 7 If
Air-gap Line (V/phase): E = 33 If

21,300 I f
Open-Circuit Characteristic (V/phase): E
430 I f
The equation for the open-circuit characteristic is not valid for values of If about the
origin. For a constant terminal voltage of 14 kV and a constant real-power load of 35
MW, determine the range over which the field current can be varied if the armature
current is not to exceed its rated full-load value.
B. Power-Angle Curve

1. A 3300-V, 3-phase, 50-Hz, wye-connected synchronous generator has a synchronous

impedance of 2 + j15 per phase. Operating with an e.m.f. (line-to-line) of 2500 V, it
just falls out of step (lose synchronism) at full-load power. To what new value must the
e.m.f. (line-to-line) be adjusted so that it will just remain in synchronism at 150% full-
load power. With this new e.m.f., what will then be the output current and power factor
at full-load?

2. A 150-hp, 2300-volt, 1200-rpm, three-phase, 60-Hz, Y-connected synchronous motor

has a synchronous reactance Xs of 34.0 ohms and negligible armature resistance. This
motor is connected to a 250-kva, 2300-volt, three-phase, 60-Hz, synchronous generator
through a line of 5 ohms inductive reactance and negligible resistance. The synchronous
reactance of the generator is 22.0 ohms. If the terminal voltage of the motor is 2300
volts, input power is 60.0 kw and the excitation voltage of the motor is 1700.0 volts per
phase, determine: (a) The terminal power factor of the generator and the terminal
voltage and excitation voltage of the generator. (b) With the excitation voltage of the
generator maintained constant, what will be the maximum developed power possible in
the motor?

3. A 2000-hp, 2300-V, unity-power-factor, three-phase, Y-connected, 30-pole, 60-Hz

synchronous motor has reactances Xd = 1.95 /phase and Xq = 1.40 /phase.
Neglecting all losses, (a) compute the maximum mechanical power in kilowatts which
this motor can deliver if it is supplied with electric power from an infinite bus at rated
voltage and frequency and if its field excitation is held constant at that value which
would result in unity-power-factor operation at rated load. The shaft load is assumed to
be increased gradually so that transient swings are negligible and the steady-state
power limit applies. Also, (b) compute the value of the power angle corresponding to
this maximum power operation.

C. Electromechanical Dynamics

1. A 200-hp, 2300-V, 60 Hz, 28-pole synchronous motor is directly connected to a large

power system. The motor has the following characteristics:
Moment of inertia J (motor and load) = 444 kg-m2
Synchronizing power coefficient Ps = 11.0 kW/elec. deg.
Damping torque coefficient Td = 2398 N-m/(mech. rad/s)
One-half rated mechanical load is suddenly thrown on the motor shaft at a time when it
is operating in the steady-state but unloaded. (a) Determine the linearized
electromechanical equation, in power form. (b) What is the steady-state power angle
after the transient? (c) What is the maximum angle during the transient? Express all
angles in electrical degrees.
2. A 900-rpm 60-Hz synchronous motor is running in the steady state with a 50-hp load.
The synchronizing torque is 40 newton-meters per electrical degree. The total moment
of inertia of the motor shaft is 76 kilogram-meter2 and the damping coefficient D is 240
newton-meters per mechanical radian per second. A 100-hp load is suddenly applied.
Determine the torque angle (as a function of time) for all time after the 100-hp load is

D. Parallel Operation

1. Three physically identical synchronous generators are operating in parallel. They are all
rated for a full load of 3 MW at 0.8 PF lagging. The no-load frequency of generator A is
61 Hz, and its speed droop is 3.4 percent. The no-load frequency of generator B is 61.5
Hz, and its speed droop is 3 percent. The no-load frequency of generator C is 60.5 Hz,
and its speed droop is 2.6 percent. Assume that the speed governors kept fixed.
(a) If a total load consisting of 7 MW is being supplied by this power system, what will
the system frequency be and how will the power be shared among the three
(b) What minimum total-load and maximum total-load that can be supplied with all
three generators on-line, without any one of the generators overloading or

2. A 3-phase 1500-kVA 2300-volt synchronous generator is connected in parallel through

transformers with a 3-phase 5000-kVA 13,200-volt synchronous generator. The first
generator has four poles and is driven by a turbine whose speed falls from 1830 rpm at
no-load to 1788 rpm at a load of 1500 kW on the generator. The second generator has
two poles and is driven by a turbine whose speed falls from 3684 rpm at no-load to
3552 rpm at a load of 5000 kW on the generator. When the combined load on the two
generators is 6000 kW, what is the load on each generator and what is the operating